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Emergency Pantry Purchasing Guide Coulbourn, Andria; Drage, Ally; Ghanem, Salma; Kabir, Parisa 2020-08-31

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         Emergency Pantry Purchasing Guide     Prepared by: Andria Coulbourn, Ally Drage, Salma Ghanem, Parisa Kabir Prepared for:   Course Code: GRS 397B University of British Columbia   Date: 31 August 2020       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a report”.  University of British Columbia  Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program  Student Research Report  SEEDS  Emergency Pantry Purchasing Guide  Andria Coulbourn, Ally Drage, Salma Ghanem, Parisa Kabir University of British Columbia GRS 397B August 31st, 2020                Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report.       Table of Contents 1. ​Executive Summary 4 2. ​Introduction 5 2.1 ​Literature Review: What is Cultural Appropriateness? How Can We Measure and Evaluate it? 2.2 ​The Importance of Cultural Appropriateness and Food 2.3 ​Food Literacy 2.4 ​Food System Resiliency and Emergency Preparedness  2.5 ​Project Context 5 3. Methods 6 4. Food Literacy 9 5. Food System Resiliency and Emergency Preparedness 10 6. Results 12 6.1 Cultural Identification: 14 6.2 Staple Foods 16 6.3  Food Habits & Cultural Identity 16 6.4 Access 17 6.5 Cultural Appropriateness 17 6.6  Food Literacy 18 6.7 Student Food Resiliency 18 6.7. 1 Preparedness 18 6.8. Access Options 19 6.9 The Gaps in Pantry Purchasing Guides 20 7. Discussion 22 7.1 Cultural Identification, Staple Foods, Identity & Access 22 7.2 Food Literacy & Emergency Preparedness 23 7.3 The Effectiveness of Pantry Purchasing Guides 25 7.4 Areas of improvement within the Study 25 8. Recommendations 26 8.1 Recommendations for future research 26 8.2 Recommendations for future action 26 9. Conclusion 27  2   References 28 Appendices 30 Survey Questions 30 Calculations: 36 Promotional Material and Survey Advertisement 37 Image 2 37 Final Infographic 39                            3    1. Executive Summary  This project is aimed at providing a pantry purchasing guide for UBC students as a               resource for nutritional, affordable, and culturally appropriate recommendations. This guide is           intended to be used in any form of emergency, whether it be the recent pandemic of COVID-19,                 a natural disaster, power outage, or any situation which puts UBC students at risk of food                insecurity. Our goal for the overall project was to investigate where students are at in terms of                 emergency preparedness and food literacy, how we can recommend culturally appropriate foods,            and whether there are pantry guides out there that fit our criteria. To reach this goal, the                 methodology chosen was a survey distributed to UBC students regarding these topics as well as a                literature review on cultural appropriateness and an environmental scan on pre-existing pantry            purchasing guides. The main content of the pantry purchasing guide was created through UBC              student’s suggestions as the objective of the project was a by-student-for-student guide. We also              added more food items to the guide that went beyond the student list, the items we added were to                   include more cultural foods as well as some healthier options. Findings demonstrated that UBC              students’ generally come into university with basic levels of food literacy and knowledge but feel               low food preparedness levels in the case of an emergency. Results also demonstrated UBC              students’ food preferences and cultural identification, as well as their opinions on culturally             appropriate foods. Finally, by comparing and contrasting current emergency pantry purchasing           guides, showed what gaps are present and if there are any areas of opportunities that can be filled                  for the purpose of this project. Students additionally reported on whether a pantry purchasing              guide is an effective or necessary tool for this project or whether another resource may be more                 effective. With the data, a pantry purchasing guide was created with 17 non-perishable or long               lasting items recommended for UBC students. Suggestions were made regarding future research            potential for UBC students as well as future actions to be taken, such as programming and                workshops on food literacy education, more distributional material, as well as a facilitation of              access to culturally appropriate foods by UBC.    4    2. Introduction  This year, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the phenomenon of “panic buying”,           where grocery store shelves were completely wiped out due to fear of food insecurity. This               phenomenon has also affected UBC students and grocery stores on campus. To support students              in these difficult times, one approach is to increase food literacy and food knowledge, therefore               creating a sense of comfort and resiliency for students if a future emergency were to arise. When                 one is more knowledgeable about foods that are healthy, affordable and long lasting, they will               likely overcome the lure of panic buying out of fear. This is because they are more confident in                  their ability to purchase foods that will be satisfactory in an emergency situation. Our approach is                to create a nutritious, affordable, and culturally appropriate pantry purchasing guide. For this             SEEDS project, we have partnered with Melissa Baker and Sara Kozicky from UBC Food &               Housing, and UBC Wellbeing. They, as well as our SEEDS Research Coordinator, Ernielly Leo,              have supported us in conducting research to gain insightful content for the pantry guide. As a                group, we have collaboratively approached this project with our own individual research            questions. We have split this research up into four components: cultural appropriateness,            nutritional adequacy, student emergency preparedness & resiliency, and whether there is a gap in              knowledge in pre-existing pantry purchasing guides or not. Each of these questions tie in              together to determine what a culturally appropriate, nutritious, and affordable pantry purchasing            guide truly looks like. To begin, we first explored the concept of cultural appropriateness, what it                is and why it matters for the pantry purchasing guide.   2.1 Literature Review: What is Cultural Appropriateness? How Can We Measure and            Evaluate it? Defined by anthropologists, culture is a concept that has many different interconnected            factors affecting life, these include “language, food getting, kinship, marriage, and political and             social organization”. (Crowther, 2013) One important note about culture is that it is constantly              changing and therefore is never static. The changeable nature of the concept means overtime              culture has become more complex due to “social factors of status, such as age, gender, rank,                class, speciality, sexuality, race and ethnicity.” (Crowther, 2013) This all encompassing           definition of culture makes both cultural identification and simple understandings of “culture”            difficult.The first portion of the literature review showed that there are multiple definitions of              culture Therefore, for the purpose of this paper, a more basic definition of culture is “​the                characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, religion,            cuisine, social habits, music and arts." (Zimmerman, 2017) This will ensure that when students               5   express their cultural identity, they are not deterred by the convoluted nature of the concept. ​This                definition broadly attempts to describe culture and also connects culture to cuisine, which is              necessary for this research.  Defining cultural appropriateness becomes even more difficult due to the dynamic notion            of culture. Cultural appropriateness is a relatively new term and refers to the proper              acknowledgement of different cultures being represented. It can be understood as the opposite of              cultural appropriation, which is socially defined as adopting a particular culture in an             inappropriate or unacknowledged way(cite?).   