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Microstructures and Trace Element Signatures of Orogenic Quartz Veins in the Klondike District, Yukon.. Wolff, W. R. Gareth 2012

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MICROSTRUCTURES AND TRACE ELEMENT SIGNATURES OF OROGENIC QUARTZ VEINS IN THE KLONDIKE DISTRICT, YUKON TERRITORY, CANADA  by  W.R. GARETH WOLFF  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS)  in  THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE (Geological Sciences)  This thesis conforms to the required standard  ................................................................. Supervisor  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) APRIL 2012  © W.R. Gareth Wolff, 2012  ABSTRACT  The rich placer gold deposits of the Klondike District in the Yukon Territory are derived from orogenic gold-bearing quartz veins, associated with the metamorphism of the Klondike Schist basement rock. Further understanding of the structural context of these veins may be essential for exploration in the region. Petrographic descriptions were made of 12 polished thin sections of Klondike vein samples, observing vein and host rock mineralogy and microtextures. Two broad textural categories were identified: blocky veins produced by a single fracturing event with dilation rate exceeding the rate of quartz growth into open space; and elongate-blocky to fibrous veins with the average rate of opening equal to the average rate of quartz growth. The structural interpretation of this variation is of an early stage of slow vein growth, producing fibrous quartz grains, as well as gold and sulphides. Later rapid fracturing led to the growth of blocky quartz. This variation in vein textures can be attributed to structural changes, and the progression through the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. Polished blocks of texturally complex samples from the Nugget and Sheba veins were analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS, producing trace element concentrations for the different quartz textures. Aluminium was the most abundant trace element, and orogenic quartz was found to have low concentrations and variability of trace elements when compared with higher temperature magmatic-hydrothermal systems. No significant compositional variations were found, indicating that despite the broad textural differences, there were no significant changes in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz growth, or in the fluid in equilibrium with the host rock.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT ...............................................................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................... iii LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................... viii 1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1 2.0 BACKGROUND & PREVIOUS WORK ........................................................................... 1 2.1 Klondike District: An Overview ...................................................................................... 1 2.1.1 Geological Setting ..................................................................................................... 1 2.1.2 Structural Processes ................................................................................................... 3 2.1.3 Klondike Quartz Veins .............................................................................................. 4 2.2 Orogenic Gold Deposits ................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Trace Elements in Quartz ................................................................................................. 7 2.4 Vein Microstructures and Growth .................................................................................... 8 4.0 METHODS ........................................................................................................................ 12 4.1 Sample Preparation ........................................................................................................ 12 4.2 Laser Ablation ICP-MS.................................................................................................. 13 4.3 Data Reduction and Analysis ......................................................................................... 13 4.4 Petrography .................................................................................................................... 14 5.0 VEIN MICROSTRUCTURES .......................................................................................... 15 5.1 Textural Observations .................................................................................................... 15 5.1.1 Nugget Vein ............................................................................................................. 16 5.1.2 Sheba Vein ............................................................................................................... 18 5.2 Discussion and Interpretation ......................................................................................... 19 5.2.1 Fibrous Veins ........................................................................................................... 19 5.2.2 Structural Interpretations ......................................................................................... 20 iii  6.0 TRACE ELEMENTS IN OROGENIC QUARTZ VEINS ................................................ 21 6.1 Results ............................................................................................................................ 21 6.1.1 Thin Sections ........................................................................................................... 21 6.1.2 Polished Blocks ....................................................................................................... 22 6.2 Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 24 7.0 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................. 26 REFERENCES CITED ............................................................................................................ 28 APPENDIX I: DETAILED THIN SECTION AND ROCK DESCRIPTIONS ...................... 32 APPENDIX II: LOCATIONS FOR LASER ABLATION SPOT ANALYSES ..................... 42 Thin Sections ........................................................................................................................ 42 Polished Blocks .................................................................................................................... 44 APPENDIX III: TRACE ELEMENT DATA TABLES .......................................................... 45  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1: Simplified bedrock geology map of the Klondike District. KSD = King Solomon Dome. (Modified from Chapman et al., 2010a)......................................................................... 2 Figure 2: Schematic diagram of orogenic quartz vein deposit setting. (From Dubé and Gosselin, 2007) .......................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 3: Classification of veins according to grain morphology and crystal growth. Arrows indicate opening direction. m.l.= median line, i.b. = inclusion bands, i.t. = inclusion trails. (From Hilgers and Urai, 2002)................................................................................................... 9 Figure 4: Location Map for studied vein samples. ................................................................. 11 Figure 5: Raw trace element data for sample ‘NG4_thick’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Na23. A = background signal; B = surface Na spike, likely surface contamination; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = integrated window for NIST 612 spot. ............. 14 Figure 6: Raw trace element data for sample ‘SH3_thin’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Al27. A = background signal; B = surface of thin section; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = signal from glass slide; E = integrated window for NIST 612 standard spot. .................................................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 7: Sample MA-11-NG5. a. Photomicrograph of sample, XPL. Dotted line = approximate intersection between different stages of quartz veining. b. Photograph of vein intersection in hand sample, cut surface. ................................................................................. 16 Figure 8: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. A = wallrock; B = syntaxial fibrous quartz; C = approximate line of discontinuity in the growth direction of the fibres; D = syntaxial fibrous to blocky-elongate quartz exhibiting clear growth competition; E = termination of syntaxial fibrous quartz in top half of sample; F = blocky quartz; G = isolated region of fibrous quartz; H = later subhedral blocky prismatic quartz and calcite. ................. 17 Figure 9: Field photograph of the Nugget vein, showing a cross-section from right to left through foliated wallrock, early fibrous quartz associated with sulphides, and later milky blocky quartz. Photo courtesy of M. Allan. ............................................................................. 18 Figure 10: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3. In the vein, a region of fibrous quartz is flanked by two inclusion-rich blocky quartz zones. Euhedral grains of arsenopyrite are associated with the wallrock and the vein wall. ................................................................. 18 Figure 11: Graph of Ti and Al concentrations, comparing the ranges of values and relative errors for the polished blocks (left) and the thin sections (right). ............................................ 22 Figure 12: Trace element correlation plots for polished blocks. ............................................ 23 v  Figure 13. a: Concentrations measured in quartz from various ore deposits. The polished block results from this study have been plotted at lower right (boxed area). Modified from Rusk et al. (2008). b: Expanded plot of Ti (grey diamonds) and Al (black squares) concentrations from Klondike orogenic quartz vein samples. ................................................. 25 Figure 14: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM2.................................................... 32 Figure 15: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM3.................................................... 33 Figure 16: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY1. ................................................... 34 Figure 17: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY2. ................................................... 35 Figure 18: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-MK2.................................................... 35 Figure 19: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG2. ................................................... 36 Figure 20: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. ................................................... 37 Figure 21: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG5. Dotted line indicates approximate intersection area of the two veins............................................................................................. 38 Figure 22: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-OR1. ................................................... 38 Figure 23: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3. .................................................... 39 Figure 24: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VG2. ................................................... 40 Figure 25: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VL2 ..................................................... 41 Figure 26: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thin'. ............................................ 42 Figure 27: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'SH3_Thin'. ............................................. 43 Figure 28: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thick'. ........................................... 44 Figure 29: Labelled locations of spot analyses for ‘SH3_Thick'. ........................................... 44  vi  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1: List of Samples Analyzed ......................................................................................... 12 Table 2: Generalized paragenesis of Klondike veins. ............................................................. 16 Table 3: Sample 'NG4_Thin'. 'bd'= below detection limits. ................................................... 45 Table 4: Sample 'SH3_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits. ................................................... 52 Table 5: Sample ‘NG4_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits. .................................................. 61 Table 6: Sample 'SH3_Thick'. 'bd' = below detection limits. ................................................. 65  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Firstly, I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr Murray Allan, for helping me find this project, the use of his samples, and his invaluable guidance throughout this thesis. I would also like to thank Dr Shaun Barker for the use of the LA-ICPMS equipment and his assistance with sample preparation and data reduction. I am grateful to Dr James Mortensen, Dr Craig Hart and everyone at the Mineral Deposit Research Unit for letting me be a part of the Yukon Gold Project and providing extensive access to resources. I would additionally like to acknowledge Erin Lane and Dr Elspeth Barnes for running the EOSC 449 course and sharing their advice, and my fellow thesis students for the shared experiences. Extensive gratitude is due to my family for their backing throughout my undergraduate career. Finally, many thanks to Jamie Labron for her endless patience, support, and encouragement.  viii  1.0 INTRODUCTION  The Klondike District of the Yukon Territory is renowned as one of the world’s richest regions of placer gold deposits, with estimates of total historical production surpassing 13 million ounces of placer gold since its initial discovery in 1896 (Chapman et al., 2010a). The placer deposits have been associated with orogenic gold-bearing quartz veins hosted in the greenschist facies Klondike Schist basement (MacKenzie et al., 2008). The richness of the placer gold deposits, as well as the relatively small volume of eroded basement rock (possibly as little as 400km2 of basement (MacKenzie et al., 2008)), suggest very high concentrations of orogenic lode gold in the area. However, until recently very limited research had been published on the geology and structure of the gold-bearing veins. The Yukon Gold Project is a large, industry-supported multidisciplinary research project by the Mineral Deposit Research Unit at the University of British Columbia, that among its goals attempts to address the geologic context for gold exploration in the region. This includes detailed structural and geochemical analysis of the gold-forming veins in the Klondike. As a part of the broader study, this thesis aims to use quartz vein microtextures and trace elements to help unravel the structural history of gold-forming veins in the district. Petrographic observations are coupled with laser ablation ICP-MS trace element measurements for a set of samples from cm-scale quartz veins. This will contribute to the body of knowledge on orogenic quartz, as well as potentially determine the controlling factors on the different textures observed in the region, and any textural controls on trace element concentrations.  2.0 BACKGROUND & PREVIOUS WORK  2.1 Klondike District: An Overview  2.1.1 Geological Setting  The Klondike District is a region of the Yukon Territory, near the northeast boundary of the Yukon-Tanana Terrane, about 400km northwest of the city of Whitehorse. The bedrock 1  geology of the district, along with the gold-bearing vein systems it contains, have been discussed and described by Mortensen (1990), Knight et al. (1999), MacKenzie et al. (2008) and Chapman et al. (2010a, b). The basement that underlies the Klondike District is predominantly composed of three variably metamorphosed rock units, forming an imbricated structural stack (Chapman et al, 2010a), locally separated by lenses of ultramafic rocks (Mortensen, 1990, 1996, MacKenzie et al., 2008). The structurally uppermost units, in which all the known orogenic gold occurrences are hosted, form part of the Klondike Schist. This Late Permian assemblage consists mainly of middle greenschist facies mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks (chloriteactinolite schist and pyritic quartz-muscovite schist), and their intrusive equivalents (quartzfeldspar augen schist, quartz monzonite gneiss, and metagabbro), as well as interlayered siliciclastic rocks and rare carbonaceous schist (Chapman et al., 2010a). These uppermost thrust slices of the Klondike Schist are structurally stacked on top of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Nasina assemblage, a package of carbonaceous metaclastics with minor marble. Additionally, metamorphosed greenstones of the Slide Mountain Terrane are present as lenticular bodes along several of the main thrust fault contacts separating individual units of the Klondike and Nasina schists (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a). These generalized bedrock associations can be observed in Fig. 1.  