UBC Undergraduate Research

The UBC Aquatic Centre Universal Change Rooms Camp, Lana; Scherer, Veronika; Ta, Miranda; Wahl, Max; Wong, Boris 2020-04-02

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         The UBC Aquatic Centre Universal Change Rooms Lana Camp, Veronika Scherer, Miranda Ta, Max Wahl & Boris Wong University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Community, Wellbeing Date: Apr 2, 2020       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  2 Executive Summary  The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding on the students and community members who use the universal change rooms in the Aquatic Centre at the University of British Columbia (UBC), explore how UBC Recreation can better inform the community about the existing universal change rooms, as well as encourage the use of these facilities. Employing quantitative and qualitative research, we would like to gain further insight on the perceptions, attitudes, and level of awareness among UBC students and community members alike towards the universal change rooms implemented in UBC’s Aquatic Centre. We conducted our survey through UBC Qualtrics, which consisted of scaled Likert-type questions and open-ended responses. Sixty-one consenting participants were surveyed about their knowledge and experiences on universal change rooms. The information we gathered will be used by our SEEDs partners in order to improve the experience of using the universal change rooms.  The responses from our survey found that most people were familiar with the purpose and function of universal change rooms and endorsed their usage. Despite this however, only 58.33% of responses knew that the UBC Aquatic Centre had universal change rooms. This could be indicative of unmet needs in the promotion of these facility features. In addition, the majority of respondents indicated their preference for gender specific change rooms as the reason for forgoing the use of universal ones.   Based on our findings, we recommend that our SEEDs partners focus on promoting privacy, proper staff education, community collaboration, as well as targeted promotion directed at populations who are unaware or unfamiliar with universal change rooms. Many responses in the survey also stated that privacy was their biggest concern when using universal change rooms. Accordingly, we believe that it is important to focus advertisement on the current privacy features that are in place, and to implement more individual stalls in the shared space for their users to feel more comfortable. We also endorse the formal education of Aquatics Centre staff, as it is extremely important to ensure that they are confident and comfortable with providing information to any individuals who may want to use the universal change rooms. Additionally, we believe that collaboration with all members of the community is crucial; in particular, those who represent the LGBTQ+ community stand to benefit the most from the proper implementation of universal change rooms, and thus collaboration with them can provide important insights. Lastly, we believe that targeted promotion towards the populations who have the least familiarity with universal change rooms (such as older populations or newly-immigrated community members) would be most beneficial. We are confident that the universal change rooms can be further improved if these recommendations are taken carefully considered and implemented.             3 Introduction and Literature Review  As we continue to explore the idea of having a safe space for everyone, one of the biggest problems that UBC faces as an institution is providing space for people to feel comfortable with themselves - this includes people's use of change rooms on campus. While there are universal change rooms on campus (for example in the UBC Aquatic Centre), the main challenge is spreading word about these facilities. By removing knowledge barriers and promoting their availability, people will be empowered to be physically active. The necessity of universal change rooms has been an on-going problem; however, research as to how they could be implemented hasn’t existed until recently. In a 2017 study done by Jones, Arcelus, Bouman & Haycraft, it was found that every participant in the study (n=12) cited the reason that they, as individuals undergoing transition, didn't participate in sport was due to the nature of the facilities in athletic centres. The participants stated that changing in public areas caused them discomfort on top of the social pressures involved with conforming to the norms enforced by single-gendered washrooms. Those in transition were more comfortable changing in private rooms to avoid judgement, though this caused them to feel isolated from their team. (Jones, Arcelus, Bouman & Haycraft, 2017). A strong suggestion from the study noted that more safe spaces must be made accessible in order to increase diverse participation in sport.  