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Campus Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment : Phase 1B Devisscher, Tahia; Almas, Andrew 2020-05-31

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report Campus Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment: Phase 1BUniversity of British ColumbiaUFOR 101 Themes: Land, Biodiversity, ClimateDate: May 31, 2020 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. TABLE OF CONTENTS URBAN FOREST INVENTORY AND ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................... 1 URBAN FORESTRY INVENTORY REPORT GROUP 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 4 GROUP 2 ............................................................................................................................................. 15 GROUP 3 ............................................................................................................................................. 28 GROUP 4 ............................................................................................................................................. 34 GROUP 5 ............................................................................................................................................. 45 GROUP 6 ............................................................................................................................................. 56 GROUP 7 ............................................................................................................................................. 63 GROUP 8 ............................................................................................................................................. 73 GROUP 9 ............................................................................................................................................. 87 GROUP 10 ......................................................................................................................................... 101 GROUP 11 ......................................................................................................................................... 113 ECOSYSTEM SERVICE ASSESSMENT GROUP 1 ........................................................................................................................................... 126 GROUP 2 ........................................................................................................................................... 142 GROUP 3 ........................................................................................................................................... 153 GROUP 4 ........................................................................................................................................... 172 GROUP 5 ........................................................................................................................................... 199 GROUP 6 ........................................................................................................................................... 252 GROUP 7 ........................................................................................................................................... 265 GROUP 8 ........................................................................................................................................... 282 GROUP 9 ........................................................................................................................................... 318 GROUP 10 ......................................................................................................................................... 333 GROUP 11 ......................................................................................................................................... 371 * See next page for a map of every group's siteMap	showing	eleven	student	group	zones	distributed	across	the	Phase	1B	area	allocated	for	UFOR	101	in	2020.	UBC	Campus	view	retrieved	from	ArcGIS	online	basemap.		2020	Dr	Tahia	Devisscher									Dr	Andrew	Almas	Faculty	of	Forestry								The	University	of	British	Columbia	5/31/2020	Urban	Forest	Inventory	&	Assessment	1URBAN	FOREST	INVENTORY	AND	ASSESSMENT	EXECUTIVE	SUMMARY	Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment (UFOR 101) addresses 1) the need to teach students about urban forest structure, composition, and distribution, and how these influence the ecosystem services and benefits urban forests provide, and 2) the need for a sound overview and valuation of urban forest resources on UBC campus. UFOR 101 was implemented for the first time in 2019. This year, it involved 62 first-year students in the Bachelor of Urban Forestry program and ran from January 9th to April 8th, 2020. The course introduced the students to a range of methods and tools for urban forest inventory and assessment. Moreover, it discussed how inventories and assessments are integrated into the planning and management of urban forests, with real implications for the urban forests on UBC campus. The work conducted by UFOR 101 students provides important information to support the campus greening strategy led by UBC Campus & Community Planning (UBC C&CP). In addition to UBC C&CP, other key stakeholders who contributed to UFOR 101 included UBC Information Technology and UBC Botanical Garden, whose horticulture students, under Egan Davis, contributed accompanying data on the understory. The collaboration was coordinated by the UBC SEEDS program with the intention to repeat this initiative on a yearly basis. During 2020, the work focused on a specific area of campus referred to as Phase 1B (see map below). In subsequent years, students will be working in different areas of campus until eventually urban forest data will have been gathered for the entire UBC campus. The UFOR 101 course involved four modules, two major group assignments, and final group presentations of all the work. For the first assignment, students planned and implemented a basic urban tree inventory working in small groups of five to six students. The final product of the assignment presents a comprehensive overview of the inventory data, analysis of the data, and the process used to collect it. All eleven inventory reports produced by the students are attached to this document.  The second assignment comprised an ecosystem service assessment. Working in the same groups, students assessed the ecosystem services provided by their selected urban forest area using the inventory data collected in the first assignment. They used different ecosystem services assessment tools and methods, including i-Tree Eco, i-Tree Canopy, and Value Mapping. Findings of the ecosystem services assessments are used to make recommendations to UBC C&CP. The eleven reports of the ecosystem services assessment and planning recommendations are attached to this document.To access tree and landscape data for UBC, please go to github.com/UBCGeodata2Map	showing	eleven	student	group	zones	distributed	across	the	Phase	1B	area	allocated	for	UFOR	101	in	2020.	UBC	Campus	view	retrieved	from	ArcGIS	online	basemap.		3Urban Forestry Inventory Report UFOR 101Group 1Rebecca Cai JinRu Chai Xiangyue Chen Ruoxuan Ma Xiwen Zhang Viola Zhao  February 12, 2020 4Contribution Page Report content Introduction: JinRu Chai Methodology: Ruoxuan Ma; Xiwen Zhang Site Description: Rebecca Cai Results: Xiangyue Chen, Viola Zhao Analysis: Viola Zhao Final Edit: Viola Zhao Arrangements: Jinru Chai Graphs DBH Graphs: Xiangyue Chen TTH Graphs: Xiangyue Chen Species Abundance Graph:  Viola Zhao Data Entry Everyone 5Introduction This urban forest inventory report investigates a part of the tree inventory at the University of British Columbia campus. The objects are recognizing tree species, measuring tree dimensions, and analyzing collected data. This piece of the selected area is investigated by six students. All the data collected will serve for the UBC campus tree inventory program. A tree inventory is a fundamental stone and meanwhile plays a crucial role as the resource of urban forestry management. The data collected in Zone 1 contributes to the UBC campus tree inventory program by providing assessments of tree growth conditions. The Zone 1 fieldwork area is assigned in the south end of UBC campus, the block between the East Mall and Thunderbird Crescent, passing forestry science faculty, this area includes the tree species on the sides of Reconciliation Pole and Sopron Gate. The area has a significant purpose of cultural and recreation influence, “it represents the history of Indigenous people in Canada before, during, and after the Indian residential school era.” (Kevin Ward, 2019) The following inventory report will provide overall site information of Zone 1. The site description gives an overall fieldwork area explanation. The methodology will explain in detail the data collection methods and the processing approaches in the third section. The last section will summarize and analyze the results of tree inventory data in graphic and text form.  Site Description This part of the assignment of site description will illustrate group number one’s selected area which is located at the very end of the main mall in Vancouver’s UBC campus. The picture shown below with the red-lined square (figure 1) belongs to group one’s area with two school buildings, one parking lot, one square of the main mall’s lawn and a small park cut in half. Although the picture looks like it only has buildings and lands, there is one Tim Hortons coffee shop inside one of the two buildings. People and students can easily get their coffee without walking a long-distance walk to their “destination” especially during the rainy seasons in Vancouver. The definition of land use is based on what can be built on it and also what can the land be used for. To determine whether it can be used for community, recreation or business purposes, we need to select a specific type of land according to its uses. Land use can be the way in which people adopt the land to suit their demand and zoning is when the government readjust and regulates the land. In our group’s site, lands are being used for recreational, commercial, agricultural and transport purposes. Two of the buildings on the right side of the box are the Forest Science Center and Centre for Advanced Wood Processing, these two buildings can be listed for commercial land purposes. The land usage of transport design is located on the left side of this graphic, there is one rectangle-shaped pay parking lot for students, visitors, and staff to park their cars. However, at the end of the left side bottom, there are a few different species of fruit plants that are seeded over there and it can be counted as the agricultural use because specific land is used for the growing and harvesting of crops and livestock. Finally, the bottom 6area is a recreational park for residents and students to come and have some seats to enjoy their time here whether on sunny days or snowy days.  People can not always spend their time in their office or classrooms for 24 hours and they have to come out for a walk at least for a short break so that the forester has designed parks or greenways with seats near office buildings or school buildings just like the one in the pictures. The park in this site is at the perfect location due to its use of percentages because as a group we have seen so many staff and students are having fun in this park. Some of them will come here for a picnic and some people will bring their gym equipment to work out with their friends and also residents living around this area will walk their dogs in this park too.                                                                                      Figure 1. Group 1 Inventory plot  Methodology The 5 tools that used to collect the raw data are Collector App, Laser rangefinder, Diameter Tape, Distance Tape and Compass.  The data contains nine components, which are tree ID, tree species, tree tag, diameter at breast height, total tree height, crown base height, crown width, percent crown missing, and crown light exposure. The tree tag is a steel plate that is nailed led on the trunk with certain numbers, and not all the trees have a tree tag. When we measure the data, we will check if the tree has it or not. When we find a tree tag, we record the number on the datasheet.  DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) 7The diameter at breast height (DBH) will be estimated at 1.37 meters (4.5 feet) above the ground. The DBH for trees with DBH ≥ 2.54 cm (1 inch)
will be recorded on the datasheet directly. We use diameter tape to measure the DBH. However, according to different land use, and landscape, there are always trees with irregularities at DBH. For instance, if the tree is grown on a slope, the tree’s DBH needs to be measured on the uphill side of the tree. For the trees with swelling at 1.37 meters should be measured at higher than 1.37 meters until there is no swelling on the stem. Also, if trees have branches at 1.37 meters, the method would be similar to swelling trees at 1.37 meters. In this circumstance, the data will be written below the H DBH column. The H DBH is the height at which DBH measurement was taken if not measured at 1.37m above the ground. TTH (Total Tree Height) Total tree height is the height from the ground to the top of the tree. Total tree height will be measured with the laser rangefinder, which is a three-point measurement. To measure the total tree height, the first step is to distinguish between living or dead trees. If the tree is still alive, it will be measured from the ground to the top of the crown. For downed living trees or severely leaning trees, height is considered the distance along the main stem from the ground to the treetop. If the tree is dead, only standing dead trees are measured. The height of the living tree is always measured from the ground to the top unless the top of the crown is dead. The steps of using a laser rangefinder are the first to stand >10 meters from the tree, press the power button on top to turn on the equipment, then use one eye to look through the lens, find the horizon line to the tree trunk, wait until HOR start to flash, and press the mode button. Next, move the equipment up to the top of the tree crown, and click the mode button again. Lastly, move the rangefinder to the bottom of the tree, press the mode button and the height of the tree will present on the left side screen. While getting the exact number, record the data on the datasheet. A reminder is that before measuring, do not forget to adjust the unit of measurement to a meter. CBH (Crown Based Height) The distance tape is used to estimate the crown base height and crown width. Crown base height(CBH) is the height from the ground to the base of the live crown. The base of the live crown refers to the lowest live foliage on the last branch in the live crown. However, when it is winter, and trees do not have leaves, CBH can be measured from the lowest branch. If the crown base touches the ground, the CBH is zero as well.  The width of the crown has two directions, which is the long side and the short side. The crown width is the average number of the two measurements. Practically, for the long side, find the outermost branch on one side and straighten the distance tape to find the outermost branch on the other side and record the length. The short side is perpendicular to the long side of the tree. Determine the short side and repeat the steps to measure and record the data. Percent Crown Missing Percent crown missing is mainly the crown volume that is not occupied by branches and leaves. To estimate the percentage of crown missing, we need to stand at perpendicular angles of the tree and imagine the trees with fully symmetrical shape and predict what percentage of foliage that is absent. In order to get the accurate data, at least two positions are required to visualize the trees and averaged the data. Number of sides of the tree crown can receive the light refers to crown light exposure. A single tree can count with maximum five sides, the top, and the other four sides dividing the crown vertically into 8four quadrants. While collecting data, simply counting the number of sides that can receive sunlight and record the data on the datasheet.   Method for analysing data  In the report, based on the distribution of the data, values of tree stem diameter (DBH) were divided into different classes (< 10 DBH, 10-20 DBH, 20-30 DBH, 30-40 DBH, 40-50 DBH > 50 DBH). In further analysis, DBH could help to define the age of trees.  The total height of trees (TTH) were classified into six groups (< 2m, 2-5m, 5-8m, 8-1 m, 11-14m, >14m). The data of TTH was analyzed by using a pie chart to find out the distribution of the trees in zone 1.  In order to measure the variability of variables of trees, standard deviation was used to calculate the bias of the data in the database by using this formula:     In the equation, ∑ means the sum; x is the value recorded in the database; μ is the mean of the database; N indicates the population in the data which is the total number of trees.  Furthermore, the allometric equation is a statistical way used to establish quantitative relations between some key characteristic tree dimensions (Almas &Devisscher, 2020). It is created based on DBH and TTH in order to measure the biomass and volume of aboveground trees (Kebede & Teshome, 2018). Firstly, by using the value from the database to graph the relation. Secondly, applying different models for regression analysis until the best fit is found. Finally, for completing the prediction by the allometric equation.    Result   The data includes DBH, total tree height, species abundance, each of the data will be shown in the table.   Total Tree height   9Tree height is the vertical distance between the base of the trees and the tips of the highest branch on the tree. For this tree inventory, we used a laser tool to measure the tree height, and the date of the tree height in zone 1 is shown in table 1.   The majority of the trees are within the height around 2 meters to 5 meters, which accounts for 30% of total trees in zone 1. Next come trees with height about 8 meters to 11 meters, whose percentage is slightly lower than that of small trees (2-5m). Trees with the height around 5 meters to 8 meters and 11-14 meters tall trees take up 20% of the total trees respectively. The two lowest proportions are taken up by 2 big trees with more than 14 meters and one tree lower than 2 meters. Besides the 3 trees with the remarkable tree height, the total height classes of zone 1 is evenly distributed. The evenly distribution of trees total height in zone 1 might be triggered by two main reasons. First of all, most of the measured trees in zone 1 are street trees, street trees are planted to provide shade and beautify our landscapes. Most of the street trees are usually required to be the same specie with the similar height, so that can create beautiful and uniform streetscapes. For example, plenty of Japanese cherry were planted in UBC, as one of the most beautiful street trees, those Japanese cherry have the similar height and similar crown width. Secondly, most of the trees with similar total height are planted in the same area, so they have similar growing conditions. For instance, the trees in figure 2 are Pacific madrones, and they were densely planted, these Pacific Madrone absorb the similar nutrients from soil, meanwhile, they accept the same sunlight 10and rainfall, hence, they have the same growing condition. Overall, due to the similar growing condition and same tree species selection, the total height classes of zone 1 are evenly distributed.   Landmark trees  Cherry Trees are the landmark trees in this inventory site because they produce beautiful and attractive sceneries along Agronomy Street. Cherry blossoms are always referred as the symbol of beauty and rebirth. (Krasnick, 2018).   Figure 3: UBC cherry blossom season, from google picture            Figure 4: Taki-nioi cherry tree during winter season   DBH  DBH is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk of a standing tree, it is typically measured at 1.37m above the ground. We used steel tape ruler to measure the DBH. The specific data is shown in table 2.  Figure 2 Pacific Madrone Distribution 11   One thirds of the trees DBH classes is made up by trees with DBH smaller than 10 cm, there are 30 trees with more than 10 centimeters DBH; 22 trees with 10-20 cm DBH; 23 trees with 20-30 cm DBH , 15 trees with 30-40 cm DBH, 8 trees with 40-50 cm DBH, only one trees with 59.95 cm DBH. The bar chart illustrates a trend which is the negative relationship between DBH and the number of trees. With the increasing of DBH, there is a downward general trend in the number of trees. In other wards, trees with large DBH is relatively rare in zone 1.The trees with DBH from 1cm to 30 cm, this group of trees takes up 75% of all trees, additionally, these trees are mainly made  up by native trees like Douglas fir and pacific red cedar.    Species abundance  There are more than 18 different tree species found in zone 1, species abundance is shown in Figure 4.  12   Analysis  The inventory site included the forestry science building and a parking lot, as well as half of the grass lawn in front of the Old Barn Community. The land use of our site varies, but can mainly be categorized in four groups: Institutional, residential, transportation, and park. Therefore, the choice of tree species and function of trees in this area varies.  Canopy Coverage  Overall the total canopy coverage at the inventory site is very loose, according to low mean DBH. The main reason for this result is attributed to land uses. First, most of the spaces are occupied by buildings, roads, and a parking lot. There is not enough space for planting too many trees. Second, at this inventory site, a large amount of canopy coverage is not required due to the purpose of this place.  Trees along the street function as a barrier that separates constructions from the street. These trees should not be planted too closely next to each other because they should not block the pedestrians’ ways to cross the street. At the Totem pole area, the focal point is centered at the pole. The main function of those trees is to highlight the totem pole, therefore trees that have large canopies (decurrent trees) should not be chosen to plant there. In the parking lot area, trees are only planted around the parking lot but not in it, because  The function of those trees is similar to those trees along the street. They separate the parking lot from the Thunderbird Residence, and at the same time not blocking the cars from parking.   Species Abundance  The inventory site is dominated by deciduous tree species, for example, Black Locust. Since the site contains roads and many walkways, the shades provided by trees are crucial for pedestrians, especially in summer. Deciduous trees usually have decurrent branching patterns, and thus they have wider crowns and are able to produce sufficient shade. This site also has wide shrub coverage. Shrubs, in urban forest, Figure 4 Species Abundance at Inventory Site 13sometimes are responsible for “filling the gaps” between trees. Shrubs also soften lower level urban sites by adding natural features. At some specific places in the inventory site, shrubs are the main urban forest components. For example, there are some benches that are surrounded by shrubs in front of the Tim Hortons in the Forest Science Building. These shrubs function as a “barrier” for the benches, separating the seats from the streets. Because the benches are very close to each other, planting trees next to them would be inappropriate as the spacing is not enough for the trees.  Total Tree Height  Total tree heights (TTH) of the species surveyed range from 1 to 14 m. Most of the data clustered at 5 to 11 m. Tree heights vary, primarily based on the variety of species. For instance, Douglas-fir can grow up to 30 meters while Cherry Trees usually grow up to 7 meters. Another reason is the different growing environment for each tree. For example, trees that are planted closely next to each other will have distinctive vertical diversity as some trees are outcompeted by others for sunlight. Sometimes, trees have a certain height due to artificial reasons. Some pine trees, especially in gardens and parks, are pruned to a certain height for aesthetic purposes. For instance, the pine trees right beside Tim Hortons are pruned into less than 2 m tall so that they will not block people’s sights.      Citation   Almas, Andrew, & Tahia, Devisscher. 2020. “Analysis of tree inventories.” Presented at  University of British Columbia, 2020, Vancouver. Retrieved February 6, 2020. (https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/38878/files/6979173?module_item_id=1658226)  Kebede, Birhanu, and Teshome Soromessa. 2018 "Allometric equations for aboveground  biomass estimation of Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata in Mana Angetu  Forest."Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 4(1), 1-12.  Krasnick, Hannah. (2018, April. 3) A guide to cherry blossoms at UBC. Retrieved from                                         https://events.ubc.ca/a-guide-to-cherry-blossoms-at-ubc/  Tahia, Devisscher. 2020. “Introduction to Assignment 1.” Presented at  University of British Columbia, 2020, Vancouver. Retrieved January 23, 2020. (https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/38878/files/6809909?module_item_id=1635153)    What is the Reconciliation Pole? (2019, April 8). Retrieved from https://students.ubc.ca/ubclife/what-reconciliation-pole     14             Assignment 1: Inventory Assessment of UBC Urban Forestry 101 Adra Al-Shakarji —  Oakley Kang —  June Lam —  Kaysha Reeder —  Britany Wu —  Border Yin —  The University of British Columbia         UFOR 101: Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment Dr. Tania Devisscher and Dr. Andrew Almas February 13th, 2020   15Contributions page Adra Al-Shakarji was responsible for introduction and summary suggestions Oakley Kang was responsible for methodology June Lam was responsible for tree inventory table and summary analysis Kaysha Reeder was responsible for the summary of tree inventory data Britany Wu was responsible for tree inventory table and site description Border Yin was responsible for the summary of tree inventory data and notable trees Introduction The following urban forestry inventory report was completed by six students from University of British Columbia (UBC) on the Vancouver campus. Its objective was to collect data concerning a particular area on campus. The following report concerns the tree data collected around UBC’s Department of Computer Science building.  The purpose of the tree inventory ground-based field survey is to provide suggestions for UBC’s urban forest management plans and to contribute to the campus’ data archives. We began by setting clear goals and objectives, then developed a methodology by following a systematic plan. With the right equipment and active teamwork, we completed a partial tree inventory on campus, conducted ecosystem service assessment of trees, analysed and presented the data of our results, all in efforts to improve the urban forestry on campus.  The end users of the inventory data include the students of this class, and the UBC campus. Students were not only able to learn important urban forestry knowledge and skills in class, but were also given the opportunity to apply their knowledge during the field work.  With special thanks to Egan Davis, most of the tree species were already identified and documented into the Collector for ArcGIS app, making it easy to find and inventory. However, some trees were either misplaced or missing from the application and have been recorded at the end of this report.  Site description Our group assessed the area enclosed by Agronomy Road, Main Mall, and East Mall; the buildings consisted of the MacLeod Building, UBC Department of Computer Science, and the Engineering Student Centre. Most of the land was used institutionally while a portion was also utilized for transportation as we saw many cars and parked trucks at the centre of the road during the inventory (red line in Figure 2). Since there is a restaurant, there are several trash bins located in the area (blue squares in Figure 2). To support the energy use in buildings, a number of power generators were located in the area enclosed by the yellow square in Figure 2. Most of 16the activities observed in this area were students or staff members walking, biking, or skate-boarding between classes, cars driving pass Agronomy Road and East Mall, and trucks parking in the back of the buildings to unload. Agronomy Road and Main Mall became even more crowded compared to the other lanes in the area when classes ended.  Methodology On-the-ground data collection methods The variables measured in our UBC Vancouver campus site partial inventory include: (1) tree ID, (2) tag ID, (3) living status, (4) species, (5) land use, (6) tree stem diameter at breast height or ‘DBH’, (7) tree height - which consists of (a) total tree height or ‘TTH’, (b) live crown height or ‘LCH’, and (c) crown base height or ‘CBH’, (8) crown width, (9) percentage crown missing, and (10) crown light exposure or ‘CLE’. 1. Tree ID: (code) retrieved from ArcGIS Collector Classic app 2. Tag ID: (number) documented if the tree features a tag 3. Living status: indicates trees as ‘live’ or ‘dead’ from visual observation 4. Species: retrieved from ArcGIS Collector Classic app 5. Land use: chosen from i-Tree Eco categories 6. DBH (cm): the tree stem diameter height at 1.37 m from the ground and measured from the uphill side of the tree (an alternate height indicated if faced with these following irregularities: swelling of the stem, branches at 1.37 m, tree on a slope, leaning trees, or trees on the ground). With a multiple-stemmed tree, the six most dominant stems were measured to calculate an overall diameter. Stems were omitted if their DBH were less than 2.54 cm. Tool used: diameter-tape Figure 1. Map of the area from the Collector app.   