Figure 1: Simplified bedrock geology map of the Klondike District. KSD = King Solomon Dome. (Modified from Chapman et al., 2010a)  2  Uplift in the area was likely initiated in the late Jurassic and continued into the midCretaceous, with deposition of basin-filling conglomerates of the Indian River Formation. Regional extension and normal faulting in the Late Cretaceous affected the Klondike Schist and surrounding region, and was accompanied by the eruption and deposition of Carmacks Group volcanic rocks (MacKenzie et al., 2008). In the Paleocene, the initiation and consequent strike-slip motion of the Tintina Fault caused additional regional extension (Gabrielse et al., 2006, MacKenzie et al., 2008). The Tintina Fault, a major right-lateral strike-slip fault with approximately 400-450km of displacement (Lowey, 2006), offset the Finlayson Lake assemblage in the southeast Yukon from the Klondike District and the rest of the Yukon-Tanana Terrane (Lowey, 2006, Gabrielse et al., 2006, MacKenzie et al., 2008). Erosion of the Klondike Schist during Late Tertiary regional uplift resulted in the deposition of the Pliocene age White Channel Gravels, in flat-bottomed valleys formed by braided streams (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a). Erosional downcutting of this older drainage system occurred in the Pleistocene to Holocene, with modern streambeds lying up to 70m below the White Channel depositional surface (Chapman et al., 2010a). Placer gold deposits in the area are associated with both the White Channel Gravel unit and the low-level gravels produced by the younger streams. The gold in the low-level gravels has been either eroded and reworked from the White Channel Gravel, or eroded directly from bedrock in the area (Lowey 2006, Chapman et al., 2010a). The Klondike District was not affected by Pleistocene glaciation, allowing the placer deposits to be connected directly to the local uplift and erosion (Chapman et al., 2010a).  2.1.2 Structural Processes  MacKenzie et al. (2008) undertook a structural study of the Klondike Schist, in order to identify structural controls on the formation of the orogenic veins. They established five different deformation events recorded in the rocks of the Klondike District (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a). The first of these stages (D1) involves the development of a pervasive metamorphic foliation (S1), that is sheared into parallelism with a second pervasive fabric (S2). Metamorphic segregation quartz veins also developed parallel to S2, on the mm- to cm-scale. The Nasina Schist has similar pervasive foliation, albeit finer-grained, whereas the Slide Mountain Terrane greenstones are mostly unfoliated and contain no biotite. The entire stack 3  has been metamorphosed to greenschist facies, dominated by quartz, muscovite, chlorite and sporadic biotite in the Klondike and Nasina Schists, and albite, chlorite and epidote in the greenstones (MacKenzie et al., 2008). The third stage consists of thrust emplacement (D3), resulting in post-metamorphic folds (F3) with rounded hinges. A variably developed spaced cleavage (S3), parallel to the axial surfaces of the folds, dominates the rock fabric around hinge zones of recumbent folds in the Nasina and Klondike Schists. In the greenstones, S3 is limited to narrow zones near thrust zones. Chlorite and muscovite recrystallization is present along the spaced cleavage in the Klondike Schist folds, and chlorite is also present in the greenstones. However, in the Nasina Schists there is little mica recrystallization. An additional stage of D3 involves the reactivation of the S2 foliation and/or S3 spaced cleavage on some surfaces, producing a shear cleavage—this is not present in the greenstones. (MacKenzie et al., 2008) The D4 stage is comprised by two sets of localized, steeply-dipping reverse faults and associated kink folds (F4), mainly striking north-west. The Nasina Schist contains only minor kink folding, and this stage is absent from the greenstones (MacKenzie et al., 2008, Chapman et al., 2010a). Orogenic veins in the Klondike (see below) occupy S4 deformation zones (MacKenzie et al., 2008). Finally, Late Cretaceous normal faulting (D5) occurred during regional extension (Mortensen, 1996, MacKenzie et al., 2008). The faults were mostly localized by pre-existing structural weaknesses, which in the Klondike tend to stem from the D4 stage. The fault zones contain abundant gouge development, and are usually hydrothermally altered, pyritized, and silicified (MacKenzie et al., 2008).  2.1.3 Klondike Quartz Veins  Orogenic quartz veins are extensional veins associated with deformed and metamorphosed terranes, and are examined in more detail below. Two types of orogenic quartz veins are present throughout the Klondike. Segregation veins, lens-shaped, parallel to foliation, and mineralogically similar to the host rocks, are widespread throughout the district and found in all metamorphic lithologies (Rushton et al., 1993, Chapman et al., 2010a). MacKenzie et al. (2008) attributes this first generation of veining as the first two phases of ductile deformation (D1-D2). These veins do not contain gold or sulphides, except where cut by later fractures (Rushton et al., 1993, Chapman et al., 2010a).  4  Meanwhile, massive, milky quartz veins, up to 3m thick and up to hundreds of metres in strike length, are generally discordant to the metamorphic foliation (Rushton et al., 1993). These veins are gold-bearing, and occur both as scattered individual veins and swarms. They generally trend north-northwest, and are apparently controlled by the F4 fold axial surface fractures. The density of veining is highest in zones of locally high strain, related to fault-fold deformation zones. MacKenzie et al. (2008) interpret this vein generation to have formed following (or late in) the D4 deformation event, predating (and locally cross-cut by) the Late Cretaceous normal faulting. The veins are composed predominantly of quartz, with minor Fecarbonate, barite, scheelite, sulphides and sulphosalts, and gold (Chapman et al., 2010a). The gold is commonly associated with pyrite, typically in selvages along the margins of veins. Occasional free grains of gold within the vein quartz are also present. The deposition of the gold is suggested as resulting in part from sulphidation of the wall rocks and resultant destabilization of bisulphide complexes in the mineralizing fluids (Rushton et al., 1993, Chapman et al., 2010a). Vein formation appears to be from a single-stage process rather than repeated fluid pulses (Chapman et al., 2010a), although recent field studies have shown vein formation to be much more episodic than previously suggested (M. Allan, personal communication, 2011). Using trace element concentrations of gold particles from both the lode gold vein deposits and the extensive placer gold in the district, Knight et al. (1999) concluded that the placer deposits were predominantly—if not entirely—derived from the orogenic vein deposits. Lowey (2006) agreed with this conclusion.  2.2 Orogenic Gold Deposits  Orogenic vein gold deposits, also occasionally termed mesothermal, are epigenetic deposits hosted in deformed and metamorphosed rocks. They are typically composed of goldbearing quartz (and carbonate) fault-fill veins in moderately to steeply dipping, compressional ductile-brittle shear zones and faults (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). In PreCambrian examples, mafic rocks metamorphosed to greenschist (and locally lower amphibolites) facies at intermediate depths (5-10km) provide the dominant host (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007), although Phanerozoic examples are largely hosted by greenschist metasediments. Fig. 2 illustrates a simplified model for these deposit types. A detailed classification study by Groves et. al (1998) allows the placement of these deposits in context with other gold deposit types, although the topic remains controversial. 5  Figure 2: Schematic diagram of orogenic quartz vein deposit setting. (From Dubé and Gosselin, 2007)  A leading model for orogenic gold formation describes veins forming along convergent margins during terrane accretion, translation or collision, in deformed accretionary belts alongside continental magmatic arcs. They are emplaced during compressional to transpressional regimes (Groves et al., 1998, 2003). There is strong structural control on the deposits, generally involving major crustal faults, shear zones, folds, or zones of competency contrasts (Groves et al., 1998, 2003, Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). The fluids responsible for the formation of the ore have been determined to be lowsalinity, dilute, mixed aqueous-carbonic fluids; using isotope studies (Jia et al., 2003) and fluid inclusion studies (Ridley and Diamond, 2000, Groves et al., 2003). Dubé and Gosselin (2007) summarize the ore depositional process as a metamorphic Au-transporting fluid structurally channelled to shallow crustal depths. The gold is transported as a reduced sulphur complex (Groves et al., 2003). Due to fluid-pressure cycling processes, as well as geochemical gradients in temperature, fS2, fO2, and pH, the fluid is then precipitated as vein material or wall-rock replacement, in second and third order structures at shallow crustal levels (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). One of the major outstanding problems with the model of orogenic vein gold deposits lies in the source of the fluids. Most workers favour a deep origin, with the input of meteoric waters considered unlikely (Goldfarb et al., 2005, Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). However, options such as deeper levels of the ore-hosting volcano-sedimentary or sedimentary terranes, 6  or deeper metamorphic sources such as subducted oceanic crust, are debated (Groves et al., 2003). The lithological source of the gold is also disputed, in particular whether a crustal preconcentration is required (Groves et al., 2003). Other areas where knowledge gaps remain include the configuration of fluid-flow paths in the system, and the fluid flow itself; the timing of mineralization; and the depositional mechanism (Groves et al., 2003, Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). 2.3 Trace Elements in Quartz Quartz (chemical formula SiO2) is one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth’s crust, and the most important silica mineral (Götze 2009). It is found in veins in a variety of hydrothermal and magmatic systems, precipitating from hydrothermal fluids of a variety of compositions at temperatures from 50-750oC (Rusk et al., 2008). Quartz may contain varying concentrations of trace elements, with titanium and aluminium among the most common, either through incorporation into the crystal structure or bound as microinclusions (Götze et al., 2004). Trace elements in quartz are in part a product of the chemistry of the fluid of origin, and therefore may prove representative of the environment of crystallization for the quartz (Landtwing and Pettke, 2005, Donovan et al., 2011). As a consequence, trace element concentrations in quartz have become a focus of study in recent years. For example, Götze et al. (2004) examined trace elements in pegmatitic quartz, as did Beurlen et al. (2011). Landtwing  and  Pettke  (2005)  combined  scanning  electron  microscope  cathodoluminescence microscopy (SEM-CL) studies with laser-ablation inductively coupledplasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) trace element studies of a porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in Utah, and concluded that more trace elements are incorporated into quartz at higher growth rates, which they concluded as corresponding to greater degrees of disequilibrium. A similar study by Rusk et al. (2006) at a porphyry copper deposit in Montana, also using SEMCL and LA-ICP-MS, determined that different generations of quartz can be distinguished based on unique trace element contents. This study also correlated titanium with temperature of quartz precipitation. Similar correlations for Ti concentrations and crystallization temperature of quartz were found in topaz-bearing granites in the Czech Republic by Müller et al. (2003), where an electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) study associated high Ti (>40ppm) with high crystallization temperature and pressure of quartz phenocrysts. Allan and Yardley (2007) also 7  found high Ti correlating with high temperatures, in an SEM-CL, secondary isotope mass spectrometry (SIMS), and LA-ICP-MS study observing CL, oxygen isotopes and trace elements for a magmatic-hydrothermal system in Australia. They also interpreted variations in Al and Li as corresponding to shifts in quartz precipitation rate. The relationship between Ti substitution for Si in quartz and the temperature of equilibration was investigated in further depth by Wark and Watson (2006), who equilibrated quartz with rutile (TiO2) in the presence of aqueous fluids and/or silicate melt at temperatures from 600 to 1,000oC, and experimentally developed a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer (referred to as the TitaniQ). Rusk et al. (2008) applied this geothermometer to hydrothermal ore deposits formed between ~100 and ~750oC, and in addition to reaching the same conclusion on Ti, concluded from bimodal Al concentrations in lower temperature samples that Al concentrations in quartz reflect fluctuations in pH. A further study (Rusk et al., 2011), using LA-ICP-MS to examine four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Au, porphyry-Cu and MVT Pb-Zn), also found variations in Al concentrations of up to two orders of magnitude for samples at temperatures <300oC, and correlations Li, Na, and K with Al.  2.4 Vein Microstructures and Growth  Veins are formed by the combination of brittle failure and void formation, followed by fluid flow and precipitation through the resulting conduits (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). These processes can happen multiple times, with the result that individual veins can record several crack-seal events (Ramsay, 1980, Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). During these deformation events, different vein microstructures can develop. Elongate crystals are among the most useful of these structures, due to the kinematic information they provide on progressive deformation in rocks (Hilgers et al., 2001, Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). For the purposes of this thesis, veins are subdivided into three broad textural categories, based on the scheme of Oliver and Bons (2001): (1) fibrous veins (with length to width ratios of 10 to >100); (2) elongate-blocky veins; and (3) stretched crystal veins. Hilgers and Sindern (2005) and Hilgers and Urai (2002) summarize the different growth mechanisms of syntectonic elongate vein microstructures (Fig. 3.), classifying them as antitaxial, syntaxial, and stretched or ataxial. Antitaxial veins consist of fibrous veins growing towards the vein-wall interface. The growth direction is indicated by an increase in the width of the fibres towards the contact between the vein and the wall. Small crystals are 8  positioned along the centre of the vein, forming a ‘median line’. (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). The vein material precipitates at the vein-wall boundary, with a compositional discontinuity thus existing between vein and host rock (Hilgers and Urai, 2002). For such fibrous grains to form, the growth competition between adjacent grains must be limited by a narrow aperture (Oliver and Bons, 2001).  Figure 3: Classification of veins according to grain morphology and crystal growth. Arrows indicate opening direction. m.l.= median line, i.b. = inclusion bands, i.t. = inclusion trails. (From Hilgers and Urai, 2002)  In syntaxial veins, the grains are elongate-blocky rather than fibrous, and grow from the wall into the vein, as epitaxial overgrowths of the wall rock (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). These veins show clear signs of growth competition (Oliver and Bons, 2001). Ataxial veins, or stretched crystals, consist of columnar fibres with jagged grain boundaries that cross the vein from one wall to the other, connecting grains in the wall rock. They are of the same composition as the material in the wall rock, and are believed to have been formed by repeated fracturing and growth at alternating sites in the vein (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). Ataxial veins usually contain solid and fluid inclusions arranged parallel to the vein-wall boundary (Hilgers and Urai, 2002). Hilgers and Urai (2002) also mention entirely non-fibrous blocky veins, where the direction of growth is unclear. These are the result of ongoing crystal nucleation after vein formation, which is primarily caused by high supersaturation of vein-forming minerals (Oliver and Bons, 2001). For the growth of syntectonic veins, crystal morphology is dominantly controlled by the relative rates of crystal growth velocity and dilation, and the width of the opening increment 9  (Hilgers and Urai, 2002). Thus, if the vein opens at the same rate as crystal growth, elongate and fibrous textures are formed, whereas if the opening rate is greater than the crystal growth, the crystals grow into a free space and produce blocky or euhedral textures (Hilgers et al., 2001).  