Similarly, in the article Trans* Issues for Colleges and Universities: Records, Housing, Restrooms, Locker Room and Athletics by Troy J. Perdue, students reportedly felt exclusion, judgement, and discomfort when using the change rooms provided. These results were mirrored in Hargie, Mitchell, and Somerville’s 2015 interview study into the sport and physical activity experience of ten transgender athletes, which found three subthemes that contribute to a fear or reluctance to use traditional, gendered changing rooms in a communal setting: fear of social rejection exacerbated by unfamiliarity with unspoken locker room etiquette, fear of offending or violating the sensibilities of others, and the agonizing experience of being forced to reject their true identity when required to use changing rooms of their natal sex. In the same study, interviewees reported a marked absence of what they perceived as the social, health, and wellbeing benefits of sport participation, owing to physical and mental detriments experienced as a result of exclusion in public  4 sporting spaces (Hargie et al., 2015). Together, these studies give credence to the fact that most institutions do not have clear policies in regards to the use of change rooms for the transgender community, resulting in discomfort and discouragement of involvement sport. Many locker rooms do not provide the same amount of private space as compared to restrooms, especially for those who are worried about privacy. With universal change rooms, the design and implementation must be congruent to all variety of users, ensuring that the space provides safety, privacy, and accessibility to everyone. Universal change rooms are starting to be implemented in public areas across Canada. It has resulted in a new design wave for architects and contractors, and the feedback in response to these spaces has started to trickle in. Just as with any architectural project, numerous details must be taken into consideration when designing the layout, functionality, and even the aesthetics of universal change rooms. After considering a multitude of variables, one thing remains true regardless of the age, fitness level, or reason behind recreation for sports participants: they will all need to use the locker rooms before and after their activity in some capacity.  Alongside the aspect of inclusivity of a space for any gender, the universal locker rooms are often used by families with many children. Young children tend to require assistance with changing, showering, and using the washroom. Universal change rooms allow parents to get ready with their children without worry. In addition, those who require special assistance or the use of caregivers are able to access these facilities easily. Strathcona County, an area on the outskirts of Edmonton, Alberta had conducted a survey about their pool’s universal change rooms. The feedback from the facility’s users shows that the majority of the people (67%) feel that “their needs were met somewhat well or very well” by the changerooms (Strathcona County, 2017, p. 2). Complaints were mostly due to a glass wall that allowed for light but not privacy. As this space is used by a variety of members, the design needs to allow for this difference. Of the people giving feedback, many cited that they use the change rooms with their children who are too young to be alone. They claimed that the changing stalls were too small for this type of use. It should be noted that the majority of the people preferred the concept of universal change rooms, however, wished that the facility would better accommodate the specific needs of the range of people using the space (Strathcona County,  5 2017). The overwhelming majority of feedback was about expanding the size of the change rooms and showers to make them easier for families to use (Strathcona County, 2017). This is something that designers may not have thought about since much of the talk around universal change rooms is focused on the trans community and ensuring privacy. UBC’s Aquatic Centre first opened in January 2017 and was one of the first major facilities with universal change rooms in Vancouver (Dick-Agnew, 2018). To accommodate the range of spatial needs, UBC’s change room offers cubicles in a variety of sizes. There are small ones for individuals as well as larger ones for families with children or people who have limited mobility and need assistance (Dick-Agnew, 2018).  Besides the functionality, the aesthetics of a place are often important. What a person sees often shapes their perception of the space (Jursnick, 2019). Many facilities often color-code the space based on the gender they are targeting. Generally, blue-grey-black and deep cool earthy tones are used to signify the Men’s locker room, while white-tan-light grey and warm rosy tones are used in Women’s rooms. In universal rooms, the colors must be neutral and unbiased. The physical appearance is important, but what needs to be taken into consideration is also the durability and maintenance of these materials. The cleaner the space, the better the users feel and the safer they are (Jursnick, 2019). Despite the concerns that need to be addressed in both Strathcona and UBC, the changerooms still received a positive review from its users, with many stating that they were particularly happy with the concept.  There is still some apprehension when it comes to the adoption of universal change rooms. These doubts stem from the issues of privacy, accessibility, and perception of these spaces. The implementation of universal change rooms would help diminish any sense of exclusion toward the transgender community, therefore promoting inclusion and participation in sport. Privacy is a sensitive subject as it involves people in a vulnerable state. Redesigning and improving simple design flaws will generate spaces that are accessible and accommodating to the needs of everyone. As explained in Athletic Business, “members may not use all the fitness equipment or even set foot in the gym, but their experience in the locker rooms will directly impact whether or not they return to the facility” (Jursnick, 2019). By providing a space where all  6 needs are met, a member is more likely to return and promote the facility. An inclusive environment harbors positive feelings. These successes will hopefully aid in the promotion of these spaces in society, encouraging other facilities to follow suit.  