2.2 The Importance of Cultural Appropriateness and Food While it is easily understood that creating culturally appropriate recommendations of           food is respectful towards different cultural groups, data shows that it is also incredibly              important for students to have access to culturally appropriate foods at University. It is especially               prevalent that “a lack of culturally appropriate foods can lead to food insecurity in migrant               populations.” ​(Fu, Manitius, Stewart & Tse, 2020) The Canadian government defines food            insecurity as ​“​the inability to acquire or consume an adequate diet quality or sufficient quantity               of food in socially acceptable ways” (Tarasuk, 2005). This food insecurity arises from barriers              that are present when attempting to access culturally appropriate foods. ​(​Brinkman, Wu,            Sheehan, Yang & Bazza, 2015​)  Aside from food insecurity, this lack of access to culturally appropriate food can lead to               social and mental health impacts. Students can feel social isolation and financial insecurity             resulting from the “​absence of familiar foods, the high price of this food, and weight gains and                 losses associated with eating unfamiliar foods”. (​Brinkman, Wu, Sheehan, Yang & Bazza, 2015​)             Additionally, students are affected by feelings “of depression, loneliness, isolation, homesickness           and identity loss”. (​Brinkman, Wu, Sheehan, Yang & Bazza, 2015​) It is important to consider               cultural appropriateness in the creation of the pantry guide to mitigate feelings of isolation and               food insecurity. Another way to mitigate food insecurity is increasing food literacy, a concept              explored in the following section.   2.3 Food Literacy Food literacy is a relatively new topic that describes people's relationship with food and              understanding of its importance, and how to properly use food as a tool for health while meeting                 personal needs. In a study that reviewed many food professionals’ personal definition of food              literacy to create a working definition of the concept, Cullen et al., (2015) defined food literacy                as: “[T]he ability of an individual to understand food in a way that they develop a positive                relationship with it, including food skills and practices across the lifespan in order to               6   navigate, engage, and participate within a complex food system. It’s the ability to make              decisions to support the achievement of personal health and a sustainable food system             considering environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political components.” (p.         143). Food literacy extends past health and wellbeing as it is part of our cultural identification,               environmental responsibilities, and part of our everyday lives. (Cullen et al., 2015). Poor food              literacy behaviours in all populations can lead to food insecurity, which is described as “the               uncertain or limited physical, social and economic access of individuals and households to             sufficient, safe, nutritious, and culturally relevant food,” (Begley et al., 2015; p.1). Food             insecurity can also be an issue due to financial difficulties, lack of knowledge surrounding              nutrition, dietary needs and more.  There are certain populations that are found to be more susceptible to food insecurity.              Almost instinctively the concept of food insecurity is applied to geographical regions of             developing countries, or countries experiencing heavy amounts of political conflict. This fact            may generally be true, but there are also populations within developed countries and urban              regions who are food insecure and may not have knowledge surrounding food and/or food              literacy (Begley et al. 2019). Specifically, university students have been seen in the past to               experience many different forms of food insecurity or lack the resources to become food literate.               Whether undergraduate or graduate students, many young adults are new to living on their own,               facing financial burdens as well as time constraints that may result in less concern around their                nutritional health or effort put into food. Eating quickly, conveniently and for low cost is a                common mindset between students when school is made to be the top priority.  Because students already are victims of hidden hunger and may lack proper food             education, the recent global events concerning the COVID-19 pandemic have raised concerns            regarding emergency preparedness and food literacy. An important notion that ties into food             literacy is food system resiliency and emergency preparedness, this is especially important due to              the emergency context of the pantry guide. 2.4 Food System Resiliency and Emergency Preparedness   Emergencies can occur at times least expected, giving society limited time for            preparation. When emergencies do occur, be it a natural disaster, or a pandemic, it is vital to                 have already taken the necessary precautions to maintain one’s well being and prepare for a               quick recovery. As seen by the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic, emergencies can escalate quickly.             They can leave citizens stranded in homes, increase hospital waits, and cause the closure of               many services. In some cases important services such grocery stores may close or limit hours.               Especially for those at greater risk, such as those immune compromised during the COVID-19               7   pandemic, accessing services such as grocery stores becomes a health risk. It is therefore vital to                be properly prepared for emergencies.  Being prepared can be extremely difficult      for college students as they are often in short term          housing with limited storage space for supplies       Additionally, students are often in transition      points where they do not live with parents and         therefore may not have their own emergency       procedures and plans (Claborn, 2010). Therefore,      it is even more important for student’s emergency        preparedness to be examined. This report will       discuss the preparation and food resiliency of       students at the University of British Columbia       (UBC), showcasing student’s emergency    preparedness, their actions as a result of current        emergencies such as the COVID-19 Pandemic,      and their ability and preferences when accessing       food both prior to and during an emergency. Food System Resiliency is defined as      “capacity over time of a food system and its units at           multiple levels, to provide sufficient, appropriate and accessible food to all, in the face of various                and even unforeseen disturbances” (Tendall, 2015). Food system resilience showcases one’s           preparedness as well as their ability to be prepared for an emergency, their ability to absorb the                 shock and finally readjust and adapt following the shock.  Figure 1 showcases the food system resilience action cycle as discussed by Tendall,             (2015). It showcases the steps to absorb the shock, react to the shock, restore the system and                 finally learn from the experience. These steps are the reactive actions. Additionally, it highlights              the preventative actions which Tendall refers to as “building robustness”. As shown by the              cycle, food system resilience is not a static state but always developing and adapting (Tendall,               2015). Food system resilience can occur at various levels from the global food system to each                individual (Tendall, 2015). Some of resiliency is up to the individual to prepare and educate               themselves, however, food resiliency can also heavily depend upon one’s ability to access food              and food education. This report will focus mostly on the individual’s food system resilience              while also looking into the University of British Columbia’s food system resilience. The             concepts of cultural appropriateness, food literacy, and food system resiliency & emergency            preparedness are important to navigate the effective creation of a pantry guide for UBC students.   