3.0 RESEARCH QUESTION  The gold-bearing orogenic quartz veins of the Klondike District contain a variety of microtextures and microstructures, with variation both between veins and across the width of single veins. Different textures of quartz, from the margin to the centre of the vein, may indicate varying growth rates and environments, and may represent discrete stages of fluid flow. Thus, it is possible to infer an evolution in physical and chemical conditions during the lifetime of the vein. One possible way of tracking this geochemical evolution is an examination of trace element compositions. As reviewed in the previous section, there are several existing studies attempting to use quartz trace element chemistry as an indicator of fluid geochemistry. The goal of this investigation is to refine these existing studies to focus on the trace element concentrations of orogenic quartz veins, an area of study that is currently lacking in detailed research. Therefore, the question that this thesis seeks to address is: can trace element concentrations of orogenic quartz be used to help interpret the conditions of formation of these veins, and more importantly, whether these conditions changed during vein formation? The study intends to test the hypothesis that different quartz textures are a product of changing physical and chemical conditions of formation, and that these changes will be reflected in the trace element concentrations. Important variables include the geochemistry and pressure-temperature conditions of the originating fluid. The study combines petrographic examinations of hand samples and polished sections with trace element measurements using laser ablation ICP-MS analysis, for a set of gold-bearing quartz veins in the Klondike District of the Yukon Territory in northwestern Canada (Fig.4). There is at present little research on the trace element chemistry of lower temperature orogenic quartz veins that have no apparent magmatic input. In particular, the use of Ti in quartz as a geothermometer (Wark and Watson, 2006), a study which did not go below  10  600oC, may nevertheless serve as a qualitative proxy for temperature in lower temperature systems.  Figure 4: Location Map for studied vein samples.  This study aims to use spatial variations in trace element chemistry as a potential means of explaining the textural variations. By examining cm-scale quartz veins, it is possible to study a cross-section across the entire vein. Such a cross-section may then be scaled up to produce  11  a picture of variations across much larger-scale orogenic veins—although one must be conscious that larger veins may record many more events than the narrower veins. This pilot study may contribute valuable insight into the fluid geochemistry and formation processes of orogenic veins. The discordant orogenic veins in the Klondike are considered the major origin of the placer gold deposits in the district, as well as containing substantial lode gold resources (Knight et al., 1999). However, the exact mechanisms of vein formation are still poorly constrained. A better understanding of the veins—and consequently, the gold deposits—would be invaluable for future exploration of the region. Additionally, the study contributes to a growing body of literature on how quartz composition varies across different geologic environments.  4.0 METHODS  4.1 Sample Preparation  A set of 14 samples of orogenic quartz veins from the Klondike were selected (Table 1). These samples were collected by Dr Murray Allan during the summer of 2011. Relatively narrow veins were selected to permit microtextural and microchemical analysis across the entire width of the vein, where possible.  Table 1: List of Samples Analyzed  VEIN Aime Dysle Lloyd Mackay Nugget  Orofino Sheba Virgin Violet  SAMPLE NUMBER MA-11-AM2 MA-11-AM3 MA-11-DY1 MA-11-DY2 MA-11-LL2 MA-11-MK2 MA-11-NG2 MA-11-NG4 MA-11-NG5 MA-11-OR1 MA-11-SH MA-11-SH3 MA-11-VG2 MA-11-VL2  NOTES  No thin section  Trace element analysis  No thin section Trace element analysis  12  Rectangular billets were cut from the rocks, with two approximately parallel off-cuts from each rock, with approximate rectangular dimensions of 4 x 2cm, and thickness between 0.2 and 1cm. One of each pair of billets were prepared as polished thin sections at the University of Utah College of Mines and Earth Sciences. The remaining off-cuts were ground and polished by hand to a 3 micron polish, for laser ablation. 4.2 Laser Ablation ICP-MS  Trace elements in the quartz from the polished blocks and thin sections were analyzed using a Resonetics RESOlution M-50-LR laser ablation unit connected to an Agilent 7700 series ICP-MS (at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research at the University of British Columbia), with the assistance and supervision of Dr Shaun Barker. A preliminary set of line rasters were run on the blocks. Due to quartz spallation and concerns over surface contamination, the raster method was then replaced by spot traverses. For samples MA-11-NG4 and MA-11-SH3, both thin sections and blocks were ablated at 5Hz and 80mJ over 64μm spots. The spots were correlated with scanned images of the blocks and photomicrographs of the thin sections (Appendix II). Glass standard SRM 612 from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was used as an external calibration standard, with Columbia River Basalt (BCR) from the U.S. Geological Survey used as an additional standard. Isotopes analyzed were 7Li, 72  23  Na,  27  Al,  29  Si,  39  K,  43  Ca,  47  Ti,  57  Fe,  69  Ga,  Ge, 75As, 88Sr, 118Sn, 121Sb, and 137Ba. The internal standard element was Si in quartz, set to  a default concentration of 46.74 wt.%.  4.3 Data Reduction and Analysis  The raw trace element data was integrated using Iolite software from the University of Melbourne (Figs. 5 and 6). For each spot, a window of data was selected, attempting to avoid surface contamination and spikes due to inclusions or spallation during ablation. Additionally, for the thin sections, the selected data window avoided the glass slide (Fig. 6). The reduced data was then exported to a spreadsheet, and trace elements were plotted for each section, distinguishing between the different quartz textures within each sample.  13  Figure 5: Raw trace element data for sample ‘NG4_thick’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Na23. A = background signal; B = surface Na spike, likely surface contamination; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = integrated window for NIST 612 spot.  Figure 6: Raw trace element data for sample ‘SH3_thin’. Red trace = Si29, grey trace = Al27. A = background signal; B = surface of thin section; C = integrated window for vein quartz spot; D = signal from glass slide; E = integrated window for NIST 612 standard spot.  4.4 Petrography  Using both reflected and transmitted light microscopy, petrographic descriptions were made of the thin sections. The mineralogy of both vein and wall rock was examined, as were the different microstructures within the veins and their associations at the vein-wall rock interface. Contextual descriptions were also made of the original hand samples from which the billets were cut.  14  5.0 VEIN MICROSTRUCTURES  5.1 Textural Observations Among the 12 polished thin sections that were examined by reflected and transmitted light microscopy, a limited number of textures were observed. Detailed descriptions of the thin sections can be found in Appendix I. The host rock is muscovite-chlorite-quartz-feldspar schist, with muscovite and chlorite comprising ~20-70%, and a fine-grained, granoblastic, quartzofeldspathic groundmass comprising the remainder. An exception is sample MA-11-NG2, in which medium-grained laths of plagioclase feldspar make up ~75% of the host rock. Blocky, subhedral to anhedral intergrown quartz dominates the veins, with varying degrees of deformation. The vein-wallrock boundary is generally characterized by a band of much finer grained quartz. Fine-grained, recrystallized quartz is common along fracture planes and grain boundaries, and most veins contain wallrock inclusions in the form of interstitial and included fine-grained micas, many of which preserve host rock mineralogy and textures. Iron carbonate alteration is present in many samples. Other quartz textures include elongate-blocky quartz (e.g., Nugget vein samples MA-11NG2 and MA-11-NG4) and fibrous quartz (e.g., MA-11-NG4 and MA-11-SH3). The Nugget vein has the greatest observed variation in vein textures. Euhedral to subhedral calcite is also present in the Nugget vein samples. Highly oxidized, subhedral to euhedral sulphides are found in several of the vein samples. Pyrite makes up the bulk of the sulphide content, with arsenopyrite also present (in sample MA-11-SH3). Where present, the sulphides appear either in isolated grains or as a cluster of fine grains, and make up ~1% or less of the overall assemblage. They can be observed in both the host rock (primarily) and the veins, but in all cases are spatially associated with the vein wall and, where present, the fibrous quartz textures. Based on the spatial associations of the different quartz textures and the sulphides, a paragenetic model for the Klondike orogenic veins can be summarized as an early stage of fibrous and elongate-blocky quartz growth, associated with sulphides and gold, and a later stage of blocky, barren quartz growth (Table 2). Later hydrothermal processes led to widespread recrystallization of quartz and the growth of euhedral to subhedral quartz and calcite into pre-existing voids. 15  Table 2: Generalized paragenesis of Klondike veins.  Early  Late  Fibrous + elongate-blocky quartz Arsenopyrite + pyrite Gold Fe-carbonate Blocky quartz Subhedral + recrystallized quartz Subhedral to euhedral calcite 5.1.1 Nugget Vein  Three different samples from the Nugget vein were studied, and a variety of textures were observed. In sample MA-11-NG2, highly deformed, finely fractured elongate-blocky quartz grains grow across the vein, intergrowing with euhedral to subhedral plagioclase laths at the vein boundary. Sample MA-11-NG5 includes the intersection of two minor veins (Fig. 7) with one cutting almost perpendicularly across the pre-existing vein. The area of intersection contains strongly deformed quartz with abundant inclusions and fine recrystallized interstitial grains. However, both veins are texturally very similar, consisting of anhedral to subhedral blocky quartz.  a . Figure  b . = approximate  7: Sample MA-11-NG5. a. Photomicrograph of sample, XPL. Dotted line intersection between different stages of quartz veining. b. Photograph of vein intersection in hand sample, cut surface.  16  Sample MA-11-NG4 (Fig. 8) is texturally complex, containing two stages of fibrous quartz, elongate-blocky quartz, simple blocky quartz, and late subhedral quartz and calcite. As the fibrous quartz extends away from the wallrock, there is evidence of growth competition as grains widen into elongate-blocky crystals (with a length to width ratio of less than 10). This is particularly apparent in the bottom half of the section. Meanwhile, in the top half, at the line labelled ‘E’ on Fig. 8 there is a boundary between elongate quartz fibres and blocky quartz. To add to the complexity of the sample, there is an isolated region of fibrous quartz (‘G’ on Fig. 8), surrounded on all sides by the blocky grains. In addition, subhedral, blocky quartz grains are scattered throughout the section, particularly clustered along the edge of the largest elongate-blocky crystal, and associated with prismatic calcite (‘H’ on Fig. 8; the calcite is identifiable by its third-order interference colours). These indicate growth into free void space.  Figure 8: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. A = wallrock; B = syntaxial fibrous quartz; C = approximate line of discontinuity in the growth direction of the fibres; D = syntaxial fibrous to blocky-elongate quartz exhibiting clear growth competition; E = termination of syntaxial fibrous quartz in top half of sample; F = blocky quartz; G = isolated region of fibrous quartz; H = later subhedral blocky prismatic quartz and calcite.  The textural variation between fibrous and blocky quartz in the Nugget vein can also be observed at the macroscale in the field (Fig. 9).  17  Fibrous quartz  Blocky quartz  Figure 9: Field photograph of the Nugget vein, showing a cross-section from right to left through foliated wallrock, early fibrous quartz associated with sulphides, and later milky blocky quartz. Photo courtesy of M. Allan.  5.1.2 Sheba Vein  Sample MA-11-SH3 from the Sheba vein (Fig. 10) is the second of the two samples that contain fibrous quartz, but differs substantially from MA-11-NG4. In this sample there are two clear zones of growth – a region of fibrous grains with, on either side, medium to coarsegrained subhedral to anhedral blocky quartz with extensive microinclusions. The quartz fibres are generally consistent in width throughout the vein, and have no apparent evidence of growth competition between adjacent crystals, or continuity with the wallrock. An inclusion band of wallrock muscovite is present to the left of the fibrous grains.  Figure 10: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3. In the vein, a region of fibrous quartz is flanked by two inclusion-rich blocky quartz zones. Euhedral grains of arsenopyrite are associated with the wallrock and the vein wall.  18  5.2 Discussion and Interpretation  The variety of vein textures and microstructures observed in the different samples can serve as kinematic tracers for the evolution of the veins. As mentioned in Chapter 2, the crystal morphology is largely controlled by the balance between opening rate of the vein aperture and growth rate of the vein minerals. Most vein samples are dominated by blocky quartz, indicating continuing nucleation after the initial vein formation, most likely due to silica oversaturation (Oliver and Bons, 2001). Thus, the predominantly narrow, intergrown blocky veins which are seen in most of the samples are the result of vein dilation rates exceeding crystal growth, allowing the quartz to grow into free space (Hilgers et al., 2001). The bands of finer quartz at the vein wall may be the product of rapid crystallization of the silica in contact with the wall; or may result from higher growth competition along the wall, where many nucleation sites were available after initial fracturing of the host rock. The more elongate textures observed in sample MA-11DY1, from the Dysle vein, can be determined from hand samples of the rock to be the product of secondary infilling of vugs.  5.2.1 Fibrous Veins  Of the two veins containing fibrous quartz, sample MA-11-NG4 (Fig. 8) is the most texturally complex, as described above. Textural similarities exist between quartz in the wallrock and adjacent vein quartz fibres, with many fibres of approximately equal width to the quartz laminae in the host rock. In addition, muscovite laminae continue into the vein as inclusions trails. These relationships between the vein and wallrock indicate the use of the wallrock quartz as a crystallographic ‘template’ for the vein growth, with possible epitaxial overgrowth from the wall into the vein. These interpretations are consistent with the formation of either syntaxial or ataxial veins. The lack of a median line would appear to suggest ataxial growth; however, the presence of growth competition and the widening of fibres into more elongate-blocky grains is more consistent with the formation of fibrous to elongate-blocky quartz in syntaxial veins, through a crack-seal process (Oliver and Bons, 2001, Hilgers and Urai, 2002). The presence of blocky quartz surrounding an isolated region of fibrous quartz in the top half of the section requires more complex interpretations. The blocky quartz would apparently require a greater rate of vein opening than dictated by the elongate crystals. Thus, 19  there is the contradiction of two textures requiring different conditions, apparently forming at the same time alongside each other. This may possibly be explained, if the isolated region of fibrous quartz was at one time attached to the rest of the fibres, and was separated by a later fracturing event that allowed the blocky quartz to crystallize around it. Multiple fractures, both parallel and perpendicular to the existing vein, may have allowed the quartz-forming fluid to flow around the larger, more resistant elongate-blocky grains. It is difficult to make a determination without seeing the wallrock at the other side of the vein. Sample MA-11-SH3 also contains fibrous quartz textures (Fig. 10), which may be consistent with either antitaxial or ataxial growth, as the relationship between the fibres and wallrock is obscured by the blocky quartz separating the fibrous region from the vein wall. However, the absence of a clearly defined median line, and the lack of evidence for growth competition, suggest ataxial growth as the most likely mechanism (Oliver and Bons, 2001). As described in Chapter 2, ataxial or stretched crystals are columnar fibres that cross the vein, connecting grains in the wall rock (Hilgers and Sindern, 2005). The interpretation of this texture is a slow growth of quartz crystals from one wall to the other, at approximately the same rate as the vein dilation. This differs significantly from the development of the rest of the vein. The regions of blocky quartz flanking the fibres are interpreted to have developed as part of one fracturing event, with the vein opening up on either side of the pre-existing fibrous grains. This timing is supported by the presence of an inclusion band adjacent to the fibrous grains, indicating that at one time the fibres were in contact with the wallrock.  