Methods  We collected data through questionnaires and surveys via UBC Qualtrics in order to collect the greatest amount of data in the most efficient way. Questionnaires provide a low cost, rapid, and efficient way of obtaining large amounts of information from a large sample of people, and is easily accessible for a large group as it can be completed on any smartphone, laptop or desktop computer.  The questionnaire provided insight on the opinions from those who are a part of the UBC community, and especially those who use the UBC Aquatic Centre. The questionnaire was sent out via social media posts to a minimum of 30 participants. The more participants the better, as we wanted to collect data from a diverse group of people. The survey was anonymous and confidential in order to protect the privacy of the participants. By ensuring anonymity and confidentiality, this potentially helped increase the amount of participation and encouraged participants to give their honest opinions on the subject. The questionnaire included a variety of questions, ranging from Likert-type scaled questions to open written responses. By including open-ended written questions, this allowed for the participants to provide specific information pertaining to the universal change rooms, such as feelings, attitudes and understanding on the topic at hand. The variety of questions provided for more accurate data and a better understanding of each participants’ opinion rather than a simple survey.   The data collected was analyzed in a number of ways. Firstly, the question asked if the participants are aware of the resources located in the UBC Aquatic Centre, specifically in regards to the universal change rooms. The data was split up between yes, no, and unsure answers. These answers were tabulated, giving a percentage of the survey participants as a whole. Then, with the following Likert scale questions, answers were divided up between strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. To conclude the survey, descriptive, opinion-based questions were asked. Open-ended questions consisted of prompts such as: What is your opinion of universal change rooms in general? Have you ever experienced universal change  7 rooms? What were your thoughts? What are some suggestions for universities that are considering universal change rooms?  The survey data was analyzed not only by the answers given, but also by the relationship of the participants to UBC. For example, on the survey, one of the first questions asked if the individual is a student, staff member, community member, or prefer not to say. When the survey period closed, the data collected was sorted by this answer. This way, it would be possible to cross-tabulate the subgroups. The data from each subgroup could then be broken down, similar to the way previously explained. Open-ended responses were analyzed from a qualitative approach and compared to the survey answers that were analyzed quantitatively by content analysis. As these answers were conducted online, we as researchers were unable to ascertain how genuine or thoughtful the responses were due to the lack of body cues or non-verbal signals to inform these interpretations. Despite this, similar responses were grouped together so that any similar trends in subgroups of these answers could be reliably recognized.   Descriptive analysis is an important step for conducting statistical analyses. By using this methodology, the data distribution can be observed. Factors such as outliers, typos, and associations among variables can be determined. With this information, further analyses can be conducted to enhance the study (Stone, 2008). Pie charts, bar graphs, and other graphical aids will help translate this data into a more visually-accessible way. That is, being able to visualize the data will make it easier to detect any patterns, trends and outliers of the data. Results   Over the course of this research study, the survey collected 61 complete responses. The survey included yes/no questions, Likert-scale questions, and open-ended short answers. Of these 61 interactions, 59 reported being affiliated with UBC as a student, 0 as faculty/staff, 1 as a community member, and 1 “other” however no explanation was given. An overwhelming majority of responses were female, as 67.21% identified as female with only 37.79% identifying as male. No responses were reported under the “X” or “prefer not to say” category. This created a binary within the data responses. In the age criteria, 6 responses were from participants of 0-18 years of age while 55 were 19-29 years old. This is typical as most  8 student life at UBC falls between the ages of 19-29. Surprisingly, question 4 (“do you live on campus?”) had very even feedback, with 52.46% claiming yes and 47.54% reporting no. This gave great insight on how the UBC Aquatic Centre impacts students both on and off campus. When asked if they knew what a universal change room is, 95% responded yes; however, when asked if they are aware that UBC’s Aquatic Centre has a universal change room, only 58.33% responded yes, with only 38.33% reporting to previously using UBC Aquatic Centre’s universal change room. This is an indicator of the lack of advertisement and exposure to both the resources and individuals at UBC’s Vancouver Campus.   