Figure 2. Map of the area from Google Map. 177. Tree height (m):a. TTH: the height of a standing tree from bottom to top or along the main stem ifthe tree is severely leaning (regardless of whether alive or dead). In a situationwhere the tool was unable to function, estimations were made relative to previousmeasurements. Tool used: laser rangefinder (three-point measurement)b. LCH: equal to TTH and omitting any dead crown height. Tool used: laserrangefinder (three-point measurement)c. CBH: the height from the ground to the base of the crown with live foliage. Toolused: measuring tape8. Crown width (m): the average of the crown widths taken from two directions (long sideand short side). Tool used: measuring tape9. Percent crown missing (%): the unoccupied crown volume that lacks expected branchesor leaves and is estimated from two sides by visual observation. Tools used: none10. CLE: the number of sides that a tree receives sunlight from (top and four sides) and isconcluded by visual observation. Tool used: noneAdvantages and disadvantages of an on-the-ground/field survey inventory Advantages: provides the most precise and reliable data (Nielsen, Östberg, & Delshammar, 2014). Disadvantages: the most time-consuming and labour-intensive due to direct measurements and/or visual inspection (Nielsen, Östberg, & Delshammar, 2014). Advantages and disadvantages of partial inventory Advantages: an equal accuracy level as a complete inventory as all trees in an area are measured (Morgenroth & Östberg, 2017). Disadvantages: multiple inventories required for greatest accuracy and is more time-consuming in comparison to a sample inventory. Data analysing methods With our inventory data, we analysed the relationship of species frequency with its corresponding basal area, crown area, crown cover, seasonality, and origin. Additionally, we also took note of the number of trees per DBH and height. Using Excel as our primary software device, we visualized our data into bar graphs and circle charts. With these comparisons, we were able to draw conclusions regarding possible reasons for tree growth, size, and population dominance within our site, along with the ecosystem services provided from them. 18Summary of tree inventory data tables As seen in Figure 3, the zone has 75 trees that were surveyed in total. 19 unique species were identified among 12 different genera. 5 species belonged to the maple (Acer) genus. Over 40% of the trees were maples with 18% of total trees belonging to one species, Japanese maple (Acer palmatum). The other species are relatively evenly distributed among the 11 genera. The monoculture is not ideal for biodiversity or ecosystem resilience but creates a visual quality that people enjoy. In Figure 4, the highest basal area is occupied by the Serbian spruce (Picea ormorika). It is the third most abundant tree but has significantly larger basal area due to its high average basal area per tree. In Figure 5, the most abundant tree, Japanese maple (Acer palmatum), is surprisingly not the dominant species in basal area due to its thin trunks. The more abundant species tend to be relatively smaller in basal area, kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa) is a good example of this.   Of the 19 species present within our survey zone, only 6 are evergreen species. The remaining 13 deciduous species make up 80% of the stem count with 60 individuals. The remaining 15 evergreen trees represent 31% of the species but only 20% of the total trees in our area. Figure 3. Zone Species Composition Figure 5. Average Basal Area per Tree by Figure 4. Basal Area by Species. 19Our zone has 2567.36 m2 of canopy cover. Only 16% of the canopy is evergreen, with the remaining 2166 m2 being deciduous. This means over 84% of the canopy cover in our zone is absent for a portion of the year.  Of the 19 unique tree species in our zone, only 2 are native species. The strong majority of tree species are non-native with two species which are debatable in origin. The two present native species are the vine maple (Acer ciricinatum) and the arbutus tree (Arbutus menziesii). The species with questionable origin is the Cornus “Eddie’s White Wonder” and the genus “Prunus”. Without the species listed in our GIS database, the most accurate species we are able to determine is the cherry genus, Prunus. There are cherry trees native to BC such as the choke cherry (Prunus virginiana), pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica) and the bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata), even though most trees planted in the Vancouver area are not native (Roberta, 1948). There is a possibility of the trees being a native species, but we were not sure. The dogwood cultivar “Eddie’s White Wonder” is a hybrid species of the native pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii). This regression analysis in Figure 10 shows the general growth trend of the trees to have a 1 m height increase for every 2 cm of DBH increase. There are very few trees above 15 m so the height growth per centimetre of DBH decreases as total height increases.  Figure 6. Crown Area by Species.Figure 7. Species Origin.Figure 8. DBH v. Height. 20Our zone has the most trees with a DBH less than 5 cm, meaning that there are a lot of thin trees. Trees with a DBH of between 0 and 15 cm are well distributed with about 14-15 tress per 5 cm difference. Our zone has relatively less trees in the DBH classes of 15-20 cm, and 25 cm or higher in our area. The total average DBH in our zone is 15.388 cm and the bar graph show that our area has more trees with DBH lower than the average.  Most of our trees have a total tree height between 5 m and 10 (Figure 12). The average TTH in our zone is 7.919 m. The number of trees starts to decrease as the total tree height goes over 10m.  Figure 9. DBH classes. Figure 10. Total height class. Figure 11. Tree height variability. The average height of all the 75 trees is 7.919 m, as indicated by the orange line. 21Since we are dealing with a sample, the formula used for finding the standard deviation (StdDevp) uses n-1 instead of N (number of data points in the dataset). In Table 1, the lower the standard deviation is, the closer the values are to the mean value, and the higher standard deviation is, the greater the deviation is from the mean value.  Standard deviation for Freeman’s maple (Acer x freemanii), Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii), Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica “Elgans”), American ash (Fraxinus Americana), Norway spruce (Picea abies), black pine (Pinus nigra), and Siberian apricot (Prunus armeniaca) are not included as there is only one tree per species. The standard deviation of DBH is 11.648 m, which is the highest compared to standard deviations of other values. Silver birch (Betula pendula) has the highest DBH standard deviation at 9.167 m. Flowering dogwood (Cornus “Eddie’s White Wonder”) has the lowest DBH standard deviation at 0.668 m. The standard deviation of total tree height (TTH) is 4.628 m, which is in the midrange compared to other standard deviation values. Serbian spruce (Picea omorika) has the highest TTH standard deviation at 4.932 m. Flowering dogwood (Cornus “Eddie’s White Wonder”) has the lowest standard deviation, 0.471, in TTH. The standard deviation of crown base height (CBH) is 0.758 m, which is the lowest compared to other standard deviation values. Serbian spruce (Picea omorika) has the highest CBH standard deviation at 0.992 m. Common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) has the lowest CBH standard deviation with 0.071 m.  The standard deviation of crown width (CW) is 2.622 m, which is in the mid lower range compared to other standard deviation values. Silver birch (Betula pendula) has the highest CW standard deviation, 4.025 m. Common hornbeam (Cornus “Eddie’s White Wonder”) has the lowest CW standard deviation, 0.122 m.   Table 1. Grouped species with calculated standard deviation (StdDevp). 22    SD Trees 75.000  species 19.000  DBH mean (cm) 15.390 (±11.648) BA mean (m2) 27.589 (±71.152) Total height mean (m) 7.920 (±4.628) Crown base mean (m) 1.650 (±0.758) Crown width mean (m) 5.210 (±2.622) • The basal area (BA) has the highest standard deviation, ±71.152, meaning that the value of BA greatly deviates away from the mean value • The crown base mean has the lowest standard deviation, ±0.758, meaning that the values of crown base are close to the mean value. • Standard deviation value: BA > DBH > total height > crown width > crown base  Canopy missing  0-10% 0 10-20% 15 20-30% 17 30-40% 19 40-50% 12 50-60% 3 60-70% 1 • The majority of trees has a canopy miss of between 10-50% and most of the trees, 19 out of 75, has a canopy missing of 30-40% • There are only 4 trees out of 75 that has a canopy miss more than 50% • There were no trees missing a canopy cover less than 10% Crown light exposure  0 0 1 1 2 16 3 17 4 35 5 6 • The majority of trees, 35 out of 75, has crown light exposure on 4 sides. • All of the trees have at least one side of light exposure • The average of the crown light exposure is 3.387, close to 4 sides. 23Summary analysis Tree structure is shaped by many factors including built infrastructure, phylogenetic constraints, development patch constraints (Almas & Devisscher). Some of our trees were constrained by the pre-built infrastructure. For instance, there were a line of six vine maples (IDs: 3848-3853) that were constantly trimmed, two of which were looked like shrubs, as to avoid damaging windows or cars that drove on the vertical red line in Figure 2. Most of our trees were rather thin in nature when compared to the trees on Main Mall. This is perhaps due to the need to ensure adequate walking space for pedestrians (mostly students going to their next class). However, these thin trees usually had a large CW, which may provide adequate shading and cooling during the summer. This may also be beneficial during the winter due to the large amount of glass windows in the buildings of our zone. In the colder months of the year, after the trees undergo senescence, more sunlight is allowed through canopies and into the buildings. Moreover, the most populous species in the zone, Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) has thin trunks and branches that allows for even more sunlight to enter and warm buildings while creating different visual experiences. The trees around the buildings provide mostly cultural services as they bloom during specific times of the year like the cherry trees (cherry blossoms in March) and the Japanese maple (bright red leaves). Most of the trees planted are tall enough to receive adequate sunlight (a CLE of 4) despite being near or next to the building with an average height of 7.917 m. The amount of non-native species in our zone is not especially surprising considering how developed the site is. Many urban sites like this have conditions so far from BC’s native edatopic conditions, that there are no guarantees if our native trees will perform better than non-native species. In addition, with such high human traffic, the aesthetic qualities and maintenance demands surely takes precedence over native species and ecosystem functions in tree selection.   Notable Trees The Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica “Elgans,” ID. 1985) is located in front of the ICICS building, it is a notable tree due to its cultivar, Elgans. It is bred to retain its juvenille purple foliage through maturity. Another cryptomeria japonica specimen located in an adjacent zone displays the normal mature foliage colour. It is visible from the position of the Elgans cultivar. These Japanese cedars are not native to BC but are a good example of genetic variance within a species.  Another interesting tree is the arbutus (Arbutus menziesii), tree ID 3854. There are only a few arbutus trees on UBC campus. They are generally uncommon due to the small habitat range within 8 km of the ocean. They are also the only evergreen broadleaf tree native to Canada 24(Roberta, 1948). The leaves are waxy and the bark is distinct in reddish colour and its ability to peel.  There are three dogwood trees (Cornus “Eddie’s White Wonder”) with IDs 1967, 1968, and 1972 are notable for being a hybrid of the pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) and the flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). The pacific dogwood is native to the Pacific Northwest (Holmes, n.d.) and has been the provincial flower of British Columbia since 1956 (B.C. Symbols, n.d.). BC’s provincial flower has six petals while the dogwood cultivar often bears only four broad striking white but distinctly dogwood petals. There is also the kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa), in our zone; however, they are non-native and only exhibit four acuminate petals on each flower.  Summary Suggestions One main suggestion would be to plant a variety of different trees in the same areas. While aesthetics plays an important role in beautifying the campus, it would be costly if many of the trees were wiped out at once due to pests or diseases. As seen on the map and from the graphs there are many trees in the Acer genus, specifically Acer palmatum.  Due to the continuous pruning of the six vine maples (Acer circinatum) (IDs: 3848-3853) trees and the limited growth space, it may be better if they were replaced with either smaller trees or shrubs. Since that area is primarily used for transportation, it may be better to transport the trees elsewhere so they can grow to their full potential. This could improve the overall ecosystem services benefits the trees may provide. For example, aesthetics, habitat for little creatures, and general benefits trees provide. The growth area is limited and would overall limit the ecosystem services the trees may provide. It would potentially inhibit root growth (unless there are Swales or other types of structure that promote root growth). The arbutus tree (ID. 3854) holds a strong cultural value; however, it is currently cornered between a tall concrete building, other trees, and hidden behind a large shrub, leaving it a CLE of two. While most arbutus are able to stand tall with their crown stretching wide, this tree is unable to due to its current location. Compared to the other arbutus on campus, there is a strong visible difference. Either the arbutus or the trees that surround it closely should be removed.  25Appendix Missing/misplaced tree coordinates - Misplaced tree on app along Agronomy road: X: 482001.25; Y: 5454534.73 - Image 1, tree with red berries: X:481892.42; Y: 5456592.62 - Image 2, missing tree in front of Pacific Poke: X: 481936.68; Y: 5456496.83 - Image 3, missing cherry at the start of Main Mall: X: 481887.10; Y: 5456468.12 - Image 4, missing tree behind missing cherry: X: 481888.29; Y: 5456475.53               Image 1. Tree with red berries. Image 2. Missing tree in front of Pacific Poke. Image 3. Missing cherry at the start of Main Mall. Image 4. Missing tree behind missing cherry (Image 3). 26References Almas, A., & Devisscher, T. (n.d.). UFOR 101: Analysis of tree inventories. Vancouver, BC. B.C. Symbols. (n.d.). Retrieved from British Columbia: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/celebrating-british-columbia/symbols-of-bc#flower Holmes, R. (n.d.). Plant of the Week. Retrieved from U.S. Forest Service: https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/plant-of-the-week/cornus_nuttallii.shtml Morgenroth, J., & Östberg, J. (2017). Measuring and Monitoring Urban Trees and Urban Forests. In F. Ferrini, C. C. Konijnendijk van den Bosch, & A. Fini, Routledge Handbook of Urban Forestry (pp. 33-48). Routledge. Nielsen, A. B., Östberg, J., & Delshammar, T. (2014). Review of Urban Tree Inventory Methods Used to Collect Data at Single-Tree Level. Internation Society of Aboriculture, 96-111. Roberta, P. (1948). Tree Book: learning to recognize trees of British Columbia. British Columbia.    27UBC Inventory Report2020-02-13Group 3K., Finn D., JP O., Lukas M., Nick H., Daniel H., RowanI. INTRODUCTIONThis study is part of an ongoing cumulative classproject aimed at providing a detailed tree inventoryand report to the University of British Columbia(UBC)s Point-Grey campus. Tree characteristicssuch as DBH, CBH, and total tree height willbe measured and analyzed to determine ecosys-tem services derived from the assigned plot. Theproject, when completed, will integrate individualreports, submitted by different groups to createa full tree inventory of UBCs urban forest. Thewhole process of the complete campus inven-tory will be collected by small individual plotsassessed over the course of multiple terms andstudent groups yielding multiple reports. Thesedocuments provide an integral contribution to-wards the completion of the UBC Urban ForestManagement Plan. Once complete, the inventorydata will be used by urban planners, engineers,designers, sustainability experts, etc. involved inUBC campus planning to make changes and designplans moving forward. The tree inventory will alsoact to provide a baseline of the universitys naturalassets, which will play a vital role in its protectionand management and help in creating a holisticsystem approach to address the ecological, cul-tural and regulating values of UBCs urban forest.This project has been organized by Campus andCommunity Planning and the faculty of forestryto provide students with applicable field work andbring additional value to the inventory as it is reliedupon as an educational resource for UBC students.Throughout the project, assessing the inventoryhas provided students with hands-on learning ex-periences that can be directly applied to an urbanforester’s work load. This year, the students willbe completing phase 1B of the full UBC treeinventory. Students have gained an understandingof standard surveying tools, including laser rangefinder, DBH tape, measuring tape, and the ArcGIScollectors app. With these tools, students have col-lected a variety of attributes such as light exposure,DBH, total tree height, crown width, and percentcrown missing, among others.II. SITE DESCRIPTIONA. Selected Area of CampusGroup 3 had been preassigned an area in Phase1 Figure:1 partially bound by Main Mall andEast Mall, and which dissects several departmentsFigure: 2. Overall, the buildings located in the areainclude:• Fred Kaiser Building• Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineer-ing (CEME) Building• Civil and Mechanical Engineering StructuresLab• Macleod Building• Engineering Student CentreB. Land-UseLand-use type is a combination of institutional,minor commercial, and transport infrastructurewith generous areas of open-space between build-ings. Buildings offer a vast array of educationalfacilities including but not limited to, lecture halls,28Fig. 1. Group overviewsFig. 2. Group 3 Plotclassrooms, labs, study spaces, student centers, andcafeterias hosting food services. Likewise, primaryusers of the area are students, lecturers, professors,and researchers with secondary users being recre-ationalists, visitors, and operations staff. Engineer-ing Road, East Mall, and Applied Science Lane arelegal traffic roads within the study area, meaningmotorized vehicle presence is not uncommon.C. Stand CompositionThe vast majority of trees on the site wereplanted in stands or groups. The first group mea-sured was a row of Vine maple (Acer circinatum)along the north side of the Fred Kaiser building.These vine maples are next to the stand of Redcedars (Thuja plicata), douglas-firs (Pseudotsugamenziesii), and spruce (Picea sitchensis). Thiscombination serves as a sort of representation ofthe composition found in Pacific Spirit Park. Therow of vine maples, a plant growing multiplestems, is used to cover the side of the buildingby having a very broad, covering canopy. Next upon the southern side of the Civil and MechanicalEngineering Structures Lab, beginning on the westwith a row of 7 common hornbeam (CarpinusBetulus). These trees are planted, similar to thevine maples, along the wall but also have a plantedhedge in front of them. Suspected to have a similar,view blocking, purpose as the row of maples. Onthe other side of the corridor, on the the north sideof CEME is a small, 3 tree stand, comprised of aserbian spruce (Picea omorika), english holly (Ilexaquifolium), and a Japanese maple (Acer palma-tum). This group of trees is special due to the phys-iology of the leaves. In this area, one can find anevergreen needleleaf (spruce), evergreen broadleaf(holly), and a deciduous broadleaf (maple) boast-ing a nice variety in shapes and colors. East ofthis group, 5 more Japanese maples are planted,accompanied by 2 katsura trees (Cercidiphyllumjaponica), and 1 additional Serbian spruce withdense understory vegetation. Additionally one canfind a weymouth pine (Pinus strobus) planted alonein the alley. At the edge of the plot along east mallthere are 2 sweet gums (Liquidambar styraciflua)planted along the road side of the sidewalk. Onthe building side of the path theres a Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris) and north of it there are 2 otherneedleleaf trees that arent registered on the collec-tor app/inventory list. Continuing down east mall,planted along the street, are 3 European smoketrees (Cotinus coggyaria), more Japanese maples,a manna ash (Fraxinus ornus), and another wey-mouth pine. Another group of trees can be found inthe courtyard west of the Engineering Student Cen-tre. It entails a very large western hemlock (Tsugaheterophylla), Norway maples (Acer platanoides),more vine maples, a laurustinus (Viburnum tinus),and multiple katsura trees. Also, the passage builtby the Engineering Student Center is comprisedof additional vine maples and multiple Japanesestewartia (Stewartia pseudocamellia). Lastly, thereis a single tree that falls into the assigned plot29along Main Mall in front of the MacLeod building.It is a large Japanese-cedar or sugi (Cryptomeriajaponica).III. METHODOLOGYOur aim for this project was to complete a fulltree inventory of plot 3 phase 1B (Figure 2) ofUBC’s Point-Grey campus. This took place as amulti day field survey from January 30th to Febru-ary 6th 2020 totalling approximately 10 workinghours. A quantitative approach was used in thetree inventory to gather the following information:tree ID number, tag number, living or dead, treename, land use, height of dbh, total tree height,live crown height, crown width, crown base height,percent crown missing, and crown light exposure.Satellite-based imaging via the Collector app wasreferred to for each trees location, ID number,and species. With this information, ground-basedfield surveying was performed using a variety ofequipment provided by the UBC Forestry Depart-ment. Equipment such as D-tape, measurementtape, and a rangefinder were used to gather therequired data outlined above. All data collectedwas recorded on field inventory cards which laterwas compiled into an excel workbook for furtheranalysis. It should be noted that 2 trees (withID tags) on the corner of East Mall and AppliedScience Lane were not listed in the collector app;however, the locations and other information wasrecorded, pending species confirmation.IV. SUMMARY OF TREE INVENTORY DATAA. InterpretationFigure 6 shows the species abundance of treeslocated on the plot. Vine maple (Acer circinatum)is the most abundant tree found on said plot,with a total of 19 Vine maples measured. Incontrast, 8 tree species appeared only once onour plot. This displays a relatively strong treespecies diversity throughout the plot. Also, thereis a negative exponential trend from gradient ofhighest to lowest abundance. Meaning that speciesdiversity decreases exponentially, possibly causingvine maples abundance to appear as an outlier.Vine maple may have become such a popularurban planting around UBCs campus due to itsremarkable adaptability, and ability to grow in fullsun to deep shade, clay to sand soils, and mod-erate to dry conditions “Acer circinatum,” 2020.The species also produces aesthetic colors in thefall, and its relatively small branches and mediumheight makes maintenance less challenging. Scotspine (Pinus sylvestris), which only was found onthe plot once, is most avoided as an urban treeplanting due to its high pest and disease suscep-tibility in combination with its large size “ScotsPine,” 2020. If the individual tree were to becomeafflicted it would pose a large risk to citizens andinfrastructure.Of the 75 trees, the majority fell (around 32trees) within the 3-6 m height class, with 10trees being greater than 9 m tall (Figure 5). Thissuggests that our study area contains relativelysmall trees, but does not necessarily mean thisis due to young age. Many of our trees wereinventoried in highly developed areas with minimalgreenspace. This type of environment may impedea tree’s growth by exposing it to greater stress,minimizing the availability of nutrients and water,and by not providing enough space for grow.a) Tree Allometry: Figure 4 displays the re-lationship between the diameter at breast height(DBH) of individual trees and their average crownwidth. The DBH of the trees on plot 3 were mea-sured at the height of 1.37 meters from the bottomof the ground up the trunk. However, some treespresented physical barriers from measuring at thatheight (i.e. location, swelling, irregular branching);therefore, DBH for those individuals was modifiedand the altered DBH height was noted in the datasheet. Average crown width was calculated bytaking the long and short side measurements fromthe bottom of the crown and averaging them. Alinear trendline was added to the graph in order tosee a more clear relationship between the two. Thedata shows a clear increasing linear relationshipbetween DBH and average crown height. Meaning,a tree found on plot 3 with a relatively large DBHis also going to have a relatively larger averagecrown width. This is mostly due to a trees physicalmakeup and its wood properties. In general, a treemust have enough sapwood available to supportwater transport to the foliage, and in the processof producing this necessary wood type the treegrows and diameter increases Pretzsch et al., 2015.30Fig. 3. DBH Vs. Basal Area Vs. Tree CountFig. 4. Average DBH Vs. Crown WidthTABLE IDBH Class (Cm) Number of Trees Ba (Cm)0-10 DBH 22 41.7710-20 DBH 38 158.9220-30 DBH 7 440.6230-40 DBH 3 1031.1640-50 DBH 3 1623.7250-60 DBH 2 2574.6360-70 DBH 1 3631.6831Fig. 5. Tree Height ClassesFig. 6. Species Composition32The majority of the trees surveyed fell betweena range of 0-20 centimeters for DBH, and 2-6meters for average crown width. This is most likelythe result of limited campus spacing for largertrees, the greater risk big canopy trees pose, thelower maintenance costs for smaller trees, and theiraesthetic ability to shield attractive infrastructureBassuk, 2000.V. CONTRIBUTIONSOverall, all team members contributed equallyto all tasks including report writing, field datacollection, report formatting, graph making, andgraph interpretations. For field work, all teammembers rotated between tasks to have exposureto field data measuring and data recording. Fordesktop tasks, each member was initially assigneda header (Introduction, Tree Inventory, Interpreta-tion, etc.) to start and throughout the assignment,any member added, formatted, and/or removedinformation to other sections. Our group performedoptimally, consistently arranging our schedules andnever had any conflicts with time managementor contributions. If one member was unable tomake a meeting, they always volunteered to workfurther on other aspects to compensate. A roughbreakdown is listed here but due to the complexnature of recording and the large overlap of tasksperformed by all members, this list should not betaken as exhaustive.• 16% K., Finn 87777421:– Various measurements– Wrote most of ”selected area” and plotdescriptions– Helped with other tasks– Created a graph• 16% D., JP 72750003:– Initiated writing for the introduction, sitedescription, tree inventory, and method-ology.– Contributed towards interpretations andheadings– Recorded some field note inventory– Primarily measured tree canopy widthand length, Crown basal height, and es-timated percent missing.• 16% O., Lukas 20982393:– Data tabulation and data recording– Document formatting and Bibliography– Editing– Overall document contribution– Helped with tree canopy width and height– percent crown missing– Navigation– Text consolidation– Odd Jobs• 16% M., Nick 49225063:– Collected field data– Made graphs in excel– Edited report– Group management– Contributed to all sections• 16% H., Daniel 53154514:– Field data collection– Formatting– Report writing: intro, methodology– Data collection• 16% H., Rowan 91443960:– Collected data– Performed all field tasks - mainly DBH,short/long width– Recording and app navigation– Helped clean up tabulated data– Contributed to writing– Graph InterpretationREFERENCESAcer circinatum. (2020). Retrieved from http : / /www.greatplantpicks.org/plantlists/view/30Bassuk, N. (2000). Recommended urban trees:site assessment and tree selection for stresstolerance. Cornell University.Pretzsch, H., Biber, P., Uhl, E., Dahlhausen, J.,Rfffdfffdtzer, T., Caldentey, J., . . . Pauleit, S.(2015). Crown size and growing space re-quirement of common tree species in urbancentres, parks, and forests. Urban ForestryUrban Greening, 14(3), 466–479. doi:10 .1016/j.ufug.2015.04.006Scots Pine. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.mortonarb . org / trees - plants / tree - plant -descriptions/scots-pine-not-recommended33                 Assignment 1:  Urban Forest Inventory & Assessment Group 4: Phase 1E3                   Submission Date: February 13, 2020 34Contributions Page  1. Alerik Wang  -Field: Measured total tree height, live crown height & crown base height  -Written Report: Methodology (Analysis)  2. Kirsty Rude  -Field: Measured Crown Width  -Written Report: Summary (Results, Figures, Interpretation)  3. Maria Luna Santacruz  -Field: Measured CLE & Crown % Miss  -Written Report: Summary (Results, Figures, Interpretation)  4. Odelia Law  -Field: Measured Crown Width, Recorded & inputed all collected data  -Written Report: Methodology (Collection)  5. Rebecca Liu   -Field: Measured Crown Width & CLE  -Written Report: Introduction  6. Roberta Gonzalez  -Field: Measured total tree height, live crown height & crown base height  -Written Report: Summary (Results, Figures, Interpretation)  7. Zahra Sow  -Field: Measured DBH & took pictures of trees not listed in the ArcGIS Collector -Written Report: Site Description            351. Introduction  A complete inventory was conducted on the site assigned and focused on, phase 1E3, within the larger area, phase 1B. The purpose of this inventory is to gain valuable skills in fieldwork as urban forestry students, but also to collect data that will be saved, and later used, in the management and protection of UBC trees. Variables measured include crown light exposure, tree height and DBH.   End users of phase 1E3 encompass those who wish to take a shorter route from Main Mall to the UBC hospital and surrounding areas, as well as drivers of vehicles. Within our site are two distinctive types of areas; a dense, forested area found in between pathways, named Fairview Grove, and an area in which the trees line the sides of the pathway in a relatively organized fashion. Fairview Grove provides less social value to end users due to its density and location in between paths, as the trees are less visible and harder to access. This area, however, warrants an increased possibility of pest damage, from the closeness of each tree to another. The latter area has an increased social value by end users from the clearer visibility of the trees, giving this area a more aesthetic purpose than the previous one.   2. Site description  Most of Group 4’s, Phase 1E3’s site location is situated in the area on the UBC campus called Fairview grove. It is located in a small area between the Beaty Biodiversity Museum and the Fred Kaiser building. A grove as recognized by Gill in the case of study of Nagele, is identified  in modern landscape  architecture as “an independent spatial type in which trees are grouped densely relative to their surroundings and has been used in addressing deficiencies of  form, function and experiential quality in contemporary cities” (Gill, 2018). In this context, the grove that was analyzed on campus serves the purpose of enhancing aesthetics for the surrounding buildings, increasing greenery as well as promoting physical activity.  