5.2.2 Structural Interpretations Orogenic gold deposits tend to be structurally hosted, associated with second or higher order faults and restricted to the brittle-ductile transition zone (McCuaig and Kerrich, 1998). As discussed above, the gold-bearing quartz veins in the Klondike are controlled at all scales by F4 fold axial surface fractures, and are thus interpreted as having occurred late in or following D4 deformation (MacKenzie et al., 2008). As D4 post-dates the initial stages of uplift through the brittle-ductile transition in the crust (MacKenzie et al., 2008), a possible explanation is provided for the textural variation. Early stages of brittle behaviour result in episodic opening of small fractures with slow strain rates, leading to fibrous structures strongly associated with the wallrock (hence the syntaxial  20  growth of the elongate-blocky grains in sample MA-11-NG4, using the wallrock quartz as a crystallographic template). Upon further uplift into a more brittle regime, the vein growth transitions into a more rapid fracturing, leading to the development of blocky, coarser quartz crystals. Fracturing in zones of weakness around the pre-existing fibrous quartz results in isolated zones of quartz fibres, such as those observed above (particularly in Fig. 8). These interpretations are not consistent with the previously published literature on the formation of the veins, such as the statement by Chapman et al. (2010a) that vein formation appears to be from a single-stage process rather than repeated fluid pulses. The varying textures, in addition to the observed spatial association of gold and sulphide mineralization with the fibrous rather than the blocky quartz, suggest more episodic vein growth.  6.0 TRACE ELEMENTS IN OROGENIC QUARTZ VEINS  6.1 Results Four sets of trace element data were generated by laser ablation ICP-MS: two thin section analyses, ‘NG4_thin’ and ‘SH3_thin’; and two polished block analyses, ‘NG4_thick’ and ‘SH3_thick’. The extended table of results can be found in Appendix III, and the locations for each of the spot analyses in Appendix II. Across these samples, the most variable and abundant trace element was Al, with measured concentrations of 40-50ppm for the thick sections and greater than 1000ppm for the thin sections. The other trace elements that consistently produced results above detection limits in all samples were Li, K and Ti. In general, most elements registered values near detection limits, and with high relative errors.  6.1.1 Thin Sections  Initial laser ablation trials on polished thin sections highlighted limitations to the generation of reliable data. Notwithstanding the relative ease of selecting inclusion-free grains, the quartz tended to spall away leaving an irregular crater. This resulted in an initial pulse of material to the ICP-MS, which tailed off abruptly as the laser ablated into the glue beneath the quartz. Within this narrow window of noisy data, it was difficult to differentiate between trace elements in quartz and surface contamination. 21  Consequently, the results for the thin sections were substantially more variable than the polished blocks, where it was possible to ablate in a more controlled manner, drill deeper, and obtain a relatively spike-free range of data. Apparent concentrations were more than an order of magnitude greater in the thin sections (Fig. 11), and with much larger standard errors, most likely reflecting surface contamination and uncertainties related to the shorter ICP-MS signals and uncontrolled ablation characteristics.  Figure 11: Graph of Ti and Al concentrations, comparing the ranges of values and relative errors for the polished blocks (left) and the thin sections (right).  The data collected from the off-cuts is considered valid, whereas the thin section data is judged unreliable and will not be used to draw any conclusions. However, the polished blocks also have certain limitations, such as the greater difficulty in selecting inclusion-free grains for ablation and the increased likelihood of surface contamination, and these must be borne in mind when interpreting the data.  6.1.2 Polished Blocks  There are limited correlations among trace elements (Fig. 12). Primarily among these, Li appears to correlate positively with Al, with an average Li/Al molar ratio of ~0.026. The values for Ti and K are predominantly low (less than 3ppm for most Ti and less than 10ppm for most K values). The other consistent relationship is that of Ge and Al. Ge values remain mostly steady at around 0.5 – 2.5ppm, over a range of almost 40ppm Al.  22  SAMPLE ‘NG4_Thick’  SAMPLE ‘SH3_Thick’  Figure 12: Trace element correlation plots for polished blocks.  23  There are also few clear observable variations among the various quartz generations. In ‘NG4_thick’, fibrous quartz appears to have higher average trace element concentrations than the blocky quartz, but this trend does not hold for any of the other sections.  6.2 Discussion The limited trends that could be identified from the laser ablation analysis of samples MA11-SH3 and MA-11-NG4 are for the most part consistent with previous studies. The abundance of Al relative to other trace elements is explained by the ease with which Al3+ can substitute for Si4+ in the quartz crystal lattice, due to their similar ionic radii; in addition to the common occurrence of Al in the Earth’s crust (Rusk et al., 2008, Götze, 2009). The correlation between Li and Al for many of the quartz grains has also been documented in literature, and attributed to charge compensation by Li+ accompanying the tetrahedral substitution of [AlO4]- in [SiO4]0 sites (Landtwing and Pettke, 2005, Allan and Yardley, 2007). The molar Li/Al ratio of ~0.026 was significantly lower than those reported in previous studies – across several different samples from both high and low temperature deposits, Rusk et al. (2011) found molar Li/Al ratios between 0.125 and 0.5. The low Li/Al ratio suggests that H+ may be the dominant charge-balancing cation for [AlO4]- substitutional sites. As discussed in Chapters 2 and 3, correlations have been established in nature between the Ti concentration of quartz and its temperature of crystallization, and have been quantified experimentally above 600oC (Wark and Watson, 2006, Allan and Yardley, 2007). Wark and Watson (2006) developed a geothermometer allowing the determination of quartz crystallization temperature from the concentration of Ti in quartz, assuming the fluid is in equilibrium with rutle, using the following equation:  (  is the concentration of Ti in quartz (in parts per million by weight). The application  of this geothermometer to the trace element data produces a range of crystallization temperatures between 369oC and 435oC, with an average crystallization temperature of 407oC. Orogenic gold deposits are typically found in the 300-400oC range, although they can form at 220o – 600oC (Groves et al., 2003). This suggests that the trace element values are consistent with the expected range of values from an orogenic quartz system. Thus, although  24  the Wark and Watson TitaniQ geothermometer is only calibrated for temperatures above 500oC, it produces a geologically sensible range of temperature for the Klondike veins. Rusk et al. (2008) also examined trace elements in quartz, comparing the concentrations of Ti in high-temperature deposits (<10 to ~170ppm) and low-temperature deposits (below detection) with Al concentrations (Fig. 13a). Following this scheme, these samples, sources from low-temperature orogenic veins, would be expected to have very low Ti concentrations. This is indeed the case, with the majority of Ti falling below 3ppm, very close to the detection limit (Fig. 13b).  a  b Figure 13. a: Concentrations measured in quartz from various ore deposits. The polished block results from this study have been plotted at lower right (boxed area). Modified from Rusk et al. (2008). b: Expanded plot of Ti (grey diamonds) and Al (black squares) concentrations from Klondike orogenic quartz vein samples.  25  The relationship that was observed between Ge and Al does not appear to have been discussed in the existing literature. A potential substitution is Ge4+ for Si4+. This relationship could be investigated further, although it is important to remember that the detected concentrations of Ge are very low, less than 3ppm, and as such may not be entirely accurate. The textural variations within samples MA-11-NG4 and MA-11-SH3 are discussed above. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the different conditions of formation interpreted for each quartz type would be reflected in the trace element chemistry. However, there were no statistical differences in the trace element concentration between the different textures. This leads to the conclusion that the physical and chemical conditions of quartz growth did not vary significantly for the different textural domains throughout the development of the veins, allowing the fluid to remain in equilibrium with the host rock. Thus, the fibrous and blocky textures likely represent a fairly narrow range of fluid compositions and temperatures. To test the validity of these observations, similar studies should be carried out for more of the samples from different veins. In this way, the variation over a wider range of textures could be compared. To avoid the limitations encountered with thin sections, any future analyses should involve polished thick sections (100-200μm), as opposed to standard polished thin sections. A detailed fluid inclusion study for these veins might also address the formation conditions and fluid chemistry of the vein generations, and reveal more subtle differences.  7.0 CONCLUSION  This thesis has examined a series of samples from gold-bearing orogenic quartz veins in the Klondike District. Vein structures and textures were analyzed, and trace element concentrations were measured. Examining the quartz textures and structures allowed the veins to be grouped into two broad categories – the blocky veins produced by a single fracturing event with dilation rate exceeding the rate of quartz growth into open space; and the elongate-blocky to fibrous veins that record multiple events of opening, with the average rate of opening equal to the average rate of quartz growth. These textural variations would appear to indicate varying physical and chemical conditions for the formation of the veins, likely due to changing crustal levels, progressing through the brittle-ductile transition within the crust, and increased strain rates.  26  The lack of significant variation in trace element signatures suggests there was little difference between the conditions of formation of the different quartz textures. Thus, the textural differences are likely a product of structural rather than geochemical variations. From the trace element data, it was possible to conclude that Al is the most abundant element in quartz, and that orogenic quartz veins contain generally low concentrations and variability of trace elements when compared with higher temperature hydrothermal and magmatic systems. A correlation between Al and Li is consistent with other literature on the subject, although the average molar Li/Al ratio of 0.026 was lower than expected; while a possible correlation between Ge and Al may require further investigation. Evidently, there are limitations to this data, such as the high variability in results, the contrast between the values for thin sections and polished blocks, and the large standard errors. Further studies building on this work should focus on thicker blocks rather than thin sections, and trace element data should be collected for the blocky veins that contain no elongate grains, to allow more extensive comparisons. On the side of the textures, further analysis is also warranted – other samples from the same veins could assist in constraining the structural variations, particularly in unravelling the opening history of the Nugget vein. 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Trace elements and cathodoluminescence of igneous quartz in topaz granites from the Hub Stock (Slavkovsky Les Mts., Czech Republic). Mineralogy and Petrology, 79(3-4), 167-191. Oliver, N. H. S., & Bons, P. D. (2001). Mechanisms of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction in fossil metamorphic hydrothermal systems inferred from vein-wallrock patterns, geometry and microstructure. Geofluids, 1(2), 137-162. Ramsay, J. G. (1980). The crack-seal mechanism of rock deformation. Nature, 284, 135-139.  30  Ridley, J. R., & Diamond, L. W. (2000). Fluid chemistry of orogenic lode-gold deposits and implications for genetic models. Reviews in Economic Geology 13, 141-162. Rushton, R. W., Nesbitt, B. E., Muehlenbachs, K., & Mortensen, J. K. (1993). A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of Au quartz veins in the Klondike district, YukonTerritory, Canada - a section through a mesothermal vein system. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 88(3), 647-678. Rusk, B. G., Lowers, H. A., & Reed, M. H. (2008). Trace elements in hydrothermal quartz: Relationships to cathodoluminescent textures and insights into vein formation. Geology, 36(7), 547-550. Rusk, B. G., Reed, M. H., Dilles, J. H., & Kent, A. J. R. (2006). Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana. American Mineralogist, 91(8-9), 1300-1312. Rusk, B., Koenig, A., & Lowers, H. (2011). Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. American Mineralogist, 96(5-6), 703-708. Wark, D. A., & Watson, E. B. (2006). TitaniQ: A titanium-in-quartz geothermometer. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 152(6), 743-754.  31  APPENDIX I: DETAILED THIN SECTION AND ROCK DESCRIPTIONS  Sample: MA-11-AM2 Vein Mineralogy: 90% Blocky, subhedral to anhedral quartz. Coarse crystals predominantly containing fine quartz inclusions. Interstitial very fine quartz, likely recrystallized. Grains fine towards vein centre. Extensive microinclusions. 10% Fine-grained massive Fe-Carbonate. Predominantly dark orange-brown, in 2 elongate bands, 2-3mm wide, approximately parallel to vein. 1 band is near the vein centre, one at the wall-vein interface. Fine bladed calcite at edges of bands. Effervesces in dilute HCl. Host Rock Mineralogy: 70% Medium-fine rounded-elongate quartz, with possible fine feldspar. Fines away from boundary with vein. 20% Elongate muscovite, foliated, with orange rims. 5% Fine carbonate alteration. 5% Oxidized pyrite, disseminated throughout wallrock and associated with vein-wall interface. Euhedral to subhedral. Vein Textures: The sample covers approximately half the width of a quartz vein. The vein is characterized by blocky, intergrown quartz, most likely forming in one event, with later fine recrystallization along grain boundaries.  Figure 14: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM2  Sample: MA-11-AM3 Vein Mineralogy: 90% Blocky, subrounded, anhedral intergrown quartz. Mildly deformed, extensive inclusions. 32  7% 3%  Fine-grained quartz, at vein-wall interface and interstitial to the coarser, blocky quartz. Fine muscovite, inclusions in the blocky quartz and infilling deep fractures.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 45% Muscovite, elongate, foliation approximately parallel to vein. Orange alteration rims. 33% Fine-grained quartz, rounded to elongate grains, foliated. Larger fragmented grains at wall, with mica inclusions. 20% Fine-grained calcite and fine carbonate alteration. 2% Fine, subhedral to euhedral pyrite. Extensively oxidized. Vein Textures: The sample extends from one vein wall to within 1cm of the opposite wall. Blocky quartz decreases in size in both directions from the centre of the vein towards the wallrock, with substantially finer grains precipitating at the vein-wall boundary. The vein likely precipitated from one fracturing event, with later fine-grained recrystallization along grain boundaries.  Figure 15: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-AM3.  