Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

The effect of ethnicity on visual language discrimination Lin, Cathy 2009

Item Metadata

Download

Media
CathyProject.ppt [ 3.93MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0081271.json
JSON-LD: 1.0081271+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0081271.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0081271+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0081271+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0081271+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0081271 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0081271.txt
Citation
1.0081271.ris

Full Text

The effect ofEthnicity  on Visual Language DiscriminationCathy Lin4th year directed study student inPsychology and Linguistics With Drs. Janet Werker and Whitney WeikumDefinitionVisual language discriminationdiscriminate languages using visual information alone, without any auditory informationIntroductionTaiwanMalaysiaOfficial language: MandarinDialects:Min-nanHakkaIntroductionOther languages:MalayHindiEnglishOther Ethnicities:MalayIndianCaucasiansWhy?When learning languages, we are not only exposed to auditory information, but also visual cuesLip and jaw movementFacial features!Infants are sensitive to visual cues (Weikum et al, 2007, Patterson and Werker 1999;2003)Infants are also sensitive to facial racial cues (Kelly et al. 2005)Interested in knowing if exposure to faces of other race when young helps shape language-processing system Previous StudiesOther-race effect (ORE): monolinguals prefer faces of their own ethnic group over those of other ethnic groupsStrong, sustainable ORE emerges at 6 months old. (Kelly et al., 2007)ORE can be applied to faces of nonhuman primate (Pascalis et al., 2005) and natural languages (Kinzler et al., 2007) too.Previous StudiesBilingual French-English infants at 6 and 8 months can perform visual language discrimination (Weikum et al., 2007)Monolingual English infants can only discriminate at 6 monthsExperience with multiple languages since birth sustains ability in visual language discrimination. Research QuestionPrevious study used Western languages and speakers of European descent. We used English and Mandarin as the test stimuliThis study we incorporated speaker’s ethnicity as a variable to examine its effect on visual language discrimination.Research QuestionCan similar results be replicated when using English and Mandarin as the test stimuli?Does speaker’s ethnicity interact with infants’ ability to attend to the linguistic information on silent talking faces?MethodsParticipants: 6-month-oldethnic-Chinese Mandarin monolingualsethnic-European English monolingualsTest stimuli:Silent video clips of 3 ethnic-Chinese bilingual Mandarin-English female speakers reciting sentences in English and MandarinMethods: Test StimuliSpeaker 1Speaker 2Speaker 3MethodsBilingual/Ethnicities QuestionnaireHabituation Paradigm2 phasesHabituation phaseTesting phaseMethodsHabituation ParadigmPresentationHabituation PhaseTesting PhaseMethodsBilingual/Ethnicities QuestionnaireHabituation Paradigm60% criterion (40 % decrease)4 conditionsMethodsPredictionsA.  General prediction                                                         >Infants discriminate changes if habituated to nonpreferred stimuli and test with preferred stimuli (McCartney & Panneton, 2005).B.   