8   2.5 Project Context  Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, as many had to self-isolate at home and work or go to school                 remotely, it became evident that students may need an online food resource for future              emergencies. This project was intended to be part of a Digital Food Hub for UBC students where                 any content that is food related would be easily accessible and available at all times. The creation                 of the pantry purchasing guide would be one content piece for this versatile Digital Food Hub.   Our objectives for this project are:  1.  To conduct a literature review on cultural appropriateness.  2. To conduct an environmental scan of existing pantry purchasing guides and identify areas             of opportunities that meet the diverse needs of UBC’s student population.  3. To develop a for student by student guide to purchase nutritious, affordable, and             culturally appropriate pantry items in preparation of future emergency responses which           will contribute to the Digital Food Hub.  3. Methods  To filter our research the initial step was to organize a meeting with the stakeholders of                this project. Following the meeting the team constructed these research questions in order to              achieve the specific objectives for this research project.   1. What is cultural appropriateness? How do we measure and evaluate it? 2. What gaps exist in cultural appropriateness, nutrition and affordability in current pantry            purchasing guides? What are the strengths and limitations of these guides? 3. What is the current state of UBC students' food literacy? How does this translate into               their preparedness and resilience in terms of food security, specifically in emergency            situations?  4. How can we create a guide that takes the student’s understanding and needs into              consideration and improves upon them?  These research questions were divided amongst group members and used to conduct a             literature review to evaluate current knowledge surrounding these topics and apply them to the              UBC population and context. The review looked into how students currently prepare for an              emergency, definitions of culture and cultural appropriateness, and a general environmental scan             9   of current pantry purchasing guides that exist. This general evaluation led to the creation of 31                survey questions on Qualtrics that were then distributed online via Facebook and Instagram as              well as through sharing the survey link through text. Various campus organizations were able to               further the reach by sharing the survey through social media posts and email blasts. Completion               of the survey was completely optional as students were able to discontinue participation at any               time. The survey was separated into one section for each research question.  Criteria for all analysis included being a UBC student, both undergraduate or graduate             degree, or a recent graduate. The survey was closed after 19 days and the data was analyzed                 qualitatively and quantitatively individually by the researchers. Following the analysis of the            data, the team utilized the information to create a Pantry Purchasing Guide in the form of an                 infographic, catered to UBC students. The data was further used to create reports to showcase the                findings.  3.1 Cultural Appropriateness  3.1.1 Primary Data Collection: Literature Review  The primary data collection method was a cultural appropriateness literature review, as            this is one of the project objectives. The media used for this literature review consisted of                peer-reviewed scholarly articles, an anthropology University textbook named “Eating Culture”,          as well as research reports from past projects conducted by LFS students either for the LFS 450                 course or for SEEDS.  The purpose of this literature review is to understand whether there is a universal              definition of culture and cultural appropriateness and whether the latter has been measured and               10   evaluated successfully. For more specificity, many of these articles discuss the relationship            between cultural appropriateness and food, as well as cultural appropriateness in different health             interventions. The literature review consists of three components, and these can be regarded as              the “what, why and how?” of cultural appropriateness. The first section discusses the definition              of culture and cultural appropriateness. The second section discusses why cultural           appropriateness is important in relationship to food and why this should be an important factor in                a pantry purchasing guide. Finally, the third section discusses how we can effectively measure              and evaluate cultural appropriateness and whether it is even possible to do so.   3.1.2 Secondary Data Collection: Qualtrics Survey  The purpose of this survey was to gauge the different cultural groups prevalent at UBC               and understand their food habits and food preferences. The survey was designed in a way to                provide a lot of room for UBC students to express what culture means to them. The questions                 each had a specific purpose in understanding the complexity of cultural identity and its              relationship to food. A paper on the “development of culturally competent food-frequency            questionnaires” was studied to ensure that the survey was itself culturally sensitive. This paper              brought to light how Euro-American food groups can be constricting in allowing respondents to              answer questions about their food habits. A recommendation stated was to provide blank boxes              for respondents to fill out their food habits rather than a list of common Euro-American food                groups as categories, so questions surrounding food habits had an open entry box for an answer.                To evaluate our food recommendations we will draw a comparison to the pantry purchasing              guide provided in our survey and evaluate whether students thought it was culturally appropriate              and analyze this data. In total, we had 203 responses to our survey, however, for this section,                 unanswered questions regarding culture and nationality were deleted due to the necessity of this              information for data analysis. After deletion, 148 survey responses (n=148) were remaining for             the cultural component of data analysis.  Cultural appropriateness is a concept that requires a qualitative research approach to            effectively measure and evaluate it in particular interventions. This section focuses on the second              part of the main research question, which is, how do we measure and evaluate cultural               appropriateness?  Investigating whether students can afford and find culturally appropriate options is one            effective way to measure whether a university is providing support for culturally appropriate             diets. In the same paper, a crucial suggestion was made to UBC, which was to “clearly indicate                 ‘who’s culture’ their use of the term is aiming at, because this will lead to different measures in                  the provision of cultural foods.” ​(Fu, Manitius, Stewart & Tse, 2020) ​In a paper regarding               achieving cultural appropriateness in health programs, discussion about the difficulty of           evaluating cultural appropriateness becomes evident. Many nuances arise, such as the fact that             “multiple cultures may be relevant to any given person, it may be difficult to discern which                 11   culture should be emphasized in seeking cultural appropriateness for a given behavior”. (​Kreuter             et. al., 2003, pg 134​) Additionally, “Would it be feasible, for example, to make every health                promotion program culturally appropriate for every possible subgroup to which it might be             delivered?”. (​Kreuter et. al., 2003, pg 134​) These nuances describe the difficulty of tailoring a               pantry purchasing guide towards UBC’s culturally diverse student population. For the most            effective evaluation, this paper recommends a middle-way, suggesting that we “might settle for a              slightly deeper, albeit imperfect, understanding of culture that is practical enough to be easily              applied yet still potent enough to enhance health education efforts.” (​Kreuter et. al., 2003, pg               135​) ​To achieve this middle-way approach ​four factors will be explored in the results to measure                cultural appropriateness:  1. Cultural identification: What kinds of cultures are present at UBC?  - Qualitative data collected in the form of student quotes 2. Staple foods: What non-perishable foods do students have in their households? - Students were asked to create a list of top 5 non-perishable foods 3. Food Habits & Cultural Identity: Do students feel their food habits align with their              cultural identity? - Students were asked whether they agree or disagree that their food habits align             with their cultural identity 4. Access: Do students have access to culturally appropriate foods? - Students were asked if they felt they had access to culturally appropriate foods, if              yes, where? If no, why not?  3.2 Food Literacy and Emergency Preparedness   Due to the interdependency of food literacy and food resilience as well as the goals of                cross-analyzing data from the two sections, only surveys that were 100% complete were selected              to be analyzed for this section. This reduced selection biased, maintained consistency, and             allowed for complete analysis of the two sections together. Of the 203 survey responses, 135               were completed (n=135) and 69 were partially completed (n=69). Food literacy levels were             assessed based on students’ food education history and compared to the entire survey population              to gauge where students are today in terms of food knowledge. Food resiliency was analyzed by                asking students about their current emergency food preparedness. This report and assessment            focused on student’s preparedness as this showcases their ability to absorb and adapt to a shock.                A greater level of emergency preparedness would allow one to be better able to absorb a shock                  12   and therefore be more resilient. As this is mainly preliminary research for a larger project,               quantitative data analysis was done within Google Sheets to quantify and categorize the results              of the survey.  3.3 Analyzing Gaps in Pre-Existing Guides   Another section of the project was to do an environmental scan of current emergency              pantry purchasing guides to identify any gaps and areas of opportunity for the creation and               development of a universal pantry purchasing guide for the context of the UBC community.              Seven emergency pantry guides were gathered, collected, and analyzed for potential gaps by             comparing and contrasting the guides along with the Chi Square statistical tests and calculations.  Pantry Guide Number Organization Name One Canadian Red Cross Food Friday: How to stock your disaster pantry Two The New York Times Stocking your pantry, the right way Three Canned Food Alliance What should your emergency pantry look like Four  US Homeland Security Ready - Suggested Emergency Food Supplies Five City of Vancouver Make an Emergency Kit Six  Health Canada Food for Emergencies Seven HealthLink BC Preparing for an Emergency Figure 2: Table showcases the seven emergency pantry guides found through an environmental scan and  used when identifying and measuring for gaps and areas of opportunity. To identify any accessibility gaps an environmental scan of close and local grocery stores was               done on the UBC campus and investigated three locations; Save-On-Foods (UBC Location),            H-Mart, and the AMS Grocery Store. Price calculations were done using products from             Save-On-Foods as examples. Save-On-Foods was used due to the fact that (1) it is close in                 13   proximity to the UBC Vancouver campus and does not pose a spatial accessibility barrier, (2) it                has more variety to its products compared to the other spatially close grocery stores on campus,                H-Mart and the AMS Grocery Store.  6. Results 6.1 Cultural Identification:  The data revealed that the majority of the survey demographic held Canadian citizenship.              However, 37% (n=42) of Canadian respondents identified as Canadian and another nationality.            Figure 3 shows the different nationalities represented in the survey, and provides an idea of the                ratio of Canadians to non-Canadians that partook in the survey. While this provides adequate              data, students’ cultural identification is more relevant to cultural appropriateness because it            exemplifies the difference between nationality and culture. It is identifiable that even within a              large group of people who hold Canadian citizenship and who identify with Canadian culture, a               large number of subcultures are also present. As an example, below are some quotes from               respondents who culturally identified as Canadian in one way or another. The question asked              was: how do you identify culturally?               14              Nationalities Number of Respondents Notes Brazil 1 *note: The total is 196 which is larger than the number of respondents (n=148) due to the fact that many respondents have more than one nationality and therefore selected more than one option. Of the 113 Canadians, 42 identified asCanadian​ as well as one or more other nationalities.   These are the nationalities listed from the 24 respondents that selected the “other” option.  Pakistan Colombia Sri Lanka Italy South Africa Argentina Egypt Netherlands Canada 113 China 13 Germany 2 Hong Kong 4 India 4 Indonesia 1 Iran 5 Japan 2 Malaysia 1 Mexico 1 Nigeria 0 South Korea 5  15   UK 8 Vietnam Kenya Bermuda Taiwan Denmark Madagascar Portugal Thailand Ireland USA 14 Other 22 Total: 196 Figure 3: Demographic of Nationalities  The quotes below are by students who identified as non-Canadian, these are their responses when asked how they identify culturally.               6.2 Staple Foods  16   Students were asked what 5 non-perishable foods they always have in their households.             The data revealed that there was consistency throughout the responses resulting in an ordered list               of the 10 most prominent non-perishable foods that students had in their households.   Non-Perishable Food  Percentage of Students  (n=148) Pasta/Noodles 85% Rice 59% Beans 40% Soup 28% Chickpeas 17% Canned Tomato 16% Canned Tuna 15% Peanut Butter 14% Corn 12% Flour 12% Figure 4: Non-perishable Foods Listed by Students  6.3  Food Habits & Cultural Identity  It may be the case that while students are culturally diverse, their food habits might not                align with their culture identification. This was an important point to investigate, as it informed               us whether students felt that the items they listed in the survey are foods that they associate with                  their culture or not. The statement was ​“I believe that my food habits align with my cultural                 identity” ​and students were given the option on a scale of 1-7. These options were strongly                agree, somewhat agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, somewhat disagree, and            strongly disagree. Eighty-two percent (n= 105) of the respondents who answered this question             agreed that their food habits aligned with cultural identity, 9% (n= 12) of participants neither               agreed or disagreed, and 9% (n=11) either disagreed or strongly disagreed.  17   6.4 Access Students were asked whether they have access to culturally appropriate foods or not.             Eighty-five percent (n= 123) of students stated that they do have access while 15% (n= 21) of                 students stated they did not. Students who responded “no” were asked to describe why they did                not have access. Seven students stated that culturally appropriate stores were “too expensive”.             While eight students stated that these stores were “too far”. Finally, some students expressed that               their specific dietary needs were not met by Vancouver’s stores. For example, one student stated               that ​“Kosher options are limited” and that they were “very surprised to see no holiday specific                foods during the holidays here”. Another student stated that they have to go to speciality stores in                 order to find ingredients for “common African dishes” which are too far or expensive.  6.5 Cultural Appropriateness Students were asked whether they found nine generic pantry purchasing guide items            culturally appropriate or not. This question was accompanied by a graphic our research team              made of these nine pantry items (see Appendix Image 1). 