The trees present in the grove vary from Douglas fir, Pacific red cedar, Red alder, American sweetgum and many others. In addition to the grove, the location for group 4, phase 1E3 extended to an alleyway alongside the Beaty Biodiversity Museum and Civil and Mechanical engineering structures building, reaching all the way onto trees bordering the sidewalks of East Mall. This area of the plot however vastly differs from the grove in the sense that the trees along the sidewalks have wider spaces between each other. The tree species are more uniform as well as the majority consist of American Sweet Gum.     36        Figure 2.1 Fairview grove                                  Figure 2.2 View of East Mall  3. Methodology (Collection)  The site location for Group 4, Phase 1E3, was first analyzed visually through the use of the application, ArcGIS Collector Classic, to determine where our plot started and ended and which trees were included in our section. The group started from the densely forested area, called Fairview Grove, and continued measuring heading northeast towards East Mall. Since the grove was relatively dense in trees and was difficult to keep track of, a sketch of that grove was created. The trees were then approached and measured systematically.   The basic tree description was conducted including: the ID number of the tree, the tree tag number, whether the tree is alive or dead, the species of the tree, and the land use where the tree is situated.  The ID number of the tree was determined through ArcGIS Collector, which provided an unique identifier for the particular tree (indicated by a green dot) based on the GPS location on the map. The tree was checked to determine if there was tag, if there was, the tag ID number was recorded. The species of the tree was determined through the ArcGIS Collector and whether or not the tree was alive or dead was also indicated. If the species of the tree listed on ArcGIS Collector did not match the tree, a comment was made on the plot inventory table. The land use of the tree location based on i-Tree Eco categories was determined; in this instance, all trees were considered to be institutional (I).   The tree stem diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured using the diameter tape. Only trees that had a DBH greater than 1 inch were included in the inventory, unless that particular tree was already identified on the ArcGIS Collector. The measurement was taken at 1.37 meters above the ground from the uphill side of the tree. The height at which it is measured is recorded (HT DBH) only if the DBH was not measured at 1.37 meters. If the tree has multiple stems, the DBH of  up to the 6 largest stems is measured and calculated using the following equation: Overall DBH= the square root of the sum of all squared stem DBHs.  The laser rangefinder is used to estimate the tree height using the three-point measurement method by standing at least 10 meters away from the tree on a level area. The total 37tree height (height from the ground to the top of the tree), height of the live crown and crown base height (height from the bottom of the live crown to the ground).    The crown width is measured in two directions: the long side and the short side. The crown percentage missing is the percent of the crown volume that is not occupied by branches and leaves. The crown percentage is recorded as a range in increments of 5%, for example, 5-10% and 25-30%. The crown light exposure (CLE) is the number of sides of the tree’s crown that is receiving light from above or the side. This measurement is determined by dividing the tree into 5 quadrants: the top of the tree and dividing the crown vertically into 4 sections. The number of sides that would receive sunlight will be the CLE.   Methodology (Analysis)                 Figure 3.1 Tree id tag: 11.030                Figure 3.2 Tree id: 4906                 Figure 3.3 Tree id tag: 11.034  The quantitative data collected can be presented and analyzed in many ways and used to show the relationships between different variables. We can track plot cover, Species abundance, Species Dominance, etc. While also comparing the relationship between missing crown % and light exposure or look at how the size of dbh is directly correlated with the total tree height. We also pointed out some trees of interest in our qualitative data. Cultural importance, and other ecosystem services, as well as future growth were points of interest here. There were some issues when it came to the collection of our quantitative data. Trees with the id tag 11.030, and 11.034 were not on the app, so we needed to take GPS coordinates for them. Tree 17 turned out to not be a tree, but it was actually a shrub. GPS in general was inconsistent in the denser areas and some trees were mislabelled. Measurement using the laser rangefinder was difficult in denser areas as well, and at times it simply wasn’t possible to confidently get an accurate reading of the tree 38heights. Some other minor obstructions included weather, however that did not impact the data collection significantly.  4. Summary (Results, Figures, Interpretation)  Plot Land Cover        Figure 4.1  As mentioned, plot 1E3 has multiple land types and uses within its borders. To break this down into simple, easy to use data, we have presented a pie chart and a table displaying this. The percent data has been determined using i-Tree Canopy estimates. We used 110 sample points in our i-Tree analysis to obtain the most accurate data possible. Land cover was broken down into 5 categories when identified, the categories are as follows: Trees, Shrubs, Grass, Buildings, and Walkways / Roads. Tree cover was identified as  being less than half of our plot area, at a value     of 32.1% (please keep in mind that this data has an error range, this range can be viewed in the accompanying table (figure 4.2), while building cover came in at 42.2%. The remainder of the area is covered by 15.6% walkways and roads, 3.67% shrubs, and 6.42% grass. However, because this data has been determined with the use of i-Tree Canopy, this is the coverage of the land at a birds-eye view, it does not account for anything that is under the canopy of a tree, or covered by any other object.  Land Type Trees Shrubs Grass Buildings Walkways & Roads Percent Cover (%) 32.1 ±4.47 3.67 ±1.83 6.42 ±2.43 42.2 ±4.73 15.6 ±3.48 Figure 4.2        39Species Composition           Figure 4.3  Figure 4.3 showcases the species abundance in our plot. This was completed by taking a tally of the number of trees that belong to each species listed in the attached Inventory Data Table. This representation includes live and dead trees. As can be seen in the graph, the most abundant species were the American Sweetgum with 20 trees, the Pacific Red Cedar with 14 trees, and the Japanese Cherry with 8 trees.           Figure 4.4   Figure 4.4 shows the basal area of each tree species. The basal area is the area of the plot that is covered (in m2). This graph was constructed by totaling the DBH for each species, then inserting that into a simplified basal area equation - BA = pi(DBH)2/40,000 where BA represent the basal area, the DBH represents the total DBH of each species (in cm), and the division by 40,000 includes a conversion factor to convert cm to m2. To summarize the result of this graph, the two most abundant species, the American Sweetgum and the Pacific Red Cedar cover the most basal area due to their large quantity. It can be seen here that, in general, basal area increases with species abundance.    40      Figure 4.5    Figure 4.5 displays the ratio of native trees to non-native trees. This was done by counting the frequency of tree species that are native and non-native. According to a BC Nature report on native and non-native species, the Native portion is comprised by: Grand Fir, Red Alder, Sitka Spruce, Bitter Cherry, Pacific Red Cedar, Douglas Fir, and Pacific Maple. While non- native species include: Quickbeam / Rowan, European White Birch, Russian Elm, Japanese Cherry, Japanese Maple, Father David’s Maple, Apple Tree, Alligator Wood, Black Pine, American Sweetgum, and Oregon Crab Apple.  It is worth mentioning that the Pacific Red Cedar constitutes 50% of the native trees in the plot. Furthermore, this species is recognized due to its ability to grow at an extremely fast pace, this is likely to be one of the reasons why this species is so abundant in this plot. Given that 15% of the plot  are walkways and roads, shade is an important ecosystem service that can improve the experience of the users of this area, not to mention that shade is one of the characterizing features of this species, as it can grow up to 60 m tall. Thus, rapid growth is a Figure 4.5 desirable feature in the planted trees. Another abundant species is the Douglas Fir. These trees comprise 25% of the native trees present in the plot. This species shares many qualities with Pacific Red cedars in terms of the amount of shade they provide, however, this species has the added benefit that they have good soil-binding roots. This is a desirable quality since it helps reduce risk of erosion in soil, which the soils in this plot are highly prone to given the high traffic of pedestrians, especially around areas such as Fairview grove.  Crown Fullness                                                                                                                                         Figure 4.6 41Figure 4.6 shows the data for the number of trees that have a certain percent of crown missing, as well as the number of trees that have a certain crown light exposure. The percent of the crown missing and the crown light exposure are also compared on this graph. Most trees have an intermediate amount of the crown missing, being between 10% and 50%. As can be seen, there is a direct relation between the amount of crown a tree is missing, and the amount of light exposure it receives; the more crown a tree is missing, the more light exposure. This graph was constructed by creating classes of the percent of crown missing, then totaling the number of trees that reside within that class. Then, the trees in each class’s crown light exposure was totaled and averaged for each class of percent crown missing (this is the reason for the crown light exposure being to one decimal place).  DBH  & Total Tree Height                                                                                    Figure 4.7  The mean height for the trees in this plot is 13.74m. The Standard deviation for this data set is 5.982m. This means that there is considerable variation in the heights of trees from the mean height. Such heterogeneity may be due to a) age of tree or b) species of tree. The grouping of the data into clusters (as shown in figure 4.7) is most likely due to species characteristics rather than age.                                                                                                                             Figure 4.8                                                                                 Figure 4.9   42  The DBH of the trees in our plot is shown in figure 4.8. This graph shows the relationship             between the DBH and the abundance of trees. From this graph, it is seen that the most common DBH of a tree in our plot is 30-39cm. Trees on the extreme ends (<10 DBH and 60+ DBH) of this spectrum are considerably less common. Although, it may be worth noting that DBHs less than 10cm are slightly more common than those with 60+ cm DBH.                                                This graph (figure 4.9) is showing the relationship between the DBH of trees and their total height. The blue bars represent the DBH classes and the number of trees they contain, and the orange line represents the average tree height of each class. This was done by totaling the total heights of all of the trees in each DBH class, then averaging it. Generally, the larger the DBH of a tree, the taller it is. Two exceptions of this on the graph are at the DBH class of 40-49cm and the DBH class of 60+cm. The total height of the trees in these classes is smaller than that of the lower class. This is possibly due to the species that dominates each DBH class. Perhaps most of the species in the 40-49cm DBH class are of a species that commonly has that DBH associated with the graphed height (13.7m). It is also possible that this DBH class has a large rage of tree heights associated with it, leading to an intermediate average.  Trees Of Interest Scientific name: Acer davidii, commonly known as Father David’s maple is a species of maple belonging to the snakebark group (see figure 4.10).  It brought to our attention its remarkably green pigmented trunk and branches, which are assist in the process of photosynthesis. This photograph was taken during our data collection which was carried out in winter season, where all its leaves had fallen. However, after further research, we found that not only its bark has aesthetic attributes, but also its dark green leaves (Emery, 2019) amongst other more commonly lighter coloured maples.   In the plot we assessed the tree with most cultural importance would most likely be the great Western Red Cedar which held many attributes and uses to the First Nations Indigenous communities of the Musqueam peoples which used it to make canoes, baskets with its inner trunk, accessories, art and several other items.                                                              Figure 4.10 43References   Appreciation: - Peter Gregory's Maple Profiles: Father David's Maple, Acer davidii. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://forums.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/threads/peter-gregorys-maple-profiles-father-davids-maple-acer-davidii.96530/  BC Nature. (n.d.). PDF. Retrieved from https://www.bcnature.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015  /03/Appendix2.pdf  Kamni Gill (2018) The grove as an urban tree planting type: The case of Nagele, Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes, 38:4, 269-292, DOI: 10.1080/14601176.2018.1465273  The Plant List - A working list for all plant species. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2615577  44        Inventory Report           Group 5 February 13, 2020  45Contribution page  Anna Tian  -Introduction; the specific northern red oak in front of UBC bookstore Hui Chen  -Methodology; DBH Analysis; Crown Width Analysis Yiqi Yan      - Site description; Species Analysis; Potential Future Growth of Trees Yongfei Pan  - Methodology; DBH Analysis; Crown Width Analysis Yufei Zhu  -Site description; Species Analysis; Potential Future Growth of Trees Zhiyi Lin  -Site description; Height Analysis; Potential Future Growth of Trees                461. Introduction The purpose of tree inventories can vary due to multiple uses of different areas. Management of any resource begins with an inventory of that resource. The planning of inventories can break down into three categories: schedule planting, maintenance and removal activities; Prioritize tree work to be done such as risk managing; Last but not least, developing plans, strategies, and budgets. These assessments help identify urban forest conditions such as species and diseases, as well as evaluating tree performances including their biological factor. Inventories can also assess ecosystems services like the benefits we get from trees, which is mainly the reason why we do all these works of planting the trees and evaluating them. The results of the inventories lead to different end-users and interest. Obviously, the authorities have highly use of these data in order to improve management, make better economic decisions, and to inform future plans. Researchers also play a role in assessing the environment, focusing on the social and economic aspects the trees provide. Lastly, citizens that are directly affected by these urban forests are also one of the end-users because they form micro-communities within the urban area which contribute to the formation of the linkage between forests and urban areas. 2. Site Description Our inventory zone is roughly located at the middle of the UBC, and is surrounded by the University Blvd, Main Mall, East Mall and south of the Beaty Biodiversity Museum. North corner of this zone is the intersection of the University Blvd and East Mall within the school.  In this area, there are some representative facilities and buildings. UBC Bookstore (Figure 1) is a commercial place for supporting students’ success by providing innovative products and services. Furthermore, this area includes Corner Store and Starbucks, where visitors can purchase souvenirs as well as enjoying the sceneries with a warm cup of beverage in their hand. Beaty Biodiversity Museum (Figure 2) is a fascinating building containing spectacular biological collections for visitors and students to acknowledge of biodiversity. Some buildings standing here are for academic research for students and professors, including Biological Sciences Building, Michael Smith Laboratories, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratories and Food, Nutrition, and Health Building. AbCellera is a biotechnology company mainly for experts working.         With the help of i-Tree Canopy, Table 1 presents the cover assessment of this zone. We conclude that the major area of our zone is for institutional services, which accounts for about 50.0%. The green space covers about 22% of the whole zone, of which trees, shrubs and Figure 1 UBC Bookstore. ("Google Maps", 2020). Figure 2 Beaty Biodiversity Museum. (“Google Maps”, 2020). 47lawns accounts for about 8.00%, 7.33% and 6.67% respectively. They are mainly planted around the buildings and along the streets, providing aesthetic and ecological values. The transportation area accounts 11.3%, including roads and parking lots. University Blvd (East Mall to Main Mall) as one of the most important roads with a large population flow in this zone was renovated in the summer of 2019. As for commercial area (2.33%), UBC Bookstore, Starbucks and Corner Store are the main components.  Cover Class Points %Cover Trees Shrubs Lawns Commercial Institutional Transportation Other 24 22 20 7 150 34 43 8.00±1.57 7.33±1.51 6.67±1.44 2.33±0.88 50.0±2.89 11.3±1.83 14.3±2.02 Table 1 Cover Assessment 3. Methodology There are two types of inventory that can be classified by different ranges in our research. As for the whole campus, we did a partial inventory which measures all trees in a particular area of the campus. It creates a complete inventory and provides accurate data, but just for a specific area. However, it is a complete inventory which provides comprehensive data for all of the trees’ situation within this zone. We selected a ground-based field survey method to collect the inventory data. We inspected the trees and did direct measurement with different kinds of tools because the position data was supported by a GPS navigation app (Collector), it was also an Urban vegetation Survey (Nielsen, Östberg, & Delshammar, 2014). The Collector app provided tree species and numbers. We used the diameter-tape at 1.37 m above the ground on the uphill side of the tree to measure the DBH. We measured the DBH of up to six largest if there are multiple stems separately. For the tree height, we used the laser rangefinder to estimate it, standing more than 10 meters away from the trees. Then we used tape measure to gauge the long and short length of the crown width. i-Tree was the tool that helps us to estimate the percentage of trees and shrubs in the zone.         After we finished the collection of data, we used Excel to organize the data and draw the graphics. The bar charts compare the amounts of trees, while the line chart illustrated the trends of the data. In order to predict the growth of trees in this zone, we used the urban tree database and allometric equations from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). We calculated the variables including height, crown base height and crown width by the given Figure 3 Laser rangefinder https://www.monumentaltrees.com/en/content/measuringheight/ Figure 4 Diameter-tape https://www.midwestarboristsupplies.com/product/diameter-tape-fabric-20/ Figure 5 i-Tree https://www.itreetools.org/ 48coefficients and equations, such as quad, cub, loglogw1 (McPherson, van Doorn & Peper, 2016). As for the reference region, the pacific northwest region with the environmental conditions which are the most similar to Vancouver’s, is the optimal choice. However, because in this region, we could not find the relevant data about the tree species we chose to make prediction, eventually we made the northern California coast as the secondary choice. The following variables are what we recorded: Tree ID, Tag ID, living status, species, land use, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree heights, crown width, crown missing and crown light exposure (CLE).   4. Summary of Tree Inventory Data 4.1 Species Analysis Figure 7 presents the amount of each tree species and their main basal area in this zone. From the statistics, the number of trees and their basal area are not directly proportional or inverse ratio. However, we can clearly find that Black Pine and Japanese Maple are the two most abundant species with the highest number of trees and largest basal area, reflecting that they are the dominant species in this zone. As dominant species, they might be more competent in extracting resources, resisting diseases or deterring competitors or predators than other species (“Dominant Species in a Diverse Ecosystem,” n.d.). Norther Red Oak, as a native species, its number is much smaller than the former two invasive species. We assume several reasons to explain why UBC urban forestry management planners have decided more non-native species in this zone. Firstly, some cases show that non-native species are better at providing desired ecosystems in urban environments (2011). Secondly, they can grow quicker and require minimal maintenance (2010).  However, Northern Red Oak still has representative effect and historical meaning because of its a large basal area (0.261m2). For example, in front of UBC Bookstore, a huge Northern Red Oak (Figure 6) surrounded by wooden blocks that created a resting area with large canopy for people. What’s more, this oak tree provides aesthetic value within the focal point in this area. As we did more research of this specific tree, we found out that this tree was named in recognition of Raymond Lee’s support to UBC. Lee has spent a lot of time and finance on finding methods to develop and protecting environments. He donated about $5 million to support UBC and about half of the money was used on enhancing this square. Just a little touch on the fact that he graduated from UBC and is one of Hong Kong's leading philanthropists, donating more than ¥110 million to charities in China, and devoted his time and skills to promoting the government committee and non-profit sectors.  Cornelia-Cherry has the smallest basal area, assuming the life of this species is younger comparing with other trees, and there is only one Black Tupelo, one European White Birch and one Quick Bean. Figure 6 Northern Red Oak (“Google Maps” ,2020)  49Species Number Basal Area Northern Red Oak Alligator-Wood Cornelia-Cherry Robinia Pseudoacania Frisia Black Tupelo European White Birch Black Pine Japanese Maple Tulip poplar Quick Bean False Acacia Three-Thon Acacia Flowering Dogwood London Plane 2 2 5 4 1 1 16 16 2 1 3 5 2 6 1.51 0.32 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 2.87 2.23 0.17 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.24                     Table 2 Species Analysis 4.2 DBH Analysis  Figure 8 illustrates that the number of trees whose DBHs are between 10cm and 30cm is the largest, while there are only two trees whose DBHs are between 70cm and 90cm. The number of trees with a DBH between 10cm and 30cm stands a larger quantity than the former one. The basal area of the trees with a DBH between 30cm and 50cm is the largest, and the smallest groups are the trees with a DBH less than 10cm. We can discover that the number of trees with a DBH between 50cm and 70cm is few, as well as the categories of trees with 70cm to 90cm DBH. However, both have relatively large basal area. We suppose the cause of this situation is that these two categories of trees have long DBH so that each individual tree has a larger basal area comparing with other categories. With the same reasoning, although the number of trees with DBH less than 10cm is more than those two categories mentioned above, their basal area is the least because of their short 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.50024681012141618Northern Red OakAlligator-WoodCornelia- CherryRobinia Pseudoacania FrisiaBlack TupeloEuropean White BirchBlack PineJapanese MapleTulip poplarQuick BeanFalse AcaciaThree-Thon AcaciaFlowering DogwoodLondon PlaneBasal Area(m²)Number of TreesSpeciesNumber of Trees Basal AreaFigure 7 Species Analysis  50DBH.             Table 3 DBH Analysis  The average of DBH is 24.5 cm, and the standard deviation is 17.2 cm. According to Figure 9, we can find out that the DBH of trees were mainly around 10cm-30cm, except for some thick, old trees.                                  Figure 9 DBH and Mean Line The DBH of Northern red oaks are around 80 cm, which are relatively larger than other species in this zone. There were some Cornelia- Cherry trees near the bookstore. We assume that these trees were planted not long ago due to the small DBH which was less than 10 cm. Robinia Pseudoacania Frisia trees’ DBH are around 10 cm. We think these trees were planted at the same time with the Cornelia-Cherry because their DBH are similar. Noticing more, we consider the trees (Three-Thon Acacia) near the Beaty Biodiversity Museum were also planted at the same time due to their similar DBH. In general, same tree species was planted synchronously in a specific area. 4.3 Height Analysis By analyzing the data, we get that the average height of all the trees in this zone is 9.7 meters, and the deviation is 5.5 meters. According to Figure10, it simply shows that the height of most trees is between 5 and 10 meters, and only 3 trees are more than 20 meters high. It illustrates that the trees in this zone are generally in small and medium height. The trees whose mature heights are less than 30 ft. (about 9 meters), are often recommended to be 0.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.0090.000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70DBH(CM)TREEMean DBHDBH (cm) Trees Basal Area (m2) <10  10-30  30-50  50-70  70-90  9 41 11 3 2 0.04 1.22 1.33 0.95 1.10 Figure 8 DBH Analysis 51planted in downtown area where soil and space is limited (Gilman & Sadowski, 2007). It can be considered as a rational reason to explain the result, because the area where we conducted the inventory is the core zone of UBC campus. It’s a highly functional zone with institutional and commercial buildings and arterial roads. The high density of constructions and the large cement surface area resulted in trees with small to medium height an appropriate choice for planting in this zone. On the other hand, planting high trees within this area with a large population flow will increase the risks of falling branches, workload and difficulties of pruning.    Table 4 Height Analysis However, combining the species and location of trees with our observation during the inventory, we find that some trees are still in juvenile stage, which might be another factor for our result. For example, the London planes is a species that can grow to 20-30 meters, exceptionally over 40 meters tall (Wikipedia contributors, 2020), but the row of London planes on the UBC Blvd, all of them are about 11 meters tall. They are not mature, and still in the crucial growth period. Besides, we find that other groups of trees, such as the London planes on the UBC Blvd. and three-thon acacias near Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory (AERL), grown evenly with a relatively small deviation of height. It can be  inferred that these trees in one group were planted at a same time and grows at a similar rate, which can provide people with a sense of unity and harmony. There are still a few relatively tall trees in this zone, like the northern red oak at the conjunction of Biological Sciences Road and E Mall (the highest one) and some near the UBC bookstore. These trees Height (m) Number of Trees <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 14 27 11 11 2 1 <5     	03691215182124271 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66HeightTreesFigure 11 Tree Height and Mean Value Figure 10 Height Analysis 52are usually considered as a landmark, planted separately rather than densely with other trees. 4.4 Crown Width Analysis  We used volume equation (1)("Tree crown measurement", n.d.) and crown shape ratio equation(2)(Martin-Ducup, Schneider, & Fournier, 2018) to calculate the volume of every species with their crown width.  Crown volume=(             )×(crown thickness)×(average minimum crown spread)²  (1)   Crown shape ratio (Cr%): Crown length /tree height                                (2) As the result, the volume of Northern Red Oak is the biggest, which is 9340.86(m³), while the volume of Flowering Dogwood is the smallest, 24.57(m³), in this zone. 4.5 Potential Future Growth of Trees Using the the urban tree database and allometric equations, we made the analysis and prediction of the growth of the trees. However, because of the limited subjects and data, we can not make an overall future scenario and propose strategic methods to manage the green space.  In terms of specific species, there are six London Plane located on the University Blvd, we combine with the limited data, and conclude the future growth of these trees. The average height of these trees is 11.13m, and based on the Figure 13, we can estimate their age is 17 and in their adult. After the seventeenth year, the increase rate of crown base height is getting lower, which means that the current nutrient, space and soil are enough for them to grow.   Figure 13 Future Growth of London Plane Figure 12 Crown Volume 53There are four Robinia Pseudoacania Frisia on the East Mall (Figure 16), their average height is 7.5m, according to figure 15, their age is around 12 and in their juvenile. They will grow fast after several years according to the curves. However, we find the spaces between these trees are narrow that will impede their future growth. And the roads will be cracked by underground root. Figure 14 Future Growth of Robinia Pseudoacania Frisia      Because of the lack of data in the database, we cannot calculate to get predicted height data of five Cornelia-Cherries. However, according to their growing environment we find some challenges that they may face in the future. Because of planted densely, we assume that they will compete each other for more soil, nutrition and spaces. This dysfunctional competition will be detrimental to their growth. 