Among the survey, Likert-scale questions were asked. Questions ranged from opinions of personal use to how beneficial universal change rooms would be for increasing public involvement in physical activity. When asked if having universal change rooms at UBC is important, 71.67% responses favored agree/strongly agree with 23.33% remaining neutral. Only 5% disagreed/strongly disagreed. This shows how students and community members, both male and female, believe that universal change rooms are important. However, when asked about the availability of universal change rooms, 40% of individuals responded that they disagreed/strongly disagreed with the statement that universal change rooms are common in recreational facilities. With this information, it can be concluded that though a large proportion of individuals are aware of the need for universal change rooms, the state of current facilities do not meet this demand.  In addition to these multiple-choice questions, open-ended questions were taken. This qualitative data provided more descriptive statistics, allowing for personal-yet anonymous- answers to be given on a variety of questions regarding universal change rooms. One question asked individuals their opinion on universal change rooms in general. Some answers included, “essential to make everyone safe”, “good for those who do not identify as ‘male’ or ‘female’”, “they promote inclusivity in the community”. Of the feedback, a majority of responses were positive and for universal change rooms. However, some individuals voiced different opinions. Some of this feedback included the notion that “...the proportion of universal change rooms should reflect the proportion of the population who ‘need’ them. The majority of bathrooms should be male/female since it is probably for [sic] efficient, and a small proportion should be universal”.  9 Many responses had a neutral tone, “good for others, does not affect me”, “no opinion really”, “indifferent”, and “... They would not impact my life negatively or positively, they are just the same”. Some responses hinted towards not knowing their use, “... I don’t really know the reasons why we would have them, why can’t we keep it the way it is?”, “I am not sure what an universal change room is, so I do not have an opinion”, and “don’t really know what they're used for”. This variety in responses shows that people are not only opinionated, but can be swayed based on the knowledge, advertisement, and education on the resources available to them around campus. When asked about suggestions for universities considering implementing universal change rooms, responses varied in one-word answers to detailed criticism. Some suggestions included, “better signage to indicate that it is universal and not only for families”, “ensure that privacy is encouraged”, “sanitary”, “implement them in all facilities”, “have them in more locations throughout campus and not just in some spaces”, “spread information about them”, “[putting] in feminine product dispensers”, and many others. One response included, “they are probably good, but, I think it is a waste, and possibly a detriment to make all change rooms 100% universal”. All the feedback will be taken into consideration, as there were numerous responses.  It is difficult to make assumptions or generalizations as this study did not ask more personal questions, such as sexual orientation. There are many factors that are taken into consideration when deciding to implement, advertise, and even utilize universal change rooms. It is important to observe all responses and use a neutral tone to analyze and discuss all data.  Discussion  The purpose of this project was to figure out who knew about universal change rooms and how to use them. According to our data that was collected, 95% of the people surveyed did in fact know what universal change rooms are. This is important to the community as a whole because it assures that the resources invested in and the novel concepts introduced by these spaces are not going unnoticed. Critically, it should also be acknowledged that only 58.33% of the survey participants knew that universal change rooms existed in the UBC Aquatic Center. This quite possibly points at insufficient promotion of these unique spaces on campus. As stated before, the knowledge of these spaces can dramatically promote the  10 use of this space by people belonging to at-risk groups, as these spaces cannot serve the community if community members do not know they exist. As a result of the lack of knowledge of these change room facilities, less than 40% of people have stated they have used the universal change rooms in the aquatic center. Despite nearly half of the sample not knowing that UBC has a universal change room in the aquatic center, 75% of survey-takers stated that they agreed or strongly agreed they knew how these spaces function. Some people have stated that there may be a lack of people who feel comfortable using the space themselves and would prefer to use gender-specific change rooms, however, only about 25% of people surveyed had this opinion with the overwhelming majority saying they were neutral or preferred to use universal change rooms. This suggests that the underuse of the universal change rooms are not because people are uncomfortable with using them. In fact, 31.67% said they agreed and 40% said they strongly agreed that the implementation of universal change rooms at UBC is important. This in addition to the fact that most people stated they would be neutral or more inclined to use universal change rooms when available and that most say they see the benefit of universal change room implementation shows the community support for their existence. However, contrary to what was expected, the individuals stated that they did not think universal change rooms would help them or their friends/family become more active. This