Sample: MA-11-DY1 Vein Mineralogy: 100% White vuggy quartz, mildly deformed to undeformed. Predominantly coarse grains, elongate horizontally across vein. Anhedral to subhedral. Regions of finer interstitial recrystallized quartz. Extensive very fine inclusions in coarser grains, leading to ‘dusty’ look. Grains vary from >6mm to <0.5mm diameter. Host Rock Mineralogy: 70% Fine muscovite and chlorite, elongate, fractured, foliated. Fe-carbonate alteration rims. 30% Fine anhedral quartz, subrounded. Vein Textures: The sample extends across the entire vein, with blocky to elongate-blocky quartz grains. In hand sample, the section consists of coarse, vuggy quartz, growing into space from the vein  33  edges. Scattered subhedral medium-grained quartz and fine interstitial recrystallized quartz likely crystallized later.  Figure 16: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY1.  Sample: MA-11-DY2 Vein Mineralogy: 97% Anhedral, blocky quartz, heavily deformed. Undulatory extinction, extensively fractured. Finer grains at wall-vein interface. Elongation of fine boundary grains in the same direction as the host rock micas. 3% Fine mica inclusions at wall-vein interface. Host Rock Mineralogy: 40% Fine to very fine quartz and feldspar. Albite-twinned plagioclase, fine-grained perthite. Deformed quartz and feldspar twins. 30% Muscovite and chlorite, fine-grained, foliated. 20% Iron oxide alteration, predominantly interstitial and on grain boundaries. 10% Coarse deformed quartz grains, fractures infilled with fine quartz and feldspar from the groundmass. Vein Textures: Vein is approximately 2-3 grains in width (~11mm), consisting of anhedral coarse intergrown blocky quartz growing across the vein, with a narrow band of fine quartz at the vein walls.  34  Figure 17: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-DY2.  Sample: MA-11-MK2 Vein Mineralogy: >90% Quartz, intergrown equant crystals, anhedral to subhedral. Grain size varying from <0.5mm to 5mm in diameter. Deformed crystals with extensive undulatory extinction. 5% Pyrite, clustered, occasional simple twinning. Extensive oxidation at rims. <5% Fine grained muscovite and chlorite, interstitial to quartz grains, likely wallrock inclusions. Host Rock Mineralogy: 65% Foliated chlorite and muscovite. Fine-grained. Abundant patchy orange alteration. 35% Fine-grained foliated quartz and feldspar. Anhedral, subrounded. Thickness of slide leads to anomalously bright purples and blues in XPL. Vein Textures: Blocky quartz. Vein-wall interface cuts across mica foliation, at 60-80o. Minor overgrowth of quartz onto wallrock.  Figure 18: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-MK2.  35  Sample: MA-11-NG2 Vein Mineralogy: 97% Quartz. Elongate-blocky, highly deformed, finely fractured with ‘dusty’ very fine inclusions. Predominantly coarse-grained (>5mm diameter). Abundant fine interstitial quartz, possibly recrystallized. Minor orange-brown iron alteration along fractures. 3% Plagioclase feldspar laths, with fine polysynthetic twinning. Restricted to one corner of section. Host Rock Mineralogy: 75% Plagioclase feldspar, medium-grained laths. Extensive deformed and fractured polysynthetic twins. Direction of elongation varies, averaging approximately at right angles to the vein wall. Intergrowth with vein quartz. 20% Very fine-grained quartz and feldspar massive assemblage, subrounded to elongate, with orange alteration along fractures. Interstitial to coarser plagioclase laths. 5% Fibrous muscovite, with extensive iron alteration. Oriented in the same direction as the plagioclase and quartz (~90o to vein wall). <1% Oxidized pyrite, euhedral, medium-grained. Vein Textures: The vein consists of elongate-blocky quartz growing towards the wallrock (only one wall is visible in the sample). Plagioclase laths may have grown over the boundary at a later time.  Figure 19: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG2.  Sample: MA-11-NG4 Vein Mineralogy: 90% Quartz. Fibrous, elongate-blocky, and blocky. Anhedral to subhedral, with extensive microinclusions in the blocky and elongate-blocky grains, and strong fracturing. 5% Muscovite. Fine-grained wallrock inclusion trails, predominantly interstitial to the quartz fibres near the vein wall. 3% Calcite. Euhedral to subhedral rhombohedral crystals, and more fine-grained aggregate. Concentrated in one region of the slide. 36  2%  Pyrite. Fine-grained (<0.5mm in diameter), subhedral , scattered throughout the vein and wallrock.  Host Rock Mineralogy: 60% Foliated muscovite, very fine-grained, elongate bands. Orange-brown alteration. 40% Fine-grained quartz and feldspar. Anhedral, intergrown, predominantly quartz. Vein Textures: Fibrous to elongate-blocky syntaxial quartz grows from the wallrock, in continuity with the growth direction of the wallrock quartz. Grain width increases away from the wallrock. In the top half of the slide, an isolated region of fibrous quartz is surrounded by blocky grains. Subhedral, blocky quartz grains and calcite are later replacement textures.  Figure 20: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG4. A = wallrock; B = syntaxial fibrous quartz; C = approximate line of discontinuity in the growth direction of the fibres; D = syntaxial fibrous to blocky-elongate quartz exhibiting clear growth competition; E = termination of syntaxial fibrous quartz in top half of sample; F = blocky quartz; G = isolated region of fibrous quartz; H = later subhedral blocky prismatic quartz and calcite.  Sample: MA-11-NG5 Vein Mineralogy: 97% White milky quartz. Blocky intergrowths, subhedral to anhedral grains up to 5mm in diameter. Regions of fine interstitial quartz grains, possibly recrystallized. Abundant fine inclusions in large crystals. Variably deformed. 3% Scattered interstitial muscovite, host rock inclusions, most abundant near vein-wall interface. Host Rock Mineralogy: 80% Quartz and feldspar fine-grained assemblage. Anhedral, foliated, extensive simple and albite twinning. 20% Muscovite. Elongate, predominantly in feathery folia. Orange-brown rims. ~15% of muscovite present as non-oriented grains contained within the quartz/feldspar folia. Vein Textures: Intersection of two veins, marked by a region of strongly deformed quartz with abundant inclusions. Jagged grain boundaries and recrystallization present throughout sample. Coarsegrained vuggy quartz present in hand sample. 37  Figure 21: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-NG5. Dotted line indicates approximate intersection area of the two veins.  Sample MA-11-OR1 Vein Mineralogy: >99% Quartz. Anhedral blocky quartz stretching across entire width of vein. Deformed, oriented approximately perpendicular to vein flow direction. Extensively fractured. Anhedral, fine grained quartz at vein-wall interface, <0.5 to 5mm in diameter. <1% Muscovite and chlorite, fine-grained, infilling fractures in quartz. Host Rock Mineralogy: 35% Fine-grained quartz, with possible very fine feldspar. Rounded, anhedral crystals. 30% Elongate chlorite, oriented ~45o to vein. Fine-grained, low order interference colours. 20% Muscovite, fine-grained, elongate, oriented. 10% Actinolite? Altered, elongate, bladed to feathery, dark brown. Possible amphibole cleavages observable. Coarse-grained. 5% Coarse to fragmented quartz, deformed. Subrounded to elongate/elliptical grains, possibly associate with the vein. Abundant brown-black alteration throughout host rock. Iron alteration along grain boundaries, fractures, and the vein-wall interface. Vein Textures: Vein is predominantly one-grain wide, growing across the vein, likely in one event. Finegrained quartz at the vein-wall interface precipitated first. Mica-filled fractures cut continuously across both the fine-grained boundary quartz and the massive blocky quartz.  Figure 22: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-OR1.  38  Sample: MA-11-SH3 Vein Mineralogy: >95% Quartz. Region of elongate, fibrous grains and sets of fine grains forming elongate paths, flanked by anhedral, blocky intergrown quartz. Blocky quartz contains extensive microinclusions trails. 5% Interstitial fine-grained muscovite and talc, both disseminated and forming an inclusion band parallel to the fibrous-blocky quartz interface. <1% Arsenopyrite, euhedral to subhedral, associated with both edges of the vein. Oxidized on rims and face, one grain completely replaced fine-grained talc. Host Rock Mineralogy: 35% Chlorite and muscovite, mildly foliated, stubby elongate grains. Orange/brown alteration rims. 30% Anhedral quartz, fine-medium grained. 20% Fine grained talc. 15% Subhedral plagioclase laths, concentrated in one area. <1% Euhedral to subhedral arsenopyrite. One crystal overprints vein-wall interface. Vein Textures: Region of fibrous, antitaxial quartz, flanked by blocky quartz. Blocky quartz fines rapidly at vein wall. Fine recrystallized quartz interstitial to blocky grains.  Figure 23: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-SH3.  Sample: MA-11-VG2 Vein Mineralogy: >99% Vuggy, blocky quartz. Highly fractured, subhedral to anhedral. Medium-grained at the centre to fine-grained at the walls. Finer-grained quartz inclusions. No interstitial mica inclusions. <1% Magnetite? Sulphide grain <0.5mm in diameter. Moderate reflectance, highly oxidized rims. Subhedral. 39  Host Rock Mineralogy: 40% Fine-grained quartz and feldspar. 35% Foliated muscovite (±chlorite). Fine-grained, elongate. 20% Quartz. Fractured, anhedral, fine- to medium-grained. 15% Plagioclase. Medium-grained, polysynthetic and simple twinning. Extensive sericite alteration. Abundant iron alteration throughout the host rock, concentrated near the vein and fractures. Vein Textures: The vein is approximately 3-4 grains across, with coarsest grains in the centre and very fine grains at the edges. Boundary is mostly well-defined, although there is one instance of a possible lens of vein quartz extending into the wall rock. Vein cuts the foliation of the micas at an angle of approximately 50-60o.  Figure 24: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VG2.  Sample: MA-11-VL2 Vein Mineralogy: 85% Quartz. Blocky, anhedral, heavily deformed with undulatory extinction, fractured. 15% Feldspar. Euhedral plagioclase laths with albite twinning and minor antiperthite. Also finer grained anhedral crystals. Strongly altered, ‘dusty’ with extensive fine-grained carbonate and clay alteration (mild effervescence of hand sample in dilute HCl). Cream to beige-coloured in hand sample. Host Rock Mineralogy: 60% Fine-grained quartz and feldspar intergrowth, anhedral. Rounded quartz inclusions present within larger feldspar grains. <40% Muscovite, fine-to medium-grained, subhedral, foliated, oriented around quartzofeldspathic assemblage. Predominantly pleochroic green, distinguished from chlorite by second order birefringence. <1% Pyrite, euhedral, fragmented. Associated with vein wall, on both sides of vein.  40  Vein Textures: The vein is approximately 1-2 quartz grains (5-8mm) in diameter. Euhedral feldspar laths appear to have grown onto the blocky quartz of the vein from the wall, leading to a loss of definition of the vein boundary. Extensive carbonate and possible clay alteration are evidence of later, shallower processes.  Figure 25: XPL photomicrograph of sample MA-11-VL2  41  APPENDIX II: LOCATIONS FOR LASER ABLATION SPOT ANALYSES  Thin Sections  Figure 26: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thin'.  42  Figure 27: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'SH3_Thin'.  43  Polished Blocks  Figure 28: Labelled locations of spot analyses for 'NG4_Thick'.  Figure 29: Labelled locations of spot analyses for ‘SH3_Thick'.  44  APPENDIX III: TRACE ELEMENT DATA TABLES  Table 3: Sample 'NG4_Thin'. 'bd'= below detection limits. Sample Number  Fibrous Quartz 1  NIST Standard  BCR Standard  Li7  Na23  Al27  K39  Ca43  Ti47  Fe57  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  BCR_Standard_1  17.98  0.48  45120  320  143100  1700  32440  300  91600  1700  26270  300  95500  560  BCR_Standard_2  17.75  0.46  45090  290  143600  1700  32240  260  91800  1600  26240  310  98350  730  BCR_Standard_3  17.08  0.47  45320  280  144900  1800  32160  250  90600  1500  26020  330  102790  680  G_NIST612_1  41.63  0.62  104800  1600  11160  150  69.7  1.6  84000  1300  43.5  1.1  52.9  1.9  G_NIST612_2  42.31  0.47  104200  1200  11330  160  65.52  0.91  86900  1400  44.7  1.3  51.3  1.8  G_NIST612_3  42.27  0.72  104300  1500  11020  170  65.3  1.1  85200  1300  44.7  1.4  49.5  1.9  G_NIST612_4  41.51  0.68  102600  1200  11070  190  65.6  1.1  84900  1400  44.1  1.6  50.3  2.2  G_NIST612_5  41.93  0.82  103000  2300  11110  230  66.9  1.5  83600  1800  43.6  1.4  50  2.2  G_NIST612_6  41.76  0.75  102200  1500  11190  160  67.2  1.3  84700  1200  43.6  1.2  49.8  1.8  G_NIST612_7  42.48  0.66  105000  1300  11170  150  66.4  1.4  85200  1100  43.4  1.4  51.3  1.8  G_NIST612_8  41.81  0.68  103200  1400  11220  130  66.1  1.1  84500  1100  44.5  1.1  50.8  2  G_NIST612_9  41.98  0.68  105500  1700  11120  160  66.5  1.2  85800  1300  44  1.3  52.6  1.9  Vein_Quartz_1  8  19  2400  2100  3900  1400  2800  2500  36000  65000  73  49  2700  1600  Vein_Quartz_2  0.25  0.32  22  10  17.8  2.9  bd  12  bd  290  1.24  0.87  20.2  9.9  Vein_Quartz_3  bd  4.1  390  210  159  45  bd  280  1800  7200  30  23  410  250  Vein_Quartz_4  5  17  590  540  340  130  bd  530  20000  29000  23  27  760  890  Vein_Quartz_5  0.42  0.53  83  21  34.9  9.9  bd  25  bd  590  1.6  1.5  20  24  Vein_Quartz_6  33  16  370  400  2400  1600  bd  630  8100  9900  bd  9.1  2200  2400  Vein_Quartz_7  bd  6.2  820  760  680  430  bd  470  5000  6800  240  470  100  890  Vein_Quartz_8  3  1.3  bd  42  104  20  bd  230  bd  1600  bd  2.3  640  710  Vein_Quartz_9  6.9  4.8  2100  3300  590  360  bd  360  11000  12000  bd  22  80  500  45  Fibrous Quartz 2 Elongate-Blocky Quartz 1  Vein_Quartz_10  15.4  6.2  120  280  295  79  bd  380  60000  12000  bd  24  230  470  Vein_Quartz_11  2.1  2.9  720  610  1500  1200  280  170  1800  5600  bd  13  1240  840  Vein_Quartz_12  2.8  3.9  290  140  207  35  240  250  12500  6700  bd  5.2  bd  170  Vein_Quartz_13  9.6  6.9  410  180  142  34  250  230  9400  4800  19  23  120  180  Vein_Quartz_14  bd  4.1  370  240  214  93  39  44  bd  2500  34  31  290  510  Vein_Quartz_15  bd  3.8  780  600  220  100  370  400  10300  8500  2.8  4.7  bd  270  Vein_Quartz_16  1.5  4.8  230  330  270  110  60  280  2600  7800  0.8  5.5  bd  240  Vein_Quartz_17  bd  4.4  700  250  460  110  180  210  3200  7600  bd  5.3  1140  540  Vein_Quartz_18  bd  1.4  750  300  240  210  230  190  bd  2400  24  34  900  1000  Vein_Quartz_19  4.4  6.9  720  290  231  53  bd  280  bd  7900  bd  12  290  200  Vein_Quartz_20  9.2  8.6  850  330  216  72  150  240  4000  7900  bd  12  200  160  Vein_Quartz_21  0.64  0.47  81  30  14.8  3.3  77  27  bd  530  bd  0.94  13  19  Vein_Quartz_22  8.4  4.5  660  260  110  32  430  200  4200  6000  11  12  290  170  Vein_Quartz_23  14.2  4.9  820  300  117  37  250  250  7200  7300  5.6  8.2  70  120  Vein_Quartz_24  0.33  0.29  81  21  24.5  2.7  28  18  480  540  bd  0.35  bd  15  Vein_Quartz_25  15  12  690  290  120  110  610  400  70000  13000  49  55  110  210  Vein_Quartz_26  bd  1.3  80  170  81  34  190  100  2100  4700  13  16  36  93  Vein_Quartz_27  bd  4.3  550  230  151  41  400  330  6000  6400  bd  1.6  290  230  Vein_Quartz_28  9.6  8.8  580  320  480  230  780  390  12000  11000  bd  17  420  680  Vein_Quartz_29  7.9  7  550  320  740  770  450  230  bd  5600  8  20  bd  200  Vein_Quartz_30  bd  5.3  150  240  107  57  210  220  bd  4700  bd  3  50  130  Vein_Quartz_31  8.8  6.9  230  240  164  44  bd  190  5400  5600  bd  1  230  190  Vein_Quartz_32  3.7  4.3  520  340  166  42  bd  210  5500  5600  1.4  2.7  270  180  Vein_Quartz_33  2.3  1.1  55  25  38.1  5.2  bd  24  bd  680  1.25  0.84  22  23  Vein_Quartz_34  0.69  0.41  20  24  24.5  5.6  bd  18  600  680  2.2  1.9  bd  16  Vein_Quartz_35  1.6  5.4  330  200  206  56  bd  300  12000  7500  55  42  190  290  Vein_Quartz_36  0.9  3.8  160  300  184  64  bd  220  2900  4400  bd  7.2  bd  190  Vein_Quartz_37  7.3  7.4  300  260  187  66  bd  180  9600  6200  13  26  bd  170  46  Fibrous Quartz 3 Subhedral Blocky Quartz 1 Elongate-Blocky Quartz 2 Subhedral Blocky Quartz 2  Vein_Quartz_38  bd  2.7  380  240  138  30  bd  220  5700  5000  bd  1.8  bd  160  Vein_Quartz_39  2.4  4  310  310  137  41  100  210  5500  4000  bd  5.9  120  150  Vein_Quartz_40  5.9  4  370  170  108  26  bd  140  6700  4300  bd  2.5  bd  100  Vein_Quartz_41  7.9  3.1  330  180  77  33  bd  160  2300  5800  bd  2.3  bd  140  Vein_Quartz_42  2.6  3.4  590  240  130  42  bd  260  bd  6200  8  11  bd  200  Vein_Quartz_43  12.7  6.6  400  190  146  36  bd  230  6300  8100  10  12  bd  150  Vein_Quartz_44  bd  2.5  710  440  280  140  470  260  14100  8400  bd  1  bd  240  Vein_Quartz_45  bd  0.16  42  12  17.8  2.8  15  11  520  380  0.67  0.52  7.4  9.8  Vein_Quartz_46  2.8  3.7  510  250  122  22  180  230  11900  7600  2.3  4.1  50  170  Vein_Quartz_47  0.44  0.22  38  16  11  1.9  bd  9.7  260  230  2.5  1.6  bd  8.6  