5.Summary Data                    Note: DBH: diameter at breast height; BA: basal area Table 5 Summary Data  Number  Mean SD Tree Living tree Dead tree Species  DBH (cm) BA (m2) Total height(m) Crown base(m) Crown width(m) 66 66 0 14     24.5 0.07 9.7 2.3 6.7     (±17.2) (±0.11) (±5.5) (±1.6) (±3.0) Canopy missing <10% 10-30% 31-50% >51%  36 20 8 2   Crown light exposure 0 1 2 3 4 5  2 9 8 20 2 0   Figure 15 Robinia Pseudoacania Frisia ("Google Maps",2020) 54Reference:  Dominant Species in a Diverse Ecosystem. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://education.seattlepi.com/dominant-species-diverse-ecosystem-3936.html.  Escobedo, F. J., Kroeger, T., & Wagner, J. E. (2011). Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. Environmental Pollution,159(8-9), 2078-2087.  Gilman, E. F., & Sadowski, L. (2007). Choosing suitable trees for urban and suburban sites: site evaluation and species selection. University of Florida, IFAS Extension.  Martin-Ducup, O., Schneider, R., & Fournier, R. (2018). Analyzing the vertical distribution of crown material in mixed stand composed of two temperate tree species. Forests, 9(11), 673. doi:10.3390/f9110673  McPherson, E. G., van Doorn, N. S., Peper, P. J. (2016). Urban tree database. Fort Collins, CO: Forest Service Research Data Archive.   Nielsen, A. B., Östberg, J., & Delshammar, T. (2014). Review of urban tree inventory methods used to collect data at single-tree level. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 40(2), 96-111.  Naming Report 3.4 Money Raymond MC Lee Square. (n.d.). Retrieved from. https://pdfslide.net/documents/naming-report-34-money-raymond-mc-lee-square.html  Sjöman, H., & Nielsen, A.B. (2010). Selecting trees for urban paved sites in Scandinavia – A review of information on stress tolerance and its relation to the requirements of tree planners. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9 (4), 281-293.  Tree crown measurement. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_crown_measurement  Wikipedia contributors. (2020). Platanus × acerifolia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Platanus_%C3%97_acerifolia&oldid=939407956    55Tree Inventory Report Group 6 Keith Chau, Mattesen Moore, Molly Kim, Jared Rusheleau, Marcus Nikolovski  February 13, 2020   56 Group Member Contributions    Name Contributions Marcus Nikolovski  Mattesen Moore 43723535 Present for all fieldwork, Completed Methodology Keith Chau 29567450 Present for all fieldwork, completed introduction,   Molly Kim 28101632 Present for most fieldwork, Completed site description, part of summary (figure 1 and 2) Jared Rusheleau 33944323 Present for large majority of fieldwork, summary of tree inventory data      57Introduction  Increasing the biodiversity around campus to maintain ecological integrity is one of the major visions in the UBC Green Building Action Plan (2018). As the University continues to improve its campus through the addition of new facilities and improvements to existing structures, the acknowledgement  The purpose of this tree inventory is to establish an accurate inventory of all trees within a given plot on the campus and to assess the health of trees within the area.   The data collected through the tree inventory will be beneficial for new research opportunities such as evaluating biodiversity on campus, average canopy cover, or amount of carbon sequestration by trees. Particularly, the acquired data can further assist shareholders and partners such as UBC Campus and Community Planning in creating a more biodiverse and open community for students, professors, and visitors alike. As of 2018/2019, UBC Vancouver currently has a total of 54,863 students, and 15,705 staff members, in addition to numerous visitors each year. Along with the complete inventory of other plots, UBC and other stakeholders can use the data to improve flora management strategies and increase biodiversity around the campus.     Site Description   The site is located at the corner of the intersection of Main Mall and University Boulevard. The trees are located around and in-between buildings. For this site the land use type is institutional (Chemistry and HEBB buildings). This area is usually accessed by people who enter and exit the buildings. In-between buildings are mostly shade and slight sunlight can be accessed in that area. There are benches under large canopy covered tall trees so people can attain shade. In addition, there are bike parking areas, including a bike lock-up cage located within the center of the outdoor area within the Chemistry buildings area.   58   Methodology  The methods for measuring and collecting the data for the inventory were all on-the-ground, besides the use of the “Collector Classic” app, which was used to gather some of the tree species, as well as geographical location within the plot. We started measuring trees at the corner of University Blvd. and Main Mall, going in a counter-clockwise direction around the chemistry and HEBB buildings. The tools used included; a laser rangefinder/hypsometer, a diameter tape, open-reel tape measures, a clinometer, a smartphone, as well as a metal clipboard with Rite-in-the-rain paper. The laser rangefinder/hypsometer was used to find the total tree height of all the trees, as well as being used for measuring the canopy base height of the taller trees. The diameter tape was used to find the diameter at breast height (1.37m) of all the trees measured. The open-reel tape measure was used to find the canopy cover of trees, and occasionally used to find the canopy base height of the tree with lower hanging branches or young trees. The clinometer was unused by our group, as the laser rangefinder/hypsometer was used in most situations, but this tool would be used in conjunction with the open-reel tape measure to find the height of trees. The metal clipboard, Rite-in-the-rain paper, as well as standard HB#2 pencils were used in the collection and documentation of the data. One of our most useful tools were smartphones, used in the communication between our group members, finding the location and species of trees that were mapped on the Collector Classic app, as well as to find the coordinates of the trees that were unlisted on the app. To find the location of the unmapped trees we used google maps, dropping a pin on the location of the unmarked tree, and recording the coordinates onto our data collection sheet. The variables and values we were measuring for included; if the tree have a tag issued by the University of British Columbia, if so, what that tag was, the identification number of the tree within the Collector Classic app, if the tree was alive, dead or removed, species, the land use of the area the tree was located within, diameter at breast height (if there was multiple branches or stems of the tree at this height we measured up to 6 of them and averaged them to get the average diameter), total tree height, live canopy height, canopy base height, crown width (second measurement taken perpendicular from the initial measurement), crown percent missing, crown light exposure, as well as any comments we felt were necessary to include in the data collection of these trees. We manually input all of our data collected for our trees into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. This tool was used to neatly sort all of the data collected, averaging DBHs, as well as to create graphs and other visual instruments to help interpret our collected data. Summary  59 DBH (cm) Trees <10 DBH 21 10-30 DBH 53 30-50 DBH 12 50-80DBH 20 80-100 DBH 3 >100 DBH 2                                                                                            Figure. 1 Total number of trees relative to DBH classes.  Total Tree Height (m) Trees < 10 m 71 10-20m 27 20-30m 14                                                                 Figure. 2 Total number of trees relative to total tree height classes.      Summary of tree inventory data    Throughout the fieldwork we came across thirty species that were identified (one or two species were not previously catalogues on ArcGIS) among the 100 odd trees that we catalogued. The majority of the trees were around ten meters tall, however there were a few much larger trees that stood almost thirty meters tall. The closest to that, was an Acer griseum that stood at twenty-eight and a half meters tall. This tree was about twenty centimeters taller than the second tallest tree, an Ulmus americana. Looking over the data this proved to be quite interesting as the Acer griseum is native to China, where the Ulmus 60americana is native to eastern North America. The Ulmus americana is pretty par from home, however in a similar coastal climate. Moreover, the Acer griseum is much further from home, being from a different continent entirely. This proved to be the case for most of the trees we found in the Cupressaceae family, as they were part of the Chamaecyparis genus or ‘false cypress’, such as the Chamaecyparis pisifera and the Chamaecyparis obtusa. Both of which are native to eastern asia. As it turns out, very few species on our site were native to western North America, or North America as a whole for that matter. Maybe that is for good reason. Our moderately tempered, coastal climate gives tree species the ability to reach their full potential. Going back to our tallest tree, the Acer griseum is a mid sized tree that ranges from six to nine meters tall in its native territory. Out here, it tripled that. Another interesting find on our site was a Larix. Larix is a very interesting species as it is native to North America and is prominent in the Canadian boreal forests. Although they are coniferous, they are a deciduous tree. Quite a marvel to see in Banff National Park during the fall as they turn a golden yellow before losing their needles. One final marvel that we noticed on our site was the Ilex aquifolium. Not necessarily the tree itself, but the manor that the tree was growing was interesting. The four Ilex aquifolium on our site were trimmed to stand tall (around seven meters) and act like a canopy to two walkways. Just from looking at the tree, we could tell that this was not in this tree's nature. Knots are visible only a few inches apart from where branches had been limbed all the way up the trunk of these trees. That being said, these trees served their purpose as canopies and beautiful accents to some walkways quite well, while reaching well over it’s expected height of three meters.                               61References   (2020) Wayfinding at UBC Vancouver: http://www.maps.ubc.ca/PROD/index.php  Bielka, C. Larix occidentalis. Retrieved from http://blogs.ubc.ca/conifersubc/?page_id=70&fbclid=IwAR1wOEsgWNtxQLbzu8HJnYJ5vymVBzVpnIxzYLlpDjktGnGDbBYGIVYKt-U  62        Inventory Assessment  Group 7 Submission date: 2020/2/13     Jiatong Gao   Yiqin Shen  Jiayi Chu     Max An  Fletcher Chan   Xiaolong Li  Thomas Huen                            63   Table of Contents (contribution)    Introduction (Fletcher Chan)------------------------------------------------------------------3                                             Site Description (Yiqin Shen)-----------------------------------------------------------------3                                              Methodology (Jiatong Gao)--------------------------------------------------------------------5                                               Summary of tree inventory data:                                          Species composition: abundance & dominance (Yiqin Shen)------------------------------6  DBH classes (Thomas Huen)-------------------------------------------------------------------7  Estimating mean of attributes (Xiaolong Li)-------------------------------------------------7  Summary table (Jiayi Chu)---------------------------------------------------------------------8  Special species (Jiayi Chu)---------------------------------------------------------------------8  Forecasting (Max An)-------------------------------------------------------------------------10  Works Cited------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1064Introduction A tree inventory focuses mainly on the attributes of the trees(individual) such as the number of trees in a given area, the species of tree, the condition etc. The tree inventory we conducted focuses strictly on Phase 1C2.  The data we collected for our tree inventory focuses on the following data: The UBC tree ID setup by UBC, whether or not there was a tag and if there was what number was on the tag. We also looked for the species of the tree, the land use, DBH, the circumference of the tree, the actual height of the tree and the crown width. This was all measured using a clinometer, tape measure etc.  The purpose of this tree inventory was not only to identify the trees but also find out the condition and health of the trees, live or dead as well as to see if any of the trees needed maintenance and such. This tree inventory was also conducted so that we could identify any trees that have not been identified or tagged by UBC, so that we could tag them and record their existence. Because UBC is an ever growing institute that inspires education one of the other purposes of this tree inventory is to use the new information and plan for the future, knowing how many trees in an area and the characteristics like size and such as well as density of the tree population in a given area can help prevent overcrowding and if it is currently overcrowded, a plan can be made to resolve it. All of these details help UBC plan and decide where to not only put trees but other important monuments and such. With clear information and detail of UBC’s urban forest community this makes initiating and implementing a management plan much easier. This tree inventory was conducted by student groups. The end users of this small scale project would not only be UBC itself since all of this data helps planning for the future and organization much easier, it also benefits anyone that attends this world class university. Students and professors alike get to enjoy the spiritual and aesthetic benefits of our urban forest. Since this inventory helps identify trees, any trees in poor condition, health or are in the way of students can be taken care of which may be a small detail but can change people's perspective of the school entirely. Ecosystem services such as cultural services can be deprived from this tree inventory in the long run. Although it may seem like a small scale project planned by a forestry class to give forestry students field work experience in their respective careers, it actually plays a significant impact in the wellbeing for many of those who attend the University of British Columbia. Site Description The area we measured is located in the east of Main Mall, the north of Chemistry Building and the south of Ladner Clock Tower. The longitude and latitude coordinates are about 49.15 ° N, 123.15 ° W. In the western part of this area is a small campus botanical garden (Figure 2), which is rich in tree species diversity and tree density, with a narrow stream passing through (but there is no water at present). The main users here are pedestrians, tourists and students resting there. The middle of this area is a triangular lawn and the main road leading to the IKB Learning Centre. The eastern part consists of IKB building and its surrounding open rest area, a grove and road (shown in Figure 1). 65 Figure 1: The distribution of each plot cover  Figure 2: small campus botanical garden According to the classification of land use type in i-Tree eco, the western area is Park and the eastern area is Institutional. Also, this plot is mainly covered by grasslands (27%), roads (25%), trees (23%), buildings (22%) and shrubs (3%).  Figure 3: The percentage of each plot cover     Methodology To do an inventory properly, one must standardize the methods used to measure and 66record different attributes of the trees. With uniform procedures, errors can be minimized while efficiency is increased.  In the inventorying process, ArcGIS is used to more accurately locate the where about of each tree, to make sure the measurement aligns with its Tree ID. It also allows for the planning of routes, which made data collection much more clear and organized. Data collection took two days to finish, which are sectioned off and planned differently as the following map:  Figure 4: map of phase 1C2 Measurements such as tree heights (DBH, TTH, LCH, CBH) and crown width are measured using both a laser rangefinder and tape measures. Crown % miss and crown lighting exposure (CLE) are estimated in respect to the projection key. DBH (diameter at breast height) is measured with a tape measure at the height of 1.4m. A reference of 1.4m is first measured and established on a groupmate, then the measurement is taken against the reference on the groupmate. A tape measure is then wrapped around the stem at the referenced height, getting the measurement for circumference. For multiple stemmed trees, all stems are measured unless over 6 stems, which then takes the measurement of the 6 thickest stems. The aggregated DBH is calculated through the formula (MacDicken et al., 1991): Overall DBH = the square root of the sum of all squared stem DBHs  However, the measurement and calculations above are in terms of the circumference of the stem(s). To get the diameter, simply divide the circumference by 𝛑𝛑, since circumference=𝛑𝛑d. All calculations are done post recording and tabulation using excel functions to ensure efficiency and accuracy.  TTH (total tree height) and CBH (crown base height) are measured primarily through the usage of a laser rangefinder. To properly operate the rangefinder, a 3-point measurement method is used (point to horizontal, top, then base of matter being measured). In addition, a tape measure is used when the tree is too short for any meaningfully efficient use of a rangefinder. The tape measure is held at the top of the tree by hand, by letting the tape fall onto the ground by gravity allows the tape measure to be more or less perpendicular to the ground, thus obtaining a more accurate reading. LCH (live crown height) is largely the same as the TTH throughout the inventory. Most trees are alive and there is a good amount of new trees planted. Thus, the TTH is equivalent to the LCH for a healthy, living tree. Crown width is measured by taking the average of the longest and shortest length through the centre of the crown. This is done using a tape measure, where two people grab both ends of the tape measure and walk to the ends of the crown. It is important to keep the tape measure as horizontal as possible, to minimize the extra length measured.  Crown % miss and CLE (crown light exposure) are estimated in respect to the projection key handout. Since everyone has different projections on how a full crown of a 67tree would look like, varying in shapes and sizes, it can be quite subjective despite having a systematic key. Thus, to minimize the deviation in this set of data, the task of evaluation is kept to one groupmate each day. To analyze the data, two general categories are considered: species composition and urban forest structure. Species composition can be approached from abundance (numbers of each species), diversity (number of species) and basal area (cross-sectional area of a stem at DBH). Urban forest structure can be approached from DBH classes, TTH classes, and CBH classes to assess an urban forest in terms of what purpose it serves, and its ecosystem services. Plotting data from both categories together can reveal possible correlation or new insights, such as plotting DBH against numbers of trees against basal area.  Allometric equations are also used to establish a mathematical estimate of future growth. By quantifying relations between different variables within or across categories (e.g. DBH against TTH, basal area against CBH), it allows plausible future projections which can help in developing an ever-adapting management plan for the urban forest. Summary of tree inventory data This area is rich in species. We measured 63 trees and 23 species. The largest number of species are Japanese maple, Pacific red cedar and Magnolia hybrid. In addition, the species with the largest floor area are Pacific red cedar and American elm(Figure5).   Figure 5: Species composition  Figure 6: DBH classes There is a big gap between the height of trees in our zone. The highest trees are more than 30 meters, while the shortest trees are less than 5 meters. The average TTH of these 68trees is 7.3, and the height of 18 trees in 63 exceeds the average (Figure 7).  Figure 7: Estimating mean of the total tree height The DBH of trees in this zone also vary a lot. The largest one is about 120cm, the smallest one is about 1cm. The average DBH of these trees is 25.17cm, and the DBH of most trees are lower than the average (Figure 8).  Figure 8: Estimating mean of the DBHs   Summary Table  Live SD Death Trees 63  0 Species 23   DBH mean (cm) 25.17 28.2933  BA mean (m^2) 0.11258 0.2375  Total height mean (m) 7.297 6.4064  Crown base mean (m) 33.277 72.3346  Crown width mean (m) 5.0698 4.0851  Canopy missing    <10% 5   10%-30% 34   31%-50% 17   51%-80% 7   >80% 0   Crown light exposure    0 1   691 1   2 11   3 18   4 16   5 16    Special species The tallest tree:  The Pacific Red Cedar at the east end of the small botanical garden is the tallest tree in the area, with a total height of 32.5m and a DBH of 113.5cm (which is the second largest). It can be regarded as a landmark tree in this area, corresponding to the bell tower in the north. Because of its existence, it blocks the sunshine that can be received by the trees next door, making the surrounding trees not grow very well, and a Cupress Lawsoniana in the south needs to grow obliquely around its branches.  Figure 9: The Pacific red cedar Interesting Trees:  In this area, we found a tree with very scattered branches. It belongs to Pacific dogwood. Its branches are scattered and extend to the West wildly, with an average crown width of 14.3m. And it has a very low branch position; also its DBH is larger than that of its other counterparts. We think the main reason for this phenomenon is that there is enough growth space in the West   Figure 10: Pacific dogwood There are also some trees with multiple stems, such as the Northern Western Cedars with five stems and the Chinese Fir with three stems. 70 Figure 11: Northern Western Cedar & Chinese Fir The last tree we want to introduce is Camperdown Elm, which has a "twisted branch head" and is very curious. During our measurement, we even met several tourists who took photos with him and had questions about its strange shape. By consulting the data, we find that the grafted Camperdown Elm slowly develops a broad, flat head that may eventually build as high as 4 m, and a commensurately wide crown with a weeping habit (More & White, 2003).  Figure 12: Camperdown Elm       Forecasting of Tree Growth in the Area  In the designated area, tree species and ages vary by a significant amount. There are newly-planted trees around the Irving K. Barber Building, as well as old, multi-stemmed trees around the small botanical garden area.  There are 5 multi-stem trees that have 4 stems or more in the designated area. After several years of growing, we believe the split between the stems will be further apart. Since all 5 trees are near paths around the building that a large number of people walk on every day, they have a potential threat to the community in that area.  71 Figure 13 For the newly-planted trees around the building, we believe they will continue to grow as usual. However, for some trees, they might block the window of the building after several years of growth.   Figure 14            Works Cited  Mac Dicken, K.K., Wolf, G.V. and Briscoe, C.B. (eds.) (1991). Standard research methods for multipurpose trees and shrubs. International Research Centre for Agroforestry (ICRAF) and Winrock International publication (multipurpose tree species network research series; manual no. 5).  More, D., White, J. (2003). Cassell's trees of Britain & Northern Europe. London: Cassell.  72 Tree Inventory Report   Irving K. Barber Learning Center &  Indian Residential School History  and Dialogue Centre     Group 8  Date of Inventory: 2020-02-01                               Date of Submission: 2020-02-13 73Executive Summary  Acknowledgment We acknowledge that the UBC Vancouver campus, including Site C3, is situated on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territory of the Musqueam people (University of British Columbia, 2018a, p. 12).   Abstract This inventory report focuses on a study site included in Phase 1 of the UBC Vancouver campus urban forest tree inventory as part of the larger Urban Forest Management Plan (Naveau et al., 2017). The inventory site described is labelled on the UFOR101_TreeSurvey map file system as “Phase 1C3” (Burton, 2020). The site will hereafter be referred to as “Site C3”, acknowledging that the site C3 is part of Phase 1 of the tree inventory, as described by Burton (2020).  The inventory report of Site C3 was conducted by UFOR 101 Group 8 during the Winter 2020 term. The total area included in the inventory report is 1.5 hectares in size (Burton, 2020). This inventory report includes three sections: Site Description, Methodology, and Summary of Tree Inventory Data. The Site Description section provides a general description of Site C3. The Methodology section describes the tools and techniques used in the inventory and analysis of the data. The Summary of Tree Inventory Data (Analysis) reports on the results and findings of the tree inventory, including a subsection regarding the landmark trees included in Site C3.   An excel spreadsheet with the recorded measurement of variables in the tree inventory is included as an electronic submission.   Authors by Section Site Description Anya Rueter,  Methodology Karman Phuong,  Summary of Tree Inventory Data Alex Martin,  Eakin Sawada-Tse,  Han Yan,  Yunshu (Lily) Du,    Cover photo by Anya Rueter  74Introduction   “The forests around UBC are valuable ecological assets” - UBC Green Building Action Plan, 2018b, p. 77  In a time marked by climate activism and an increased green-approach to development, the value of the University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver campus’ urban forest cannot be understated. Beginning in the 1930s, a rapid development on the UBC Vancouver campus has resulted in a significant decrease in the size of the urban forest on campus (Du et al., 2016). In an effort to increase housing and construct new faculty buildings, the urban forest on the Vancouver campus has notably diminished (Du et al., 2016).  Although the UBC Vancouver campus is known for its green landscape design, a publication in 2017 by Lompart & Thomas indicated the crucial importance of a “complete and maintained tree inventory” (p. 6) for the UBC Vancouver campus (2017).  The establishment of a tree inventory for the UBC Vancouver campus began in the summer of 2017 (Lompart & Thomas, 2017). Once completed, this tree inventory will allow for the “proper implementation and enforcement of tree policies and procedures on campus” (Lompart & Thomas, 2017, p. 6). An inventory of the urban forest will allow for systematic management decisions, including scheduled arboriculture maintenance, planting, and pest management (Lilly, 2010). Tree management plans can be drafted using the information discovered in the tree inventory, as well as determining future budgetary needs (Lilly, 2010). Through the development of a tree inventory, repeated measuring will allow the tree managers to monitor the condition of the urban forest on campus, including successful and vulnerable tree species. The inventory report is useful to a number of users. Most notably, the urban forest managers might use this tree inventory to inform their management and budgetary decisions and limitations, mitigate risks relate to trees, inform integrated pest management practices, monitor changes to the urban forest, and determine future strategies and policies (Ferrini et al., 2017). As a post-secondary institution with a notable forestry department, researchers might use the inventory data and reports to assess changes to the urban forest, as well as noting current benefits that the urban forest provides (Ferrini et al., 2017). The urban forest inventory can be considered a crucial aspect in the long-term management of the urban forest.      75Site Description Preface: This section describes the structures located within the inventory site and provides a brief overview of their history. The Site Description section also provides information regarding the boundaries of the site described. The section concludes with a review of the available services offered within the inventory site.  Site Boundaries Site C3 in Phase 1 of the UBC Vancouver campus urban forest tree inventory encompasses much of the land surrounding the University of British Columbia’s Irving K. Barber Learning Centre (IKBLC) and the Indian Residential School History and Dialogue Centre (IRSHDC). The site is defined by the following road boundaries: Memorial Road to the north, East Mall to the east, Agricultural Road to the south, and Main Mall to the west (Burton, 2020). Areas within this boundary but not included in this inventory consist of the northwest quadrant between Learner’s Walk, the Ladner Clock Tower, Memorial Road, and Main Mall, as well as the heavily vegetated region in the southern section of the plot bounded by the side walk connecting Learner’s walk to Main Mall, and the sidewalk along East Mall (Burton, 2020). All street trees within the boundaries along East Mall are included in this inventory. Figure one provides a visual reference of the boundaries, indicated by a white border line along the perimeter of the coloured area, and a visual reference of the site, coloured blue. Areas in black and white are considered outside the scope of this inventory and are not included in this report.     Site History Construction of IKBLC began in 1922, following the Great Trek protest in which thousands of students marched to Point Grey calling for a better university campus (University of British Columbia, n.d.). In response to this march, the library and two additional buildings were constructed; construction was completed in 1925, with recent renovation to the building occurring 2002 (University of British Columbia, n.d.). This renovation included a 200,000 square foot addition paid for by a 20-million-dollar donation from UBC Forestry alumnus Irving K. Barber (University of British Columbia, n.d.). In 2009, the Learner’s Walk was constructed in front of the library; this construction included adding benches, tables, and new landscaping in the area closest to the building (Syncra Construction, 2015). The Library Garden to the west of the building received new landscaping in 2017 (Situ, 2016). This area includes many of the trees reviewed in the inventory.   