discrepancy could be due to a lack of diversity in the sample. Unfortunately, only 38.33% of participants thought that universal change rooms are common in recreational facilities. The take away from these data points is that there is a severe lack of promotion of the healthy spaces UBC has put money into constructing which results in their underuse. This relates to the problem presented by the partner because the issue was that the UBC community is often unaware of what accessibility options already exist at the school. This research outlines that the problem with community communication lies in the lack of advertising of their up-to-date and inclusive facilities. Overall, participants felt the universal change rooms were a good addition to campus which indicates that is not an issue SEEDS has to tackle in terms of promotion and inclusivity education. Reviews were mixed on whether or not participants had used universal change rooms but seemed to be fairly indifferent towards them in regards to their own use. What was interesting was people who suggested the facilities be better advertised, more locations with lots of privacy.  11 This is where SEEDS can make the most difference: educating the community on where these universal change rooms are. Connection to Literature   When looking at the results of our research compared to the literature, there were some discrepancies when looking at people who said they would be more physically active if there were more universal change rooms available. This contradicts Jones, Arcelus, Bouman and Haycraft’s study where they found that transgender or transitioning people would be more inclined to participate in physical activity if there were more safe spaces accessible to people. The participants stated that they would be more comfortable changing in private but also felt more isolated from their team. The results from our study found that participants would still be more inclined to use gender-specific change rooms than universal change rooms.   The results from our survey supported the claim that implementation of universal change rooms is needed, with 72% of participants responding with agree or strongly agree. These results follow the findings of another study conducted by Strathcona County in 2017 found that the majority of people would prefer the concept of universal change rooms, especially family users with young children. The study also found however that the changing stalls in the universal change room were too small and would need to have a bigger space available, a point that is supported by similar responses: i.e., “Have nice big stalls so people don’t feel cramped when changing.” Challenges and Limitations   One challenge we faced while collecting data was our difficulty in successfully recruiting a diverse population of participants for the survey. We were able to easily recruit participants who were our peers, but found it to be much more difficult to be able to recruit other members of the UBC community such as professors and those who identify as part of the LGBTQ+ community. With this being said, a significant limitation to our study related to privacy was that it would be unethical to ask a participant to disclose their sexual orientation. This would have also potentially discouraged participants from completing the survey as they may have felt a lack of privacy by having to disclose such personal information about themselves.  12 In the future, we could address this challenge by promoting survey collection specifically at these communities. Previous studies done have targeted specifically the LGBTQ+ community, whereas our study wanted to gather intel from all members of the community. Promoting these surveys directly to these communities and emphasizing the importance of being able to collect information from those who are a part of this diverse group could potentially encourage more participants to complete the survey. Due to the lack of diversity in our participants for our data collection, our results may not accurately represent the opinions and beliefs of the population who may use the UBC Aquatic Centre or those who would be most inclined to using the universal change rooms in the Aquatic Centre.   Our survey included open-ended questions for the participants to be able to freely express their opinions and thoughts on the questions asked. Though, many of the answers we received varied in level in detail, many of which were written in a very simplistic form to answer the question, or even having some questions left blank for some of the surveys. One way we could address this in the future is to explicitly ask participants to write in detail their responses for the open-ended questions, in order for us to gather the most useful intel for the study. Also, another way to control for this limitation would have been to block incomplete surveys from being submitted, requiring participants to complete all of the questions in the survey.  Recommendations  Promote privacy  Many still have concerns about having to share a change room with all genders, and have a preference of using gender-specific change rooms instead due to privacy reasons as well. Therefore, ensuring that privacy is respected and incorporated correctly is an extremely crucial aspect of the universal change rooms that will likely encourage their use. Many of the responses in our survey indicated that users would be inclined to use universal change rooms if the facilities provided private rooms within the shared space in order to make users feel more comfortable and secure. The suggestion in response to this would be to add more private changing stalls and showers to provide more privacy for all the users. Privacy and safety should be one of the top priorities for the facility and its users and it should be regularly reminded  13 and enforced. This can be accomplished by promotion of privacy using social media advertisement as well as proper education to users explaining the safety and privacy aspects. The promotion would target individuals who may feel uncertain about using the universal change rooms and could potentially change their perspective. Future promotion of the universal change rooms should emphasize the privacy features that are currently in place.  