Vein_Quartz_48  7.2  4.1  620  370  173  59  80  170  12200  6500  30  39  bd  160  Vein_Quartz_49  3.4  3  690  440  142  31  bd  180  10700  5400  bd  1.4  90  150  Vein_Quartz_50  10.3  5  840  300  178  43  130  170  12600  5500  8  11  250  210  Vein_Quartz_51  6.2  4.3  610  270  152  41  bd  280  4900  6800  bd  1.8  160  210  Vein_Quartz_52  1.18  0.73  134  51  39.3  8.1  59  39  bd  1100  2.4  2  42  32  Vein_Quartz_53  13.5  9.1  480  180  191  42  bd  220  7200  6300  10  12  220  180  Vein_Quartz_54  18  13  420  380  600  280  70  280  16700  9300  6.9  7.9  320  260  Vein_Quartz_55  bd  0.049  7.6  4  10.3  3  bd  6.2  bd  98  0.79  0.28  bd  3.3  Vein_Quartz_56  27  16  1560  840  177  67  120  310  10500  7400  21  24  310  210  Vein_Quartz_57  0.92  0.49  74  33  19.7  3.6  bd  20  890  320  0.58  0.56  bd  13  Vein_Quartz_58  8  4.6  550  250  97  30  bd  200  2600  3300  3.6  7.2  80  130  Vein_Quartz_59  12  12  1000  1200  299  97  bd  630  24000  15000  4.7  8.2  490  600  Vein_Quartz_60  23  14  470  440  257  81  bd  330  14000  16000  bd  1  230  310  Vein_Quartz_61  17  16  510  450  260  120  bd  250  80000  11000  bd  0.1  170  240  Vein_Quartz_62  8.8  8.6  750  370  480  500  540  330  11000  10000  4.2  9.9  4300  3100  Vein_Quartz_63  11.2  7.6  690  300  510  220  190  310  100000  14000  1.9  6  710  440  Vein_Quartz_64  8.2  1.2  75  25  67.6  5.5  bd  11  bd  380  0.64  0.69  bd  10  Vein_Quartz_65  bd  4.4  470  320  270  73  170  240  15000  9700  35  32  200  190  47  Wallrock Quartz  Wallrock_1  9  12  550  390  246  74  bd  310  100000  11000  bd  1.9  230  260  Wallrock_2  2.3  4.2  460  660  1310  560  760  730  100000  11000  bd  7.2  550  330  Wallrock_3  6.4  6.5  410  350  310  110  bd  320  bd  6800  bd  14  310  310  Wallrock_4  18  12  320  590  206  59  200  250  80000  10000  9  17  300  280  Wallrock_5  13.2  6.4  bd  210  430  180  50  300  8600  6800  bd  12  190  240  Wallrock_6  12  12  bd  250  500  200  100  260  6400  7200  6  18  220  300  Wallrock_7  4.1  7.3  340  210  334  80  bd  250  10500  5900  bd  6.9  330  140  Wallrock_8  bd  4.3  570  280  1180  450  830  590  11700  9400  38  35  730  360  Wallrock_9  2.5  5.4  500  330  212  66  bd  280  13000  7100  bd  9.7  250  270  Wallrock_10  12  11  1120  750  410  140  bd  640  90000  12000  35  42  150  650  Wallrock_11  bd  3.6  520  330  640  230  bd  200  2100  5500  4  9.8  230  330  Wallrock_12  13.7  9.9  290  300  440  190  bd  310  3300  6400  9  12  bd  240  Sample Number  NIST Standard  BCR Standard  Ga69  Ge72  As75  Sr88  Sn118  Sb121  Ba137  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  BCR_Standard_1  134.2  1.8  3.79  0.41  1.11  0.54  611  10  6.16  0.33  0.7  0.11  1215  20  BCR_Standard_2  129.9  2.1  4.1  0.35  2.42  0.48  609  10  6.69  0.36  0.71  0.11  1204  22  BCR_Standard_3  125.6  1.6  4.1  0.45  1.37  0.59  604  10  7.23  0.28  0.673  0.096  1191  22  G_NIST612_1  35.68  0.63  35.18  0.67  35.4  1  77.2  1.1  37.33  0.72  36.91  0.66  38.8  1  G_NIST612_2  36.36  0.57  34.85  0.66  39.2  1.3  79.6  1.2  37.96  0.53  38.55  0.65  39.68  0.94  G_NIST612_3  36.45  0.68  34.73  0.81  38.3  1.1  78.7  1.6  38.1  0.62  39.23  0.74  40.8  1.1  G_NIST612_4  36.01  0.49  35.21  0.63  37.03  0.87  79.2  1.4  38.41  0.71  38.28  0.61  40.12  0.87  G_NIST612_5  35.37  0.66  35.05  0.97  36.9  1.2  79.1  1.4  38.81  0.72  37.72  0.83  39.75  0.85  G_NIST612_6  36.04  0.61  35.15  0.73  36.3  1.2  77.9  1.3  37.97  0.55  37.48  0.66  39.22  0.86  G_NIST612_7  35.81  0.65  34.5  0.68  36.6  1.1  78.3  1.1  38.42  0.68  37.98  0.56  40.1  0.78  G_NIST612_8  35.7  0.49  35.04  0.79  37.1  1  78  1.1  37.4  0.61  38.11  0.62  38.8  0.91  48  Fibrous Quartz 1 Fibrous Quartz 2 Elongate-Blocky Quartz 1  G_NIST612_9  36.55  0.56  35.36  0.84  37.1  1.1  78.6  1.3  37.88  0.54  37.84  0.7  40.1  1  Vein_Quartz_1  48  57  210  210  590  530  1.01  0.91  80  140  21  36  30  15  Vein_Quartz_2  bd  0.25  2.8  1.8  11.8  5.7  0.08  0.058  3  1  0.6  0.52  0.25  0.22  Vein_Quartz_3  bd  5.7  9  37  168  87  0.018  0.037  11  21  3  9.3  1.4  2.7  Vein_Quartz_4  20  20  bd  170  740  480  bd  1  bd  79  17  37  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_5  bd  0.59  bd  3.7  15  10  0.112  0.095  2  2.4  4.3  1.4  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_6  27  20  bd  66  240  160  8.2  9.4  bd  27  41  25  12  13  Vein_Quartz_7  bd  6.6  40  89  bd  140  1  2.1  bd  22  7.3  9.5  3.7  5.2  Vein_Quartz_8  1.7  1.2  bd  9  21  17  0.81  0.49  bd  3.8  7  4.3  5.8  4.8  Vein_Quartz_9  19  22  bd  81  260  240  2  1.7  50  110  33  23  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_10  7.5  9.8  bd  49  160  120  4.8  3.6  bd  27  29  17  7  10  Vein_Quartz_11  bd  4.3  bd  33  41  78  2  1.7  9.4  7  4  10  1.6  1.9  Vein_Quartz_12  1  5.4  bd  32  bd  66  0.39  0.41  bd  17  7  11  0.1  0.2  Vein_Quartz_13  bd  5.1  11  36  77  64  0.27  0.35  16  13  13  10  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_14  1.6  4.2  bd  25  26  42  1  1.6  bd  8  1.7  7.1  0.23  0.3  Vein_Quartz_15  bd  6.2  28  33  bd  64  2.6  2.5  bd  18  17  13  0.8  1.3  Vein_Quartz_16  bd  5.7  bd  37  bd  83  0.016  0.024  bd  23  17  13  2.2  2.6  Vein_Quartz_17  bd  6.2  bd  46  57  77  0.87  0.94  bd  23  19  13  0.11  0.22  Vein_Quartz_18  bd  2  8  19  14  18  0.59  0.45  bd  5.3  5.9  6.8  bd  0.44  Vein_Quartz_19  5.2  7.2  19  48  bd  77  0.4  0.59  36  28  2  13  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_20  7.9  6.6  bd  31  bd  85  0.52  0.6  37  23  15  11  bd  0.43  Vein_Quartz_21  bd  0.39  bd  3.1  bd  6.6  bd  1  4  2.3  0.74  0.72  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_22  4.6  4.7  bd  28  29  46  0.18  0.36  12  16  7.5  8.9  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_23  6  5.2  bd  28  17  55  0.09  0.12  12  14  15  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_24  bd  0.32  bd  2.3  bd  5.9  0.07  0.05  5.3  1.7  0.9  0.75  0.15  0.14  Vein_Quartz_25  4.9  9.1  bd  49  90  120  0.47  0.53  17  33  17  15  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_26  bd  2.1  bd  17  10  28  0.16  0.19  1.8  8.3  5.1  5.6  0.032  0.063  Vein_Quartz_27  bd  7.9  bd  38  37  83  0.1  0.2  45  22  6.6  7.7  12  15  49  Fibrous Quartz 3 Subhedral Blocky Quartz 1  Vein_Quartz_28  bd  7.6  bd  55  100  110  1.9  2.7  23  18  19  20  1.5  2  Vein_Quartz_29  bd  4.4  16  42  bd  60  1.2  1.2  35  26  24  12  0.17  0.26  Vein_Quartz_30  bd  2.7  bd  49  bd  72  0.1  0.1  4  13  bd  8  1.3  2.7  Vein_Quartz_31  bd  5.4  32  31  51  61  bd  1  8  20  17.2  9.2  1.3  2.6  Vein_Quartz_32  bd  3.8  19  31  bd  59  0.08  0.15  bd  16  15  9.6  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_33  bd  0.54  bd  4.4  9.6  6.8  0.029  0.033  3.7  2.2  1.1  1.3  0.18  0.2  Vein_Quartz_34  bd  0.4  bd  2.6  18.2  6.4  bd  1  5.6  1.9  bd  0.95  0.024  0.033  Vein_Quartz_35  bd  6.9  bd  43  140  64  bd  1  29  25  10  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_36  bd  5.2  bd  34  114  55  0.54  0.72  18  19  bd  8  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_37  bd  5.9  bd  41  150  63  0.18  0.35  40  26  5.4  9.5  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_38  bd  4.1  bd  38  119  57  0.42  0.42  30  16  14  10  0.3  0.6  Vein_Quartz_39  bd  3.4  bd  32  290  100  0.14  0.28  31  20  bd  7.2  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_40  3.7  3  9  24  174  59  0.033  0.045  24  14  8.1  6.1  0.17  0.28  Vein_Quartz_41  bd  2.6  56  27  29  50  bd  0.034  24  13  13.8  6.5  1.3  1.8  Vein_Quartz_42  bd  3.5  38  28  bd  66  bd  0.19  31  22  12.1  8.7  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_43  bd  3.9  bd  28  53  99  0.74  0.9  13  15  17  10  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_44  bd  6.5  bd  43  bd  120  0.028  0.04  28  22  18  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_45  bd  0.23  bd  1.5  bd  4.6  0.108  0.053  4.7  1.3  0.55  0.57  0.059  0.069  Vein_Quartz_46  5.8  5.9  bd  45  bd  85  0.22  0.29  14  15  3.1  7.7  0.33  0.65  Vein_Quartz_47  bd  0.14  bd  1.1  bd  2.7  0.25  0.13  4.48  0.78  bd  0.38  0.57  0.34  Vein_Quartz_48  bd  3.8  bd  27  130  100  bd  1  9  16  bd  7  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_49  4.4  4.6  bd  27  230  100  0.41  0.44  23  18  2.4  8.3  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_50  bd  3.7  bd  24  210  99  0.018  0.026  37  19  bd  8.8  0.01  0.02  Vein_Quartz_51  3.1  4.1  bd  30  60  92  0.056  0.08  24  19  bd  9  0.12  0.24  Vein_Quartz_52  bd  0.8  bd  5.4  bd  16  0.043  0.05  4.9  3.6  bd  1.9  0.78  0.89  Vein_Quartz_53  1  4.5  bd  35  bd  90  0.23  0.36  9  17  bd  7.2  1.5  2.3  Vein_Quartz_54  4.7  8  bd  45  bd  150  1.1  1  39  34  8  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_55  bd  0.061  1.3  0.7  bd  2.3  0.031  0.014  3.23  0.71  bd  0.1  0.076  0.051  50  Elongate-Blocky Quartz 2 Subhedral Blocky Quartz 2 Wallrock Quartz  Vein_Quartz_56  bd  3.9  bd  46  bd  140  1  1  30  20  9  11  0.13  0.26  Vein_Quartz_57  bd  0.32  bd  3  bd  10  0.036  0.038  9.7  2.5  bd  0.69  0.01  0.02  Vein_Quartz_58  3.5  3.9  bd  30  bd  100  bd  1  20  12  19.3  8.3  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_59  17  29  bd  80  bd  200  0.17  0.29  14  33  48  21  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_60  bd  7  bd  79  290  210  0.4  0.8  bd  30  8  16  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_61  bd  7.1  62  53  bd  160  0.34  0.68  bd  26  24  12  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_62  5.8  7.5  bd  28  90  120  4.6  3.3  9  14  21  11  0.54  0.67  Vein_Quartz_63  1.3  4.3  22  37  220  130  8.5  9.2  15  17  7  10  11  13  Vein_Quartz_64  bd  0.22  2.7  1.7  bd  4.9  0.071  0.055  15.8  2.6  4.35  0.99  0.028  0.057  Vein_Quartz_65  bd  5.7  13  36  bd  97  31  46  47  24  11  10  2.8  3.1  Wallrock_1  1.7  5.2  23  53  bd  130  0.49  0.53  28  26  20  18  0.02  0.04  Wallrock_2  4.3  5  15  30  bd  84  0.81  0.64  30  19  19  12  6.5  6.3  Wallrock_3  1.6  4.3  46  48  bd  97  3.2  2.1  19  43  9  10  0.07  0.14  Wallrock_4  1.5  5.3  44  41  bd  86  0.051  0.061  22  20  24  13  2  2.8  Wallrock_5  bd  4.4  49  42  bd  81  3  2  31  21  24  11  bd  1  Wallrock_6  5.3  6  43  49  32  73  3.7  2.1  40  21  bd  13  2.8  2.4  Wallrock_7  bd  4.3  95  39  bd  72  6.3  2.9  50  25  bd  7.6  4.6  5  Wallrock_8  bd  4.7  41  37  bd  91  7.5  3.7  35  22  bd  12  42  23  Wallrock_9  bd  4  71  49  bd  93  4.4  3  28  22  bd  12  13  11  Wallrock_10  bd  6.6  72  52  bd  88  1.4  1.6  70  54  5  24  bd  1  Wallrock_11  1.4  5.8  41  29  bd  130  0.39  0.37  18  14  3.4  8.8  6.8  9.5  Wallrock_12  1  5.6  77  47  bd  81  2.1  1.8  10  22  16  13  22  20  51  Table 4: Sample 'SH3_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits. Sample Number  Blocky Quartz 1  NIST Standard  BCR Standard  Li7  Na23  Al27  K39  Ca43  Ti47  Fe57  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  BCR_Standard_1  9.38  0.33  24380  160  74630  610  17560  130  48260  900  13520  130  40160  310  BCR_Standard_2  9.27  0.34  24280  170  75530  640  17470  100  46940  630  13470  120  43600  360  BCR_Standard_3  9.43  0.24  24420  150  76550  650  17630  130  48740  840  13860  120  49460  360  G_NIST612_1  41.58  0.52  103070  880  11180  130  66.4  1.1  84900  1100  44.2  1.2  53.6  2.2  G_NIST612_2  42.11  0.53  104200  1200  11270  110  66.6  1.1  86000  1300  43.6  1.4  51.7  2  G_NIST612_3  42.77  0.57  104770  950  11200  110  66.39  0.93  85100  1200  44.4  1.3  52  1.7  G_NIST612_4  41.94  0.6  103300  1100  10950  140  65.9  1.1  84400  1100  43.5  1.4  49.9  2  G_NIST612_5  41.9  0.61  104200  1300  11120  130  66.6  1.1  84900  1500  44.7  1.3  50.8  1.9  G_NIST612_6  41.64  0.58  104600  1100  11210  140  66  1  85200  1200  44.3  1.2  47.8  1.6  G_NIST612_7  42.14  0.57  103200  1300  11120  130  65.96  0.95  84200  1400  43.7  1.7  50.7  1.8  G_NIST612_8  42.08  0.84  104100  1900  11030  200  65.5  1.3  84600  1700  43  1.7  51.1  1.8  G_NIST612_9  41.37  0.98  103300  2100  10850  260  66.2  1.2  84200  1800  42.5  1.4  49.5  2.4  G_NIST612_10  42.13  0.6  105800  1700  11340  180  67.9  1.4  86100  1900  44.1  1.5  51.6  2.3  G_NIST612_11  42.43  0.71  104800  1700  11230  140  66.4  1.1  85800  1300  44.8  1.6  52.8  2  G_NIST612_12  41.55  0.76  102500  1100  11200  140  66  1.3  84600  1600  44.8  1.5  52.3  2.5  Vein_Quartz_1  bd  0.9  300  77  50  13  bd  65  bd  1600  3  3.5  25  51  Vein_Quartz_2  bd  0.56  156  32  43.5  6  bd  34  490  890  bd  1.2  17  23  Vein_Quartz_3  0.39  0.36  183  63  40.6  4.9  17  28  1280  730  3.8  2.9  18  15  Vein_Quartz_4  0.9  0.99  181  47  36.8  5.3  bd  26  960  880  7.6  4.1  bd  19  Vein_Quartz_5  0.61  0.12  19.2  6.7  32.3  1.9  bd  4.3  165  94  1.62  0.46  9  13  Vein_Quartz_6  7.2  5  800  230  200  41  170  180  5900  4200  bd  3.3  19  85  Vein_Quartz_7  bd  3.3  660  170  194  38  180  170  4600  4800  bd  5.6  190  170  Vein_Quartz_8  1  3.2  670  300  128  32  bd  180  4400  4500  bd  9.9  77  87  Vein_Quartz_9  3.7  6  880  340  169  68  bd  350  6900  6000  bd  18  260  210  Vein_Quartz_10  5  21  1260  800  220  210  160  700  90000  26000  bd  59  bd  340  52  Fibrous Quartz  Vein_Quartz_11  19  20  790  330  360  160  bd  400  17000  12000  bd  9.5  180  210  Vein_Quartz_12  4.9  4.8  840  270  184  53  bd  200  11800  5800  bd  5.8  90  130  Vein_Quartz_13  bd  3.6  690  260  151  39  60  220  6700  7200  bd  12  60  130  Vein_Quartz_14  bd  4.1  800  280  240  83  bd  190  6100  5600  4  17  160  310  Vein_Quartz_15  20  17  570  320  296  76  570  450  12100  8100  18  25  bd  280  Vein_Quartz_16  3  17  2400  3600  30  390  200  1100  bd  95000  bd  38  120  700  Vein_Quartz_17  1.87  0.93  196  66  67  11  59  50  2700  1700  bd  3  bd  28  Vein_Quartz_18  0.26  0.17  46  14  25  3.1  bd  9  bd  260  1.4  0.97  bd  6.9  Vein_Quartz_19  0.97  0.61  47  17  19.2  2.7  13  11  bd  320  1.39  0.89  bd  7  Vein_Quartz_20  7.1  4.7  1320  460  320  130  360  170  2600  5400  46  35  190  160  Vein_Quartz_21  0.3  0.19  60  15  34.2  3  14  12  560  350  2  1.3  5  10  Vein_Quartz_22  0.39  0.21  70  18  21.6  2.2  bd  11  600  370  bd  0.46  bd  7  Vein_Quartz_23  bd  0.12  253  88  52  16  32  16  bd  210  3.2  1.6  14.3  7.9  Vein_Quartz_24  bd  3.7  540  200  257  58  30  280  20000  10000  bd  8.2  60  150  Vein_Quartz_25  1.57  0.15  32.6  5  37.5  2.1  6.3  1.9  101  54  2.88  0.84  bd  1.2  Vein_Quartz_26  bd  8.1  1900  1300  410  210  450  650  39000  29000  7  21  1000  1300  Vein_Quartz_27  bd  0.036  11.7  2.7  13.3  1.8  3.7  3.9  bd  57  2.21  0.99  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_28  0.07  0.045  25.8  5.8  11.63  0.75  bd  1.7  bd  36  1.53  0.46  bd  1.1  Vein_Quartz_29  0.063  0.025  10.9  2.3  10.3  1.8  bd  0.88  bd  27  1.56  0.34  2.1  1.4  Vein_Quartz_30  0.119  0.089  28.5  8  10.9  1  bd  3  bd  110  1.4  0.68  bd  2.3  Vein_Quartz_31  0.073  0.035  28.9  9.9  10.8  1.2  2.6  1.3  bd  39  1.59  0.42  bd  1.2  Vein_Quartz_32  bd  0.035  21.5  4.7  7.9  1.6  5.9  3.5  bd  76  1.67  0.62  bd  1.6  Vein_Quartz_33  12.3  9.6  2120  860  240  110  750  700  13000  12000  9  18  190  440  Vein_Quartz_34  0.9  5.2  1010  700  480  120  370  440  7200  7000  bd  1.1  170  230  Vein_Quartz_35  2.9  7  1040  610  372  98  510  230  bd  5500  4.4  5  210  190  Vein_Quartz_36  bd  0.11  58  32  41  22  23  23  bd  97  1.9  1.2  12.7  7.1  Vein_Quartz_37  bd  0.32  83  35  22.8  5.2  23  16  bd  270  1.29  0.81  bd  6.5  Vein_Quartz_38  bd  3.6  1440  600  330  130  350  290  bd  5500  bd  1  bd  160  Vein_Quartz_39  bd  3  3100  1300  340  160  280  250  bd  4500  29  38  bd  170  53  Blocky Quartz 2  Vein_Quartz_40  1.7  1.7  236  35  69  20  bd  67  bd  1900  8.6  6.7  bd  33  Vein_Quartz_41  1.54  0.23  10.3  3  28.8  1.2  2  1.5  78  35  2.3  0.45  bd  0.48  Vein_Quartz_42  3  4.8  2500  1800  290  180  570  490  bd  8500  7  19  170  160  Vein_Quartz_43  0.93  0.098  64  88  37.4  8.1  9  11  80  100  3.51  0.63  bd  1.2  Vein_Quartz_44  4.2  4.4  1120  370  202  60  110  360  9900  5500  bd  8.9  130  180  Vein_Quartz_45  6.5  7.5  1810  830  340  110  270  390  bd  7400  bd  1.2  160  260  Vein_Quartz_46  3.1  5  910  390  320  190  bd  530  60000  14000  33  64  bd  210  Vein_Quartz_47  1.35  0.85  111  35  32.4  2.8  bd  17  520  510  0.6  1  bd  17  Vein_Quartz_48  6.3  6  1190  410  290  110  bd  320  bd  7800  bd  1.5  50  130  Vein_Quartz_49  8.7  4.1  890  350  176  82  bd  210  2400  5000  12  17  bd  180  Vein_Quartz_50  0.7  0.53  169  51  41.4  8.9  bd  26  600  490  bd  0.012  bd  19  Vein_Quartz_51  bd  0.18  68  14  18.9  5  bd  11  1050  660  1.3  1.5  29  13  Vein_Quartz_52  2  3.9  670  270  205  82  350  230  12100  9300  20  25  70  170  Vein_Quartz_53  4.2  3.6  1040  360  266  57  380  200  bd  3600  11  16  118  85  Vein_Quartz_54  4  5.9  3500  2400  270  190  240  260  5800  6900  16  26  150  220  Vein_Quartz_55  9.6  8  670  400  146  67  bd  290  2600  5400  bd  1  bd  170  Vein_Quartz_56  4.2  5.4  1900  1200  270  90  350  430  