Services Provided IKBLC provides many services to the UBC community including lecture halls, study spaces, the Music, Art & Architecture Library, a small cafe, and the Rare Books and Special Collections archive (University of British Columbia, n.d.). The Library Garden provides even more study spaces and an abundance of greenery creating a peaceful and calming atmosphere.    Fig. 1: Site C3 indicated in colour (Burton, 2020) 76Methodology Preface: This section reviews the methods and techniques used to collect inventory data. Measuring refers to determining the number of trees and their structure, condition and other quantitative or qualitative characteristic, yielding data for a single point in time (Ferrini et al., 2017). For accurate results and consistency, the group followed the metric system. All group members are referred to as “surveyors” in this section.  Inventory Type The inventory conducted on Site C3 was a complete ground-based inventory for all trees located in the site area, but is a partial inventory contributing to the larger UBC tree inventory project. A partial inventory is measuring “all trees meeting a particular condition” (Ferrini et al., 2017, p. 41).   Tree ID, Species The tree identification number and indicated species were retrieved using the information available on the UFOR101_TreeSurvey map file system on Collector for ArcGIS (Burton, 2020).  Tag, Tag ID If a tag was present on the tree when it was being measured, the presence of a tag would be indicated with a “Y” for yes in the Tag section of the spreadsheet and the identification number on the tag would be recorded under Tag ID. If no tag was present, the tag section would be marked as “N” for no. There were fourteen trees with a tag and tag identification number.  Condition (Live/Dead) When measuring the condition, the surveyor determines whether the tree is alive or dead. A method to determine the livelihood of the tree is look for “healthy branches covered with new leaves or leaf buds” (Spengler, 2019). Trees found to be alive were indicated as “L” for live in the Live/Dead section. No trees measured during field work were found to be dead, however one tree was found to be removed and is indicated as “D” for dead in the Live/Dead section.  Land Use There are thirteen default land use classes that are recorded by i-Tree Eco (i-Tree Eco., 2019). The surveyors used descriptions from i-Tree Eco to determine the land use classification as Institutional (I).  Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) The diameter at breast height (DBH) measures the circumference of the stem of a tree (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p.37). The measurement is conducted with a diameter tape, which “divides the linear scale by pi” (Ferrini et al., 2017, p.38), yielding a diameter measurement in millimeters. It is important to identify the height of DBH. The diameter is “estimated at 4.5 feet or 1.37 meters above the ground” (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p.37).  When measuring DBH, it is important to note that not all trees in the plot had a single cylindrical stem, such as the Sequoiadendron giganteum shown in figure 2. fig. 2: measuring DBH  77Certain growth characteristics (tree height, growth form) limit the ability to measure DBH at exactly 1.37 meters. In measuring multi-stem trees, DBH should be measured for “up to six stems” (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p.37). The measurements were inputted into an Excel spreadsheet that calculated DBH of the multi-stem trees. For trees with irregular swellings, bumps or depressions at DBH, measurements would occur at a height “above the irregularity at the place it ceases to affect normal stem form” (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p.38). When working on a slope, surveyors recorded DBH on the “uphill side of the tree” (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p.38).   Tree Height There were three required tree height measurements, total tree height (TTH), live crown height (LCH) and crown base height (CBH). Figure 3 illustrates the total tree height and live crown height. Crown base height can be found by subtracting the crown depth from the LCH.  A Nikon laser range finder was used for this tree inventory to record TTH, LCH and CBH. Trees with CBH less than two meters (height) were measured with the open-reel tape measure. To measure the TTH and LCH using the laser range finder, the surveyor would shoot the laser at the basal region and the highest point of the tree (TTH) or the highest live point of the tree (LCH). The range finder would then calculate the angle between these two measurements and produce a height measurement.   Crown Width Crown width measures the lateral length of the crown of the tree, including all foliage and branch structure (i-Tree Eco, 2019). For this inventory, crown width is documented in two lengths, noting the long and short widths. Measurements were conducted by two surveyors using an open-reel tape. The surveyors would stand on opposite sides of the tree and measure from the edge of the widest dripline, yielding the long length. This would be repeated for the shortest dripline, yielding the short length. The excel spreadsheet would calculate the average crown width using these two measurements. If the tree was planted on a slope, the measuring tape would be leveled to ensure the accuracy of the measurements.   Percent Crown Missing Percent crown missing is an estimation of the percentage of absent foliage and branch structure (i-Tree Eco, 2019). Using rough estimations and comparisons to normal growth patterns of the species, the percent crown missing could be estimated for each tree on Site C3.   Crown Light Exposure (CLE) Crown light exposure (CLE) is the “number of sides of the tree’s crown receiving light from above or the side” (i-Tree Eco., 2019, p.36) The crown is divided vertically into four quadrants, with the fifth side referencing the tree top; thus, the largest possible CLE value is 5 (i-Tree Eco., 2019). Figure 6 will be used as a field example of CLE determination. Noting the building behind the Sequoiadendron giganteum in figure 3, one side of the tree might have a lack of exposure to sunlight, whereas all other sides were free of light obstruction. Thus, the CLE was determined to have a value of four.     fig. 3: Sequoiadendron giganteum  78Summary of Tree Inventory Data Preface: This section provides a summary and analysis of the tree inventory data collected and how the findings relate to the future management of the site. Trees of interest are identified in a brief section following the implications of the findings section. It should be noted that averages for this data were affected by 14 trees located on the northeast side of Site C3 (along East Mall), which are all presumed to be Quercus robur, although four trees are not identified in the app. These 14 trees are of considerable size in diameter at breast height, tree height, and crown width. Their influence on the calculated averages are further noted within this section.  DBH The average total DBH on Site C3 was 16.1 centimeters, with a minimum DBH of 1.3 centimeters and a maximum DBH of 78.5 centimeters. The average total DBH of single stem trees was 22.1 centimeters, with a minimum DBH of 1.3 centimeters and a maximum DBH of 78.5 centimeters.  The average total DBH of multi-stem trees was 6 centimeters, with a minimum DBH of 2.22 centimeters and a maximum DBH of 16.75 centimeters. In reviewing figure 4, there are no multi-stem trees with DBH greater than 30 centimeters. This average total DBH and average DBH of single stem trees were increased by the 14 Quercus robur located on East Mall, which have a significantly larger DBH than most of the other single stem trees found on Site C3. Another notable species that influenced the single stem DBH average was Sequoiadendron giganteum. There are two Sequoiadendron giganteum located on Site C3; their DBHs are: 39.60 centimeters (tree ID: 4317) and 60.10 centimeters (tree ID: 3070, tag ID: 9599).  Differences in DBH might be due to different planting time, different tree species and different growth forms (i.e. single stem and multi-stem trees).   Growth Forms The multi-stem and single stem tree distribution data is shown in figure 5. Acer circinatum tends to grow as a multi-stem tree structure, as opposed to Thuja plicata, which were only observed as single stem trees. The other tree species observed with multi-stem growth were Acer glabrum, Malus fusca, and Acer palmatum. All species in the Acer genus located within Site C3 grew predominantly as multi-stem trees.  All coniferous trees had single stem growth forms. Quercus robur and Sequoiadendron giganteum, the two tree species with the largest tree height and DBH, are single stem trees.  Multi-stem and Single Stem Tree Distribution Tree Species Single Stem Multi-Stem Total Acer circinatum (Vine Maple) 7 23 30 Quercus robur (Pedeunculate Oak) 10 0 10 Thuja plicata (Pacific Red-Cedar) 8 0 8 Malus fusca (Oregon Crab Apple) 4 1 5 Acer glabrum 1 3 4 Abies (Fir) 2 0 2 Acer palmatum (Japanese Maple) 0 2 2      fig. 4: DBH classes by growth form 79Cornus 'Eddie's White Wonder' (Dogwood) 2 0 2 Picea sitchensis (Sitka Spruce) 2 0 2 Sequoiadendron giganteum (Giant-Sequoia) 2 0 2 Abies grandis (Grand Fir) 1 0 1 Cornus nuttallii (Pacific Dogwood) 1 0 1 Cupressus nootkatensis (Yellow Cyprus) 1 0 1 Pinus contorta (Lodgepole Pine) 1 0 1 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-Fir) 1 0 1 Quercus garryana (Garry Oak) 1 0 1 *Species not identified, not included in totals (4) (0) (4)  **removed Thuja plicata (Pacific Red-Cedar), not included in totals N/A N/A (1) Totals 46 29 73 fig. 5: Multi-stem and single stem tree distribution by species Potential implications of a large multi-stem tree population include increased likelihood of failure, as multi-stem trees with similar DBH size between the multi-stems have weaker attachments and increased stress on the tree crotches (Dunster et al., 2017). This is of note for site management as a regimented pruning schedule might be recommended to better train young trees into desirable forms (Lilly, 2010).  Tree Height  This section analyzes tree height measurements on Site C3. The term “tree height” will be used in replace of “total tree height” to describe the total height of the tree. Only one tree was identified in Site C3 to have a difference in “total tree height” and “live crown height” (Quercus robur, tree ID: 3194; tag ID: 5784). The difference was one meter or 10%. For overall calculations, this difference was considered marginal. The average tree height in Site C3 is 4.9 meters, the minimum tree height is 1.2 meters, and the maximum tree height is 20.2 meters.                                                    fig. 6: Tree height distribution Figure 6 indicates that a majority of the trees (74%) on Site C3 are a smaller height at less than four meters. There is little diversity in tree height on Site C3. No trees were measured at a height that fell directly at the intervals (i.e. a height of 8 or 12 meters). The time of planting can be estimated using the 74%7%7%6%6%Tree Height Distribution (m)<44 -88-1212-16>1680tree heights and the average annual growth rate of certain tree species. Based on the overall data however, the statement can be made that this is a predominantly young section of the Vancouver campus’ urban forest.    Crown Width The average crown width for Site C3 was 3.9 meters, with a minimum crown width of 0.5 meters, and a maximum crown width of 19.6 meters. The average crown width long measurement was 4.3 meters, and the average short measurement was 3.6 meters. Based on the data, it is discovered that the majority of trees on Site C3 have a small crown width, as 60 trees have an average crown width between 0.6 to 4.2 meters.   Crown Light Exposure (CLE) The average crown light exposure value for Site C3 was 4 (rounded from 3.8), with a minimum CLE value of 2, and a maximum CLE value of 5. No trees had a CLE value of 1 or 0. Figure 7 displays the CLE value for each tree in the order in which they appear on the excel spreadsheet data tabulation.                                                                                                                 fig. 7: Crown Light Exposure by individual tree Figure 7 reveals that 46 of the trees on Site C3 have a crown light exposure on 4 or 5 sides. Therefore, the results show that many trees have open space around them, sufficient for further growth. However, it is also evident that there are trees with a CLE value of 3 or less. The red section of figure 7 indicates the Quercus robur on East Mall, which have a notably lower average CLE value than the overall CLE value for Site C3. A major cause of the restricted CLE is a result of the IKBLC, although other trees contribute to shading. Trees in the remaining areas of the plot are predominantly obstructed by other trees, as opposed to structures. However, certain trees on Site C3 have a lower CLE value as a result of the IRSHDC shading one side.  Structures that shaded sides of the tree can be considered static, therein a constant obstruction and non-movable. Some trees shaded other trees, resulting in a lower CLE value for the shaded tree. One tree was noted to have a pronounced phototropic lean on Site C3 (Malus fusca, tree ID: 4385).      0123451 4 7 10 13 16 19 23 26 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79Crown Light Exposure ValueIndividual TreeCrown Light Exposure81Tree Diversity  The highest number of individual trees per species (abundance) on Site C3 is Acer circinatum with a total of 30. The species with the largest basal area (m2) is Quercus robur, as indicated by the red graph line on figure 8. Though the relative abundance of Acer circinatum is greater than Quercus robur, DBH per individual tree is greater in Quercus robur. Acer circinatum and Thuja plicata have low basal area values and a large abundance value. Because of the abundance of the two species, it can be determined that the two species are beginning to dominate the area, limiting the overall diversity. This information is something to note in future planting efforts where tree diversity might be a goal. The two Sequoiadendron giganteum measured have large basal areas, accounting for the spike in the middle of the graph in the Basal Area logarithmic axis. fig. 8: Species composition, noting number of trees (blue) and basal area (red)  Figure 9 shows that deciduous tree species (yellow) are more abundant than coniferous tree species (green) on Site C3. Figure 10 show the distribution of deciduous and coniferous tree species throughout Site C3. Deciduous tree species (yellow) are predominantly distributed on the East Mall strip and adjacent to the IRSHDC. The coniferous trees (green) were more diversely distributed. The two Sequoiadendron giganteum are separated on Site C3, with the largest being adjacent to IRSHDC and the other being situated on the northwest corner of IKBLC. The other conifers are distributed among the deciduous trees.     71%24%5%Coniferous & Deciduous DeciduousConiferOmitted     fig. 9: coniferous and deciduous tree abundance   fig. 10: coniferous and deciduous tree distribution   0.00010.0010.010.11051015202530Basal area (m2 )Number of TreesTree speciesSpecies CompositionNumber of Trees Basal Area82DBH and Tree Height Comparison of the Three Predominant Species This section reviews the diameter at breast height (DBH) and total tree height (TTH) comparison of the tree most abundant species on Site C3 (Acer circinatum, Quercus robur, & Thuja plicata). DBH (X axis, measured in centimeters) is compared to the tree height (TTH, measured in meters) to determine how the three predominant species allocate growth to the basal area compared to tree height. A limitation of the regression analysis is a small sampling size. There is not adequate diversity in age to create a dependable growth pattern. Additionally, growth form (single vs multi-stem) might impact the trendline and the R2 value. The three tree species and their trendline cannot be compared as the species samplings are not the same age.      fig. 11: Acer circinatum DBH and TTH      fig. 12: Quercus robur DBH and TTH        fig. 13: Thuja plicata DBH and TTH        In figure 11, Acer circinatum (Vine Maple) has a steady growth of both TTH and DBH. The trees have previously been noted to be a younger age, so this is relevant to the species’ young growth patterns. Figure 12, Quercus robur has a trendline that indicated continued growth in DBH does not have the same correlated TTH growth as is evident among the other species. The Quercus robur is thus hypothesized to have reached mature height, growth is likely allocated towards basal increase. The trendline for figure 13 of Thuja plicata indicate a more predictable correlation of TTH and DBH. If this model proves correct under more specimens and the R2 value remains close to 1, the model could be accurately used to predict the species’ correlation of DBH and TTH.  Conclusion The data and findings indicate a diversity in tree DBH, height, and age on Site C3. Tree species diversity is limited, as three species make up 64% of the tree species on Site C3. Based on crown width measurements, a potential concern is distribution, as there is limited space for growth.    Notable Trees The Sequoiadendron giganteum (tree ID: 3070) located next to the IRSHDC is part of a UBC art project titled Millennial Time Machine by artist Rodney Graham (Morantz, 2017). An image of the Sequoiadendron giganteum is projected by a camera obscura located in a pavilion between IKBLC and the Walter C. Koerner Library (Morantz, 2017).   The Sequoiadendron giganteum (tree ID: 4317) located next to IKBLC was planted as a commemorative tree for UBC’s centennial year, as seen on the stone plaque beside the tree (figure 14).       fig. 14: Commemorative Plaque 83References  Burton, J. (2020). UFOR101_TreeSurvey [map file system]. Retrieved from Collector for ArcGIS.  Du, D., Sangha, T., Smith, I., & Yu, H. (2016). Urban Forestry Visioning Project. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia. Retrieved from https://urbanforestry.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2016/09/URBAN-FORESTRY-VISIONING-FINAL.pdf Dunster, J. A., Smiley, E. T., Matheny, N., & Lilly, S. (2017). Tree Risk Assessment Manual. Champaign, IL: International Society of Arboriculture. Ferrini, F., Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C. C., & Fini, A. (2017). Routledge Handbook of Urban Forestry. Abingdon, OX: Routledge Handbooks. i-Tree Eco. (2019). i-Tree Eco Field Guide, v. 6. Retrieved from https://www.itreetools.org/support/resources-overview/i-tree-manuals-workbooks Johnson, S. E., & Abrams, M. D., (2009). Age class, longevity and growth rate relationships: protracted growth increases in old trees in the eastern United States. Tree Physiology, 29, 1317–1328. doi: 10.1093/treephys/tpp068 Lilly, S. J. (2010). Arborists' Certification Study Guide. Champaign, IL: International Society of Arboriculture. Lompart, J. & Thomas, I. (2017). Urban Forestry Management Plan: Recommendations for the University of British Columbia Vancouver Campus. Vancouver, BC: UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS). doi: 10.142881/1.0356640.  Morantz, E. (2017, October 18). Hidden in Plain Sight: A place of learning. The Ubyssey. Retrieved from https://students.ubc.ca/ubclife/hidden-plain-sight-place-learning 84Naveau, A., Miao, A., Bellis, E., & Ikeda, T. (2017). UBC 2017 Stadium Neighborhood Tree Inventory Project. Vancouver, BC. Retrieved from https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/seedslibrary/UBC%202017%20Stadium%20Neighbourhood%20Tree%20Inventory%20Project_0.pdf Situ, B. (2016, September 13). Construction under way for Indian Residential School History and Dialogue Centre. The Ubyssey. Retrieved from https://www.ubyssey.ca/news/construction-underway-for-indian-residential-school-history-and-dialogue-centre/ Spengler, T. (2019). Is My Tree Dead Or Alive: Learn How To Tell If A Tree Is Dying. Retrieved from https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/trees/tgen/tree-scratch-test.htm Syncra Construction. (2015). UBC Learners’ Walk. Retrieved from https://syncraconstruction.com/projects/ubc-learners-walk-4/ UBC Properties Trust. (n.d.). Irving K. Barber Learning Centre. UBC Properties Trust. Retrieved from https://www.ubcproperties.com/projects/irving-k-barber-learning-centre/ University of British Columbia. (2018a). Indigenous Peoples: Language Guidelines. Vancouver, BC. Retrieved from https://assets.brand.ubc.ca/downloads/ubc_indigenous_peoples_language_guide.pdf University of British Columbia. (2018b). UBC Green Building Action Plan: Pathway to a New Positive Campus. Vancouver, BC. Retrieved from https://planning.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/2019-11/PLAN_UBC_Green_Building_Action_Plan_Full.pdf University of British Columbia. (n.d.). Building history and highlights. Irving K. Barber Learning Centre. Retrieved from https://ikblc.ubc.ca/spaces/building-history-and-highlights/ 8586 Group 9     UFOR 101 Assignment 1 Marquita Zollmann  Tanner Wick  Mitchell Wong  Sophie Damian   Sophia Brunoro  Alex Ferreira    87  Contribution Page Introduction: Sophia Brunoro and Sophie Damian  Formating: Sophia Brunoro and Sophie Damian  Graphs and captions for Graph: Alex Ferreira Site Description: Tanner Wick  Methods: Mitchell Wong  Summary: Marquita Zollmann Editing: Sophia Brunoro and Sophie Damian                         88 Introduction The purpose of tree inventory and assessment is to determine the characteristics of the trees in a given area, as well as monitor their growth and development over time. The information that we collected will be used by SEEDS, UBC operations, and help execute the UBC master plan. From this experience our group was able to develop real world tree inventory and assessment skills which can be applied to future jobs. This was extremely beneficial to be given this opportunity, which allows us to practice using tools and hands on learning. Our team learnt the key importances on how to conduct a basic tree inventory and assessment report. This was completed by: using a laser rangefinder to estimate height, determining diameter breast height, crown width, crown percent missing, and tree species. All of this information is critical when completing a proper tree inventory assessment. Tree monitoring is an important skill set because the data which we collect over time can be compared to that of future data, demonstrating changes within the surveyed trees, which could be significant to development and growth for the UBC community as a whole. Without the teamwork from each member of the group this assignment would not be possible. Throughout the entire process, everyone was given a different specific task to help complete the data effectively and to be more time efficient. With the help of each group member doing their part, we were able to collect data from approximately 55 trees in our area.  Our zone was located in-between the clock tower and Buchanan. The cultural significance of these trees in this area are important for students and faculty members walking from class to class. Where we were surveying, there was a well established path, in which students used to cut through from their classes in Buchanan and then to study at IKB. Walking through the trees and nature allows people a break from reality of stressful everyday classes and assignments. The change of scenery, gives a sense of relief from the constant strain in which a classroom can cause and allows for personal reflection in the unhindered 89 movement in our plotted area. Not only was there a path for walking, there were also benches set up along the path for people to sit and relax, as well as a small pond. Ultimately, incorporating nature within a modern concrete jungle allows for members of the community, a chance to debrief and connect with nature.  The data that we collected on campus will benefit the students and faculty within the area of our plot by showing the data of specific individual tree species that represents the style and configuration of the layout of the area. The information gives us insight on the ecosystem services intertwined within our zone. The information we collected will be used by SEEDS, UBC management services and with the completion of the UBC master plan.  Site description Plot 9 is located on the north side of campus between Irving K. Barber Library and Koerner Library, beside the Ladner Clock Tower. It’s official title is the Library Garden, however plot 9 does not fully encompass the garden, only the northern portion. The plot has an overall crown cover of approximately 50%. The trees are not spread out very much making them overlap, otherwise the coverage could be even larger. The shrub layer is approximately 35%, as the plants reside underneath the trees in an orderly fashion because they have been maintained and not allowed to grow wildly (the lawns were excluded from the shrub layer). The gardens themselves have undergone recent landscape redesign as of 2016 (Shanel, 2015). The updated version has been designed to have the space feel more natural with its dense tree positioning, compared to other areas on campus.  This space also has been altered to pay homage to the Musqueam People’s history within the unseeded territory that is UBC, and the library gardens can even be considered as UBC’s Central Park since this renovation has beautified the area (Shanel, 2015). It is classified under the land use types as an Institutional park zone. The area resides within the University of British Columbia as a place to relax under a grove of trees. However,  it can also be classified under its other function, therefore it also can reside within the ‘other’ category. Despite the land title being mainly referred to as an institutional area, students, faculty, and community members utilize this space for a variety of different purposes.  The plot is not only used by people around campus, but also acts as an ecosystem for certain urban wildlife. The most common resident within the area would be squirrels and birds such as robins and crows. The small pond also acts as 90 another mini-ecosystem as it houses bacteria and other microorganisms. The trees and shrubs act as shelter for animals within the park area and the pond provides water and a bathing area. Although most animals were not extremely present while we were conducting the survey and as students were walking through. As the sun went down though and student traffic died down, more wildlife was present in the area.  The plot itself is not very large and has a high number of trees in the confined space. There are two main gravel paths, one of which borders the south end of the plot and allows students to quickly walk from one library to the next or take shortcuts.  The other path branches into multiple sub-pathways through the trees and allows for the enjoyment of nature. The North, East and West sides of the plot are bordered by large cement walkways for students to walk to class. Since the plot is beside such high traffic pathways, it is often used by students as a shortcut to class, or a rest stop to catch their breath in the small patch of trees. Students are the dominant users of this area as it is ideal for an outdoor meeting area when the weather is nice. It is often used for picnics or study sessions, alone or with a group. Faculty and local community members also use this space for similar activities, in addition to simple walks under the trees.  We also observed a photographer using the area for numerous nature shots around the small pond in the northernmost corner of the plot. The plot is also used as an evaluation area for students, like ourselves,  to learn and practice their tree inventorying skills.  The reason it is also classified in the land type use index as ‘other’ is because of the modern art piece in the northwest corner. This art piece is within a glass box under a cement slab. Inside this glass box is an old-fashioned carriage, with an old-fashioned camera inside it. The piece, designed by Rodney Graham, uses the camera to focus on a tree within plot 8, and create a wondrous image.  When you go into the carriage and look through the camera the tree appears to be growing from the sky instead of the ground. Though our plot 9 is small there are many wonderful trees along with an amazing art piece allowing plot 9 to stand out from the rest of the gardens in UBC earning its title of central park. It is very impressive that such a small sight has so many significant purposes to multiple different groups of people.   Methods During the inventory data collection, our group (group 9) did a complete field inventory collection of our plot. For each tree, there were many measurements that we had to do. The measurements that we did for each tree were diameter at breast height (DBH), total tree height (TTH), lowest crown height (LCH), crown base height (CBH), crown width (long side, short side, and average), percentage of crown missing, and crown light exposure (CLE). 91 We were also given the arcGIS phone application to help us determine the tree ID, species name, and if that tree is dead or not. We found that a few trees had died before we surveyed the plot, but their tree ID was still on the arcGIS application. When doing the data collection, each person in the group had one designated job to do. We completed all the measurements for one tree before moving onto the next one so that we don’t get the data numbers mixed up between two or more trees.  For the total tree height (TTH), we were given a rangefinder tool to help us measure the big trees when we could not measure the TTH with the measuring tape. To use this tool, we would have to stand a minimum of 10 metres away from the tree. We had to try to stand as horizontal as possible with the tree without standing downhill or uphill. First, the tool will be blinking Hor, this indicates that you must aim the laser at the tree stem horizontally and click the power button. Once you click the power button, it will then be blinking Hgt1, and this indicates that you must aim the laser at the tip of the tree and click the power button once you find it. Then it will be blinking Hgt2, and this indicates that you will point the laser at the bottom of the tree trunk and click the power button. The screen on the side of the tool will then show the angle of the tree and the TTH. When measuring the lowest crown height (LCH), you are measuring where the foliage stops on the tree (not including the base of the tree where there are no leaves). To measure LCH, we either measured how tall the base of the tree was and subtracted that with the TTH, or we used the tool for TTH and instead of using the bottom of the tree as Hgt2, we would scan the base of the crown. We only used this tool if the tree was very big and we were unable to measure with the measuring tape. For crown base height (CBH), we measured from the ground to the base of the live crown height with a measuring tape. For most of the trees within our plot, we were able to use the measuring tape, however, there were a few trees that the CBH was too tall, so we used the rangefinder tool to measure. When measuring the diameter at breast height (DBH), we kept the height at 1.37m for every tree so that we receive consistent and accurate data. Some trees had multiple stems growing from the ground so we had to measure the DBH for every stem unless when there were more than six stems, we would measure the six largest stems.  