Properly educate and ensure that staff is well informed about any questions about universal change rooms  Many newcomers using the facility and universal change rooms may feel uncomfortable and have many questions about it. By having a well-educated staff that is able to answer any questions and help community members to use the universal change rooms, we can help ensure that the users feel more comfortable and more likely to use the change rooms. Well informed staff will also feel more comfortable with providing information and can feel certain about the information they are providing. As talked about in Troy J. Perdue’s research, many athletes and users of the universal change rooms felt uncomfortable using them. To address this, the staff play a monumental role in clarifying any concerns or questions someone may have about the safety, accessibility and inclusivity of the change rooms, which will likely remove a lot of fears and anxieties associated with using these change rooms.  Collaborate with community members/those who are using the universal change rooms It is vital that our partners collaborate with the community members who can most benefit from the universal change rooms, such as the LGBTQ+ community. The LGBTQ+ community’s opinions and concerns about the universal change rooms is extremely important and something to take into strong consideration. Universal change rooms promote equality and inclusion for all members of a community, and the input from them may provide new insight for the facility to consider when using universal change rooms. They provide a different point of view for the universal change rooms and can suggest changes that the facility should consider. The studies we reviewed all concluded that many institutions do not have clear policies when it comes to the use of change rooms for the transgender community, which is why the accessibility and option to use universal change rooms is so important for inclusivity for every individual  14 using the facility. Collaboration may involve the use of surveys, written suggestions, or monthly open meetings which all members of the community are welcomed.  Target educating and advertising to the population who are least likely to know any information or background on universal change rooms There is still a large population that has little to no knowledge about what universal change rooms are and how they may work. Therefore, by targeting advertisement and potentially further education towards those populations, we could motivate them to use the universal change rooms that are available in the UBC Aquatic Centre. This may include better informing the older generation as they have little to no education on universal change rooms as the implementation and use of them are still fairly new. It is also important to include those who may be new to the community such as immigrants or students who may be studying abroad. By informing more people of the purpose and importance of these change rooms, more community members who had previously perceived barriers to using the aquatic can be involved in physical activity at the Aquatic Centre without experiencing stigma. It is also important to consider who is being targeted with this information of universal change rooms because there may be members of the LGBTQ+ community living as part of the UBC community who do not know this option is available.              15 References  Dick-Agnew, D. (2018). How MJMA Designed the UBC Aquatic Centre's Universal Change Rooms. Retrieved January 26, 2020, from https://www.azuremagazine.com/article/mjma-ubc-aquatic-centre-universal-change-room  Hargie, O. D., Mitchell, D. H., & Somerville, I. J. (2016). ‘People have a knack of making you feel excluded if they catch on to your difference’: Transgender experiences of exclusion in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(2), 223–239. doi: 10.1177/1012690215583283 Jones, B., Arcelus, J., Bouman, W., & Haycraft, E. (2017). Barriers and facilitators of physical activity and sport participation among young transgender adults who are medically transitioning. International Journal Of Transgenderism, 18(2), 227-238. Jursnick, J. (2019). What to Consider When Designing Universal Locker and Changing Rooms. Retrieved January 26, 2020, from https://www.athleticbusiness.com/rec-center/what-to-consider-when-designing-universal-locker-and-changing-rooms.html#lightbox/0/  Perdue, T. J. (2015). Trans* issues for colleges and universities: Records, housing, restrooms, locker rooms, and athletics. Journal of College and University Law, 41(1), 45-70. Stone, H., Sidel, J., Oliver, S., Woolsey, A., & Singleton, R. C. (2008). Sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis. Descriptive Sensory Analysis in Practice, 28, 23-34. Strathcona County (2017). Universal change room feedback. 1-25. https://www.strathcona.ca/files/files/universal-change-room-survey-report-2017.pdf   16 Appendices    17   18   19   20   21  


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