UBC Undergraduate Research

How decisions are being made : methods in selecting adaptation actions 2012

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
Potter_Samantha_GEOG_419_2012.pdf
Potter_Samantha_GEOG_419_2012.pdf [ 427.32kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0103542.json
JSON-LD: 1.0103542+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0103542.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0103542+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0103542+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0103542+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0103542.ris

Full Text

	
   1	
   	
  	
   	
   Samantha	
  Potter:	
  Student	
  of	
  Geography	
  419	
  Research	
  in	
  Environmental	
  Geography	
  -­‐	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   Jenny	
  Fraser:	
  	
  Climate	
  Change	
  Adaptation	
  Specialist	
  -­‐	
  BC	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Environment	
  	
   How	
  Decisions	
  Are	
  Being	
  Made:	
  Methods	
   in	
  Selecting	
  Adaptation	
  Actions	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Spring	
  2012	
   08	
  Fall	
   Report	
   prepared	
   at	
   the	
   request	
   of	
   Jenny	
   Fraser	
   of	
   the	
   BC	
   Ministry	
   of	
   Environment	
   in	
   partial	
   fulfillment	
   of	
   UBC	
   Geography	
  419:	
  Research	
  in	
  Environmental	
  Geography,	
  for	
  Dr.	
  David	
  Brownstein	
  	
   Potter	
  	
   2	
   Samantha	
  Potter	
  Professor	
  David	
  Brownstein	
  Community	
  Partner	
  Jenny	
  Fraser	
  Geography	
  419	
   	
  March	
  2012	
  	
   Methods	
  in	
  Selecting	
  Adaptation	
  Actions:	
  How	
  Decisions	
  Are	
  Being	
  Made	
  	
  Executive	
  Summary	
  	
  	
   Adaptation	
  to	
  the	
  actual	
  and	
  expected	
  effects	
  of	
  climate	
  change	
  is	
  a	
  necessary	
  means	
  to	
  reduce	
  the	
  impacts	
  that	
  are	
  occurring	
  now	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  increase	
  society’s	
  resilience	
  to	
  upcoming	
  atmospheric	
  deviations	
  (UNFCC,	
  2012).	
  	
  Part	
  of	
  this	
  process	
  entails	
  selecting-­‐	
  from	
  an	
  extensive	
  list	
  of	
  options-­‐	
  the	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  that	
  are	
  to	
  be	
  implemented.	
  	
  This	
  paper	
  discusses	
  which	
  methods	
  local	
  governments	
  use	
  when	
  deciding	
  this;	
  it	
  compares	
  the	
  recommendations	
  of	
  guidebooks,	
  academic	
  sources,	
  and	
  grey	
  literature	
  to	
  the	
  approaches	
  actually	
  used	
  by	
  local	
  governments.	
  	
  It	
  has	
  been	
  found	
  that	
  despite	
  having	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  possible	
  methods	
  within	
  the	
  guidebooks	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  academic	
  and	
  grey	
  literatures,	
  local	
  governments	
  need	
  to	
  choose	
  the	
  options	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  addressed	
  in	
  projects	
  which	
  have	
  already	
  been	
  taken	
  on	
  in	
  other	
  sectors.	
  	
  This	
  is	
  so	
  as	
  these	
  options	
  are	
  easily	
  justified;	
  they	
  provide	
  co-­‐benefits	
  that	
  are	
  appealing	
  especially	
  facing	
  the	
  uncertainty	
  of	
  not	
  known	
  to	
  what	
  extent	
  climate	
  change	
  impacts	
  will	
  occur.	
  	
  There	
  are	
  possibilities	
  to	
  expand	
  the	
  horizons	
  of	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  implemented.	
  	
  The	
  first	
  and	
  most	
  prudent	
  step	
  is	
  getting	
  all	
  federal,	
  provincial,	
  and	
  local	
  governments,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  stakeholders,	
  and	
  experts	
  working	
  together	
  to	
  formulate	
  focused	
  and	
  small-­‐scale	
  methods	
  for	
  selecting	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options.	
  	
  From	
  this	
  point,	
  the	
  continuation	
  of	
  exploiting	
  windows	
  of	
  opportunities	
  needs	
  to	
  occur	
  and	
  more	
  funding	
  strategies	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  developed	
  within	
  local	
  governments.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   Potter	
  	
   3	
   1.	
  Introduction:	
  	
  Climate	
  change	
  poses	
  a	
  significant,	
  unavoidable	
  and,	
  pressing	
  issue	
  that	
  is	
  currently	
  threatening	
  the	
  whole	
  world;	
  it	
  puts	
  pressures	
  on	
  social,	
  economic	
  and,	
  environmental	
  sectors	
  in	
  all	
  societies.	
  	
  As	
  a	
  means	
  to	
  minimize	
  the	
  impacts	
  of	
  climate	
  change,	
  individual	
  communities	
  would	
  do	
  well	
  to	
  adjust	
  to	
  and	
  prepare	
  for	
  these	
  changes	
  accordingly.	
  	
  Aside	
  from	
  putting	
  in	
  efforts	
  to	
  mitigate	
  these	
  climate	
  change	
  issues,	
  local	
  communities	
  need	
  to	
  adapt	
  to	
  them.	
  	
  Adaptation	
  to	
  climate	
  change	
  includes	
  actions	
  that	
  will	
  reduce	
  specific	
  risks	
  and	
  increase	
  the	
  overall	
  capacity	
  to	
  manage	
  climate	
  change	
  and	
  its	
  impacts.	
  	