92 Measuring crown width required two people to hold the measuring tape (one on each end), and measure the longest width of the tree. Once we measured the longest width, we would then measure the shortest width of the tree. After recording both of the measurements, we calculated the average crown width.  When measuring the crown percentage that is missing, we looked at the tree at 2-3 different angles and estimated how much of the crown is missing. To measure the crown light exposure (CLE), we first looked at the trees in person at the plot and made an assumption of what the CLE was, then we looked at the arcGIS app to confirm our CLE guess.  Summary  Figure 1: ​Graph showing the abundance of trees in Plot 9. The Pacific Red Cedar shows to be                  the most abundant within plot 9 by stem count. Many of the Pacific Red Cedars that we                 inventoried have been specifically chosen and planted in their locations because they are native              to the British Columbia coast. Comparatively, many of the other species with small stem counts               are not native (as shown in ​Figure 2 ​).   Figure 2: Simple pie chart showing      the percentage of native species     versus non-native species. Within our     plot, 55% of the species are native       while 45% of the species are      non-native. 93  Figure 3: This graph is slightly deceiving as some of the averages are brought down due to                 recently planted trees. For example, Pacific Red Cedars were some of the largest trees but the                average shows to be lower because multiple trees recently planted are under four meters tall.   Figure 4: This chart shows the canopy cover percentage within plot 9 per species based on                average crown width. We estimated the total canopy cover of plot 9 to be 50%.  94  Figure 5: This graph simply shows the heights of trees in our plot broken into six different                 classes regardless of species and strictly on height. Many of the trees in our plot were under four                  meters which shows to be a good indicator that many of the trees planted in our plot are in their                    youthful age.    Figure 6: ​ To show the DBH throughout our plot we broke up the data into six different classes that represent the various DBH’s that are present within our plot. Similar to ​figure 5 ​, many of the trees with small DBHs correspond to smaller trees.  95  Figure 7: ​Graph showing the Basal area within plot nine based on tree species. Note that the area on the y-axis is logarithmic to allow our data to be read easier in contrast to using a linear scale.   Ecosystem Services Monitoring the ecosystem services of an area is crucial for measurement of success of an area. Documenting the success at this point of time in this plot will allow future inventories to compare the status of ecosystem services at that point to current conditions.  The supporting services which this plot provides is difficult to place exact value on as much of this kind of ecosystem service is its ability to provide support to other services. In order to ensure the younger trees to grow, and mature trees to continue to prosper in this plot, supporting services such as the ability for the soil to cycle nutrients, maintain water cycles, and photosynthesize nutrients must be intact. The success of supporting services can be seen in the success of other services, such as the regulating and provisioning services.  Having this forested area in the campus allows for climate control by providing shade and by adding to the process of evapotranspiration, a way in which plants can release water into the atmosphere producing a heating or cooling (Selin & Mann, 2019). Observing canopy cover age of the area, which currently is around 50% in winter, is a good estimate of the success of a regulating ecosystem service such as this. Cultural ecosystem services include non-material benefits that people may gain from the environment around them. In this area there is a lot of aesthetic value, with a small path running through 96 many of the trees as well as an area to rest. Having areas that provide cultural ecosystem services have been linked to improved mental health and increased physical fitness ​(Wolf, 2017).  As the goal of this urban forest is most likely for cultural and regulating services, there are few to no provisioning services, which are the raw or material products that can be consumed or used by people.  Overall the ecosystem services provided by this area are currently doing well, and can be expected to provide even greater services to people as the younger trees mature, and increase canopy coverage. Landmark trees Tallest Tree​: ​The tallest tree (ID 3091) is a Pacific Red Cedar that stands at around 30m tall. This tree also boasts the widest DBH, at 108.4cm. While Pacific Red Cedars generally can grow to around 60m, it is possible this particular one will not reach that due to factors such as limited root space in its urban environment.  Largest crown width​: ​European Hornbeam (id 4402) has the largest crown width, at an average diameter of 19.2m.  Interesting/rare tree: ​The interesting tree we chose was a Chamaecyparis pisifera filifera group (ID 4413) that appeared to be multiple trees, however, was found to be a single tree with multiple stems coming out of the same root network..  Predictions and forecasting  Area of young trees near clock tower:​ ​Within the plot for group 9, there were a significant number of young trees especially towards the (direction ie nw)that had just been planted, many of which were Red Cedars or Vine Maples, two species native to coastal British Columbia. According to Michael Dirr’s "Manual of Woody Landscape Plants," Red Cedars have a medium to fast growth rate, which means they can anywhere from 12 to over 25 inches per year, depending on conditions. Vine Maples can grow 12-18 inches per year when they are young, however, they will slow with maturity and age (Miller Foundation, 2020). In ideal conditions these trees will grow rapidly in the next few years, creating areas equally dense to those in this plot that are more mature. Vine Maples in particular are known for being able to thrive in urban environments as they can adapt to many soil textures and amounts of light (Miller Foundation 2020).  Canopy growth and coverage predictions:​ ​The canopy itself will see the biggest growth from the young trees that will come into maturity in the next few years, as a significant number of the trees inventoried are too young to contribute a lot to canopy coverage. As this inventory was taken during the 97 winter season, the percent of canopy missing in the trees, especially those that may not be native to the coast or that are deciduous, was not representative of what it would be in the warmer months.           98 References Alessio, F. (n.a) How Fast do Cedar Trees grow? ​Hunker. ​Retrieved from https://www.hunker.com/13428627/how-fast-do-cedar-trees-grow Elizabeth Carey Miller Foundation. (2020). ​Great Plant Picks. ​Retrieved from http://www.greatplantpicks.org/plantlists/view/30 Leah Ballin. (2019). ​Sustainable ecosystems and Economic Development strategies. ​Retrieved from ​Leah Ballin - Sustainable Ecosystems and Economic Development Strategies - UBC Forestry Selin, H., Mann, M. (2019). Global warming - land-use change. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/global-warming Shanel, D. (2015, December 5​th​). Library Garden to be redesigned​. The Ubyssey.  Retrieved from ​ ​https://www.ubyssey.ca/news/library-garden/ UBC. (2019). ​See what grows. ​Retrieved from  https://www.seewhatgrows.org/programs/ubc-logo-2018-crest-blue-rgb3 Wolf, K. (2017). Social aspects of urban forestry and metro nature. ​Routledge handbook of urban forestry ​(pp. 65-70)  99     100UFOR 101 Urban Forest Inventory Group number: 10 Date: 13. 02. 2020 Group Members:  Xingcan Cao  Angela Jiang  Qian Li  Erin Liang  Qiao Wang  Yizhen Zhang101Contributions          Part NameIntroduction: Explanation of the inventory purpose Qiao WangSite description Yizhen ZhangDescription of the methodology Angela JiangData analysis Xingcan CaoLandmark Trees and Prediction Qian LiConclusion Erin Liang10211. IntroductionThe urban tree inventory our team implemented is the selected area of zone 10 on campus. This zone is located on the west side of the UBC campus and includes the Buchanan Tower and part of the Buchanan building. After our research, we counted a total of 62 trees in the zone, which were distributed on both sides of the road and around the buildings. Most are older mature trees, but there are also some late planting of smaller size trees. A tree inventory can be conducted for many purposes. Firstly, with a clear tree identification and an inventory list, we can better plan the tree's maintenance content and schedule intervals. Regular maintenance of trees is crucial for the campus street trees because it is not only a matter of aesthetics, but also a matter of safety for students and faculty passing by. For longer purposes, tree inventories are designed to better assess the benefits to people of ecosystem services provided by the trees on campus. Also, it offers the detailed information of special trees, like memorial trees. Through the analysis of various data and variables in the inventory, the approximate value of a given ecosystem service can be estimated. For example, the width of a tree's canopy can be used to predict the cooling effect in summer. What’s more, the tree inventory can also contribute to informing urban forest vision and master plan on a large scale. Because parts of the tree inventory data are composed of the entire urban planning database of Vancouver, which helps the database to have wide coverage and integrity. As for the end users, the tree inventory can meet different kinds of interests of different groups. First, authorities such as City of Vancouver are important end users of inventory data. For example, the tree inventories are the basis of the inform management, urban planning, budgeting negotiation, monitoring and so on. Besides, the inventory can also provide materials for the researchers. What’s more, the data provided by the inventory can benefit the Vancouver citizens as well. It can be used to link community to accessible urban trees in forms of apps, which can help with improving the mental and physical well-being of citizens. In addition, it can also play roles in improving nature stewardship, developing citizen-science and so on. Besides, the Buchanan Tower and Buchanan building in the zones have a long history. The original Buchanan building was designed and built by Thompson, Berwick and Pratt between 1956 and 1958. This 5-wing building was influenced by the Modern Movement and the architecture of Mies Van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, and the master plan of Illinois Institute of Technology (chen, n.d.). So, the building only has stark concrete frame and light-grey enamelled brick . And about the Buchanan Tower, it was built during the 1970s as part of the brutalist movement (Vescera, 2017). Therefore, the tower was typically drab and aimed to incarnate functionality rather than beauty. Besides the purpose above, the campus trees around the buildings truly soften and light the lifeless atmosphere around this area. 10322. Site Description   As the map shows, the selected area measured is irregularly shaped, located in the northwestern part of the campus, consisting of Buchanan Block Buildings, related roadways, and small-sized garden. This area covers quite green space, including tree-lined boulevards on Memorial Road, plantings and trees in front of Buchanan Block avenue, sidewalk trees on East Mall, and a small garden surrounded by three separated Buchanan Block Buildings (as shown in figure 1). The Buchanan Block Buildings located in this area are mainly used for the daily courses and examination places. So, the majority of users in the selected area are students and staff on the campus. Meanwhile, the building of the UBC Faculty of Arts is also located in this area, so there are many students of Arts taking courses in the buildings. Figure 1 Source form Google Map                            Figure 2 Source from: ArcGIS Collector                                                                                                              The main purpose of this area is for institutional land use, as the provision of class and other learning activities places. The components of teaching buildings include the Buchanan Block B Building, Buchanan Block C Building, Buchanan Block D Building, Buchanan Block E Building, and a Buchanan Tower. There is a broad boulevard on the Memorial Road, with a large stream of people. Since it is adjacent to the library and teaching buildings, many students pass by the boulevard for classes. The large green spaces and wide roadways also attract many neighbors and residents. In addition to the students rushing to and from classes, some residents also take a walk, do jogging and walk a dog on this road (as shown in figure 3), especially on the weekend morning. And some benches placed on the road also offer seating areas for pedestrians. After class, students and staff can take a break on these seating areas. besides, the small garden, surrounded by Buchanan Block Buildings also provides passersby an area for restoration, where place a small-sized open lawn, several trees, a small stream, and some benches.                                                                        Figure 31043The main facilities in the area are buildings, featured on connected buildings and a separated tower. In the middle of the Memorial Road, two rows of trees and a wide grassy land make up a boulevard, giving a sense of nature for pedestrians. As figure 4 shows, some infrastructure settled on the roadways (like stone-paved road, benches, lightings, and blue phones, etc.) can also be found.                   Figure 4 In the small space surrounded by connected buildings, in addition to trees and bushes, we can also see some benches and a small stream featuring pebbles settled for rest (figure 5). Some facilities with a specific use or special significance can also be seen in this area. For instance, at the end of Memorial Road, there is a stele erected to commemorate the generous actions of student bodies (figure 6). And on the one side of the road, a place of refuge featured on benches and a wood sign is set up (figure 7) under a large tree. These facilities, combined with green trees and some design elements, provide users of this area with a practical and comfortable experience.  Figure 5                                                              Figure 6                               Figure 73. Description of the Methodology During our inventory process, we used all the pieces of equipment that were provided to us. Six of our group members were all selected to do at least one measurement during the process. We measured trees along Memorial road between Irving K. Barber Learning Centre and Buchanan building B, as well as some trees located in the garden beside Buchanan Tower.Initially, two of the group members downloaded the app to see where our plot and trees were located. The app also told us the trees' species and other useful information. Then, we put on the safety vest and we walked from north of Memorial road to south and gathered the information of the trees one by one beside the Buchanan building B. Moreover, we used the given sample plot sheets to write down the information that we collected. 1054The six of our group members were divided into three small groups each with two students. One of our small groups measured long crown width and short crown width. The second small group measured trees’ DBH. The third small group measured trees‘ heights. After all, we took turns to observe the percentage of crown missing.  Figure 8                                           Figure 9                                                     Figure 10 During our tree inventory process, we used a Nikon Forestry Pro to measure tree heights which required us to stand at least 10m away. The Nikon Forestry Pro is a simple surveying device for forestry. It offers simple measurements on exact distance, horizontal length, height, angle and vertical separation. We also used a diameter tape to measure the DBH and the widths of each tree. One of our group members first measured where 1.37 meters is at on her body, then the other student helped her to hold one side of the tape while she walked around the tree in order to measure each trees’ DBH. Such steel tapes have a rewind spool fitted with a spring and contain measurements on both sides of the tape in varying combinations.   Numbers and excel are the applications that we used to record the data we collected. While analyzing, we could see that in our zone, there is evidence that the trees are diverse. The app provided us with most of the species types. Indian-Bean is the one that has been planted most in our zone, and it could grow to 15 m in optimal conditions with a highly branched head spreading wide. In the graph of DBH classes, we recognize that most of our trees have large DBH, which means there are plenty of old trees in our zone. In the graph of total height classes, it is easy to see that the tree height in our zone is quite average. I assume they were planted in batches. 10654. Summary 4.1 Data analysisThroughout the measurement and assessment, we recorded 62 trees' status. In our plot, tree species are relatively affluent. Except for unrecognized tree species, there are 14 species of tree (as shown in chart 1). In these trees, Indian-Bean occupies over half a number. They mainly grew on the Memorial road and planted in two columns of tree-lined boulevards. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree with handsome, broad leaves. Among these Indian-Beans we measured, there are some old mature trees. The heights can reach 20 meters, and DBHs are nearly 2.5 meters. These old mature trees have an average crown width of more than 10 meters. Due to the measurement in winter, so the canopy cover is quite low, which means they would have a higher shade cover in summer.  Five Pedunculate Oaks is growing on the sidewalk of the E Mall. Pedunculate Oak is a large deciduous tree as well as a long-lived tree, with a large wide-spreading crown of rugged branches. These trees are quite tall, the tree heights range from 10 to 20 meters, and DBHs are around 2-4 meters, the largest tree's average crown width is 20 meters long, but the percent of crown missing is pretty high. Sawara-cypress is a large evergreen tree with a fastigiate crown. All five of Sawara-cypress planted in a small grove that is surrounded by three separated Buchanan Block Buildings. The grove located in front of the tall Buchanan Tower, ideally this area is perfect for rest because it makes the place under the shade all year round and less exposed to sunlight. Their tree height already have reached around 20-25 meters, but the crown width range have been 7-8 meters. The DBH and crown width are not significant compared to their giant height. We found five Bowhall red maples are arranged neatly along with the Buchanan Block C building. They are the late plant of smaller size trees, with the crown is about 5 meters wide, and heights are less than 10 meters. Four Alligator-Wood trees along the Memorial road have a relatively large-scale canopy. Besides the five tree species mentioned above, this area also covers Japanese Maple, Northern Red Oak, Beech, Ornäs birch, Midland Hawthorn, Katsura-Tree, Plus nigra, Western Hemlock, Trochodendron aralioides. According to measuring DBH of trees and after calculation, we would be able to gain data of the basal area. From the Basal area guide, we know that the basal area is vital for studying forest-wildlife habitat. The canopy cover is in direct proportion to the basal area. Therefore, less sunlight hits the ground as both increases (Basal area, 2020). The basal area of a range of tree species has a Chart 1Chart 21076significant impact on ground biomass because of sunshine. Also, the high basal area may increase competition among crown space, nutrients and moisture that is not beneficial for tree growth (Basal area, 2020). Consequently, balancing the basal area in a specific area is essential. From the data we collected (as shown in Chart2), we knew that the Pedunculate Oak, Alligator-wood and Sawara-cypress are the top three tree species that own large basal area. Also, Pedunculate Oak and Alligator-wood are the two tree species that have the most far reaching crown. Amidst analyzing the entire data set, we focus on the discussion of total height classes, DBH classes and crown width. For total height classes (as shown in Chart3), all tree heights have even distribution in three ranges. There are 21 trees below ten meters, and 20 trees' heights are between 20 to 30 meters. The remaining 21 trees are between 10 to 20 meters. We learned that about the DBH classes from chart4, nearly a half number of trees have the DBHs that are less than one meter, and only two trees amid 1 to 1.5 meters. Meanwhile, 13 trees in the range of 1.5-2 meters and 2-2.5 meters, and the rest of 7 trees are above 2.5 meters. From chart 5, we found that the crown width range of 5-10 meters covers around half trees. There is nearly one in six trees that have an extremely wide crown lager than 15 meters. Chart 3 Chart 4Chart 510874.2 Landmark Trees and Prediction Our plot consists of some mature trees and some newly planted trees. Some of them are special because of some exceptional historical, cultural, or aesthetic value and so on. Landmark trees mainly refer to trees that have special historical, cultural, or aesthetic values because of their age, shape, rarity, or connection with important events or people, such as memory trees (Swiecki & Bernhardt). For instance, there have two prominent memory trees in our plot with a sign or stone tablet with messages about related people.    “Memory tree” means that the tree species planted or selected in honour of someone or something. Figure 11 is the most common type of tree for memory, which is planted in honor of someone already passed away. Apart from that, there is another type of common “memory tree” that can be noticed is for celebrating. For example, we can read from the sign of Figure 12 that this Momiji Japanese Maple are planted by the Professor Santa J. Ono and his family for celebrating Professor Ono would be in charge of the 15th President and Vice-chancellor of UBC. Besides, this tree also represents the best wish of Professor Ono to all UBC students and staff.  However, some trees may also have some sense of history or culture without any well-marked sign or stone tablet. According to an article named “The Original f UBC’s Graduating Classes Trees” (Wodarczak, 2014) that we found in the magazine of UBC which call Trek, it mentions that there have six Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur) planted by the graduating classes in 1931-1936. These six Pedunculate Oaks also called English oaks are located on the boulevard of East Mall between Buchanan Tower and Brock Hall which we can see from Figure 13 and we only collected data for the five that labelled in the ArcGis APP. According to Wodarczak's article, he mentions that the "memory tree” which also known as the "commemorative tree", originated from common customs in USA universities and basically aims to contribute to the landscaping of the campus (Wodarczak, 2014). From the first group of commemorative trees to now, this traditional ceremony has continued at UBC for over a hundred years. Moreover, this type of memory tree not only serves to landscape the campus environment but also celebrates and commemorates those graduation classes. It is worth mentioning that this ceremony also played a significant role in promoting the beautification and protecting the campus environment at UBC. Figure 11. Memory of Richard Douglas SullivanFigure 12. Momiji Japanese Maple By Professor Santa J. Ono, Wendy Yip, and FamilyFigure 13. Pedunculate Oaks (1931-1936) (ArcGis Collector)1098In addition to the memory trees mentioned above, we also noticed that there is a significant difference between one tree and other trees here. We mentioned that there is a bench under a tree in the row of trees next to the Buchanan building in the site description. We noticed that the tree beside the bench not only a street tree in a tree pit or parterre, but also works as a decoration tree here. We can see there have some colorful metal birdhouses on the branches just above the bench from Figure 14. Therefore, the reason why this tree is special as a landmark tree is that it is not just a street or tree planted for the beatification of campus, it is also a part of urban landscape design. Since we emphasized many times that our plot consists of some mature trees and some newly planted trees. The size or the shape of the trees here are mostly concentrated in two extreme range. Hence, there are no obvious tree is bigger or strange-shaped tree here can be a landmark tree. The landmark trees here are mainly noticed by their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Additionally, we assumes a prediction of the tree by combining some rough calculations and estimation based on the data we collected. We can see from Chart 6 that the growth trends of different tree species in our plot have obviously differences. The growth trends of some species are more obvious, and some are more flat. As mentioned earlier, the ages of the trees in our plot range are not evenly distributed. In addition, approximate 50% trees in our plots are Indian-Bean, thus, the prediction results are relatively accurate with Indian-Bean. However, the number of other tree species is about 1-5 for each, and the prediction of their growth trend is just based on data we only have. In general, we find that the growth rate and range of newly planted trees such as Western Hemlock are dramatically changing; on the contrary, the growth of more mature trees like Northern Red Oak will be more stable.  Figure 14. Place of RefugeChart 6. The Growth of Trees11095. Conclusion   In conclusion, the different aspects of tree inventory data analysis illustrate various information of urban forestry condition in our ploy. Above all, many trees are the small to median size based on the datum from DBH (diameter at breast height, breast height= 1.37m), TTH (total tree height) and CW (Crown width).  The standard deviation of those datum are considerable to indicates the high-level variation of individual trees. Meanwhile, the light exposure and tree growing space are affected by the arrangement of planted trees and buildings. In our site, most of tree are able to exposed to sunlight, because most the trees are well organized in a relatively open area. There are few trees has low tree light exposure might because the light are blocked by the higher trees or building.               The diversity of tree species is pretty good. However, most of trees are Indian Bean tree (Catalpa bignonioides). Over 50% trees are Indian Bean Tree and aggregate on the main road in our plot in campus. As deciduous tree, Indian Bean tree has big crown to provide shield to people and provide many ecosystem services of urban forest such as climate regulating (e.g., decreasing temperature in hot summer) for the campus. Otherwise, plant the deciduous trees on the campus road is more safety and prevent the snow to break the branch or hurt people in winter. Other species’ trees are mostly close to the building or plant to the area between the buildings, some deciduous trees such as northern red oak (Quercus rubra),  Japanese maple (Acer palmatum), etc., and some evergreen trees such as sawara-cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera), plnus nigra (Austrian Pine)and western hemlock. Those trees provides the cultural services and other ecosystem services to the campus.   Overall, tree plant planning in this plot is in line with the strategic planning and management of urban forestry which is committed to plant more trees and greening the campus. Meanwhile, it provide multiple ecosystem services and benefit from urban forestry to the people and campus. 111References Basal area. (2020). A guide for understanding the relationships between pine forests and wildlife habitat. Retrieved 13 February, from https://www.mdwfp.com/media/4194/basal_area_guide.pd Chen, J. The Architecture of van der Rohe. Retrieved 13 February 2020, from http://www.people.vcu.edu/~djbromle/modern-art/02/Ludwig-Mies-van-der-Rohe/index.htm Swiecki, T. J., Bernhardt, E. A. Guidelines for Developing and Evaluating Tree Ordinances. Phytosphere Research, Vacaville, CA. Retrieved 13 February, from http://phytosphere.com/treeord/index.htm Wodarczak, E. (2014). The Origins of UBC’s Graduating Class Trees. Trek Magazine. Retrieved 13 February, from https://trekmagazine.alumni.ubc.ca/2014/february-2014/features/campus-roots-the-origins-of-ubcs-graduating-class-trees/ Vescera, Z. (2017). Buchanan Tower doesn’t care what you think about it. Retrieved 13 February 2020, from https://www.ubyssey.ca/culture/in-defense-of-buchanan-tower/112UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 1Urban Forest InventoryPrepared by:Group 11Lulu Li , Jason Li , Tasso Hu , Yuhan Chen, Shiyi Wang , Yiming RenFebruary 13, 2019For UFOR 101, UBC Winter term 2, 2020113UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 2Table of ContentsTitle page............................................................................................................................ 11 Introduction.............................................................................................................31.1 Purpose of tree inventory....................................................................................... 31.2 Site description.......................................................................................................42 Methodology............................................................................................................52.1 A list of variables measured....................................................................................52.2 Methods used for inventory data collection........................................................... 52.3 Methods used to analyse data.................................................................................73 Summary of tree inventory data............................................................................73.1 Summary of results.................................................................................................73.2 Interpretation of key examples............................................................................... 