Ethnic-Chinese Mandarin monolinguals   Predictionsc. Ethnic-European English monolingualsPreliminary-resultsRight now, have run 7 Chinese monolingualsAll in experimental conditionAll are Chinese monolinguals, with minimal contact with English and Ethnic-European facesAll show recovery in looking time at testing phase    (p=0.003)DiscussionFor ethnic-Chinese Mandarin monolinguals, both the faces of the speakers and one of the languages are familiar But for ethnic-European English monolinguals, only one of the languages is familiarIn the future, it will be interesting to look at how the infants respond to ethnic-European Mandarin-English bilingual speakersReferencesKelly, D., Quinn, P., Slater, A., Lee, K., Ge, L., & Pascalis, O. (2007). The other-race effect develops during infancy: Evidence of perceptual narrowing. Psychological Science, 18(12), 1084-1089. Kinzler, K.D., Dupoux, E., & Spelke, E.S. (2007). The native language of social cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 12577-12580.McCartney, J., & Panneton, R. (2005). Four-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Voice Changes in Multimodal Displays as a Function of Discrimination Protocol. Infancy, 7(2), 163-182.Pascalis, O., Scott, L., Kelly, D., Shannon, R., Nicholson, E., Coleman, M., et al. (2005, April). Plasticity of face processing in infancy. PNAS Proceedings of the    National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(14),5297-5300.Patterson, M., & Werker, J. (1999). Matching phonetic information in lips and voice is robust in 4.5-month-old infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 22(2), 237-247.Patterson, M., & Werker, J. (2003). Two-month-old infants match phonetic information in lips and voice. Developmental Science, 6(2), 191-196.Weikum, W., Vouloumanos, A., Navarra, J., Soto-Faraco, S., Sebastián-Gallés, N., & Werker, J. (2007). Visual language discrimination in infancy. Science, 316(5828), 1159-1159.Thank youQuestions? 12/ 10/ 09  Th e e f f e c t o f Et h n i c i t y o n Vi s u a l La n g u a g e Di s c r i mi n a t i o n Ca t h y Li n 4 t h y e a r d i r e c t e d s t udy s t ude nt i n Ps y c h o l o g y a nd Li ngui s t i c s Wi t h Dr s . J a n e t We r k e r a n d Wh i t n e y We i k u m  Cl i c k t o e di t Ma s t e r s ubt i t l e s t yl e    Vi s u a l l a n g u a ge di s c r i mi na t i on  di  s c r i mi na t e l a n g u a g e s u s i n g v i s u a l i nf or ma t i on a l o n e , wi t h o u t a n y a u d i t o r y i nf or ma t i on  12/ 10/ 09  De f i ni t i on  12/ 10/ 09  I nt r oduc t i on  Ta i w an  Ma l a y si a  Of f i c i a l l a ngua ge : Ma nda r i n Di a l e c t s : Mi n- na n Ha kka  12/ 10/ 09  I nt r oduc t i on  Ot he r l a ngua ge s : Ma l a y Hi ndi Engl i s h Ot he r Et hni c i t i e s : Ma l a y I ndi a n Ca uc a s i a ns      Wh e n l e a r n i n g l a ngua ge s , we a r e not o n l y e x p o s e d t o a udi t or y i nf or ma t i on, b u t a l s o v i s u a l c ue s   Li p a n d j a w mo v e me n t    Fa c i a l f e a t u r e s !  I n f a n t s a r e s e ns i t i ve t o vi s ua l c ue s ( We i kum e t a l , 2 0 0 7 , Pa t t e r s o n a n d We r k e r 1999; 20 0 3 )    I n f a n t s a r e a l s o s e ns i t i ve t o f a c i a l r a c i a l c u e s ( Ke l l y e t a l . 2 0 0 5 )  12/ 10/ 09  Why?    