84% (n= 112) of students deemed these                 pantry items culturally appropriate. 16% (n= 21) of students deemed the guide as culturally              inappropriate. Those who expressed that the guide was culturally appropriate explained that it             met “halal, vegetarian, pescetarian, and celiac” needs. One student expressed that it is “easy to               blend different ingredients to make culturally appropriate       foods”. Another student mentioned the “​items listed are        fairly general and can be diversified.” Interestingly, one        student stated that “in an emergency, eating cultural foods         is not [their] priority”. For those who disagreed with the          appropriateness of the guide, they mentioned that “all the         foods seem quite Western” and that they “could not make          authentic meals” as many of their cultures relied on “fresh          produce and meat”. Using a Chi   Squared test, we   found that there is no correlation      between students’ national   identities and their opinions on     the cultural appropriateness of    this pantry purchasing guide.    Among the 133 respondents who answered this       question, 51 identified as Canadia, 34 identified as         18   Canadian and another nationality, and 27 did not identify as Canadian. After completing the              calculation, there was no statistical significance between students’ national         identity and their opinion on the cultural appropriateness of the 9 items on the              pantry guide shown in the survey.  Reasons expressed as to why the nine common pantry guide products varied and             can be displayed in figure 6, but 43% (n=33) of individuals found the common pantry guide                products to be foods that they already consumed on a daily basis, only 17% (n=13) of individuals                 directly referenced the foods as being culturally appropriate for their culture, and 5% (n=4)              perceive the products take into consideration their dietary restrictions. 6.6  Food Literacy  Students were asked to indicate their level of food literacy through a series of questions               that reflected habits of food literate individuals. First, students were asked to indicate how often               they cook for themselves each week.      When asked “Have you ever learned      about Food, Nutrition and Cooking     or been part of a food literacy       workshop?”, 73.33% of respondents    reported they had (n=99). A     followup question of where students     had learned this, 40.0% (n=54)     reported previously learning about    nutrition in highschool or from     family, 17.78% (n=24 ) expressed     learning through online platforms,    and 12.59% (n=17 ) mentioned learning about       food literacy, cooking, or nutrition through      UBC. Of the 17 students who reported learning through UBC, 13 identified as being in the                Faculty of Land and Food Systems.  When asked “Typically after I cook for myself, I am full/satisfied”, 70.37% of students              reported “Strongly Agree” (n=12) or “Agree”. Students were then asked how often they cook for               themselves during the week which provided an almost even distribution of results as shown in               Figure 7. 6.7 Student Food Resiliency 6.7. 1 Preparedness Students were questioned about various aspects relating to their emergency preparedness           and resiliency. To begin respondents were asked about their confidence with their current food               19   supplies. When asked, 86.13% (n=118) of students believe they could sustain themselves for             three days with just the food in their home at this moment; however, when asked about one week                  instead of three days this number changed to 50.36% (n=69) of students believing they could               sustain themselves with the food they have in their cupboards. Furthermore, when asked about              sustaining oneself for three days then one week the response rate for those unsure increased from                7.30% (n=10) to 19.71% (n=27) and for those responding no from 5.84% (n=8) to 29.20%               (n=40). The survey then continued to ask those that         answered they had enough food to sustain       themselves for one week how healthy they would        consider those food options. Students responded      with 0% choosing Very Unhealthy, 16.79% (n=23)       Unhealthy, 7.30% (n=10) Unsure, 24.09% (n=33)      Healthy and finally 2.19% (n=3) Very Healthy.       Finally, the survey questioned students about how       prepared they feel, with the food in their house at          this time for an emergency situation. Those that        responded Not Prepared made up 4.38% (n=6) of the         sample size, 36.50%(n=50) chose Somewhat     Unprepared, 31.39% (n=44) chose Somewhat     Prepared, and 16.79% (n=23) chose Prepared. These       numbers showcase students' current position with      their emergency food preparedness.    6.8 Access Options Students were asked to select all options they would likely utilize to access food in case                of emergency. Of the 135 responses, there were        326 votes, with 68.6% (n=94) of respondents       selecting more than one option. Accessing their       own emergency food supply received 27.61%      (n=90) of the choices. Reaching out to family        received 12.88% (n=42) of responses, while      reaching out to friends received 11.66% (n=38)       and reaching out to roommates received 8.59%        20   (n=28) of responses. The most selected option was adjusting one’s diet with 31.28% (n=102) of               responses. This could mean adjusting how much one        eats, as well as adjusting to eat food they may not           usually consume. Finally, only 7.98% (n=26)      responders would consider accessing food banks. After we learned where student’s would access food in case of an emergency without               grocery stores, they were asked to select where they had been accessing food during the               COVID-19 Pandemic. The most popular response was Grocery Stores with 91.24% (n=125) of             votes, followed by Independent Grocers or Farmers Markets with 5.11% (n=7), Online Shopping             (through store or on food delivery) receiving 2.92% (n=4). When asked why they decided to shop there during COVID-19, 47.45% (n=65)            responded with “convenience” being their number one factor with responses such as            “​Convenient and has asian food”​. Distance being the second most important with 20.44%             (n=28) of total responses with responses such as “​Close proximity to home”​. Price showed to be                important for 13.14% (n=18) of students with responses such as “​They have food in bulks and                it’s cheaper “ ​and familiarity and safety both received 2.92% (n=4) of total responses with               responses such as “​Consistency: I always accessed these same grocery stories before the             pandemic” and “Safety because I live with someone immuno-comprimised”​. These data points            showcase student’s access and preferred options for access during emergency situations. 6.9 The Gaps in Pantry Purchasing Guides When comparing and contrasting the seven emergency pantry purchasing guides, all were            observed to be text heavy and had little to no visual component to describe or represent the                 various pantry products. In the context of the food products and nutrition, pantry guides provided               the same common foods with not much variation or nuance and nine common foods among the                seven pantry guides could be distinguished and is used throughout for analysis in the survey,               however, the pantry guides provided examples for each food group and one of the pantry guides                directly showcased and listed foods through categorizing them into the different foods groups. In the context of finding gaps in affordability, it was found that 33% of UBC students                spent more than 55$ CAD per week on groceries. A study conducted in the United States found                 individuals on average visit the grocery store 1.5 times per week (Wilkinson, 2017). The              following nine common pantry guide products were picked and their price and amount is              tabulated to calculate a price range in order to measure for gaps in affordability.  