9Works Cited....................................................................................................................12Contribution Description................................................................................................... 13114UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 31 Introduction1.1 Purpose of tree inventoryTree Inventory Zone in the UBC Campus: Buchanan Building Blocks A to EIn this assignment we are put onto the task of making a tree inventory of a sectionof the UBC (University of British Columbia) campus.From the course and personalpoint of view, we have mastered the basic measurement methods and understood themeasurement process. When after we clearly understand our current situation. It issignificant to the management of tree distribution and future assessment and theirdevelopment. How to observe the tree concentration can give us the keys that canassure that the biological distribution of these biological forms have to be maintainedin the areas where they are standing. The idea of a tree inventory is mostly tounderstand and to construct the form on why there are significant concentrations ordistributions of trees inside the UBC campus.There, with any other type of tree inventory that is made in other urban spaces, isto assess what species are accessible, and where they can be relocated in the case of amassive renovation or expansion of buildings. The idea of a tree inventory is moreakin to the same issues that it derived from the idea of inventories of other itemsinside the campus, these data collections, shows us what is the state of the treesaround us. How valuable and how important trees for the campus as living spaces.By taking into consideration where are distributed, the concentration of anyspecific species, that can be made in the terms of making their maintenance easier, thecampus can actually expand the other types of trees that can be available, as well as tounderstand where exactly where there are more specific concentrations of trees, andwhere are they less prone to appear or develop by specific circumstances. Another ofthe benefits of a tree inventory inside the campus, can be considered in the terms ofmaking a proper concentration of trees that can allow the campus to be a balancebetween buildings and biological structures, that can really allowed the developmentof green policies, an substance of the local ecology that it is done in the spaces.Not only this type of assignment is necessary but gives us a wider view of it as acampus beyond an academic space for studying and research. The campus is anextension of buildings where people interact and exchange, and many amenities like115UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 4the vegetation helps to increase the value of the buildings, but also their intrinsicvalue where they are located.So, that is why that the main goal of this index is not only knowledge of the trees,but also platforms to understand how much is the vegetation developed in anUniversity campus, how can be renewed or improved and how the campus themselvesare acting accordingly to their maintenance an expansion according to green spacespolicies that are adopted by campus policies, all the way to the federal governmentconsiderations.1.2 Site descriptionNow, regarding the assigned building for the study and creation of the treeinventory inside the UBC campus, our group has been assigned the block related tothe Buchanan buildings inside the campus. This complex of buildings located in themost northern part of the campus between Crescent and Memorial Rd. These areseveral buildings in which accounted the Buchanan blocks form a complex and alsoincluded the Buchanan tower. This is one of the most important complexes inside thecampus, because many cultural activities among other types of meetings inside thecampus are made frequently. Also, in the history of the entire campus, is one of thebuildings that were constructed during the period of considerable structure expansionafter World War Two.The Buchanan Buildings started its construction in 1956, their intention was tohave inside the location of the Faculty of Arts and Science and the main idea was tolocate in one of each building assigned with a letter. Many of the classrooms andmeeting places that were going to be established, mostly to expand the campus andstart developing more areas we are more characteristic and contemporary architecturethat will reflect the new idea behind the development of this type of buildings insidethe campus.The University of British Columbia, by itself in its distribution inside the city ofVancouver, offers enough space and comforts in the terms of its biological diversity,that these studies are very important to be made to see if the campus is alreadycomplying with many of the politics of the Canadian government regarding ecologicalbalance, and sustainability of the environment in the area where the campus isstanding. We live in an age where these concerns are important and taken intoconsideration every day, so by making these inventories, we are not only securing themain documentations about the trees on the campus. We are also securing the ideathat the campus is constantly improving, and it is a place that not only serves foreducational purposes, but also for the students to enjoy the ecology present in the areaof Vancouver.As well that one of the most important values of our time is the ecologicalbalance it is more than important it is essential and the norm, and to know nature is tobetter known ourselves, to understand and to take into consideration this type ofindexes. We are also making it possible to make current and future generations aware116UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 5of the types of trees that are available for the proper maintenance and the betterdistribution in the buildings of the campus.2 Methodology2.1 A list of variablesTreeDescriptionTree ID (code) Unique identifier given to each treeTAG (Y/N) Verify if the tree has a tag alreadyTAG ID (number) If the tree has a tag, add the numberLIVE/DEAD (L/D) Tree is alive or tree is deadSPECIES Species of tree in AppDBH H DBH (m) Height at which DBH measurement wastaken if not measured at 1.37 metersDBH (cm) Tree stem diameter at breast height(DBH) measured at 1.37 meters abovethe groundTree HeightTotal Tree Height (m) Height from the ground to the top of thetree (alive or dead)Live Crown Height (m) Height from the ground to the live top ofthe treeCrown Base Height (m) Height from the ground to the base of thelive crownCrown Width Long (m) The longest width of the crownShort (m) The shortest width of the crownOtherCROWN %MISS (%) Percent of the crown volume that is notoccupied by branches and leavesCLE (0 to 5) Crown light exposure (CLE) indicatesthe number of sides of the tree’s crownreceiving light from above or the sideTable 2.1 List of variables measured2.2 The methods used for inventory data collectionThis section aims to describe how to use common tools for urban forestmeasurement during tree inventory. Before undertaking the inventory data collection,Dr. Tahia Devisscher introduced the class to an auxiliary tool, an app called ArcGISCollector Classic. When we sign-in with ArcGIS login, the information of currentcampus tree data with plots and zones for W2020 term would be showed in the App.Each tree is presented on the 2019 orthophoto as base map as a yellow translucent dotfor clicking and further viewing of the detailed data. Each group was assigned to abackpack full of measuring tools, and each group member in turn received their ownmeasuring vest. According to the list of variables, the tools used are as follows:diameter-tape, laser rangefinder, telemeter tape, compass, and inventory table. Foreach tree in our responsible zone, our team measured it in the order of treedescription-- tree stem diameter-- tree height-- crown width-- other.117UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 6In the first place, after matching the ID number of trees on Classic, we thencopied the identified tree species and checked whether any tree tags on trees. It isworth mentioning that all the trees tested were alive except one that had beendestroyed (cut down) near the exit of Buchanan Block A Building. In the second place,diameter-tape was used to measure tree stem diameter at breast height. This number isoften abbreviated as DBH. Our practical way to measure DBH is to hold thediameter-tape up to the height of the chest (about 1.37m), which is the standard usedin many countries. DBH is usually measured on the uphill side of the tree to avoidmeasuring the butt swell of the tree. This term refers to the area where the root of thetree is thicker than the rest of the tree, more accurate measurements can be gain if wemeasure above it (Cris, 2009). However, we experienced to measure trees which arenot monophyletic. In these special cases with multiple stems, DBH of up to six stemsmust be measured separately (ignoring the smaller stems and choosing the largerones). The overall DBH of a multiple stem tree is equal to the square root of the sumof all squared stem DBHs (I-Tree Design, 2019). In the third place, using a laserrangefinder to measure Total Tree Height (TTH), Live Crown Height (LCH), andCrown Base Height (CBH) separately. The group let a member stand ten meters awayfrom the target tree and estimated the height of the tree by observing the horizontalpoint, the top and the base of the tree (Three-point measurement). Figure 2.2 showsthe ranges of these variables. Notice that CBH refers to the height from the ground tothe lowest living crown on the last branch, not from the ground to the point where thebranch intersects the main bole (Randolph, 2009).Figure 2.2 Common variables that are measured to describe a tree’s structureOn the other hand, two group members were required to measure the crown widthwith a telemeter tape and a compass. They need to grab both ends of the telemetertape to stand on opposite sides with the trunk as the axis to record the width of thecrown from two directions. The average value is calculated after measurements onboth long side and short side are obtained. Last but not least, the measurements ofPercent Crown Missing and Crown Light Exposure could be compared by a standardcalled projection key cover estimation and visual. Both of these measurements need tobe observed from multiple angles to obtain more accurate results.118UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 72.3 Methods used to analyse your data in classTo analyse collected datas of abundance trees, different graphing and chartingmethods can be applied. To describe the species composition, two charts can beshown. One is the general tree species composition chart, according from species andquantities of the tree. Another one is the dominance of the tree species, whichdemonstrates by basal area verse tree species. Combine both charts, the dominanceand abundance of species can be perfectly summed up. The equation of tree basal areain m^2 equals to pi times square of DBH in cm divided by 40000. To demonstrate thestructure of the urban forest, can be shown by two graphs. The first one is about theDBH classes, as number of trees verse DBH classes. Beside, the basal area can alsoincluding in this graph by connecting the points to a line. This graph illustrates themain species and the relationship between DBH and the basal area. The second one isthe total height classes, shown by number of trees verse total tree heights classes. Allthe dots connected by an uneven line. The differences between all the variables can besolved by calculate the mean and estimate the variance. The method uses to calculatethe mean is by taking the sum of the measured values in the dataset and dividing bythe total number of values. The method uses to estimate variance is called standarddeviation which calculates the deviation of the data around the mean of that dataset byequation:After calculated all the numbers, sum all the datas and numbers up in a summarytable.3 Summary of tree inventory dataIn conclusion of our measurement, the rarest tree seen in our area is Japanesecherry. The tallest tree is Pacific red cedar, it has an average TTH around 22 m. Thetree we measured that has the longest branch distance is Northern red oak, it has adistance of 26.2 m.3.1 Summary of results119UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 8The above chart is showing that the category 3xxx has the highest average value ofDBH. This is the portrayal of the average DBH value and 83.58% is occupied bycategory 3 trees. Although this is the average value, there is clear display of thecoverage of category 4xxx trees.Chart 2There are three categories of trees. The DBH value of the 4xxx is the most significantone. The second position is occupied by 3xxx category. And the last position is takenby the 2xxx group. All the groups are important but the categorised value is veryimportant. Thus, the graph is clearly showing that the category of 3xxx has the highestmost value of DBH. This is very significant.Chart 3This chart is showing the group 2xxx trees’ value. When the DBH value is above 25,there is only 1 tree. And when the value is above 30 pi*m, there are more than 4 treesand the highest level is up to 8 trees. And when the value is less than 25 pi*m, therewill be more than 9 trees. So there is a fluctuation in the value and the number of treesvary.Chart 4120UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 9This category of tree has the highest level of fluctuation in the correspondence to theDBH values and the number of trees. The above chart is showing the Group 3xxxtrees and there is huge fluctuation with the value. The graph clearly states the scenario.When the value is 98, the number of trees is 9. And for 10 trees, the value becomes38.60. and when the value is 20 or slightly above, the number of trees are 11 to 14trees.Chart 5This graph is showing a nice balancing. The overall value is clearly getting balancedwith the number of trees. There are not many fluctuations. The value is in between 40pi*m to 110 pi*m and the corresponding number of trees are up to 14 trees, but thevariation is not much higher. Only a big variation can be seen in the value of 40 pi*mand there are only 8 trees. After that, the whole scenario is quite balanced. Comparedto previous two categories, this is in a stable condition.3.2 Interpretation of key examplesCultural importance: Japanese cherryID TAG DBH TTH CBH LONG SHORT2998 N/A 39.3 6.4 0.6 8.7 1.5121UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 10In our measurement range, the most culturally distinctive plant is Japanese cherrytree. They are distributed widely all over the world, the most are in temperate regionsof the Northern Hemisphere. The cherry tree is an important cultural symbol of Japan,which symbolizes its mass flowering nature as a cloud, and in addition to being ametaphor for the ephemeral nature of life. Japanese cultural tradition is subtlyinfluenced by Buddhism as well. The link between cherry blossoms and the drabunconscious can be traced back to the 18th-century scholar Motoori Norinaga.The brief blooming of cherry trees, their exquisite beauty and variability, are oftenassociated with death, grace, and an acceptance of fate and karma. As a result, cherryblossoms are highly symbolic and are often used in Japanese art, manga, movies,andalso musical performances. In Japan, there is a well-known popular song that wasoriginally played for bamboo flute. Its name is Sakura. The flower is represented in allof Japan's consumer goods as well, such as kimono, stationery and tableware. Afterthe cherry trees bloom, their delicate beauty can only last a week, with their petalsfalling and covered with a pink carpet on the ground. Usually, their life is not long,only lasting about 16 to 20 years. But some species like black cherry trees have alonger life expectancy, and can live up to 250 years.Longest branch distance: Northern red oakID TAG DBH TTH CBH LONG SHORT3022 1788 98 20.4 3.2 26.2 14.5Quercus rubra, are commonly known as the northern red oak; this type of tree hasthe longest branch distance measured in our group. It is a type of oak tree relating tothe red oak group(Quercus section Lobatae). It is a native tree species in NorthAmerica, and can be found in the eastern and central United States, Southeast andSouth-central Canada. It has also been introduced to Western Europe in the 1700s, itbecame one of the most significant invasive species in western and centralEurope. Northern red oak prefers soil that is slightly acidic. Northern red oak isrecognized to be the state tree of New Jersey in the U.S. and the provincial tree ofPrince Edward Island. This tree has been recorded growing up to 43 m, but maingrows up to around 28, with a trunk up to 50-100 cm in diameter. In North America’stimber production industry, northern red oak is one of the most important oak; highquality red oaks have a high value as lumber and veneer, defective logs can be used asfirewood to prevent waste. The acorns produced by the northern red oak provides afood source to wild animals like blue jays, squirrels, and raccoons. In the wild, deereat the buds and twigs of the tree in the winter. Due to the management of trees atUBC, there will not be many more red oaks in the near future due to the limitation inspace and considering the interval between two trees in our measurement area.Tallest tree: Pacific red cedarID TAG DBH TTH CBH LONG SHORT122UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 114433 5688 90 25.8 6.3 7.5 4.3Thuja plicata is the tallest tree species measured in our area, it is commonlyknown as Pacific red cedar or Western red cedar. It is a native tree species to the WestCoast of Canada and the United States. This type of tree can grow up to 70 m when itreaches maturity. The best environment for pacific red cedar to grow is in moist towet soils, with abundance of nutrients in the soil. The wild red cedar can get damagedby other animals like deer, and bagworms; the branches may also get damaged due tothe ample amount of snow. It is one of the longest life living tree species that can liveup to 1000 years. Pacific red cedar can be found among the Pacific Northwest, butthis species is naturalized in Britain; it has also been introduced to other countries likeAustralia, New Zealand, and western Europe. People can always find Douglas-fir andwestern hemlock near pacific red cedar in most places where it grows, because theysurvive in the same temperate zone. Natives used to make tools like paddles, arrowshafts with red cedar woods. It is also a favorable type of wood to make outdoorfurnitures such as decking and fencing, the wood is naturally durable and light inweight, and has a good resistance to insect damages. Another interesting fact is thatthe red cedar is British Columbia’s official tree, the scientific name plicata isoriginated from a Greek word meaning “folded in plaits”. Pacific red cedar can growup to 65 to 70 m tall in the future, and up to 7 m in trunk diameter. In the near future,when trees reach maturity, they will start to reproduce by seeds, also vegetatively likethe rooting of falling branches.123UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 12Works CitedBrandeis, T., Randolph, K. C., & Strub, M. (2009). Modeling caribbean tree stemdiameters from tree height and crown width measurements. Mathematical andComputational Forestry & Natural Resource Sciences, 1(2), 78.Cris Brack, PhD (UBC) Standard point on tree bole for measurement. ForestMeasurement and Modelling. Retrieved 2009-04-18.Cherry Blossom Tree Facts That You Definitely Never Knew BeforeRebecca Shinners -https://www.countryliving.com/gardening/g3168/cherry-blossoms-facts/https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/library/documents/treebook/westernredcedar.htmI-Tree Design. (2019). i-Tree Software Suite. Retrieved from design.itreetools.orgMorgenroth, J., Oestberg, J., 2017. Measuring and monitoring urban trees and urbanforests. Routledge, pp. 35.UBC. (2018). A Brief History of UBC. Retrieved February 11, 2020, fromhttps://archives.library.ubc.ca/general-history/a-brief-history-of-ubc/UBC. (2018). The University of British Columbia. Retrieved February 11, 2020, fromhttp://maps.ubc.ca/PROD/index_detail.php?show=y,n,n,y,n,y&bldg2Search=n&locat1=121-1&locat2=#showDetailVescera, Z. (2017, November 16). Buchanan Tower doesn't care what you think aboutit. Retrieved February 11, 2020, fromhttps://www.ubyssey.ca/culture/in-defense-of-buchanan-tower/Northern Red Oakquercus Rubrahttps://www.arborday.org/trees/treeguide/treedetail.cfm?itemID=877124UFOR101 Urban Forestry Inventory and Assessment Feb 13, 2020Page 13Contribution DescriptionGroup 11Group Members:Lulu Li : Integration of data tabulation, Interpretation of key exampleswith Jason for the Summary section.Tasso Hu : Make the list of variables for the Methodology section,responsible for the part of methods used for inventory data collection, final integrationand typography of the entire report including the content and group reference.Jason Li : Completing the interpretation of key examples with Lulu for theSummary section.Yiming Ren : Responsible for the Introduction part, including both ofpurpose of tree inventory and site description.Shiyi Wang : Completing the summary of results, including makinggraphs and charts.Yuhan Chen : Responsible for the part of methods used to analyse yourdata in class in the Methodology section.125 Ecosystem service assessment report         Xiwen Zhang  Ruoxuan Ma  Xiangyue Chen  Rebecca Cai  Jinru Chai  Viola Zhao     April 8, 2020       126  Contribution Page     Introduction: Xiangyue Chen  Site Description:  Xiwen Zhang  Regulating Ecosystem Services: Viola Zhao  Cultural Ecosystem Services: Jinru Chai  Urban Forest Planning and Management Recommendations:  Ruoxuan Ma, Rebecca Cai  Data Tabulation: Xiwen Zhang   I-Tree Eco and Canopy Report: Viola Zhao  Final Editing: Viola Zhao                       127Introduction   This report is mainly focused on assessing the ecosystem services of urban forestry in zone 1 of The University of British Columbia. All the data were collected by conducting tree inventory, which is a record of the location, characteristics, and assessment of individual trees within a well-defined group (International Society of Arboriculture). Tree inventory is helping with the urban forest planning & management, assessing urban forest condition, assessing ecosystem services provided by urban forests and value the benefits of urban forest (Devisscher & Almas, 2020). Based on the data collected from the tree inventory, this report would provide proper recommendations and suggestions corresponding to the particular ecosystem services of zone 1 in UBC. Moreover, the i-tree canopy, i-tree Eco and cultural services value mapping were applied to this assessment and shown in this report. The results of this report assists the stakeholder with discovering the biodiversity component of the new Green Building Action Plan and future Urban biodiversity planning Requirements for biodiversity compensation for capital projects (Devisscher & Almas, 2020). Due to the complexity of ecological environment development on campus, urban forestry planning requires different processes and is recognized by related policies for each political level. More specifically, the policy landscape directs urban foresters to baselining campus natural assets and consider broader ecological, cultural and social value of these assets.  The following part is site description which illustrates the overview and the specific location description of zone 1. The regulation ecosystem services section is the evaluation of ecosystem services provided by zone 1 by using i-tree canopy and i-tree Eco. The cultural ecosystem services part is the quantification of spiritual enrichment, recreation, social relations and aesthetic values of zone 1. The last part is urban forest planning and management recommendations, this part provides recommendations corresponding to each particular ecosystem service in zone 1.             128Site Description    Figure 1: The Satellite Version of Group 1   The Zone 1 fieldwork area is assigned at the southern end of the UBC campus. It is located between the Agronomy Road and Thunderbird Blvd. Figure 1 shows the area selected by the group one, circled by blue, which contains one parking lot (B), two buildings of forest science faculty (E&F), a sidewalk (D), one square of the main mall’s lawn (C), and half of the park behind the Sopron Gate (A). Section one covers a large area. It is highly functional. Hence, different sub-zones with distinct land uses. In addition, these correspond to different users and stakeholders.  The rectangular open pay parking lot is situated in the west of Zone 1, which is defined as transportation land use. Some medium-size Robinia Pseudoacacias ‘Frisia’ were planted by the Agronomy Road, on the side of the entrance. The parking lot is mostly shared by students, university staff and visitors. Furthermore, the management and maintenance of this region are responded to by UBC Parking and Access Services.  On the eastern side of the section, the Forest Science Centre and the Centre for Advanced Wood Processing are located. These two buildings are the center for education, training and technical assistance for forest science faculty. Besides institutional buildings, this region could be considered commercial land use. There is a Tim Hortons inside the Forest Science Centre. In their spare time, people can easily get their coffee and snacks without walking a long distance. Several maple trees with large canopy are arranged along Agronomy Road, next to the Forest 129Science buildings. These trees could provide shade for pedestrians from the strong sunlight and heavy rain.  On the lawn of the end of the Main Mall, the Reconciliation Pole was installed in order to encourage everyone who comes across it to learn more about the history of the Indigenous residential schools (Ono, 2017). Some social activities, like protests, about the Indigenous Canadians, would be held under the Reconciliation Pole. On both sides of the Main Mall, some benches are provided for people to sit on for relaxing. In addition to the end of the Main Mall, the small park could also be listed for open space and recreational land. The green space behind the Sopron Gate is in the middle of two groves with diverse tree species, which are small to medium size. The small park is shared by the residences from the communities and students or staff from UBC. It is a great place for children to hang out with their families; people can sit on the grass and have a picnic; students could relax from the busy life when they are taking a seat on the steps.    Regulating ecosystem services Urban forest is crucial in mitigating urban environment. Trees are very effective at removing pollutions and runoff, reducing urban head island effect, and producing oxygen. These regulating ecosystem services can be quantified by using different applications. In this report, I-Tree Canopy and I-Tree Eco were used to assess the regulating ecosystem services in Zone 1.  I-Tree Canopy Model I-Tree Canopy helps estimate tree cover and tree benefits in selected areas. This application uses Google Map and random sampling methods. To use I-Tree Canopy, first, we find the project area by zooming in Google map. Then, we define our zone area by contouring it (figure 2). Next, I-Tree Canopy lays random points onto the selected zone, and we are asked to classify either the laid point is a tree or not a tree. The users can decide 130Figure 2. Contoured zone using I-Tree Canopy   how many points to put in the selected zone. I-Tree Canopy will estimate the percent canopy coverage in the project zone based on the point data. The more point defined, the more accurate the estimate will be. In this report, we classified 50 points in our project zone. The strength of I-Tree Canopy is that it does not require field work, requires less tools, and processes data very fast. It is very useful in estimating canopy coverage in a broad area. However, I-Tree Canopy also faces a lot of challenges. First, the accuracy of the highly depend on how accurately the users identify the points laid by I-Tree. When we were doing the tree survey, there were several points that are difficult to tell whether they are trees or not. In addition, Google Earth imagery is poor in resolution in some areas.  I-Tree Eco Model I-Tree Eco uses field data collected in the study area to quantify urban forest values and vegetation composition.Specifically, I-Tree Eco take inventory data and generate a report on canopy coverage, species composition, pollution removal, and other regulating ecosystem services. The strength of I-Tree Eco includes: providing more accurate report on canopy cover and species composition, providing more information about environmental effect and structural value in selected area, and giving management recommendations. The weakness about I-Tree Eco is that it requires a lot of field works. The accuracy of I-Tree Eco report highly depends on the field observations by users. They need to corrrectly identify the species and carefully measure the dimensions of each tree, which are time-consuming works.  Results   I-Tree Canopy According to the results generated using I-Tree Canopy, trees cover approximately 16.3 percent of the prroject area.  131 Figure 3. Urban Forest Percentage Cover (I-Tree Canopy)  The report also provided Tree Benefit estimates, specifically, it estimated the amount of pollution removal, carbon storage, and carbon sequestration.    Figure 4. Tree Benefits Estimate (I-Tree Canopy) I-Tree Eco Zone 1 has 87 trees on site. The most abundant species are Godeln Black Locust. Pacific madrone, and European Beech. Urban forests usually have a high species diversity. 76 percent of the trees are native to North America. Increased diversity helps increase the overall resistence of the urban forest. However, if the species are invasive, it can also decrease the health of urban forests because invasive species compete for resources with native species (Keller et al, 2014).   132One of the most direct benefits from trees is the leaf surface area. In zone 1, the urban forest provides 0.51 acres of leaf area, and the canopies cover 17.93 thousand square feet. Douglas-fir has the most abundant leaf surface area in zone 1.  Air pollution is a major problem faced by many cities. One of the most important regulating ecosystem services provided by trees is air pollution removal. Plants absorb pollutants through their stomata (Nowak, 2002) and convert them into acid or other chemicals. According to our I-Tree Eco report, urban trees in zone 1 are estimated to remove 8.79 pounds of air pollution, including ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5, and Sulfur dioxide, annually. Urban trees can reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere by sequestrating carbon, which can help reduce green house gas. Trees and other plants absorb CO2 through photosynthesis and release oxygen through stomata. In zone 1, about 676.5 pounds of carbon is being sequestrated each year, with an associated value of 35 CAD. Trees also store carbon as they grow. Carbon storage can be refered to the amount of carbon that can be realeased when trees decay and die. Urban trees in zone 1 are estimated to store 7 tons of carbon each year. Therefore, keeping trees alive and healthy is very important as trees are the major carbon sinks for the Earth.  