Ot h e r - r a c e e f f e c t ( ORE) : monol i ngua l s p r e f e r f a c e s of t he i r own e t hni c gr oup o v e r t h o s e o f ot he r e t hni c gr oups    St r o n g , s u s t a i na bl e ORE e me r ge s a t 6 mo n t h s o l d . ( Ke l l y e t a l . , 2 0 0 7 )    ORE c a n b e a p pl i e d t o f a c e s of n o n h u ma n p r i ma t e ( Pa s c a l i s e t a l . , 2 0 0 5 ) a n d n a t u r a l l a ngua ge s ( Ki n z l e r e t a l . , 2007) t o o .  12/ 10/ 09  Pr e vi ous St udi e s    Bi l i n g u a l Fr e nc h- Engl i s h i nf a nt s a t 6 a n d 8 mo n t h s c a n pe r f or m vi s ua l l a n g u a g e d i s c r i mi na t i on ( We i k u m e t a l . , 2007)  Mo n o l  i n g u a l Engl i s h i nf a nt s c a n onl y d i s c r i mi n a t e a t 6 mont hs    Ex p e r i e n c e wi t h mul t i pl e l a ngua ge s s i n c e b i r t h s us t a i ns a bi l i t y i n vi s ua l l a n g u a g e d i s c r i mi na t i on.  12/ 10/ 09  Pr e vi ous St udi e s    Pr e v i o u s s t u d y us e d We s t e r n l a ngua ge s a n d s p e a k e r s of Eur ope a n de s c e nt .    We u s e d En g l i s h a nd Ma nda r i n a s t he t e s t s t i mu l i    Th i s s t u d y we i nc or por a t e d s pe a ke r ’ s e t h n i c i t y a s a va r i a bl e t o e xa mi ne i t s e f f e c t o n v i s ua l l a ngua ge d i s c r i mi n a t i o n.  12/ 10/ 09  Re s e a r c h Que s t i on    Ca n s i mi l a r r e s ul t s be r e pl i c a t e d whe n u s i n g En g l i s h a nd Ma nda r i n a s t he t e s t s t i mu l i ?    Do e s s p e a k e r ’ s e t hni c i t y i nt e r a c t wi t h i n f a n t s ’ a b i l i t y t o a t t e nd t o t he l i n g u i s t i c i n f or ma t i on on s i l e nt t a l ki ng f a c e s ?  12/ 10/ 09  Re s e a r c h Que s t i on      Pa r t i c i p a n t s : 6- mont h- ol d •  e t h n i c - Ch i n e s e Ma nda r i n monol i ngua l s  •  e t h n i c - Eu r o pe a n Engl i s h monol i ngua l s  Te s t s t i mu l i : •  Si l e n t v i d e o c l i ps of 3 e t hni c Ch i n e s e b i l i ngua l Ma nda r i n- Engl i s h f e ma l e s p e a ke r s •  r e c i t i n g s e n t e n c e s i n En g l i s h a n d Ma n d a r i n  12/ 10/ 09  Me t hods    Sp e a k e r 1    Sp e a k e r 2    Sp e a k e r 3  12/ 10/ 09  Me t hods : Te s t St i mul i    Bi l i n g u a l / Et h ni c i t i e s Que s t i onna i r e    Ha b i t u a t i o n Pa r a di gm 2  p ha s e s    Ha b i t u a t i o n p h a s e    Te s t i n g p h a s e  12/ 10/ 09  Me t hods  12/ 10/ 09  Me t hods Ha bi t ua t i on Pa r a di gm  Ha b i t ua t i on Te s t i ng Ph a s e Pr e s e ntPha at s e  12/ 10/ 09  Me t hods   Bi l i n g u a l / Et h ni c i t i e s Que s t i onna i r e    Ha b i t u a t i o n Pa r a di gm  60% 4  c r i t e r i on ( 4 0 % d e c r e a s e )  c ondi t i ons  Ha b i t u a t i o n Ph a s e  Te s t i ng Pha s e  Pa r t i c i pa n ts #  Ma n d a r i n  Ma n d a r i n  16  Ma n d a r i n  En g l i s h  16  En g l i s h  En g l i s h  16  Ma n d a r i n  16  En g l i s h  12/ 10/ 09  Me t hods Ha b i t  Te s t  Pa r t i c i p a n ts #  Ma n d a r in Ma n d a r in En g l i s h En g l i s  Ma n d a rin En g l i sh En g l i sh Ma n d a  Et hni c Eur ope a n Engl i s h  16  Et hni c Chi ne s e Ma nda r i n 8 ( ?)  16  8  8  16  8 ( ?)  8  16  8  8  8  12/ 10/ 09  Pr e di c t i ons A.  Ge ne r a l Etp rh en idci -c t i on  Ch i n e s e Ma n d a r i n mo n o l i n g u a ls B.    