  There	
  are	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  definitions	
  pertaining	
  to	
  climate	
  change	
  adaptation;	
  the	
  Intergovernmental	
  Panel	
  on	
  Climate	
  Change	
  (IPCC)	
  provides	
  a	
  good	
  starting	
  point	
  as	
  they	
  define	
  it	
  as	
  “adjustment	
  in	
  natural	
  or	
  human	
  systems	
  in	
  response	
  to	
  actual	
  or	
  expected	
  climatic	
  stimuli	
  or	
  their	
  effects,	
  which	
  moderates	
  harm	
  or	
  exploits	
  beneficial	
  opportunities”	
  (2007,	
  Glossary).	
  	
  	
  One	
  example	
  of	
  an	
  adaptation	
  action	
  could	
  be	
  preparing	
  for	
  increased	
  sea	
  level	
  rise	
  and	
  storm	
  surges	
  by	
  building	
  permanent	
  flood	
  defenses	
  and	
  barriers.	
  	
  However,	
  more	
  often	
  than	
  not	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  are	
  not	
  that	
  simple;	
  communities	
  and	
  local	
  governments	
  could	
  have	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options	
  to	
  choose	
  from.	
  	
  Drawing	
  upon	
  the	
  same	
  example	
  of	
  sea	
  level	
  rise,	
  possible	
  options	
  could	
  include:	
  inaction,	
  changing	
  the	
  land	
  cover	
  in	
  the	
  area	
  to	
  better	
  suit	
  occasional	
  flooding,	
  development	
  regulation,	
  and	
  the	
  organization	
  of	
  response	
  plans	
  in	
  case	
  of	
  flooding.	
  	
  	
  With	
  a	
  plethora	
  of	
  options	
  such	
  as	
  these	
  for	
  each	
  response	
  and	
  preparation	
  to	
  climate	
  change,	
  how	
  do	
  communities	
  and	
  local	
  governments	
  decide	
  which	
  of	
  those	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options	
  to	
  implement?	
  	
  The	
  objective	
  of	
  this	
  paper	
  is	
  to	
  discover	
  just	
  that;	
   Potter	
  	
   4	
   it	
  seeks	
  to	
  determine	
  how	
  local	
  governments	
  decide	
  which	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  to	
  implement.	
  	
  In	
  shaping	
  a	
  response	
  to	
  this,	
  the	
  recommendations	
  given	
  by	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  guidebooks	
  for	
  local	
  governments,	
  academic	
  sources,	
  and	
  grey	
  literatures	
  provide	
  for	
  choosing	
  between	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  will	
  be	
  discussed	
  and	
  compared	
  to	
  the	
  processes	
  local	
  governments	
  actually	
  follow	
  when	
  implementing	
  these	
  actions.	
  	
  	
  1.1	
  Arriving	
  At	
  Adaptation	
  Action	
  Options	
  	
   To	
  begin,	
  we	
  need	
  to	
  have	
  an	
  understanding	
  of	
  how	
  we	
  arrive	
  at	
  these	
  options	
  in	
  adaptation	
  action.	
  	
  Regardless	
  of	
  the	
  cause	
  of	
  climate	
  change	
  or	
  of	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  it	
  will	
  occur,	
  societies	
  should	
  be	
  coming	
  up	
  with	
  methods	
  of	
  effective	
  management	
  as	
  a	
  certain	
  level	
  of	
  changes	
  have	
  already	
  happened	
  and	
  will	
  continue	
  to	
  strike.	
  	
  A	
  number	
  of	
  regions	
  have	
  realized	
  this	
  and	
  have	
  begun	
  to	
  take	
  initiative.	
  	
  From	
  speaking	
  to	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  local	
  governments	
  I	
  have	
  found	
  that	
  generally	
  the	
  process	
  prior	
  to	
  arriving	
  at	
  possible	
  adaption	
  actions	
  involve	
  communities	
  conducting	
  an	
  assessment	
  to	
  help	
  them	
  discover	
  what	
  climate	
  change	
  impacts	
  they	
  are	
  vulnerable	
  to	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2012).	
  	
  The	
  next	
  step	
  is	
  typically	
  prioritizing	
  these	
  risks	
  by	
  the	
  most	
  prominent	
  to	
  the	
  least;	
  risks	
  of	
  high	
  probabilities	
  and	
  high	
  impacts	
  are	
  often	
  times	
  what	
  constitute	
  being	
  the	
  most	
  prominent	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  District	
  of	
  Saanich,	
  2012).	
  	
  Once	
  this	
  is	
  complete,	
  lists	
  of	
  possible	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  to	
  these	
  risks	
  are	
  created	
  and	
  from	
  there,	
  decisions	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  made	
  regarding	
  what	
  actions	
  should	
  be	
  implemented.	
  	
  As	
  will	
  be	
  seen	
  in	
  subsequent	
  pages,	
  this	
  process	
  for	
  selecting	
  an	
  appropriate	
  method	
  to	
  use	
  when	
  choosing	
  which	
  adaptation	
  action	
  to	
  implement	
  can	
  be	
  confusing	
  as	
  there	
  is	
  yet	
  to	
  be	
  any	
  sound	
  guidance	
  on	
  the	
  matter.	
  	
   Potter	
  	
   5	
   	
  2.	
  Comparisons:	
  Methods	
  	
  	
   As	
  far	
  as	
  consulting	
  the	
  current	
  literatures	
  on	
  methods	
  in	
  selecting	
  adaptation	
  actions,	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  this	
  paper	
  is	
  western	
  Canada	
  focused.	
  	
  This	
  was	
  done	
  for	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  reasons.	
  	
  Firstly,	
  western	
  Canada	
  has	
  taken	
  great	
  initiative	
  in	
  the	
  adaptation	
  field	
  thus	
  resulting	
  in	
  a	
  sufficient	
  amount	
  of	
  guidebooks	
  to	
  consult.	
  	