Product Price Amount Catelli Healthy Harvest Grain Rotini Pasta $3.49 375 g  21   Western Family Long Grain Brown Rice $5.49 1.81 kg Western Family Mixed Veggies, Canned $1.49 398 mL Western Family Chopped Mixed Nuts $3.29 125 g Del Monte Fruit Cocktail in Fruit Juice $3.19 398 mL Adams Creamy Peanut Butter $4.99  500 g Quaker Oats Regular Instant Oatmeal $3.99 280 mL Campbell’s Tomato Soup $1.09 284 mL Made Good Granola Bars Sweet and Salty $4.99 5 Pack Figure 10: This table showcases the representative nine common products found on seven different pantry               purchasing guides and their prices, in CAD, and amount found at the UBC Save-On-Foods location If students were to buy all nine of the common products on each weekly visit (1 – 2 visits                   for an average of 1.5) the price range of all the items summed would be $32.01 CAD - $64.02                   CAD. It can be observed in figure 9 that a          combined 90% (n=121) of participants would fall       into that price range when buying food products at         grocery stores, results indicate that common pantry       purchasing products are generally affordable.  There were an additional three criteria to assess the         overall usefulness and areas of gaps that pantry        purchasing guides may have had; pantry guide is        universal in the sense that it can used in a multitude           of state of emergencies, pantry guide takes into        consideration and provides advice on how to       prepare/ use foods when fuel source and energy is not          available, and pantry guide provides information on how        to best utilize food products to ensure individuals are consuming meals. There was high              variability among the seven pantry guides in these specific criteria as only one pantry guide met                all three points which is tabulated below.  Pantry Guide 1 Pantry Guide 2 Pantry Guide 3 Pantry Guide 4 Pantry Guide 5 Pantry Guide 6 Pantry Guide 7  22   Universality Yes No  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Fuel Source Consideration Yes No  Yes Yes No Yes Yes Meal Planning No Yes No No No Yes No  Figure 12: Table describing the seven pantry guides and the gaps in three different criteria; universality, fuel source consideration, and meal planning. Majority of the emergency pantry guides used are universal and its products were             tailored and listed to fit most emergencies as stated by the pantry guides themselves. Majority of                pantry guides also provide alternatives and considerations when fuel source is not available.             However, there is a gap of providing information of utilizing products to make a meal as only                 two pantry guides satisfy this criteria. A larger gap found from the survey is the knowledge and perception of pantry purchasing               guides themselves. Only 8% (n=11) of participants knew what a pantry purchasing guide was              and had heard of them before participating in the survey. Participants were also asked if they                thought a pantry purchasing guide is a useful tool that you would use and 24% (n=32) found                 pantry purchasing guides to not be useful citing a multitude of reasons that cannot directly be                grouped into common themes. 7. Discussion 7.1 Cultural Identification, Staple Foods, Identity & Access ​To be able to accurately measure and evaluate our food suggestions, we must know               who’s culture we are representing and recommend foods in which we can ensure access and               affordability. In order to do this, we must gain insight from UBC students on four crucial points:                 how they culturally identify, what emergency foods they have in their households, whether their              food habits identify with their cultural identity, and whether they have access to these foods.  Our results revealed many subcultures within each culture, as shown with the examples             of students identifying as Canadian. An oversimplification would be to recommend generic            Canadian foods for a Canadian identifying group of students. However, Canadian culture            includes ​Métis, Scottish, Korean, Baha'i, Christian, and many other individuals. Due to this             cultural complexity, we must ​allow students to decipher for themselves what culturally            appropriate foods mean to them. This requires an understanding of what food preferences             students have and whether they identify these food habits with their cultural identity.   23   Students do feel that their cultural identity aligns with their food habits, due to the fact                that 82% (n= 105) o​f students agreed to this claim, while 9% (n=12) students neither agreed nor                 disagreed and 9% (n=11) of students disagreed. We can conclude that most students feel that               their food habits are representative of their cultural identity. However, it is not clear whether the                list of 10 non-perishable foods listed by students are culturally accurate food preferences.             However, we must acknowledge that our survey demographic may have not been an accurate              representation of UBC’s cultural diversity and therefore we recommended some cultural foods            that went beyond the students’ top 10 recommendations. ​Other items listed by students we              considered were cereal, oats, lentils, nuts, chocolate, coffee, sugar, seaweed, granola, garlic,            olive oil, chips, popcorn, bread, quinoa, soy sauce, quail eggs, and grass jelly. Aside from asking                students what their food preferences are, we must understand their accessibility. While 84%             (n=112) of students had access, ​16% (n= 21) ​of students indicated that they do not have access to                  culturally appropriate foods mainly due to a far location or because foods are too expensive.               Recommending foods for those who do not have access becomes a more difficult endeavour.              This raises an important note that was mentioned in a previous SEEDS report, on whether “the                university should be actively providing culturally appropriate food, or instead, should simply            facilitate the access to culturally appropriate food”. (​Brinkman, Wu, Sheehan, Yang & Bazza,             2015​). This discussion point leads to a recommendation for potential future action UBC can take,               which is discussed below.  Based on the results, it is evident that cultural appropriateness is a topic that requires               continuous study of a demographic to ensure an understanding of its cultural depth. ​The              literature review indicates that creating culturally appropriate food recommendations and access           to these foods are vital to students’ social, financial, and mental wellbeing. In an emergency               situation, mental, social, and financial health is already in jeopardy as we have witnessed with               COVID-19; therefore, it is crucial to help mitigate the added effects that students of varying               cultural groups will face due to the lack of culturally appropriate foods. However, one important               result was from a student who deemed that their priority would not be seeking out culturally                appropriate food in an emergency situation. For the context of this project, this is an important                note to consider and could lead to a larger emphasis on nutritional adequacy as well as                affordability rather than cultural appropriateness.  7.2 Food Literacy & Emergency Preparedness The COVID-19 Pandemic has shown students how quickly an emergency can occur. It             also gave students the opportunity to check their emergency preparedness and food system             resilience as they had to take reactive actions as described by Tendall (2015). With 78% (n=107)                of students rating their preparedness between somewhat prepared, somewhat unprepared and           unsure, it is clear there is a lack of confidence in emergency preparedness, or simply a lack of                  understanding. As described by Tendall (2015), a resilient food system is one with the ability to                 24   absorb the shock and react to the shock. If students are not prepared for an emergency, they will                  be less able to absorb and react; therefore, making their individual food system less resilient.               These reactive actions largely rely on one’s ability to adapt following a shock. However, one’s               adaptive capacity can be linked to various factors such as income or knowledge (Toth, 2015).               