Et h n i c Eu r o p e a n En g l i s h mo n o l i n g u a ls  I nf a nt s di s c r i mi n a t e c ha nge s i f h a b i t u a t e d t o nonpr e f e r r e d s t i mu l i a nd t e s t wi t h p r e f e r r e d s t i mul i ( Mc Ca r t ne y & Pa n n e t o n , 2 0 0 5) .  Et h n i c - Ch i n e s e Ma n d a r i n mo n o l i n g u a l s  Ha b i t u a t i on Ph a s e Ma n d a r i n En g l i s h  Te s t i ng Pha s e Engl i s h Ma nda r i n  12/ 10/ 09  Pr e di c t i ons c . Et hn i c - Eu r o pe a n Engl i s h monol i ngua l s Ha b i t u a t i o n Ph a s e Ma n d a r i n En g l i s h  Te s t i ng Pha s e Engl i s h Ma nda r i n    Ri g h t n o w, h a ve r un 7 Chi ne s e mo n o l i n g u a l s  Al  l i n e xpe r i me n t a l c o n d i t i o n   Al  l a r e Chi ne s e mo n o l i n g u a l s , wi t h mi ni ma l c ont a c t wi t h En g l i s h a n d Et h n i c Eur ope a n f a c e s   Al  l s how r e c o v e r y i n l o o k i n g t i me a t t e s t i ng pha s e ( p=0. 003)  12/ 10/ 09  Pr e l i mi na r y- r e s ul t s    Fo r e t h n i c - Ch i ne s e Ma nda r i n mo n o l i n g u a l s , bot h t he f a c e s of t he s p e a k e r s a n d one of t he l a ngua ge s a r e f a mi l i a r    Bu t f o r e t h n i c - Eur ope a n Engl i s h mo n o l i n g u a l s , onl y one of t he l a n g u a g e s i s f a mi l i a r    I n t h e f u t u r e , i t wi l l be i nt e r e s t i ng t o l o o k a t h o w t he i nf a nt s r e s pond t o e t h n i c - Eu r o p e a n Ma nda r i n- Engl i s h  12/ 10/ 09  Di s c us s i on  Ke l l y, Pa s c a l i du r i ng Ps y c hol  D. , Qu i n n , P. , Sl a t e r , A. , Le e , K. , Ge , L. , & s , O. ( 2 0 0 7 ) . Th e o t h e r - r a c e e f f e c t de ve l ops i n f a n c y : Ev i d e n c e o f p e r c e p t u a l n a r r owi ng. ogi c al Sc i e nc e , 18( 12) , 1084- 1089.  Ki nz l e r , K. D. , Du p o u x , E. , & Sp e l k e , E. S. ( 2007) . The na t i ve l a n g u a g e o f s o c i a l c o g n i t i o n . Pr o c e e di ngs of t h e Nat i o n a l Ac a d e my o f S c i e n c e s , 1 0 4, 1 2 5 7 7- 12580. Mc Ca r t ne y , J . , Ol ds ' Di s c r i mi Di s pl a ys a s a I n f anc y , 7( 2 ) ,  & Pa n n e t o n , R. ( 2 0 0 5 ) . Fo u r - Mont hn a t i o n o f Vo i c e Ch a n g e s i n Mu l t i moda l Fu n c t i o n o f Di s c r i mi n a t i o n Pr ot oc ol . 163- 182.  Pa s c a l i s , O. , Sc o t t , L. , Ke l l y , D. , Sh a n n o n , R. , Ni c hol s on , E. , Co l e ma n , M. , e t a l . ( 2 0 0 5 , Apr i l ) . Pl a s t i c i t y o f f a c e p r o c e s s i n g i n i n f a n c y . PNAS Pr oc e e di n g s o f t h e Na t i o n a l Ac a d e my o f S c i e nc e s of t h e Uni t e d S t a t e s o f Ame r i c a, 1 0 2( 1 4 ) , 5 2 9 7 - 5300.  12/ 10/ 09  Re f e r e nc e s  12/ 10/ 09  Pa t t e r s o n , M. , & We r k e r , J . ( 2 0 0 3 ) . Two - mo n t h- ol d i n f a nt s ma t c h p h o n e t i c i n f o r ma t i o n i n l i p s a nd voi c e . De v e l opme n t a l S c i e n c e , 6 ( 2 ) , 1 9 1 - 1 9 6 .  We i kum, Fa r a c o, ( 2 007) . Sc i e nc e ,  W. , Vo u l o u ma n o s , A. , Na v a r r a , J . , Sot oS. , Se b a s t i á n - Ga l l é s , N. , & We r k e r , J . Vi s u a l l a n g u a g e d i s c r i mi n a t i o n i n i nf a nc y. 3 1 6( 5 8 2 8 ) , 1 1 5 9 - 1 1 5 9 .  12/ 10/ 09  Tha nk you  Qu e s t i o n s ?  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 1 0
City Views Downloads
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.42446.1-0081271/manifest

Comment

Related Items