  Moreover,	
  many	
  of	
  these	
  communities	
  have	
  assigned	
  positions	
  that	
  focus	
  on	
  adaptation	
  to	
  climate	
  change	
  therefore	
  enabling	
  them	
  with	
  the	
  capacity	
  to	
  provide	
  sound	
  and	
  consistent	
  responses	
  regarding	
  their	
  methods	
  used.	
  	
  In	
  looking	
  at	
  the	
  academic	
  and	
  grey	
  literatures,	
  this	
  paper	
  veered	
  towards	
  a	
  global	
  view	
  as	
  in	
  their	
  case	
  studies	
  the	
  methods	
  they	
  used	
  when	
  selecting	
  which	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options	
  should	
  be	
  implemented	
  were	
  actually	
  mentioned.	
  	
  Limiting	
  the	
  scope	
  in	
  this	
  manner	
  hinders	
  the	
  capacity	
  for	
  large-­‐scale	
  conclusions	
  while	
  conversely,	
  gives	
  insight	
  into	
  the	
  issues	
  occurring	
  in	
  method	
  selection	
  at	
  a	
  smaller,	
  more	
  focused	
  scale.	
  	
  2.1	
  Guidebooks	
  	
   Five	
  guidebooks	
  were	
  consulted:	
  	
  -­‐	
  The	
  International	
  Council	
  for	
  Local	
  Environmental	
  Initiatives	
  (ICLEI)	
  guidebook	
  -­‐	
  Preparing	
  for	
  Climate	
  Change:	
  A	
  Guidebook	
  for	
  Local,	
  Regional,	
  and	
  State	
  Governments	
  -­‐	
  Canadian	
  Communities	
  Guidebook	
  for	
  Adaptation	
  to	
  Climate	
  Change	
  -­‐	
  Climate	
  Change	
  Adaptation	
  Planning:	
  A	
  Handbook	
  for	
  Small	
  Canadian	
  Communities	
  -­‐Adapting	
  to	
  Climate	
  Change:	
  A	
  Risk-­‐based	
  Guide	
  for	
  Local	
  Governments	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
   Potter	
  	
   6	
   -­‐Alberta:	
  Climate	
  Change	
  Adaptation	
  Framework.	
  	
  	
  All	
  of	
  these	
  guidebooks	
  provide	
  a	
  step-­‐by-­‐step	
  guide	
  to	
  the	
  risk	
  identification	
  and	
  management	
  process	
  however,	
  are	
  a	
  less	
  comprehensive	
  guide	
  once	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options	
  have	
  been	
  identified.	
  	
  The	
  Alberta:	
  Climate	
  Change	
  Adaptation	
  Framework,	
  for	
  example,	
  does	
  not	
  mention	
  a	
  single	
  method	
  for	
  choosing	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options.	
  	
  The	
  other	
  four	
  guidebooks	
  do,	
  at	
  the	
  very	
  least	
  provide	
  in-­‐depth	
  lists	
  of	
  possible	
  methods	
  to	
  rate	
  and/or	
  rank	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options.	
  	
  For	
  example,	
  British	
  Columbia’s	
  guidebook	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  discusses	
  the	
  possibilities	
  of	
  evaluating	
  actions	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  effectiveness,	
  costs,	
  residual	
  risks,	
  or	
  stakeholder	
  acceptance	
  (Black,	
  Bruce	
  and	
  Egener,	
  2010).	
  	
  Similarly,	
  the	
  Canadian	
  Communities	
  guidebook	
  discusses	
  feasible	
  evaluation	
  methods	
  in	
  quite	
  detail	
  but	
  does	
  not	
  allude	
  to	
  or	
  suggest	
  any	
  dominant	
  selection	
  methods.	
  	
  Included	
  in	
  these	
  methods	
  are	
  trade-­‐off	
  analysis,	
  multi-­‐criteria	
  analysis,	
  cost-­‐benefit	
  analysis,	
  no	
  regrets,	
  and	
  windows	
  of	
  opportunity	
  (Bizikova,	
  Neale	
  and	
  Burton,	
  2008).	
  	
  The	
  most	
  notable	
  difference	
  of	
  this	
  guidebook	
  in	
  comparison	
  to	
  the	
  others	
  is	
  that	
  it	
  does	
  recognize	
  the	
  need	
  for	
  more	
  sound	
  evaluation	
  methods	
  in	
  selecting	
  the	
  most	
  feasible	
  adaptation	
  option	
  (Bizikova,	
  Neale	
  and	
  Burton,	
  2008).	
  	
  The	
  Handbook	
  for	
  Small	
  Canadian	
  Communities	
  barely	
  addresses	
  any	
  methods	
  for	
  choosing	
  between	
  actions	
  however,	
  it	
  does	
  mention	
  one	
  intriguing	
  option;	
  to	
  “incorporate	
  adaptation	
  in	
  plans	
  policies	
  and	
  budgets”	
  (p.41)	
  that	
  are	
  in	
  the	
  process	
  of	
  being	
  created	
  or	
  are	
  already	
  occurring	
  (Bowron	
  and	
  Davidson,	
  2001).	
  	
  Which	
  is	
  as	
  what	
  will	
  be	
  seen,	
  what	
  local	
  governments	
  actually	
  do.	
  	
  Arguably	
  the	
  most	
  comprehensive	
  guidebook	
  regarding	
  how	
  to	
  determine	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  was	
  ICLEI’s	
  guidebook;	
  it	
  highlights	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  key	
  criteria	
  in	
  the	
  form	
  of	
  questions	
  intended	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  to	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  readily	
  choose	
  and	
  justify	
  their	
   Potter	
  	
   7	
   adaptation	
  actions.	
  	