According to the data collected regarding food storage, the majority of students (n= 118) have               food in their home to sustain themselves for 3 days, yet the majority of students did not identify                  as prepared for an emergency. Though they have food available they may not feel the ability to                 adapt in case of emergency and absorb the shock. When students were asked to sustain               themselves one week, 69 felt they could sustain themselves with the food they have, yet only 23                 students identified as prepared. These students show there may be a disconnect about how to               utilize food in the case of an emergency or they may not be keeping food that is suitable for full                    nutritious meals. One’s ability to adapt to an emergency greatly depends on their knowledge of nutrition              and food (Toth, 2015). As argued by Toth (2015), a large indicator of one’s capacity to adapt to                  shocks is the ability to change one’s diet. Our results showed 70.37% (n=95) of respondents have                changed their diet as a result of an emergency situation. This ability and knowledge to adapt                one’s diet shows students have a capacity to adapt to emergencies, strengthening their food              system resilience. Additionally, as shown by the data only 24.09% of respondents with food for               one week referred to it as healthy food. This shows there may be a knowledge gap for students in                   regards to the type of food that can be stored for emergencies. If students are mainly storing                 unhealthy food items to access during an emergency, this will likely lower one’s confidence to               sustain themselves through an emergency. Furthermore, if students are only storing food that is              not nutritious, their ability to restore their food system will change. Food literacy and a               knowledge of food will strengthen one’s individual food system resilience (Truman, 2017). It is              clear students can still strengthen their food system resilience by becoming better prepared and              taking more preventative action. The results show the majority of students are interested in              becoming better prepared as 60.59% (n=83) of respondents stated they would be somewhat             likely or extremely likely to create their own emergency food supply following COVID-19. Based on our results, it is clear that most university students at the University of British                Columbia start university with some level of food literacy knowledge. This result was further              proven as 70.37% of students stated that they were often satisfied after preparing meals for               themselves. Food preparations and eating habits are indicators of food literacy and security and              proper food intake is integral to optimally living a healthy lifestyle. There is however still               improvement as 30% of students do not agree that they are satisfied after they cook for                themselves. Comparably, very few students reported that they continued to learn about food             literacy, nutrition, cooking etc. at UBC throughout their degree (n=17). Additionally, 13 of these              17 students were members of the Faculty of Land and Food systems which requires food systems                education as part of degree requirements. As few students in other faculties had accessed food               literacy education at UBC, it can be seen there is a gap in food systems education through UBC                   25   resources outside of class settings. It is important to note that as many university students are                living independently or cooking for themselves for the first time, food education and intervention              should be a top priority to enforce proper well being among university students. Furthermore,              food literacy intervention within the wider population of UBC could supplement food resiliency             to ensure preparedness in uncertain situations. As the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated,            people are subject to adjust their regular behaviour in times of emergency. With 70.37% (n=95)               students surveyed saying they had to change the way they eat, and 61.48% (n= 83) saying they                 changed the way they did their grocery shopping, it is clear that the majority of students faces                 large lifestyle changes in response to the pandemic. Future preparation and education on how to               adjust to similar events or future emergencies can protect students from distress. 7.3 The Effectiveness of Pantry Purchasing Guides From the results it is concluded that participants found the common nine products on              current pantry purchasing guides to be culturally appropriate as observed from the results in              figure 5. There are a multitude of reasons as to why that is the case, including, the fact that the                    current seven pantry guides observed do not provide specific products and are described as              common, general, and basic which potentially allows readers to interpret pantry purchasing            guides to suit their dietary habits, restrictions and needs as seen in the data from figure 6. A larger issue arises with the perception and knowledge of what pantry purchasing guides              are and whether or not students at the UBC Vancouver campus find such guides useful. A pantry                 guide created should be much more nuanced and fill in the gaps and areas of opportunity by                 providing information about actually utilizing the food products.  7.4 Areas of improvement within the Study Possible weaknesses of this study was the potential for a bias sample within the Faculty               of Land and Food systems. As all of the researchers are members of the Global Resources                program, outreach was centred mainly around that faculty and major. However, the final             demographic represented in the sample resembles a similar distribution of faculties across UBC             and we are therefore confident that this has no direct effect on results. Contrarily, as this project                 is aimed at all UBC students, there was a significant lack of graduate student representation as 3                 completed the survey. This could be due to all researchers being undergraduate students and              utilizing undergraduate resources for outreach. Furthermore, questions included on the survey           were not labeled as mandatory to answer in order to continue, leaving some responses with gaps                and therefore excluding some responses from being analyzed for different sections of the overall              project. This led to different responses being analyzed for each section of the project which may                cause potential inconsistencies with results.  26   8. Recommendations 8.1 Recommendations for future research This report gives general information and preliminary data on the current level of food              literacy and food resiliency among UBC students. Further in depth research surrounding the             correlations between student faculty/major and food literacy education should be done to            determine the strengths of associations. We further suggest one-on-one interviews in order to             receive a better understanding of students’ experiences with food education as well as to better               evaluate their food resiliency. Additionally, further research should be conducted to see where             the gaps are between student’s food literacy and their emergency preparedness. As we have              recognized, some students have the food available for an emergency yet still feel unprepared, we               recommend further research to see what is causing this feeling of unpreparedness. We also              recommend this research is conducted from students at different levels of their education at              UBC, ranging from first year to graduate students. As graduate students were not widely              represented in this data, we highly suggest emphasizing future research on their needs as all As                well, further research could be done to examine if a pantry purchasing guide is an effective                method of disseminating information about culturally appropriate, healthy, and affordable foods           which increase food resiliency and literacy. 