12500  8500  10  20  bd  220  Vein_Quartz_57  2.9  5.3  3800  3400  440  190  1010  690  4000  6500  11  15  440  340  Vein_Quartz_58  9.2  8.6  1740  600  210  75  bd  470  1900  6500  bd  1  190  350  Vein_Quartz_59  5.3  5.5  1070  450  136  52  bd  200  9900  7500  8  11  bd  140  Vein_Quartz_60  24  18  1200  510  240  61  bd  280  100000  13000  bd  1  260  260  Vein_Quartz_61  bd  2.5  950  300  197  88  bd  150  7600  5200  7  8.5  370  250  Vein_Quartz_62  6.9  6.7  760  440  380  180  140  260  13300  8300  bd  1  bd  260  Vein_Quartz_63  3.7  4.9  890  320  113  32  bd  190  4500  4300  1.3  2.1  180  130  Vein_Quartz_64  4.9  4.1  800  230  178  40  130  130  3700  4600  bd  1  130  120  Vein_Quartz_65  1.1  5.5  560  410  153  50  bd  260  11200  6400  18  32  40  290  Vein_Quartz_66  2.1  4  1100  460  188  50  30  230  6100  6800  8.5  8.6  210  190  Vein_Quartz_67  2.1  5.7  570  290  280  120  210  210  7800  7200  3.8  7.6  80  130  Vein_Quartz_68  2.6  5.6  630  400  194  47  140  230  9970  7800  21  18  80  130  54  Border Quartz Wallrock Quartz  Vein_Quartz_69  2.2  4.9  940  270  186  59  140  240  5900  5400  6  7.2  bd  180  Vein_Quartz_70  bd  6.4  330  380  187  54  110  270  15000  12000  0.025  0.051  bd  130  Vein_Quartz_71  0.24  0.14  163  47  13.9  3  10.9  5.8  380  290  2.7  1.3  9  7.5  Vein_Quartz_72  0.47  0.43  153  31  20.4  3.8  44  19  950  510  1.7  1.2  bd  18  Vein_Quartz_73  5.8  4.6  840  360  166  39  280  150  bd  4200  3.4  6.6  bd  130  Vein_Quartz_74  4.6  5.6  360  250  236  76  220  230  4900  6500  4.2  6.1  bd  220  Vein_Quartz_75  1.3  3.9  520  220  219  69  180  220  16000  11000  0.69  0.94  170  200  Vein_Quartz_76  3.6  6.7  130  270  316  65  bd  310  12000  12000  4.9  9.9  bd  300  Vein_Quartz_77  1  2.9  210  180  147  38  260  190  6300  6600  11  15  bd  180  Vein_Quartz_78  3  4.4  1550  990  370  110  340  420  40000  17000  18  25  bd  300  Vein_Quartz_79  0.37  0.39  410  270  80  33  106  36  bd  520  3.4  3.7  26  27  Vein_Quartz_80  0.7  3.3  930  390  322  90  220  330  17000  14000  20  28  bd  250  Vein_Quartz_81  5  4  620  270  269  64  320  190  9000  5500  10  11  bd  170  Vein_Quartz_82  3.1  6.1  340  350  300  160  190  420  12000  10000  61  62  bd  280  Vein_Quartz_83  6.2  4.3  630  200  293  50  340  310  6500  6300  bd  1  bd  210  Vein_Quartz_84  5.4  3.2  550  210  250  150  120  210  1500  5800  0.45  0.64  90  130  Vein_Quartz_85  11  7.7  250  220  286  90  140  200  bd  5600  0.22  0.43  40  180  Vein_Quartz_86  0.54  0.68  134  36  257  51  157  35  bd  1500  4  3.9  41  38  Vein_Quartz_87  3  1.6  126  71  114  23  39  82  bd  3300  bd  1  bd  71  Vein_Quartz_88  4  3.9  bd  200  208  63  bd  200  1500  6900  23  26  40  180  Vein_Quartz_89  13.3  9.3  130  200  410  140  190  300  bd  6100  8  16  200  380  Vein_Quartz_90  4.3  3.1  350  250  196  58  60  200  7800  7200  16  19  220  180  Vein_Quartz_91  7.4  5.1  120  220  223  74  bd  290  60000  11000  bd  0.57  bd  160  Wallrock_1  3.3  8.3  460  260  1190  750  540  410  13900  7300  bd  14  bd  300  Wallrock_2  37  24  610  270  12100  3500  8500  2100  8100  5600  25  43  700  260  Wallrock_3  9.4  6.7  320  200  660  190  540  240  21000  8100  bd  27  bd  490  Wallrock_4  14  6.1  357  77  1620  440  460  140  940  930  4.7  9.1  800  1200  Wallrock_5  147  36  620  260  36400  6400  660  350  10200  7200  18  28  15900  4100  Wallrock_6  16.5  8.9  690  450  4800  3600  230  320  bd  2200  120  140  4200  3300  55  Wallrock_7  32  14  610  200  4700  1300  bd  370  9500  7600  bd  9.9  2500  1000  Wallrock_8  67.1  6.2  61.5  4.3  35700  2900  223  13  bd  72  67.9  6.6  21300  1500  Wallrock_9  1.4  7  1310  380  890  330  bd  400  80000  10000  bd  0.66  440  380  Wallrock_10  bd  1.9  590  160  192  76  bd  150  bd  3600  5.3  7.4  bd  91  Wallrock_11  bd  4.7  1250  390  940  340  130  160  4800  4800  5.8  6.4  610  430  Sample Number  Blocky Quartz 1  NIST Standard  BCR Standard  Ga69  Ge72  As75  Sr88  Sn118  Sb121  Ba137  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  BCR_Standard_1  71.4  1.1  1.99  0.27  0.72  0.38  316  3.8  3.06  0.21  0.495  0.087  636.1  9.8  BCR_Standard_2  70.15  0.93  1.78  0.28  0.58  0.65  311.6  3.3  2.95  0.23  0.391  0.082  634.6  7.6  BCR_Standard_3  70.54  0.87  2.14  0.28  0.85  0.36  315  3.4  3.32  0.26  0.367  0.072  644.6  8.9  G_NIST612_1  36.47  0.4  35.22  0.68  35.9  1.2  78.2  1.2  38.18  0.54  37.17  0.59  39.71  0.82  G_NIST612_2  35.69  0.47  35.4  0.57  35  1.1  79.2  1.1  37.74  0.56  37.66  0.55  40.49  0.64  G_NIST612_3  36.16  0.46  35.53  0.61  38.79  0.99  79.1  1  38.75  0.61  38.71  0.45  39.63  0.82  G_NIST612_4  35.66  0.51  34.64  0.7  37.14  0.91  77.2  1.2  38.14  0.48  37.91  0.56  38.89  0.69  G_NIST612_5  35.99  0.54  34.08  0.63  37.5  1.1  78.46  0.99  37.8  0.57  38.47  0.51  39.75  0.81  G_NIST612_6  35.76  0.39  34.24  0.64  37.35  0.91  78.1  1.1  37.9  0.58  37.89  0.48  39.94  0.81  G_NIST612_7  35.82  0.55  34.69  0.81  37.02  0.86  78.24  0.93  37.08  0.63  38.19  0.63  39.15  0.7  G_NIST612_8  35.54  0.66  35.31  0.81  37.3  1  76.7  1.4  37.92  0.86  38.07  0.8  39.05  0.98  G_NIST612_9  35.4  0.8  35.23  0.82  37.2  1.2  77.7  1.7  36.29  0.89  37.08  0.86  38.8  1.1  G_NIST612_10  36.88  0.6  35.57  0.99  37.6  1.4  79.6  1.2  38.27  0.95  38.62  0.83  40.36  0.88  G_NIST612_11  35.99  0.63  35.16  0.96  36  1.1  79.2  1.2  38.57  0.74  38.07  0.64  40.5  1  G_NIST612_12  36.24  0.52  35.27  0.65  36.4  1.1  78.1  1.3  38.54  0.55  37.43  0.63  40.2  1.1  Vein_Quartz_1  1.2  1.2  bd  8.9  bd  17  bd  1  bd  5.8  2.2  2.7  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_2  bd  0.63  bd  4.1  11  8.5  0.048  0.041  3  2.5  1.7  1.4  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_3  bd  0.61  4  5  22.5  9.9  0.038  0.046  3  2.6  bd  1.3  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_4  bd  0.38  bd  4.1  21  12  0.124  0.098  bd  2.1  bd  1.4  0.038  0.075  56  Fibrous Quartz  Vein_Quartz_5  0.121  0.07  2.01  0.64  5  2.3  0.0257  0.0098  1.37  0.3  bd  0.19  0.0049  0.007  Vein_Quartz_6  bd  2.5  9  21  39  51  0.11  0.12  16  14  bd  6.3  0.18  0.22  Vein_Quartz_7  bd  3  bd  27  bd  53  0.033  0.051  25  14  bd  8.4  0.13  0.22  Vein_Quartz_8  bd  2.7  bd  22  217  89  0.038  0.055  bd  16  1.4  8.3  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_9  bd  5.8  6  48  350  210  0.013  0.016  35  47  7  13  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_10  bd  11  bd  170  180  130  0.0035  0.007  66  59  16  47  0.23  0.3  Vein_Quartz_11  bd  6.5  bd  46  bd  120  1.7  2.4  20  34  5  16  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_12  1.7  4.2  bd  24  bd  61  0.22  0.32  12  17  20  13  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_13  3.5  5.6  bd  37  bd  57  0.028  0.039  bd  21  9.3  7.2  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_14  1.3  6  bd  29  193  74  0.117  0.096  bd  25  6.7  9.8  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_15  2  6.2  bd  40  bd  120  0.06  0.071  18  29  18  12  0.35  0.65  Vein_Quartz_16  16  19  bd  50  bd  710  0.38  0.46  12  30  bd  47  0.09  0.12  Vein_Quartz_17  bd  0.74  bd  7.1  32  18  bd  1  7.5  4.2  bd  2  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_18  bd  0.21  bd  2.3  13.8  4.8  0.017  0.02  3.8  1.2  bd  0.44  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_19  bd  0.23  bd  1.2  11.1  5.8  0.015  0.014  4  1.2  bd  0.39  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_20  bd  3.5  bd  37  270  130  0.35  0.49  27  23  17  12  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_21  bd  0.2  bd  1.9  bd  4  0.069  0.085  1.8  1.3  0.74  0.63  0.009  0.017  Vein_Quartz_22  bd  0.22  bd  1.5  bd  4.3  0.098  0.055  2.5  1.3  0.52  0.65  1.19  0.78  Vein_Quartz_23  bd  0.18  bd  1.9  bd  2.3  0.17  0.13  1.6  1.3  bd  0.46  0.07  0.14  Vein_Quartz_24  4  5.6  15  50  200  150  bd  1  7  46  8.1  7.4  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_25  0.094  0.043  1.54  0.27  2.6  1.1  0.101  0.031  0.85  0.15  0.22  0.11  0.27  0.13  Vein_Quartz_26  bd  16  bd  94  490  240  17  17  bd  62  20  30  1.6  3.2  Vein_Quartz_27  bd  0.045  1.33  0.42  2.27  0.99  bd  1  1.21  0.24  bd  0.12  0.13  0.11  Vein_Quartz_28  bd  0.045  1.24  0.23  4.6  1.3  0.028  0.018  1.04  0.3  bd  0.1  0.054  0.051  Vein_Quartz_29  0.066  0.028  1.3  0.19  2.53  0.8  0.09  0.023  1.17  0.13  bd  0.046  0.038  0.031  Vein_Quartz_30  0.223  0.085  1.73  0.54  2.5  1.9  0.07  0.034  1.26  0.52  bd  0.16  0.11  0.12  Vein_Quartz_31  bd  0.032  1.28  0.37  bd  0.78  0.0137  0.0083  0.89  0.21  0.118  0.071  0.05  0.053  Vein_Quartz_32  0.099  0.077  1.22  0.52  bd  1.1  0.0032  0.0048  1.54  0.45  bd  0.1  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_33  bd  7.9  17  42  480  220  0.65  0.89  bd  42  bd  15  bd  1  57  Blocky Quartz 2  Vein_Quartz_34  bd  3.3  bd  25  400  280  0.81  0.8  5  21  6.1  9.9  1.9  3.4  Vein_Quartz_35  bd  3.3  bd  27  330  170  0.16  0.19  bd  8.6  6  13  0.3  0.61  Vein_Quartz_36  bd  0.061  2.23  0.97  3.5  3.2  0.068  0.08  1.22  0.61  0.26  0.17  0.15  0.16  Vein_Quartz_37  bd  0.12  bd  0.87  8.9  5.7  bd  1  1.8  0.91  bd  0.4  bd  0.19  Vein_Quartz_38  bd  4.5  bd  14  210  120  bd  1  bd  12  bd  7.8  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_39  bd  3.4  bd  53  310  290  0.34  0.53  bd  27  9  12  1.6  3.2  Vein_Quartz_40  bd  1.2  bd  4.4  bd  7.5  0.44  0.46  bd  5.4  2.1  2.8  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_41  0.058  0.031  1.65  0.33  bd  0.81  0.0155  0.0092  0.96  0.14  0.124  0.072  0.027  0.031  Vein_Quartz_42  bd  4.8  bd  56  620  570  4  3.4  bd  22  12  12  3.7  6  Vein_Quartz_43  0.076  0.047  2.02  0.21  4.1  2  0.09  0.1  1.15  0.27  0.183  0.083  0.15  0.19  Vein_Quartz_44  bd  4  bd  33  50  120  1.3  1.3  bd  15  bd  12  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_45  bd  5.4  bd  33  220  180  1.6  1.5  38  34  3  14  3.7  5.8  Vein_Quartz_46  3  13  46  34  430  310  bd  1  19  24  18  21  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_47  bd  0.34  bd  2.3  33  14  0.041  0.057  2.6  1.3  bd  0.53  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_48  bd  4.3  bd  32  300  180  0.043  0.085  22  32  29  19  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_49  bd  5.4  bd  36  410  180  0.39  0.75  17  16  8.9  6.5  0.07  0.13  Vein_Quartz_50  bd  0.57  bd  3.2  bd  14  0.16  0.15  3  3.1  1  1  0.09  0.18  Vein_Quartz_51  0.36  0.37  bd  3  bd  10  0.1  0.11  3.6  1.8  bd  0.67  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_52  2  4.1  21  25  240  170  bd  1  13  17  4  13  bd  0.17  Vein_Quartz_53  1.9  3.4  bd  20  400  220  0.26  0.25  33  27  11  12  2.7  5.2  Vein_Quartz_54  bd  5.2  18  25  250  170  0.35  0.48  bd  13  5  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_55  2.5  4.3  bd  20  690  270  0.11  0.15  11  35  5.6  9.5  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_56  7.1  7.8  bd  33  680  250  1.4  2  bd  28  3.7  9.5  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_57  bd  3.7  bd  35  530  350  4.1  6.1  16  17  bd  8.8  49  79  Vein_Quartz_58  5.7  6.7  11  35  1020  380  0.13  0.19  21  28  bd  13  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_59  bd  4.6  bd  27  290  180  0.44  0.63  21  25  bd  10  0.37  0.49  Vein_Quartz_60  4  7  bd  46  460  270  bd  1  bd  30  7  14  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_61  bd  3  5  31  bd  140  0.078  0.093  bd  20  bd  8.3  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_62  bd  2.6  10  38  400  230  0.07  0.13  bd  18  11  12  bd  1  58  Border Quartz  Vein_Quartz_63  bd  3.5  bd  29  240  120  0.39  0.58  7  17  bd  8.1  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_64  bd  2.3  bd  16  90  93  0.36  0.43  bd  13  10  9.1  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_65  bd  5.6  bd  35  240  170  bd  1  12  29  15  16  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_66  bd  4.2  bd  27  230  160  0.2  0.21  bd  13  bd  6.5  0.31  0.51  Vein_Quartz_67  1.1  4.1  bd  33  370  160  0.006  0.013  25  24  5  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_68  2.2  5.3  bd  32  290  180  0.47  0.56  16  18  6  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_69  5.1  6.5  bd  36  390  210  0.27  0.31  9  26  2.4  9.9  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_70  bd  4.8  bd  35  500  380  0.32  0.4  30  40  11  13  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_71  bd  0.15  bd  0.92  5.4  6.3  0.077  0.04  4.2  1.2  0.35  0.33  0.0044  0.0089  Vein_Quartz_72  bd  0.39  bd  2.3  14  12  0.018  0.02  2.8  1.6  1.05  0.54  0.056  0.063  Vein_Quartz_73  1.3  3.7  bd  21  143  98  0.2  0.23  11  12  11.6  6.4  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_74  bd  3.9  bd  30  60  140  1.5  1.3  13  26  3.3  8.7  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_75  bd  3.8  bd  27  bd  100  0.086  0.093  24  27  9  12  0.66  0.96  Vein_Quartz_76  3.3  9.2  20  50  bd  200  3.2  2.8  35  40  bd  15  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_77  4.6  4.8  bd  31  20  120  1.2  1.5  35  23  bd  11  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_78  6  6.1  bd  54  130  160  0.17  0.19  100  110  12  23  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_79  bd  0.31  4.8  9.2  30  25  0.4  0.37  bd  1.8  bd  0.76  0.037  0.074  Vein_Quartz_80  3.5  6.2  bd  40  130  160  0.8  1.1  39  29  8  15  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_81  4.2  4.2  bd  29  bd  98  1.2  1.1  22  22  8.8  9.6  0.053  0.088  Vein_Quartz_82  3.2  5  15  49  bd  130  bd  1  22  42  bd  12  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_83  10.9  7.5  bd  35  50  120  0.35  0.59  21  21  bd  9.6  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_84  4.8  4.9  bd  28  11  60  0.044  0.047  14  20  11.7  9.3  0.24  0.34  Vein_Quartz_85  1.7  4  bd  35  90  110  0.044  0.062  bd  11  bd  6.9  0.036  0.073  Vein_Quartz_86  1.9  1.1  bd  8.4  bd  21  0.35  0.39  8.4  3.7  2.3  2.1  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_87  bd  1.5  bd  15  21  53  0.17  0.24  14  10  bd  4.2  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_88  bd  3.3  bd  26  80  120  0.31  0.62  15  19  7  12  0.07  0.14  Vein_Quartz_89  bd  4.1  bd  28  bd  94  2.8  2.2  bd  23  5.2  9.5  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_90  3.1  3.1  bd  27  100  120  0.75  0.67  bd  17  12  10  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_91  5.2  5.3  bd  44  60  150  0.62  0.71  21  34  19  15  0.046  0.093  59  Wallrock Quartz  Wallrock_1  bd  5.3  33  59  23  79  20.6  6.9  bd  30  34  17  2  2.9  Wallrock_2  13  10  5  27  81  50  9.9  4.4  15  15  11.7  7.9  54  27  Wallrock_3  bd  3.8  bd  33  23  48  14.2  5.9  bd  21  28  11  9.4  7.2  Wallrock_4  2.4  2.6  bd  8.3  bd  12  2.8  1.2  4.9  6.1  6.8  2.3  8.2  4.5  Wallrock_5  4.5  3.9  bd  32  150  130  3.7  1.7  bd  22  18.5  8.8  11  7.5  Wallrock_6  7.3  6.3  bd  9.6  24  24  4  2.4  bd  6  3  2.7  1.9  2.7  Wallrock_7  4.7  4.7  bd  30  225  99  2.9  1.6  bd  18  28  14  0.5  0.79  Wallrock_8  4.53  0.35  bd  0.27  105  22  1.5  0.2  0.99  0.27  3.23  0.26  1  0.22  Wallrock_9  8.1  6.3  bd  31  330  130  20  30  bd  30  32  14  0.53  0.9  Wallrock_10  bd  2.1  bd  12  bd  39  0.2  0.28  bd  9.5  12  7.3  bd  1  Wallrock_11  bd  3.4  bd  32  bd  66  1.7  1.3  bd  22  8  10  2.5  3.8  60  Table 5: Sample ‘NG4_Thin'. 'bd' = below detection limits.  