  Those	
  questions	
  include	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  the	
  adaptation	
  action	
  meets	
  the	
  goals	
  of	
  the	
  community,	
  the	
  benefits	
  of	
  the	
  action	
  exceed	
  the	
  costs,	
  the	
  action	
  is	
  flexible,	
  windows	
  of	
  opportunity	
  are	
  present,	
  the	
  action	
  is	
  equitable,	
  the	
  action	
  will	
  decrease	
  the	
  risk	
  of	
  losing	
  unique	
  environmental	
  or	
  cultural	
  resources,	
  and	
  the	
  implementation	
  of	
  the	
  action	
  is	
  feasible	
  (Snover	
  et	
  al,	
  2007).	
  	
  Between	
  the	
  five	
  guidebooks	
  only	
  one	
  produced	
  a	
  sound,	
  recommended	
  method	
  to	
  follow	
  regarding	
  making	
  choices	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options.	
  Thus,	
  it	
  is	
  relatively	
  safe	
  to	
  say	
  that	
  despite	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  guidebooks	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  having	
  quite	
  in-­‐depth	
  method	
  lists	
  most	
  are	
  quite	
  weak	
  when	
  it	
  comes	
  to	
  how	
  to	
  choose	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options.	
  	
  	
  2.2	
  Academic	
  and	
  Grey	
  Literatures	
  An	
  array	
  of	
  case	
  studies,	
  books,	
  reports,	
  websites,	
  and	
  journal	
  articles	
  were	
  reviewed	
  to	
  discover	
  what	
  selection	
  methods	
  for	
  choosing	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  were	
  recommended.	
  	
  As	
  a	
  general	
  conclusion,	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  these	
  literatures	
  suggest	
  either	
  consulting	
  other	
  jurisdictions	
  to	
  see	
  what	
  has	
  and	
  has	
  not	
  worked	
  for	
  them,	
  or	
  using	
  a	
  multi-­‐criteria	
  assessment	
  technique.	
  	
  Two	
  case	
  studies	
  were	
  consulted;	
  one	
  from	
  China	
  and	
  one	
  from	
  Egypt.	
  Both	
  used	
  and	
  recommended	
  a	
  multiple	
  criteria	
  selection	
  method	
  when	
  deciding	
  on	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options.	
  	
  The	
  Egyptian	
  case	
  study	
  emphasized	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  including	
  all	
  stakeholder	
  objectives	
  and	
  using	
  those	
  objectives	
  as	
  the	
  criteria	
  in	
  an	
  adaptation	
  decision	
  matrix,	
  as	
  seen	
  in	
  figure	
  1	
  (Raey,	
  Dewidar	
  and	
  Hattab,	
  1999).	
  	
  Thus,	
  environmental	
  and	
  social	
  objectives	
  are	
  given	
  importance	
  in	
  this	
  method	
  and,	
  economic	
  benefits	
  were	
  still	
  incorporated	
  as	
  a	
  cost-­‐effectiveness	
  ratio	
  (figure	
  1)	
  (Raey,	
  Dewidar	
  and	
  Hattab,	
  1999).	
  	
  Reinforcing	
  this	
  is	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  from	
  China;	
  they	
  too	
  believe	
  that	
  multi-­‐criteria	
  assessments	
  are	
  a	
  practical	
  method	
  of	
  informing	
  decision-­‐making	
  as	
  many	
  values	
   Potter	
  	
   8	
   (not	
  just	
  economic)	
  are	
  included	
  and	
  evaluated	
  in	
  the	
  process	
  (Tanner,	
  Xia	
  and	
  Holman,	
  2011).	
  	
   	
   Figure	
  1-­‐	
  Adaptation	
  Decision	
  Matrix	
  Example	
  Used	
  in	
  a	
  Community	
  in	
  Egypt	
  (Raey,	
  Dewidar	
  and	
  Hattab,	
  1999	
   p.127)	
   The	
  United	
  Kingdom	
  Climate	
  Projections	
  (UKCIP)	
  website,	
  similar	
  to	
  the	
  guidebooks,	
  simply	
  provides	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  possible	
  criteria	
  which	
  includes	
  the	
  effectiveness,	
  the	
  efficiency,	
  the	
  equity,	
  and	
  the	
  flexibility	
  of	
  the	
  possible	
  adaptation	
  action	
  (UKCIP,	
  2012).	
  	
  They	
  also	
  however,	
  recommend	
  that	
  if	
  your	
  organization	
  already	
  has	
  some	
  sort	
  of	
  established	
  method	
  that	
  is	
  what	
  should	
  be	
  utilized	
  over	
  their	
  recommendations	
  (UKCIP,	
  2012).	
  	
  WeADAPT,	
  another	
  web	
  page,	
  vouches	
  for	
  communities	
  to	
  work	
  with	
  other	
  regions	
  and	
  learn	
  from	
  their	
  adaptation	
  action	
  selection	
  methods	
  (WeADAPT,	
  2012).	
  	
  To	
  promote	
  this,	
  a	
  Google	
  Earth	
  Adaptation	
  Layer	
  has	
  been	
  developed	
  which	
  allows	
  individuals	
  to	
  see	
  and	
  consult	
  various	
  adaptation	
  case	
  studies	
  that	
  are	
  occurring	
  around	
  the	
  world	
  (WeADAPT,	
  2012).	
  	
  	
   Potter	
  	
   9	
   Conversely,	
  the	
  Adaptation	
  Policy	
  Frameworks	
  for	
  Climate	
  Change:	
  Developing	
  Strategies,	
  Policies	
  and	
  Measures,	
  a	
  book	
  written	
  in	
  2004,	
  suggests	
  that	
  the	
  four	
  most	
  useful	
  methods	
  for	
  selecting	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  are	
  as	
  follows:	
  cost-­‐benefit	
  approach	
  (CBA),	
  multi-­‐criteria	
  analysis	
  (MCA),	
  cost-­‐effectiveness	
  approach	
  (CEA),	
  and	
  expert	
  judgement	
  (Burton,	
  et	
  al.).	
  	