8.2 Recommendations for Future Action From this research we have been able to locate some potential knowledge gaps for UBC               students. These gaps could be filled through various programming, workshops or distributional            material. Most importantly this work must be preventative, it is vital for any education to be                proactive in nature and occur prior to another emergency. As a limited number of students have                access to food literacy education at UBC, we suggest new programming is implemented for              students from each discipline. These interventions could occur for all first year residence             students as part of a mandatory course. Having these programs be included in first year               curriculum will ensure students consider the possibility of emergencies and their options            throughout their undergrad and not only when they are in the midst of an emergency.               Additionally, we suggest the usage of distributional material. The research team has created a              Pantry Purchasing Guide that can be utilized by UBC students to recognize food options that are                suitable to store in their homes in case of emergencies; the guide includes foods with long shelf                 lives, proper nutrition, affordably priced and items that are culturally appropriate to the UBC              community. Material such as a pantry purchasing guide can be widely available to students and               made easily accessible to students. Our largest recommendation is to further educate students             about emergency preparedness and filling the gap between food literacy and food resiliency by              providing education within residences, clubs and other communication methods that does not             27   rely on the segregation between faculties. Additionally, it is positive that the majority of              respondents felt they have access to culturally appropriate foods. However, for those who did              not, UBC must decide whether they will begin to facilitate access to these stores or if they will                  decide to directly provide this culturally appropriate food on campus. This detail needs             investigation in order for proper evaluation of culturally appropriate food on campus. 9. Conclusion  In summary, the results show that UBC students have a general knowledge surrounding             food literacy and recognize the need for emergency preparedness, however, most respondents            recognized they did not feel prepared for an emergency which indicated the need to connect food                literacy and food resiliency among students.The current state of emergency due to COVID-19             has highlighted the importance and need for students to be prepared and educated in order to                sustain oneself in unprecedented times.UBC is a vital tool and resource in student’s food literacy               and food resiliency education. Through active programming, UBC has the opportunity to create a              wide range of interventions with the goal to enhance student food literacy and therefore building               individual food system resilience in times of emergency.  Overall, with cultural and cultural appropriateness being difficult concepts to define, it is             best that UBC offers food recommendations by specifying and researching which cultural            demographics they are attempting to tailor their recommendations to. UBC should also be asking              these demographics what food they consider culturally appropriate, in order to avoid            generalization and accurately provide foods that students deem culturally appropriate. UBC is a             vital tool and resource in student’s food literacy and food resiliency education.  Additionally, this study finds that the emergency pantry guides observed do not have a              gap in the context of cultural appropriateness, nutrition and affordability, but in the development              of new emergency pantry purchasing guides, they need to be more nuanced and take into               consideration the needs and current understanding and knowledge of the target demographic       28    References Begley, A., Paynter, E., Butcher, L., & Dhaliwal, S. (2019). Examining the association between food literacy and food insecurity.​ Nutrients, 11​(2), 445. doi:10.3390/nu11020445 Brinkman, D., Wu, D., Sheehan, K., Yang, Y., & Bazza, Z. (2015). Food Preparedness Guide Project Final Report. Retrieved 26 August 2020, from https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/seedslibrary/Food%20Preparedness%20Guide% 0-%20Final%20Report.pdf  Claborn, D. M. (2010). Emergency preparedness of individual students at large state university in missouri. ​Journal of the Institute of Justice and International Studies​, 10(1), 33-44.   Cullen, T., Hatch, J., Martin, W., Higgins, J. W., & Sheppard, R. (2015). Food literacy: Definition and framework for action.​ Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 76​(3), 140-145. doi:10.3148/cjdpr-2015-010 Crowther, G. (2013). ​Eating culture: An anthropological guide to food​.  Fu, M., Manitius, N., Stewart, S., & Tse, F. (2020). UBC Food Vision and Values : Phase 3. Retrieved 26 August 2020, from   Kreuter, M. W., Lukwago, S. N., Bucholtz, R. D., Clark, E. M., & Sanders-Thompson, V. (2003).  Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: targeted and tailored  approaches. ​Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for  Public Health Education​, ​30​(2), 133–146. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198102251021  Mukherjee-Reed, A., & Szeri, A. (2019). 2018/19 Annual Enrolment Report. Retrieved from https://academic.ubc.ca/sites/vpa.ubc.ca/files/documents/2018-19 Enrolment Report.pdf  N I Teufel, Development of culturally competent food-frequency questionnaires, ​The American  Journal of Clinical Nutrition​, Volume 65, Issue 4, April 1997, Pages 1173S–1178S,  https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/65.4.1173S   29   Tanner, A., & Doberstein, B. (2015). Emergency preparedness amongst university students. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction,​ ​13​, 409-413. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.08.007  Tarasuk, V. (2005). Household Food Insecurity in Canada. ​Topics in Clinical Nutrition,​ ​20​(4), 299-312. doi:10.1097/00008486-200510000-00003  Tendall, D., Joerin, J., Kopainsky, B., Edwards, P., Shreck, A., Le, Q., . . . Six, J. (2015). Food system resilience: Defining the concept. ​Global Food Security,​ ​6​, 17-23. doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2015.08.001  Toth, A., Rendall, S., & Reitsma, F. (2015). Resilient food systems: A qualitative tool for measuring food resilience. ​Urban Ecosystems,​ ​19​(1), 19-43. doi:10.1007/s11252-015-0489-x  Truman, E., Lane, D., & Elliott, C. (2017). Defining food literacy: A scoping review. ​Appetite, 116​, 365-371. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.007  Wilkinson, S. (2017). How My Weekly Grocery Habits Relate to U.S Grocery Shopper Trends. Food Marketing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.fmi.org/blog/view/fmi-blog/2017/07/25/how-my-weekly-grocery-shoppin -habits-relate-to-u.s.-grocery-shopper-trends  Zimmerman, K. A. (2017). What is Culture? ​Technology and Culture,​ ​40​(3a), 623-637. doi:10.1353/tech.1998.0005          30      Appendices Survey Questions    31       32      33      34      35     Image 1  36     Calculations:  Comparing categorical data of students’ national identity and its correlation to their interpretation of how culturally appropriate the guide demonstrated is. Null Hypothesis:​ There is no relationship between national identity and finding the nine common pantry products culturally appropriate Alternative Hypothesis:​ There is a relationship between national identity and finding the nine common pantry product culturally appropriate   Identified as Canadian Identified as Canadian and Another Nationality Did not Identify as Canadian Total Found the Products Culturally Appropriate 51 34 27 112 Did not find the Products Culturally Appropriate  9 5 7 21 Total 60 39 34 133  est Statistic x ) ) .. ) .876T =  2 = Σ( expected valueobserved value − expected value)2= ( 50.5251−50.52 2 + ( 32.8434−32.84 2 + . + ( 5.367−5.36 2 = 0  ritical V alue is at degrees of  f reedom 2 and alpha level of  5% 5.991 on the Chi Square T ableC =    37   Critical Value is greater than the Test Statistic, therefore, our null hypothesis is true  Promotional Material and Survey Advertisement              Image 2      38    Image 3  39      Final Exam  40 

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