Fibrous Quartz 2  Fibrous Quartz 1  Standards  Spot Label  Li7  Na23  Al27  K39  Ca43  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  G_NIST612_1  41.8  0.54  104120  880  11221  86  70.3  5.4  G_NIST612_2  42.39  0.51  103960  860  11104  92  71.8  5.7  G_NIST612_3  41.91  0.52  102800  1100  11170  110  64.9  G_NIST612_4  41.97  0.4  103800  1100  11130  78  G_NIST612_5  41.98  0.52  104250  970  11224  Vein_Quartz_1  bd  0.02  3.4  3.1  Vein_Quartz_2  0.465  0.091  9.3  Vein_Quartz_3  bd  0.016  Vein_Quartz_4  bd  Vein_Quartz_5  Ti47  Fe57  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  85200  940  43.6  1.2  50.5  2  84700  1000  44.1  1.2  52.5  1.8  2.1  85400  1200  45.4  1.4  49.7  2.1  65  1.9  84580  870  43.3  1.3  49.7  2.3  94  70.8  3.5  85270  860  43.9  1.5  52  2.2  17.3  2.8  5.6  1.1  86  51  2.36  0.55  3.8  1.8  1.9  35.9  8  9.4  1.6  35  26  1.98  0.5  bd  0.82  23.3  3.8  17.1  1  14  3.2  42  32  1.75  0.47  bd  0.9  0.028  6.3  1.5  13.3  1.8  5.8  1.4  42  31  1.52  0.43  bd  1.3  1.48  0.24  14160  560  18100  400  105.5  4.4  77  30  1.47  0.34  14.3  6.6  Vein_Quartz_6  0.16  0.055  7.6  2.2  17.9  4.7  1.8  1.2  16  37  2.01  0.37  bd  1.3  Vein_Quartz_7  0.72  0.16  2.8  1.4  14.4  1.1  bd  2  32  67  1.45  0.47  bd  1.5  Vein_Quartz_8  0.492  0.071  13.2  1.6  23.5  8  8  10  49  32  1.83  0.4  bd  1.4  Vein_Quartz_9  0.07  0.044  17.1  3.3  25.1  1.7  5  1.2  2  43  1.88  0.61  bd  1.5  Vein_Quartz_10  0.584  0.074  9.8  1.2  20.34  0.8  4.19  0.95  27  32  1.53  0.41  2  1.5  Vein_Quartz_11  0.046  0.029  9.2  2.5  11.7  1.8  4.7  1.6  32  50  1.84  0.52  3.3  3.1  Vein_Quartz_12  0.24  0.08  7.3  1.8  21.48  0.69  3.8  1.3  9  33  1.37  0.43  bd  1.5  Vein_Quartz_13  bd  0.02  8.6  1.2  14.63  0.64  3.41  0.76  bd  26  1.02  0.3  9.1  2.4  Vein_Quartz_14  0.581  0.076  28.4  2.7  28.8  1.4  6.27  0.97  bd  26  1.03  0.36  1.9  1.1  Vein_Quartz_15  1.87  0.41  17.7  2.3  55  11  7  1.5  bd  20  1.2  0.3  bd  1.1  Vein_Quartz_16  0.142  0.068  5.5  2.2  12.8  2.2  2.1  1.1  bd  29  1.55  0.5  3.6  3.2  Vein_Quartz_17  0.273  0.067  12.5  2.4  20.3  0.87  2.91  0.97  5  29  1.27  0.31  43  59  Vein_Quartz_18  bd  0.02  14.6  1.4  24.74  0.83  4.86  0.68  66  37  1.28  0.32  17.1  2.5  Vein_Quartz_19  0.067  0.028  10.3  2.1  15.65  0.82  2.5  1.4  43  24  1.22  0.34  bd  0.94  Vein_Quartz_20  1.47  0.31  17.7  2.4  37.5  5.6  5.3  1.7  27  28  1.57  0.42  bd  0.86  61  Blocky Quartz  Vein_Quartz_21  0.128  0.043  6.7  1.3  11.91  0.54  bd  1.1  64  43  1.08  0.32  bd  0.91  Vein_Quartz_22  0.189  0.056  11.2  2.9  15.7  7  bd  0.81  30  25  1.55  0.45  bd  0.94  Vein_Quartz_23  bd  0.018  15.5  2.8  13.4  1.2  3.33  0.95  66  28  1.25  0.32  4.1  5.3  Vein_Quartz_24  0.259  0.074  17.6  3.3  23.69  0.83  1.9  2.1  80  39  1.02  0.41  bd  1.7  Vein_Quartz_25  bd  0.052  22.5  3.3  20.63  0.76  4  1.9  38  51  1.07  0.44  bd  1.3  Vein_Quartz_26  0.093  0.033  28  1.6  25.1  1.2  6.1  1.2  13  29  1.15  0.37  bd  0.55  Vein_Quartz_27  0.11  0.047  7.6  1.3  17.86  0.69  bd  1  39  37  1.48  0.35  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_28  bd  0.012  7.2  1  9.8  1.9  2.4  4.6  31  33  1.05  0.28  20  25  Vein_Quartz_29  bd  0.022  4.14  0.79  7.76  0.98  bd  1.5  65  38  1.25  0.33  bd  0.83  Vein_Quartz_30  bd  0.025  5.3  1.7  10.99  0.55  bd  0.82  21  29  1.46  0.41  2.1  1.4  Vein_Quartz_31  0.53  0.15  7.6  2  36.9  5.6  4.5  1.2  49  30  1.37  0.32  bd  0.75  Vein_Quartz_32  bd  0.016  9.2  2.2  17.7  1.3  8.77  0.87  31  21  1.06  0.27  6.5  2  Vein_Quartz_33  bd  0.015  bd  0.89  7.58  0.8  bd  0.99  7  29  0.83  0.29  bd  1.1  Vein_Quartz_34  bd  0.019  29.6  3.1  11.26  0.42  5.07  0.79  36  24  1.25  0.29  bd  0.51  Vein_Quartz_35  0.183  0.041  8.16  0.99  19.98  0.73  5.44  0.96  34  33  1.22  0.35  bd  0.74  Vein_Quartz_36  0.049  0.019  30.8  4.6  10.89  0.5  5.7  0.97  27  17  1.24  0.24  bd  0.72  Vein_Quartz_37  0.03  0.02  6.34  0.73  15.74  0.83  bd  0.88  37  23  1.22  0.36  bd  0.81  Vein_Quartz_38  0.062  0.026  28.6  3.7  12.32  0.95  2.5  1  58  35  1.17  0.32  bd  0.79  Vein_Quartz_39  0.096  0.03  17.3  1.9  11.96  0.86  3.4  1.3  37  31  1.03  0.24  bd  0.94  Vein_Quartz_40  0.17  0.048  26.8  1.7  26.81  0.93  8.5  1.7  52  42  1.19  0.4  bd  0.95  Standards  Spot Label  Ga69  Ge72  As75  Sr88  Sn118  Sb121  Ba137  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  G_NIST612_1  36.1  0.35  34.55  0.68  36.5  1.6  78.5  1.1  38.2  0.77  37.42  0.56  40.03  0.82  G_NIST612_2  35.93  0.39  35.35  0.79  36.4  1.2  77.81  0.82  38.07  0.57  38.46  0.48  39  0.75  G_NIST612_3  35.9  0.55  35.34  0.62  38  1.2  79.03  0.91  37.47  0.65  38.14  0.58  40.05  0.79  G_NIST612_4  35.85  0.37  35.24  0.64  38.4  1.1  78.62  0.93  38.13  0.51  38.4  0.46  40.24  0.87  G_NIST612_5  36.16  0.38  34.54  0.66  35.89  0.97  78.06  0.97  38.07  0.6  37.5  0.47  39.35  0.84  62  Fibrous Quartz 1 Fibrous Quartz 2 Blocky Quartz  Vein_Quartz_1  0.219  0.042  1.23  0.24  bd  0.31  0.152  0.032  1.19  0.1  0.114  0.052  0.81  0.21  Vein_Quartz_2  0.157  0.045  1.18  0.27  bd  0.35  0.144  0.035  1.34  0.16  0.31  0.12  0.59  0.18  Vein_Quartz_3  0.114  0.031  0.83  0.23  0.73  0.5  0.229  0.055  1.38  0.16  0.398  0.099  0.53  0.18  Vein_Quartz_4  0.193  0.057  1.58  0.31  bd  0.44  0.079  0.032  1.37  0.11  0.175  0.079  1.95  0.54  Vein_Quartz_5  1.359  0.08  1.19  0.22  bd  0.25  16.2  1.7  1.5  0.14  0.376  0.078  5.56  0.43  Vein_Quartz_6  0.153  0.049  1.58  0.31  bd  0.33  0.08  0.051  1.43  0.15  0.19  0.056  0.094  0.078  Vein_Quartz_7  bd  0.045  1.69  0.47  bd  0.72  0.02  0.016  1.22  0.24  bd  0.064  bd  1  Vein_Quartz_8  0.104  0.041  1.42  0.23  bd  0.41  0.138  0.03  1.48  0.16  0.63  0.11  0.44  0.35  Vein_Quartz_9  0.217  0.094  0.93  0.29  bd  0.5  0.214  0.036  1.19  0.15  0.59  0.13  1.82  0.37  Vein_Quartz_10  0.095  0.037  2.26  0.3  bd  0.36  0.053  0.018  1.34  0.12  0.363  0.088  0.325  0.087  Vein_Quartz_11  bd  0.049  2.2  0.67  bd  0.45  0.42  0.21  1.29  0.27  0.61  0.14  0.21  0.12  Vein_Quartz_12  0.097  0.049  2.7  0.32  bd  0.33  0.092  0.021  1.15  0.14  0.58  0.12  0.5  0.2  Vein_Quartz_13  0.215  0.058  2.11  0.29  bd  0.34  0.099  0.032  0.91  0.14  0.206  0.062  2.05  0.31  Vein_Quartz_14  0.27  0.056  2.13  0.23  bd  0.28  0.401  0.053  1.27  0.1  0.487  0.088  2.61  0.36  Vein_Quartz_15  0.177  0.04  2.58  0.26  bd  0.25  0.237  0.037  1.1  0.12  1.3  0.23  1.33  0.25  Vein_Quartz_16  0.139  0.048  1.72  0.34  bd  0.31  0.105  0.044  1.23  0.21  bd  0.059  0.77  0.3  Vein_Quartz_17  0.174  0.043  1.92  0.29  bd  0.35  0.237  0.039  1.3  0.15  0.23  0.063  1.12  0.27  Vein_Quartz_18  0.575  0.084  2.19  0.31  bd  0.25  0.36  0.069  1.08  0.14  0.246  0.072  5.87  0.58  Vein_Quartz_19  0.162  0.038  2.03  0.23  bd  0.17  0.39  0.11  1.17  0.14  0.131  0.059  0.54  0.13  Vein_Quartz_20  0.171  0.044  1.47  0.28  bd  0.29  0.382  0.06  0.88  0.13  0.324  0.071  1.18  0.23  Vein_Quartz_21  0.093  0.035  2.13  0.23  bd  0.33  0.041  0.015  1.31  0.18  bd  0.05  0.13  0.067  Vein_Quartz_22  0.135  0.043  1.93  0.25  bd  0.24  0.157  0.03  1.36  0.14  0.31  0.064  0.49  0.18  Vein_Quartz_23  0.174  0.043  2.06  0.3  bd  0.25  0.228  0.093  1.36  0.12  0.366  0.067  1.01  0.22  Vein_Quartz_24  0.206  0.056  2.2  0.37  bd  0.43  0.169  0.042  1.09  0.14  0.58  0.13  1.63  0.27  Vein_Quartz_25  0.187  0.063  2.16  0.35  bd  0.69  0.219  0.04  1.31  0.21  2.14  0.24  1.77  0.45  Vein_Quartz_26  0.227  0.068  1.85  0.29  bd  0.27  0.401  0.072  1.19  0.18  0.439  0.083  2.19  0.32  Vein_Quartz_27  0.179  0.057  2.08  0.4  bd  0.33  0.115  0.032  1.15  0.13  0.205  0.071  1.63  0.32  Vein_Quartz_28  0.115  0.032  1.39  0.18  bd  0.22  0.054  0.017  1.22  0.092  0.338  0.067  0.45  0.12  63  Vein_Quartz_29  0.088  0.032  2.19  0.3  bd  0.27  0.041  0.017  1.49  0.19  0.081  0.047  0.259  0.09  Vein_Quartz_30  0.128  0.047  1.7  0.26  bd  0.26  0.079  0.024  1.32  0.14  0.267  0.065  0.36  0.11  Vein_Quartz_31  0.157  0.04  2.22  0.23  bd  0.22  0.067  0.021  1.85  0.19  0.303  0.057  0.81  0.29  Vein_Quartz_32  0.17  0.039  1.78  0.18  bd  0.22  0.221  0.04  1.17  0.12  0.755  0.086  0.577  0.093  Vein_Quartz_33  0.224  0.051  2.37  0.24  bd  0.3  0.016  0.0088  1.62  0.15  bd  0.035  1.42  0.28  Vein_Quartz_34  0.129  0.033  2.41  0.25  bd  0.19  0.301  0.046  1.7  0.18  0.432  0.062  0.46  0.11  Vein_Quartz_35  0.123  0.029  1.76  0.27  bd  0.2  0.094  0.024  1.3  0.14  0.536  0.083  0.182  0.074  Vein_Quartz_36  0.112  0.034  1.47  0.18  bd  0.28  0.077  0.019  1  0.12  0.324  0.05  0.414  0.095  Vein_Quartz_37  0.163  0.036  1.36  0.28  bd  0.18  0.265  0.034  1.43  0.16  0.529  0.089  1.23  0.15  Vein_Quartz_38  0.17  0.043  1.3  0.25  bd  0.31  0.135  0.028  1.3  0.19  0.581  0.094  0.71  0.22  Vein_Quartz_39  0.2  0.054  1.86  0.24  bd  0.27  0.48  0.12  1.12  0.16  0.299  0.069  0.7  0.13  Vein_Quartz_40  0.234  0.047  1.95  0.25  1  0.3  0.724  0.071  1.29  0.18  2.55  0.2  1.11  0.19  64  Table 6: Sample 'SH3_Thick'. 'bd' = below detection limits.  Fibrous Quartz  Blocky Quartz 1  Standards  Sample Number  Li7  Na23  Al27  K39  Ca43  Ti47  Fe57  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  G_NIST612_1  42.03  0.36  104110  570  11222  53  66.4  2.4  85110  640  43.3  1.2  52.5  2.3  G_NIST612_2  42.08  0.42  103790  690  11097  63  65.7  3.2  84730  780  45  1.4  49.5  1.8  G_NIST612_3  41.75  0.4  103400  740  11096  66  68.2  4.2  85060  860  44.3  1.2  51.5  1.6  G_NIST612_4  42.21  0.46  103590  560  11205  67  65.8  2.3  85120  920  44.1  1.3  50.7  1.9  G_NIST612_5  41.99  0.52  104670  870  11201  76  66.5  2.8  84980  900  43.4  1.5  51.4  2.2  Quartz_Vein_1  0.675  0.077  bd  0.81  26  1.2  3.6  0.92  bd  32  1.51  0.36  bd  2.2  Quartz_Vein_2  2.79  0.18  4.11  0.86  35.96  0.9  3.9  0.84  bd  30  1.96  0.38  bd  0.72  Quartz_Vein_3  1.06  0.11  3.36  0.53  37.92  0.85  4.95  0.87  bd  26  1.92  0.44  bd  0.8  Quartz_Vein_4  bd  0.017  bd  0.92  5.35  0.27  1.8  1.1  bd  30  1.88  0.36  bd  1.2  Quartz_Vein_5  0.3  0.054  2.37  0.94  19.64  0.75  bd  0.99  bd  43  1.46  0.36  bd  0.95  Quartz_Vein_6  0.146  0.092  6.9  2.7  11.06  0.8  bd  0.98  bd  28  1.5  0.34  bd  1.1  Quartz_Vein_7  bd  0.026  bd  1.1  5.44  0.34  bd  1.3  bd  46  1.41  0.42  bd  1.3  Quartz_Vein_8  0.058  0.022  2.86  0.78  5.84  0.37  1.44  0.86  bd  24  1.53  0.37  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_9  5.03  0.18  2.42  0.54  36.4  1  bd  0.69  bd  21  1.82  0.27  bd  0.47  Quartz_Vein_10  1.5  0.1  2.33  0.81  33.89  0.82  bd  0.9  bd  26  1.8  0.37  bd  0.84  Quartz_Vein_11  0.277  0.05  10.4  1.6  9.89  0.48  5.2  1.1  bd  20  1.51  0.34  bd  0.82  Quartz_Vein_12  0.915  0.096  3.24  0.76  26.96  0.84  4.2  1.2  bd  26  1.7  0.35  bd  1.6  Quartz_Vein_13  0.526  0.063  bd  0.67  6.81  0.42  bd  0.78  bd  24  1.32  0.26  bd  0.74  Quartz_Vein_14  0.054  0.026  3.73  0.75  8.81  0.66  2.7  1.5  bd  36  1.26  0.46  bd  1.2  Quartz_Vein_15  1.4  0.14  5.9  1.3  21.11  0.53  bd  0.86  bd  30  1.31  0.26  bd  0.74  Quartz_Vein_16  0.297  0.066  bd  0.78  11.01  0.94  bd  0.85  bd  31  1.54  0.34  bd  0.73  Quartz_Vein_17  0.148  0.04  8.9  2.5  32.8  4.4  10.8  2.3  bd  33  1.81  0.38  36  19  Quartz_Vein_18  0.678  0.06  11.2  1.6  30.67  0.61  3.86  0.81  bd  22  1.39  0.31  bd  0.65  Quartz_Vein_19  0.18  0.04  9.1  1  21.2  0.82  4.12  0.93  bd  24  1.47  0.38  9  2.8  Quartz_Vein_20  0.729  0.084  bd  1.2  26.59  0.99  bd  0.83  bd  28  1.36  0.33  bd  1  65  Blocky Quartz 2 Border  Quartz_Vein_21  1.56  0.22  bd  1.8  24.39  0.84  4.1  1.1  bd  25  1.44  0.31  bd  0.88  Quartz_Vein_22  bd  0.014  bd  1.4  3.65  0.31  3.01  0.87  bd  32  1.59  0.41  bd  1.6  Quartz_Vein_23  0.473  0.086  bd  1.6  8.95  0.44  2.3  1  bd  36  1.42  0.37  bd  0.89  Quartz_Vein_24  0.398  0.059  bd  0.64  19.78  0.55  3.65  0.93  bd  23  1.5  0.31  bd  0.72  Quartz_Vein_25  0.561  0.084  bd  0.83  16.16  0.55  2.7  1  bd  21  1.42  0.45  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_26  0.563  0.067  bd  1.1  4.48  0.33  bd  0.89  bd  27  1.11  0.32  bd  0.91  Quartz_Vein_27  0.191  0.044  2  1  4.35  0.21  2  1.1  bd  30  1.43  0.36  bd  0.8  Quartz_Vein_28  1.45  0.11  4.8  1  29  1  2.53  0.88  bd  25  1.5  0.31  bd  0.7  Quartz_Vein_29  0.62  0.13  10  2  10.72  0.57  bd  1.2  bd  41  1.61  0.49  bd  1.2  Quartz_Vein_30  bd  0.031  bd  1.1  4.4  0.3  bd  1.1  bd  39  1.76  0.42  bd  0.97  Quartz_Vein_31  2.18  0.42  24.9  5.1  15.6  1.5  4  1.4  bd  25  1.57  0.35  bd  0.83  Quartz_Vein_32  2.02  0.11  bd  0.82  25.24  0.74  bd  0.54  bd  28  1.47  0.28  bd  0.62  Quartz_Vein_33  1.6  0.17  bd  1.2  24.31  0.79  3.14  0.99  bd  38  1.34  0.38  bd  0.93  Quartz_Vein_34  0.286  0.072  bd  0.92  7.11  0.39  2.21  0.92  bd  25  1.35  0.38  bd  0.7  Quartz_Vein_35  0.425  0.083  9.3  1.6  6.82  0.35  bd  1.5  bd  50  1.02  0.44  bd  2.3  Quartz_Vein_36  0.233  0.065  6.2  1.4  13.6  1.3  4.2  1.8  bd  54  0.96  0.42  bd  1.5  Quartz_Vein_37  bd  0.028  bd  1.1  3.67  0.37  bd  0.98  bd  35  0.72  0.31  bd  2.1  Quartz_Vein_38  0.575  0.095  6.88  0.88  14.54  0.89  bd  1.3  bd  34  1.35  0.47  bd  0.83  Quartz_Vein_39  0.163  0.071  31.3  4.3  12.79  0.69  8.9  1.9  bd  50  0.89  0.42  bd  1.7  Quartz_Vein_40  0.091  0.048  9.6  2.2  3.86  0.3  bd  1.3  bd  34  0.67  0.36  bd  0.96  Quartz_Vein_41  0.064  0.025  bd  1.1  7.74  0.34  bd  1.5  bd  36  1.86  0.59  bd  0.88  Standards  Sample Number  Ga69  Ge72  As75  Sr88  Sn118  Sb121  Ba137  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  (ppm)  2SE (ppm)  G_NIST612_1  35.89  0.41  34.84  0.47  35.7  1.2  78.14  0.64  37.96  0.4  37.5  0.51  39.45  0.87  G_NIST612_2  36.02  0.31  35.03  0.6  38  1.2  78.42  0.76  38.03  0.47  38.52  0.6  39.83  0.76  G_NIST612_3  36.16  0.38  35.64  0.6  37.89  0.94  79.25  0.72  38.08  0.51  38.65  0.48  39.79  0.82  G_NIST612_4  35.96  0.35  34.64  0.67  37.49  0.9  78.01  0.66  38.01  0.52  37.74  0.46  39.91  0.72  G_NIST612_5  35.94  0.42  34.88  0.59  36.22  0.79  78.3  0.78  37.92  0.62  37.82  0.43  39.43  0.8  66  Blocky Quartz 1 Fibrous Quartz Blocky Quartz 2  Quartz_Vein_1  0.136  0.047  1.58  0.22  bd  0.34  0.0108  0.0078  1.179  0.097  bd  0.032  0.024  0.034  Quartz_Vein_2  0.109  0.037  1.71  0.28  bd  0.31  0.0203  0.0087  1.71  0.18  0.214  0.056  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_3  0.094  0.03  1.74  0.31  bd  0.35  0.001  0.0019  1.07  0.12  0.224  0.064  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_4  0.088  0.028  1.44  0.21  1.14  0.56  0.0017  0.0024  0.98  0.17  bd  0.033  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_5  0.1  0.045  1.63  0.23  bd  0.42  0.0024  0.0033  1.48  0.21  bd  0.043  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_6  0.142  0.044  1.93  0.24  bd  0.4  0.096  0.042  1.32  0.16  0.16  0.063  0.92  0.17  Quartz_Vein_7  bd  0.034  1.13  0.33  bd  0.33  bd  1  0.84  0.15  bd  0.042  0.022  0.031  Quartz_Vein_8  0.081  0.036  1.47  0.27  bd  0.38  0.071  0.017  1.25  0.16  bd  0.025  0.089  0.045  Quartz_Vein_9  0.059  0.025  1.92  0.23  bd  0.2  0.0005  0.0011  0.989  0.095  0.28  0.042  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_10  bd  0.03  1.43  0.26  bd  0.3  0.0033  0.0031  1.23  0.14  0.281  0.074  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_11  0.127  0.034  1.4  0.21  1.48  0.46  0.179  0.03  1.16  0.12  0.122  0.046  0.366  0.096  Quartz_Vein_12  bd  0.02  1.89  0.31  bd  0.32  0.026  0.01  1.29  0.14  0.122  0.06  0.064  0.047  Quartz_Vein_13  0.089  0.031  1.5  0.23  bd  0.26  0.0028  0.0033  1.28  0.17  bd  0.032  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_14  bd  0.038  1.28  0.24  bd  0.33  0.034  0.015  1.79  0.25  bd  0.059  0.025  0.027  Quartz_Vein_15  0.089  0.03  1.83  0.29  bd  0.29  0.033  0.013  1.71  0.17  bd  0.048  0.0046  0.0091  Quartz_Vein_16  0.095  0.03  1.44  0.19  bd  0.28  0.002  0.0022  1.56  0.17  bd  0.03  0.0031  0.0061  Quartz_Vein_17  0.153  0.042  1.51  0.3  1.77  0.97  0.34  0.14  1.79  0.2  0.6  0.13  0.74  0.23  Quartz_Vein_18  0.098  0.025  1.79  0.21  bd  0.23  0.053  0.015  1.39  0.14  0.162  0.052  0.317  0.088  Quartz_Vein_19  0.076  0.028  1.74  0.24  1.6  0.63  0.12  0.029  1.79  0.15  0.191  0.056  0.222  0.073  Quartz_Vein_20  bd  0.032  2.07  0.29  bd  0.29  0.0142  0.0083  1.67  0.17  bd  0.043  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_21  0.085  0.038  1.55  0.38  bd  0.3  0.0103  0.0075  1.71  0.14  bd  0.052  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_22  0.075  0.035  1.09  0.21  bd  0.34  bd  0.0034  1.44  0.13  bd  0.04  0.015  0.022  Quartz_Vein_23  0.077  0.042  1.38  0.31  1.8  1.2  0.107  0.026  1.42  0.16  bd  0.056  0.066  0.05  Quartz_Vein_24  bd  0.026  1.8  0.23  bd  0.25  0.0124  0.0076  1.82  0.18  bd  0.035  0.009  0.013  Quartz_Vein_25  0.079  0.037  1.57  0.21  bd  0.29  bd  1  1.63  0.16  bd  0.04  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_26  bd  0.032  1.2  0.22  bd  0.21  bd  1  1.57  0.19  bd  0.031  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_27  bd  0.027  1.52  0.18  bd  0.3  bd  1  1.43  0.19  bd  0.048  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_28  bd  0.035  1.45  0.26  bd  0.17  0.074  0.019  1.43  0.15  bd  0.038  0.102  0.044  Quartz_Vein_29  bd  0.038  1.53  0.35  bd  0.34  0.021  0.015  1.49  0.23  bd  0.035  0.01  0.019  67  Border  Quartz_Vein_30  bd  0.029  1.55  0.29  bd  0.28  bd  1  1.78  0.15  bd  0.038  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_31  bd  0.032  1.94  0.23  1.27  0.32  0.06  0.023  1.46  0.13  bd  0.033  0.11  0.051  Quartz_Vein_32  bd  0.019  1.97  0.24  0.44  0.2  0.0058  0.0042  1.47  0.12  bd  0.031  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_33  bd  0.031  1.75  0.32  bd  0.31  0.0087  0.0068  1.54  0.15  0.114  0.051  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_34  0.08  0.033  1.37  0.28  bd  0.3  0.0009  0.0018  1.53  0.14  bd  0.035  0.009  0.013  Quartz_Vein_35  0.097  0.045  1.31  0.29  bd  0.46  0.0057  0.0088  1.63  0.22  0.163  0.057  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_36  0.135  0.075  1.27  0.35  bd  0.27  0.0066  0.0095  1.57  0.22  bd  0.053  0.053  0.048  Quartz_Vein_37  0.064  0.04  1.56  0.26  bd  0.43  bd  1  1.61  0.21  bd  0.051  bd  1  Quartz_Vein_38  0.091  0.032  1.3  0.25  bd  0.3  0.134  0.031  1.51  0.19  bd  0.053  0.012  0.017  Quartz_Vein_39  0.129  0.039  0.84  0.27  1.01  0.39  0.295  0.056  1.87  0.2  0.293  0.081  0.57  0.21  Quartz_Vein_40  bd  0.04  1.31  0.31  bd  0.37  0.019  0.014  2  0.2  bd  0.045  0.01  0.019  Quartz_Vein_41  bd  0.032  1.41  0.28  bd  0.25  0.002  0.0028  1.77  0.18  bd  0.051  0.007  0.015  68  

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