  In	
  this	
  book,	
  Burton	
  et	
  al.	
  provide	
  a	
  choosing	
  tool	
  as	
  seen	
  in	
  figure	
  2	
  to	
  determine	
  which	
  method	
  your	
  organization	
  should	
  utilize. 	
   Figure	
  2-­‐	
  Choosing	
  Tool	
  Used	
  to	
  Determine	
  Which	
  Method	
  Organizations	
  Should	
  Utilize	
  (Burton	
  et	
  al.,	
  2004,	
   p.200)	
   Following	
  similar	
  approaches	
  to	
  this	
  are	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  scholarly	
  articles.	
  	
  One	
  article	
  puts	
  emphasis	
  on	
  using	
  effectiveness,	
  efficiency,	
  equity	
  and	
  legitimacy	
  as	
  criteria	
  for	
  selecting	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options	
  (Adger,	
  et	
  al.,	
  2005).	
  	
  Others	
  simply	
  provide	
  lists	
  of	
  appropriate	
  actions	
  similar	
  to	
  the	
  guidebooks.	
  	
  One	
  article	
  stresses	
  the	
  need	
  for	
  selecting	
  an	
  adaptation	
  action	
  that	
  is	
  reversible	
  in	
  case	
  new	
  information	
  arises	
  that	
  may	
  allude	
  to	
  a	
  more	
  appropriate	
  decision	
  (Loe,	
  Kreutzwiser	
  and	
  Moraru,	
  2001).	
  	
  Drawing	
  upon	
   Potter	
  	
  10	
   this	
  criterion	
  is	
  another	
  article	
  that	
  argues	
  that	
  climate	
  change	
  uncertainty	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  taken	
  into	
  consideration	
  when	
  selecting	
  adaptation	
  options	
  (Hallegatte,	
  2009).	
  	
  Moreover,	
  this	
  article-­‐	
  similar	
  to	
  the	
  Egyptian	
  case	
  study-­‐	
  vouches	
  for	
  utilizing	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  criteria	
  in	
  an	
  adaptation	
  matrix	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  seen	
  in	
  figure	
  three	
  (Hallegatte,	
  2009).	
   	
   	
   Figure	
  3-­‐	
  Adaptation	
  Matrix:	
  "++"	
  indicates	
  options	
  that	
  yield	
  benefits	
  regardless	
  of	
  the	
  extent	
  of	
  climate	
  change	
   whereas	
  "+"	
  are	
  no-­‐regret	
  in	
  some	
  cases.	
  	
  (Part	
  of	
  table	
  2	
  via	
  Hallegatte,	
  2009)	
   Despite	
  having	
  many	
  similarities	
  in	
  the	
  options	
  for	
  methods	
  when	
  selecting	
  adaptation	
  actions-­‐	
  such	
  as	
  using	
  multiple	
  criteria	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  communicating	
  with	
  other	
  jurisdictions-­‐	
  the	
  academic	
  and	
  grey	
  literatures	
  all	
  provide	
  slightly	
  different	
  frameworks	
  within	
  those	
  methods	
  consequently,	
  making	
  it	
  confusing	
  for	
  jurisdictions	
  to	
  know	
  which	
  to	
  follow.	
  	
  2.3	
  Local	
  Governments	
  Six	
  local	
  governments	
  were	
  interviewed:	
  the	
  city	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  the	
  district	
  of	
  Delta,	
  the	
  district	
  of	
  Saanich,	
  the	
  regional	
  district	
  of	
  Central	
  Okanagan,	
  and	
  the	
  city	
  of	
  Calgary.	
  	
  Each	
  of	
  them	
  was	
  independently	
  asked	
  the	
  same	
  set	
  of	
  questions	
  and	
  it	
  was	
  found	
  that	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  great	
  deal	
  of	
  consensus	
  within	
  their	
  responses.	
  When	
  asked	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  the	
  guidebooks	
  intended	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  were	
  followed	
  when	
  choosing	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options,	
  all	
  of	
  their	
  responses	
  were	
  no.	
  	
  The	
  city	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  mentioned	
   Potter	
  	
  11	
   something	
  I	
  feel	
  most	
  other	
  cities	
  were	
  thinking;	
  that	
  they	
  expected	
  more	
  from	
  these	
  extensive	
  guidebooks	
  as	
  far	
  as	
  distinguishing	
  between	
  Methods	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  addressing	
  constraints	
  such	
  as	
  funding	
  	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2012).	
  	
  Despite	
  not	
  necessarily	
  utilizing	
  these	
  guidebooks’	
  actions,	
  at	
  one	
  point	
  throughout	
  the	
  interviewing	
  process	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  local	
  governments	
  admitted	
  to	
  reviewing	
  them	
  to	
  ensure	
  nothing	
  had	
  been	
  overlooked.	
  	
  After	
  admitting	
  this,	
  the	
  municipality	
  of	
  Delta	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  city	
  of	
  Calgary	
  both	
  showed	
  their	
  appreciation	
  for	
  ICLEI’s	
  guidebook;	
  while	
  not	
  following	
  this	
  or	
  any	
  other	
  guidebook	
  exactly,	
  ICLEIs’	
  is	
  the	
  one	
  they	
  would	
  turn	
  to	
  for	
  advice	
  when	
  reaching	
  standstills	
  in	
  deciding	
  which	
  adaptation	
  action	
  to	
  implement	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Calgary,	
  2012)	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  Municipality	
  of	
  Delta,	
  2012).	
  	
  	
  Like	
  the	
  grey	
  and	
  academic	
  literatures	
  suggest,	
  Delta	
  makes	
  their	
  selections	
  based	
  on	
  lessons	
  from	
  their	
  past	
  and	
  from	
  consulting	
  other	
  jurisdictions	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  Municipality	
  of	
  Delta,	
  2012).	
  	
  The	
  regional	
  district	
  of	
  the	
  Okanagan	
  on	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  follows	
  the	
  decisions	
  of	
  elected	
  officials	
  when	
  selecting	
  which	
  adaptation	
  action	
  option	
  to	
  implement	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  Regional	
  District	
  of	
  the	
  Okanagan,	
  2012).	
  	
  They	
  deem	
  that	
  these	
  decision	
  makers	
  are	
  reflecting	
  the	
  visions,	
  goals,	
  objectives,	
  and	
  policies	
  outlined	
  in	
  communities	
  plans	
  thus	
  providing	
  solid	
  representation	
  of	
  stakeholders	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  Regional	
  District	
  of	
  the	
  Okanagan,	
  2012).	
  	
  Both	
  the	
  district	
  of	
  Saanich	
  and	
  the	
  city	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  follow	
  quite	
  a	
  similar	
  method	
  when	
  considering	
  the	
  various	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  suggested	
  in	
  preparation	
  for	
  one	
  climate	
  change	
  threat.	
  	
  Predominantly,	
  they	
  follow	
  three	
  guiding	
  principles:	
  co-­‐benefits,	
  no-­‐regrets,	
  and	
  flexible	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  District	
  of	
  Saanich,	
  2012)	
  (A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2012).	
  	
  Therefore,	
  despite	
  having	
  overlap	
  among	
  the	
  options	
  given	
  in	
  the	
   Potter	
  	
  12	
   guidebooks	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  suggested	
  methods	
  and	
  lists	
  in	
  the	
  academic	
  and	
  grey	
  literatures,	
  local	
  governments	
  mainly	
  follow	
  their	
  own	
  strategies	
  which	
  appear	
  to	
  be	
  quite	
  economically	
  focused.	
  	
  3.	
  	
  Analysis	
  Within	
  all	
  categories	
  researched,	
  there	
  seems	
  to	
  be	
  general	
  consensus	
  however,	
  when	
  crossing	
  over	
  and	
  comparing	
  each	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  minimal	
  amount	
  of	
  commonality.	
  	
  The	
  main	
  mutual	
  consensuses	
  between	
  all	
  categories	
  include	
  implementing	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  that	
  have	
  no-­‐regrets	
  and	
  low-­‐regrets,	
  provide	
  co-­‐benefits,	
  and	
  are	
  flexible.	
  	
  It	
  is	
  quite	
  surprising	
  that	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  the	
  guidebooks	
  are	
  not	
  satisfactory	
  when	
  it	
  comes	
  to	
  choosing	
  superior	
  methods	
  for	
  selecting	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options.	
  	
  The	
  academic	
  and	
  grey	
  literatures	
  provide	
  multiple	
  guidelines	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  to	
  utilize	
  decision	
  matrixes	
  and	
  are	
  beginning	
  to	
  elaborate	
  on	
  the	
  robustness	
  of	
  sharing	
  case	
  studies	
  with	
  other	
  jurisdictions.	
  	
  The	
  usefulness	
  of	
  these	
  decision	
  matrixes	
  is	
  high	
  as	
  economic	
  benefits	
  are	
  not	
  the	
  sole	
  values	
  being	
  highlighted;	
  the	
  objectives	
  of	
  all	
  stakeholders	
  are	
  included	
  thereby	
  incorporating	
  environmental	
  and	
  social	
  benefits	
  into	
  the	
  decisions.	
  	
  While	
  these	
  first	
  two	
  categories	
  highlight	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  methods,	
  the	
  unfortunate	
  reality	
  of	
  selecting	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options	
  is	
  that	
  the	
  most	
  accepted	
  measures	
  local	
  governments	
  can	
  take	
  is	
  to	
  implement	
  actions	
  that	
  have	
  low	
  economic	
  costs.	
  	
  Mentioned	
  in	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  academic	
  literature,	
  the	
  other	
  method	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  and	
  is	
  taken	
  by	
  these	
  local	
  governments	
  is	
  choosing	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  integrated	
  into	
  projects	
  various	
  sectors	
  may	
  already	
  be	
  taking	
  on.	
  	
  It	
  is	
  in	
  this	
  manner	
  that	
  all	
  stakeholders	
  will	
  be	
  more	
  willing	
  to	
  accept	
  these	
  actions	
  which	
  unfortunately	
  results	
  in	
  a	
  gap	
  between	
  all	
  three	
  categories.	
  	
   Potter	
  	
  13	
   4.	
  	
  Recommendations	
  to	
  Federal,	
  Provincial	
  and	
  Local	
  Governments	
  	
  There	
  are	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  possible	
  actions	
  all	
  levels	
  of	
  government	
  can	
  take	
  to	
  minimize	
  these	
  gaps.	
  	
  With	
  the	
  shocking	
  finding	
  that	
  local	
  governments	
  do	
  not	
  follow	
  guidebooks	
  when	
  selecting	
  a	
  method	
  to	
  decide	
  which	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  to	
  implement,	
  federal	
  and	
  provincial	
  governments	
  would	
  do	
  well	
  to	
  provide	
  a	
  general	
  chart	
  that	
  local	
  governments	
  can	
  use	
  as	
  a	
  template.	
  	
  Based	
  off	
  of	
  the	
  adaptation	
  decision	
  matrix	
  used	
  in	
  the	
  Egyptian	
  case	
  study,	
  I	
  have	
  created	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  such	
  a	
  prototype	
  which	
  is	
  seen	
  in	
  figure	
  4.	
  	
  It	
  is	
  in	
  this	
  manner	
  that	
  a	
  framework	
  can	
  be	
  created	
  which	
  will	
  incorporate	
  not	
  only	
  economic	
  values	
  but	
  environmental	
  and	
  social	
  ones	
  as	
  well.	
  	
  Moreover,	
  it	
  would	
  be	
  beneficial	
  for	
  federal	
  and	
  provincial	
  governments	
  to	
  be	
  providing	
  guidance	
  to	
  local	
  governments	
  regarding	
  finding	
  methods	
  to	
  distinguish	
  and	
  unearth	
  the	
  objectives	
  of	
  all	
  of	
  their	
  community’s	
  stakeholders.	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   Figure	
  4-­‐	
  Possible	
  Methods	
  Outline	
  For	
  Local	
  Governments	
  to	
  Follow	
  That	
  being	
  said,	
  because	
  of	
  the	
  differences	
  in	
  risks,	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options,	
  and	
  objectives	
  between	
  all	
  regions	
  it	
  would	
  be	
  most	
  beneficial	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  to	
  create	
  their	
  own	
  objectives	
  based	
  on	
  their	
  community’s	
  intentions	
  rather	
  than	
  follow	
  exactly	
  what	
  other	
  jurisdictions	
  have	
  done	
  or	
  having	
  them	
  provided	
  by	
  federal	
  or	
  provincial	
  governments.	
  	
  Despite	
  these	
  recommendations	
  to	
  not	
  follow	
  the	
  exact	
  criteria	
  for	
  selecting	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  other	
  jurisdictions	
  have	
  used,	
  the	
  need	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  to	
  publish	
  their	
  methods	
  in	
  selecting	
  between	
  options	
  is	
  still	
  necessary.	
  	
  Regardless	
  as	
  to	
  whether	
   Potter	
  	
  14	
   their	
  publications	
  are	
  uploaded	
  as	
  a	
  document	
  on	
  their	
  web	
  pages	
  or	
  a	
  case	
  study	
  in	
  the	
  Google	
  Earth	
  adaptation	
  layer,	
  having	
  the	
  capabilities	
  to	
  review	
  what	
  methods	
  and	
  criteria	
  others	
  have	
  utilized	
  is	
  beneficial	
  as	
  the	
  assessors	
  can	
  identify	
  what	
  has	
  and	
  what	
  has	
  not	
  worked	
  for	
  jurisdictions.	
  	
  Moreover,	
  if	
  there	
  have	
  been	
  oversights	
  in	
  their	
  own	
  works	
  regarding	
  selecting	
  between	
  adaptation	
  action	
  options	
  these	
  can	
  be	
  addressed	
  before	
  the	
  implementation	
  stage.	
  	
  	
  	
  5.	
  	
  Conclusion	
  In	
  researching	
  the	
  methods	
  used	
  for	
  selecting	
  between	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  guidebooks	
  for	
  local	
  governments,	
  both	
  academic	
  and	
  gray	
  literatures	
  were	
  consulted	
  and	
  compared	
  to	
  the	
  methods	
  actually	
  taken	
  by	
  local	
  governments.	
  	
  It	
  has	
  been	
  found	
  that	
  in	
  much	
  of	
  western	
  Canada,	
  local	
  governments	
  do	
  not	
  utilize	
  guidebooks	
  or	
  the	
  academic	
  literature	
  when	
  making	
  their	
  decisions	
  as	
  to	
  which	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  to	
  implement.	
  	
  Instead,	
  the	
  drivers	
  of	
  their	
  decisions	
  entail	
  implementing	
  actions	
  that	
  have	
  no	
  regrets,	
  low	
  regrets,	
  and	
  provide	
  an	
  alternate	
  benefit	
  to	
  any	
  other	
  sectors	
  instead	
  of	
  implementing	
  the	
  action	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  benefit	
  of	
  being	
  prepared	
  for	
  a	
  risk	
  that	
  has	
  the	
  possibility	
  of	
  occurring.	
  	
  In	
  order	
  to	
  address	
  this	
  gap	
  in	
  the	
  decision	
  making	
  process,	
  all	
  parties	
  involved	
  need	
  to	
  communicate	
  with	
  one	
  another	
  to	
  continue	
  to	
  come	
  up	
  with	
  innovative	
  ways	
  of	
  implementing	
  adaptation	
  actions.	
  	
  Incorporating	
  actions	
  into	
  current	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  up	
  and	
  coming	
  policies	
  and	
  plans	
  in	
  various	
  sectors	
  is	
  something	
  that	
  local	
  governments	
  should	
  be	
  continuing	
  on	
  with.	
  	
  Given	
  the	
  conclusions	
  of	
  this	
  research,	
  it	
  is	
  appropriate	
  to	
  end	
  with	
  areas	
  that	
  need	
  further	
  attention.	
  	
  At	
  the	
  forefront	
  of	
  this	
  is	
  the	
  need	
  to	
  develop	
  more	
  financing	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  implement	
  important	
  adaptation	
  actions	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  being	
  prepared.	
  	
  Without	
  these	
  budget	
  constraints,	
  environmental	
  and	
  social	
  needs	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  be	
  more	
  readily	
  accepted	
   Potter	
  	
  15	
   by	
  societies.	
  	
  However,	
  until	
  then,	
  the	
  emphasis	
  when	
  making	
  adaptation	
  action	
  decisions	
  will	
  remain	
  focused	
  on	
  the	
  monetary	
  values	
  of	
  doing	
  so.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
   Potter	
  	
  16	
   Works	
  Cited	
  	
  	
  A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Calgary.	
  Interview.	
  Samantha	
  Potter.	
  13	
  March	
  2012.	
  	
  A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
  Interview.	
  Samantha	
  Potter.	
  27	
  February	
  2012.	
  A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  District	
  of	
  Saanich.	
  Interview.	
  Samantha	
  Potter.	
  05	
  March	
  2012.	
  	
  A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  District	
  of	
  Central	
  Okanagan.	
  Interview.	
  Samantha	
  Potter.	
  13	
  March	
  2012.	
  	
  A	
  Representative	
  From	
  the	
  Municipality	
  of	
  Delta.	
  Interview.	
  Samantha	
  Potter.	
  12	
  March	
  2012.	
  	
  Adger,	
  Neil	
  W,	
  Nigel	
  W.	
  Arnell	
  and	
  Emma	
  L.	
  Tompkins.	
  "Successful	
  adaptation	
  to	
  climate	
  change	
  across	
  scales."	
  Global	
  Environmental	
  Change	
  (2005):	
  77–86.	
  	
  Bizikova,	
  L.,	
  T.	
  Neale	
  and	
  I.	
  Burton.	
  Canadian	
  Communities'	
  Guidebook	
  for	
  Adaptation	
  to	
  Climate	
  Change.	
  Including	
  an	
  approach	
  to	
  generate	
  mitigation	
  co-­‐benefits	
  in	
  the	
  context	
  of	
  sustainable	
  development.	
  Guidebook.	
  Environment	
  Canada	
  and	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  Vancouver,	
  2008.	
  	
  Black,	
  Robert	
  A,	
  James	
  P	
  Bruce	
  and	
  Mark	
  I.D.	
  Egener.	
  "Adapting	
  to	
  Climate	
  Change:	
  A	
  Risk-­‐based	
  Guide	
  for	
  Local	
  Governments	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia."	
  2010.	
  	
  Bowron,	
  Beate	
  and	
  Gary	
  Davidson.	
  "Climate	
  Change	
  Adaptation	
  Planning:	
  A	
  Handbook	
  for	
  Small	
  Canadian	
  Communities."	
  2001.	
  	
  Burton,	
  Ian.,	
  Malone,	
  Elizabeth.,	
  Hug,	
  Saleemul.,	
  Lim,	
  Bo.,	
  Spanger-­‐Siegried,	
  Erika.,	
  Adaptation	
  Policy	
  Frameworks	
  for	
  Climate	
  Change:	
  Developing	
  Strategies,	
  Policies	
  and	
  Measures.	
  Cambridge:	
  Cambridge	
  University	
  Press,	
  2004.	
  	
  Hallegatte,	
  Stephane.	
  "Strategies	
  to	
  adapt	
  to	
  an	
  uncertain	
  climate	
  change."	
  Global	
  Environmental	
  Change	
  (2009):	
  240–247.	
  	
  Intergovernmental	
  Panel	
  on	
  Climate	
  Change	
  (IPCC).	
  Climate	
  Change	
  2007:	
  Impacts,	
  Adaptation	
  and	
  Vulnerability.	
  Working	
  Group	
  II	
  contribution	
  to	
  the	
  Fourth	
  Assessment	
  Report	
  of	
  the	
  Intergovernmental	
  Panel	
  on	
  Climate	
  Change.	
  Cambridge	
  and	
  New	
  York:	
  Cambridge	
  University	
  Press,	
  2007.	
  	
  Loe,	
  Rob	
  De,	
  Reid	
  Kreutzwiser	
  and	
  Liana	
  Moraru.	
  "Adaptation	
  options	
  for	
  the	
  near	
  term:	
  climate	
  change	
  and	
  the	
  Canadian	
  water	
  sector."	
  Global	
  Environmental	
  Change	
  (2001):	
  231-­‐245.	
  	
   Potter	
  	
  17	
   Raey,	
  M	
  El,	
  Kh.	
  Dewidar	
  and	
  M.	
  ELl	
  Hattab.	
  "Adaptation	
  to	
  the	
  impacts	
  of	
  sea	
  level	
  rise	
  in	
  Egypt."	
  Climate	
  Research	
  (1999):	
  117–128.	
  	
  Snover,	
  A.K.,	
  Binder,	
  Whitely.,	
  Lopez,	
  J.,	
  Willmont,	
  E.,	
  Kay,J.,	
  Howell,	
  D.,	
  Simmonds,	
  J.	
  Preparing	
  for	
  Climate	
  Change:	
  A	
  Guidebook	
  for	
  Local,	
  Regional,	
  and	
  State	
  Governments.	
  Guidebook.	
  Oakland,	
  CA:	
  ICLEI	
  –	
  Local	
  Governments	
  for	
  Sustainability,	
  2007.	
  	
  Sustainable	
  Resource	
  Development,	
  Government	
  of	
  Alberta.	
  Climate	
  Change	
  Adaptation	
  Framework	
  .	
  Manual.	
  Edmonton,	
  2010.	
  	
  Tanner,	
  Thomas,	
  Jun	
  Xia	
  and	
  Ian	
  Holman.	
  Orchid:	
  Mainstreaming	
  Adaptation	
  in	
  Development	
  Investments	
  in	
  the	
  Water	
  Sector	
  in	
  China.	
  Case	
  Study.	
  the	
  Huai,	
  Hai,	
  and	
  Shiyand	
  river	
  basins),	
  2011.	
  	
  United	
  Nations	
  Framework	
  Convention	
  on	
  Climate	
  Change	
  (UNFCCC).	
  Adaptation.	
  2012.	
  14	
  02	
  2012.	
  <	
  http://unfccc.int/adaptation/items/4159.php>	
  	
  UKCIP.	
  4.2	
  Evaluate	
  your	
  adaptation	
  options.	
  14	
  03	
  2012.	
  27	
  03	
  2012	
  <http://www.ukcip.org.uk/wizard/wizard-­‐4/4-­‐2/>.	
  	
  WeADAPT.	
  Adaptation	
  Layer.	
  2012.	
  20	
  02	
  2012	
  <http://weadapt.org/placemarks/earth>.	
  	
   	
  	
  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Canada 4 0
China 3 0
France 2 0
Russia 2 0
United States 2 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 4 18
Calgary 4 0
Beijing 3 0
Redmond 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items