Result Comparison Both models mentioned tree cover and pollution removal in their reports. However, I-Tree Eco provided a more precise and detailed report. I-Tree Canopy did not specify species. In addition, it overestimated the amount of pollution removal and carbon sequestration and storage. The difference is caused by: 1. I-Tree Canopy uses random sampling while I-Tree Eco uses field data that has the exact number of trees; 2. I-Tree Canopy does not specify the type of species (different species have different pollution removal and carbon sequestration rate).      Cultural Ecosystem Services  The cultural ecosystem services are defined as “The nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experience, including, e.g., knowledge systems, social relations, and aesthetic values. “(TEEB). To produce the value mapping, our group has used six dimensions including the diversity, the aesthetics, the social/community sharing, the recreation, the safety, and the cultural significance to help stakeholders have an easy understanding of our zone. Our zone is separated into six different smaller zones and for each subzone, our group members are marked form a scale of 0 to 5 for each dimension. With all the points add up it comes up to the average chart shown below (Figure 1). Continued with the scaling, each group member has discussed their perspective for the reason of their marking and about the weakness and strengths for each subzone base on the cultural ecosystem services.  Hence, it summed up the value mapping (Figure 2) for cultural ecosystem services in zone 1. 133 The value mapping and the average chart is helping stakeholders to have a better understanding of the cultural ecosystem services easier because it is the non-material benefits people can get from the ecosystem. However, the value mapping is mostly based on the 6 of the group members, there could be different views between students and the stakeholders. The strengths of students based on value map under this project are they do have more access and knowledge in zone 1, and base on their own experience they are giving a fair view about the cultural ecosystem services. On the other side, the weakness is obvious, the value map approach only considered the views from group members, but space it is public access, so different age group people and stakeholders could have different opinions about the values of cultural ecosystem services.   (Figure 5. average chart for cultural ecosystem services)   (Figure 6. strengths of cultural ecosystem services)  By the chart shown before (Figure 5), some of the subzones have strengths in both of the six dimensions, but some zone has only one or two strong representatives.  134 Both of zone A and D have a relatively high score on each category, the score for diversity is the only two subzones having higher than 3, with each having 4.4 and 4.2. The reason for having a lower score in other subzones is because street trees are mainly planted and with the lower diversity in the area will make it more uniformed. firstly,  subzone A reached the highest score in diversity is by both sides of species planted beside the pathway. By having more diversity could help this subzone to have more people come and relax while the larger trees can separate the buildings and the green field. As is shown in the figure 3 the subzone A is a small scale of greenfield for people to spend their time and to explore, this place has the highest cultural value for people in the area. Also by having the Sopron gate in subzone A, it is adding more cultural significance in the subzone, some people come to zone 1 for just the Sopron gate and the Reconciliation pole.   Secondly, Subzone B it is a high community sharing area, in which parking lot is provided, it is a convenient place for students and visitors come to UBC, especially surrounded by faculties and the dorms. Although it does not provide much aesthetics or cultural value, subzone B does have a high score for social cohesion and safety in zone 1. Thirdly, subzone C leave a huge green field between the parking lot and forests faculty, it is only planted with medium size street trees on the very edges of both side. But this gives a great value of community sharing for people passing by, also since there is a kindergarten close by, people would like to spend time in subzone C to watch their children play around and enjoy the greenery after school.                    (Figure 7. weakness in cultural ecosystem service)    Although most of the subzone is well maintained and with high cultural ecosystem services value, some subzone still has weaknesses that can be improved. subzone F and subzone B does not provide much of the aesthetics value or cultural significance. Street trees are planted with the only serval of trees in single specie. It seems like on every end of zone 1 the street trees were not well maintained and cared for. Trees are distributed with large space in between and trees are not large enough to provide shades during the summer.   135In subzone D the cherry trees are planted on half side of the road. It is adding a lot of aesthetics for the sight, but the ground seems to be raised up by the roots of the trees, this could cause more future attention to the sidewalk in order to take care of the safety for passengers.      Urban Forest Planning and Management Recommendations              Urban forestry is mainly designed and planned for managing trees and forest resources in and around urban community ecosystems. Greenspaces provide a massive amount of benefits for society, which contains physically, sociologically, and economically aspects.    To design a useful urban community for people to share their social activities, urban forest planner needs to combine aesthetics and practicability. Tree plantation, selection of tree species is mostly influenced by regulating ecosystem service components. However, aesthetics and feasibility are part of the cultural ecosystem service components.  While considering the practicability and aesthetics, planners must first contemplate the ecosystem services components, such as annual precipitation, climate, and flood. After that, the collection of public opinions towards the construction of the green spaces should be done.   For this part of our assignment, it will be illustrating the results indicated in the previous paragraphs related to the topics of urban forest planning and management recommendation. To start with, almost everything in the universe needs management or a well-design management plan for a project, the easiest way to say that is whether a park, a building, a school or an office need a manager. However, this can also be applied in the field of the urban forest.    Based on the data we collected for assignment #2, and according to the analysis we did. The recommendations will focus on two main points; one is how to maximize the benefits that provided by the regulating ecosystem services; the other one is how to batter satisfy the needs of people’s daily activities.   In the management strategies of the urban forest, the first scenario we need to consider is how we can convert any negative comments or impact of one urban forest’s zone into considerable opportunities. For example, the most important strategy, for now, maybe is the one that proper urban forest management can help to improve air quality. Relating to the regulating ecosystem services for urban forestry, there are five components we are focusing on, which are the canopy coverage; the pollutant removing; the carbon storage; avoiding runoff, and potential pest implication.    To be more specific, considering Canada is the second-largest country in the world and also has a great number of canopy covered in Canada. The urban forester should use these advantages to build more playgrounds, mini-park, or rest areas for local residents to use. However, the greater percentage of canopy cover in one city can help to maximize the utility of removing tones of 136particulate matter (dust) by the systems of an urban forest. UBC is one of the largest campuses in Canada, planting more trees can even help students, staff, or visitors to have a better quality of air.   The canopy coverage in our group zone has two extreme distinctions. The area around the forestry science building has a considerable size of canopy coverage, which has a positive impact on sunlight exposures. As the majority tree leaves around the building have large surface areas, the amount of sunlight the tree can absorb will be more significant compare to the tree leaves that have small surface areas. It will also be benefited in summer, and large leaves can black the glare and ultraviolet, which people would like to spend more time outside walking around or enjoy summertime.    Shading effect is also one of the best benefits people can get from trees. When planting large trees beside the walkway, playground or even in the urban forest, putting chairs under the large trees should be considered because large trees tend to give more shading effects than small trees. Thus, during the hot summertime, trees shades can reduce surface temperature and also blocks the diffuse radiation which reflected from the sky and it also blocks the heat flow from the building and people can sit on the chair to rest. Looking back to the zone which was assigned to our group, although there are some chairs on the walkway, these chairs are not much welcome than the chair located inside the forestry building. The reason why is because of the chairs located in the walkway is not in a spot that can block the sunlight. If an urban forester considered to re-design the location of those chairs, they can be located beside the trees or under the trees. So, people can gain shading benefits from trees. Another example could be the parking lot, which barely has trees. Thus, there are hardly people around that area. Increasing the number of large leaves tree plantation would be a useful solution. However, the landscape of the parking lot is not suitable for planting trees, an “artificial canopy” could be helpful, and in the summer, some sunshades can be established around the parking lot area.   As the trees are presented as the pollutant removal and storing carbons, the areas with an enormous amount of trees will have more oxygen produced and fewer pollutants. While doing the survey, people are more likely to spend time in the area that has plenty of trees. They state that the air quality is better than the area that has fewer trees. Comparing the parking lot and the middle pathway, the number of people presented in each region has a clear distinction; with the comparison between the automobile exhaust and fresh air, people will choose the latter. Generally speaking, to better obtain the level of oxygen produced and to control the air pollutions better, urban forest planners can spend more time examining the qualities of tree survival. Increasing existing tree coverage and using long-lived trees in an urban forest site will also help reduce pollution emissions from maintenance activities. In particular, as the parking lot does not allow absorption of water and become dumping grounds for careless disposal of trash, the establish of trash bins are necessary. Regular cleaning is essential as well, while some garbage brought by the heavy wind; sediment and fertilizers or pesticides will be carried by the cars, and they will not disappear when nobody cares them. These can be some aspects that affect the air quality.    Regarding avoid runoffs, water retention and water absorption should be deliberated. Different types of soils have different capacity of water absorption and different water retention; by examining the soil type, the various plant should be constructed. With the soil that has weak 137water retention capacity and inadequate water absorption, more trees should be planted to avoid runoffs, such as Douglas-fir or western redcedars; especially in areas where runoff collects. As runoff soaks into the soil, plant roots help to absorb and filter out pollutants. Planting trees can help tight the soil while considering avoiding runoffs. Another way to prevent runoffs can be by digging a trench, using a shallow, gravel-filled trench to catch and slow runoffs, especially at the base of a slope. The example area in our group zone is the one which contains two slopes area.   British Columbia is one of the largest provinces that the forests are damaged by the pest, such as mountain pine beetles. The pest always has a long-term impact on the tree species, and BC also spends a significant time fighting against the pests. The strategies that help to stop the spread of pests can be harvest the affect trees, the prescribed fire burning the affecting trees, and the preventive treatment, such as pesticide. Nevertheless, on the campus, the prescribed fire is not advisable as there is substantial human traffic, and the burning fire will produce a large amount of carbon dioxide, which will pollute the air. As there is not a very serious situation towards pests’ implications, the recommendations can leave until further implementations.     Urban forestry planning and management are not only considering the use of landscape or the plantation of trees, but it is also having a significant focus on the construction of urban areas. Cultural ecosystem services play an essential role while considering the creation of green spaces. The choices of tree plantations or establish leisure facilities are decided while planning and managing. We use six dimensions to exam the needs of development in our assignment 2, which are the species diversity; aesthetics; recreation; cultural significance; community sharing, and serene.   Looking at tree species diversity, our group members found that there is one specific street that does not have much species diversity and it looks very dull in our group one’s zone.  As the pictures are shown below, the view of the left picture located in UBC is not as good as we can describe than the one on the right side which located in the pacific evergreen realty. From the description of whether the size or the colour of these trees. It is clear that most people will agree with which the view of the picture on the right side is much more charming than the view on UBC’s campus. Moreover, a well-designed urban forest management plan should be considered the tree species diversity and the solution for that is maybe planting an evergreen species on that street to increase the beauty during the wintertime.       138            (Figure 8. UBC)                         (Figure 9. Pacific Evergreen Realty)   Besides the species diversity, other dimensions in our zones are generally well presented. The cultural significance is keen on the middle sidewalks, and the aesthetic and community sharing are well experienced by the staffs, students, and visitors. A large amount of areas is designed for people to have a walk or a quick relax. Although the majority areas achieved the requirements, there are still some improvement should be made. For instance, the wide-open space results in less feeling of safety; less species diversity results in less sense of aesthetics and will lead to fewer activities in the open areas. The strategies to satisfy people's experience values towards campus can be constructed more streetlamps, which will light the sidewalks while students are walking home after the late classes, and will increase the sense of serene. Various tree species could also be planted to make a better view and catches peoples’ attention, and the shelters can be established on the top of the chairs to prevent people from the heavy rains.                   139Reference:  Almas, Andrew, & Tahia, Devisscher. 2020. “Integrating Data.” Presented at               University of British Columbia, 2020, Vancouver. Retrieved March 19, 2020.               https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/38878/files/7396238?module_item_id=1711302   Ono, S. J. (2017). Reconciliation Pole Installation Remarks.    10 Ways to Manage Runoff Water. (n.d.). Retrieved from  https://www.bioadvanced.com/articles/10-ways-manage-runoff   Kella et al. (2014). Invasive Species in a Globalized World: Ecological, Social, and Legal  Perspectives on Policy.  DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226166216.001.0001  Nowak, D. (2002). The Effect of Urban Trees on Air Quality. USDA         140Appendix  Figures Figure 1: The Satellite Version of Group 1………………………………………………………4 Figure 2. Contoured zone using I-Tree Canopy …………………………………………………5 Figure 3. Urban Forest Percentage Cover (I-Tree Canopy)……………………………………...7 Figure 4. Tree Benefits Estimate (I-Tree Canopy)……………………………………………….7 Figure 5. average chart for cultural ecosystem services………………………………………….9 Figure 6. strengths of cultural ecosystem services……………………………………………….9 Figure 7. weakness in cultural ecosystem service……………………………………………….10 Figure 8. UBC……………………………………………………………………………………14 Figure 9. Pacific Evergreen Realty………………………………………………………………14          141       Assignment 2: Group 2 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report Urban Forestry 101 Adra Al-Shakarji —  Oakley Kang —  June Lam —  Kaysha Reeder —  Britany Wu —  Border Yin —  The University of British Columbia     UFOR 101: Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment Dr. Tania Devisscher and Dr. Andrew Almas April 8th, 2020  142Contributions Adra Al-Shakarji was responsible for introduction and site description Oakley Kang was responsible for cultural ecosystem services and management and recommendations June Lam was responsible for introduction, site description and overall editing Kaysha Reeder was responsible for the regulating ecosystem services Britany Wu was responsible for the regulating ecosystem services Border Yin was responsible for cultural ecosystem services and management and recommendations  Introduction The following urban forestry report was completed by six students from the University of British Columbia (UBC) on the Vancouver campus. The purpose of this report is to explore the ecosystem services provided within our prescribed site. Our site encompassed a few buildings, such as the MacLeod Building, the UBC Department of Computer Science, and the Engineering Student Centre. It also contained small patches of roads including Agronomy Road, Main Mall, and East Mall. To complete the report, we began by understanding our site, followed by setting out a clear methodology, and finally collecting on-the-ground field data and presenting it visually. We were able to provide a numerical value to the regulating and cultural ecosystem services of our site with the data we had previously gathered, along with i-Tree Eco and i-Tree Canopy cultural ecosystem services value mapping softwares. The values we obtained were then used to provide various suggestions regarding the development for this particular site on the UBC campus.  We were able to provide a numerical value to the regulating and cultural ecosystem services of our site with the date we had previously gathered along with i-Tree Eco and i-Tree Canopy cultural ecosystem services value mapping softwares. The values we obtain are then used to provide various suggestions regarding the development for this particular site on the UBC campus.  The recommendations are presented to the students of the class, as well as some stakeholders and the Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) sustainability program. This is all done in efforts to create an archive of the urban forest on campus and to improve it. The objective of UBC’s Forestry Visioning Project is “to design a sustainable UBC community that is resilient and adaptive to the effects of climate change.” (Du, Sangha, Smith, & Yu, 2017). Furthermore, three main criteria were identified to make a sustainable community successful such as climate resilience, low carbon community, and aesthetic/social values” (Du, Sangha, Smith, & Yu, 2017). Aesthetic/social values are especially important from the feedback provided by passersby that were interviewed.  Through the process of completing this report, students learned to evaluate the ecosystem services benefits using various tools, including one-on-one surveying, and efficient and active teamwork. Students had a chance to interact and explore the values of people regarding a university 143campus. The chance to apply the knowledge learnt in class has brought a new set of skills and experiences.  Site Description The site evaluated for this report is on the Vancouver UBC campus, enclosed by the following streets: Agronomy Road, East Mall and Main Mall. The primary buildings on site include: MacLeod Building, UBC Department of Computer Science, and the Engineering Student Centre (see Figure 1). The various buildings on our site, and the popular roads have led to the conclusion that our site’s land use is essentially both institutional and transportation since we observed many cars and trucks that were parked along the roads. In the smaller roads and areas behind buildings, where supplies are delivered, and garbage is temporarily stored till removal, there is little to no plants or other form of greenery. The smaller roads are shaded by the towering buildings. Moreover, most of the activities seen consisted of students, staff, or visitors either walking, biking or skateboarding, or driving to and from Agronomy Road, East Mall, and Main Mall. The amount of people peaks on Agronomy Road and Main Mall whenever classes end. In order to more precisely evaluate the ecosystem services that our site provides, it was divided in seven subzones (see Figure 2).      Figure 2. Division of Subzones for Group 2 Site. Figure 1. Map of Site 2 boundary from Google Map. 144Regulating Ecosystem Services Ecosystem processes control natural phenomena, such as pollination, water purification, erosion, flood control, carbon storage, and climate regulation, while furnishing advantages for the regulating services (Ecosystem Services, 2020).  Methods i-Tree eco, which uses scientific literature to calculate values (i-Tree Eco User's Manual v6.0, n.d.), was used to analyze the estimated benefit prices the trees in our zone provide. The first benefit calculated is electricity, and the trees in our zone are estimated to save 0.1 Canadian dollar per kilowatt-hour of electricity (i-Tree Canopy, n.d.). This may be because the electricity saved due to the shade the trees provide during the summer reduces the need for air conditioning, and the trees being windshields during winter reduce the need for heaters. However, since the tree density is low in our area, the effect of saving electricity in this area is limited.  The second benefit provided is carbon storage, which is valued at 104 dollars per ton of biomass (i-Tree Canopy, n.d.). Carbon sequestration occurs due to photosynthesis, which is a process of trees capturing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and transforming it into biomass (Selin, 2019). Since the trees sequester carbon that would normally enter the atmosphere and cause the temperature to rise, trees play an important role in preventing global warming through climate change mitigation (Carbon Sinks and Sequestration, 2018). The last benefit estimated by i-Tree eco was avoiding water runoff which is valued at 0.0088 Canadian dollars per gallon (i-Tree Canopy, n.d.). It's a very small number since we don’t have a lot of trees in our area. However, this benefit is important since water runoff occurs when rainfall cannot penetrate through paved surfaces and overflows. This, in turn, can lead to flooding, erosion, and habitat loss as it flows to larger bodies of water. Water pollution also occurs since runoff picks up pollutants such as sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, oil, and metals from the paved surfaces. These effects can be reduced through planting and maintaining trees and other vegetation in a cost-effective way compared to other infrastructures (Trees and Stormwater Runoff, 2017). The second tool we used was i-Tree canopy to measure the canopy cover in our zone. The canopy cover of our zone is only 12.6%, while the whole campus has a 27% canopy cover and Vancouver City has 18% (i-Tree Canopy, n.d.). The City of Vancouver also has a target of reaching 28% in 2030 (Hanou, Thurau, & Soulliere, 2011). We can see that UBC overall has a good amount of canopy cover, but the distribution of canopy cover is uneven. The lack of canopy cover in our zone can be further seen in the green/grey diagram (Figure 3) which shows a visualization of where vegetation is located. Most buildings are surrounded by green spaces, which may maximize the regulating services those buildings gain from trees, for example, temperature regulation and windshields. However, there is not that much green space in the area, additionally, the vegetation in most of the green space is grass and shrubs.   i-Tree canopy also provides the tree benefit estimates where it lists all the gasses the trees in our zone absorbed and the money that would cost to remove it with other technology as seen in Table 1. Except for stored CO2, which is the total amount of CO2 stored in the trees, all the other 145gasses are calculated for annual absorption. Out of all the gasses those trees absorbed, the first most absorbed is CO2stor, second is ozone (O3), and lastly PM10 (i-Tree Canopy, n.d.). It is worth noticing that even though PM 2.5 isn’t the highest gasses absorbed, the regulating service saves the most money, excluding CO2 (i-Tree Canopy, n.d.).   Cultural Ecosystem Services Methods To assess cultural services associated with our zone, we used two methods to retrieve our data: experience value mapping and sentiment mapping. With these two methods, we were able to use our individual perception of the zone as well as surveying others who were also using the space. This allowed us to create field-based interpretations for evaluation and recognizing the intangible benefits obtained in our zone.  Experience value mapping utilized the division of our zone into subzones, displayed in Figure 1. Each subzone is ranked in six experience values ranging from species diversity to cultural significance. The full list of values can be seen in the table of Appendix (1).  Sentiment mapping consisted of 30 short surveys of people in three different locations. The participants were asked to rate their attitude towards the location they were standing in and describe some aspects or reasons to support their rating. The surveys occurred in the late afternoon with sunny weather. The ratings and responses of each location can be viewed in Appendices (2) to (4).  Experience Value Mapping and Sentiment Mapping - Strengths and Weaknesses The methods we used allowed us to assess beyond the dependency of quantitative measures or physical attributes as a primary source (LIndholst, Capersen, & Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Table 1. Tree benefit estimates. Figure 3. Grey/Green diagram of Group 2 Site. 1462015). In this way, we were able to consider the human feelings that come from the public spaces in our zone. This would also allow management in future planning processes to make decisions between actors as well as the public’s preferences in a way that is more inclusive to citizens (Linholst et al. 2015). However, in order to reach a more accurate conclusion, we would suggest aiming for more abundant data that would be achieved by expanding the number of people surveyed, making it also more time-consuming. In addition, mapping for cultural service assessment will be frequently faced with inconsistency due to subjective factors such as public knowledge, differing cultures, the individual’s mood at the time the survey is taken, the weather on the day of the survey, and individual’s willingness to participate. For this report, we found that sunny weather may have influenced more positive responses to our experience valuing and surveys. The locations facing SW at the time of the surveys (late afternoon) ensued a greater number of satisfied responses. Experience Value Mapping: Data and Interpretations Analysis of the data gathered by experience mapping displays that there are no especially appealing areas within our zone. The average subzone rating is only (1.71) points out of (5.00) points total. Subzone (2F) has the highest average rating amongst all the subzones. It scores the top ratings across almost all experience values except Cultural significance, and it notably ties for the lowest score in Diversity. Subzone 2E is the second area to share the lowest Diversity ranking with subzone (2F). This is however not surprising for Subzone 2E as it is consistently ranked worst across all experience value categories. The average score of subzone (2F) is nearly triple that of (2E), with the scores of (2.63) and (0.93) respectively.  The high variance in ratings is just as drastic between the experience values of our zone. Averaging each subzone’s score for each experience, the best performing value with (2.47) points is Aesthetics/beauty. Close behind is Serenity/refuge with (2.46) points. The lowest scoring value is Cultural significance, only scoring (0.56).  Figure 5. Experience Value Average Rating. Figure 4. Subzone Average Score. 147From the subzone analysis, the consensus is that subzone 2F is the most appealing subzone despite its very low Diversity score. This leads us to believe Diversity is not an important factor of good greenspaces in well-developed urban areas. This could be due to visual preferences people may have towards the uniform and consistent aesthetic of monocultures. Minimal species variation could also complement the organized structures of the built environment and contribute to a well-groomed image. Aside from the ecological benefits, species diversity does not appear to be a high priority in creating an appealing space.  This interpretation could also be skewed by the even weight given to each experience value. There are certainly values that hold more importance than others, but our system of data collection does not account for this. Our data would surely become more accurate if value weighting was implemented. The experience value average scores are not biased by importance, but by personal biases. For every subzone, the lowest-scoring category is Cultural significance. This may be due to unfamiliarity and inability to identify features of cultural import.  Sentiment Mapping: Survey Data and Interpretations Sentiment mapping survey ratings and their corresponding reasonings can be found in Appendices (2) to (4). below. The first location was located at the Northwest corner of East Mall and Agronomy Rd. Just to the West is the second location along Agronomy Rd. at Engineering Rd. The third and last location is the entrance of ICICS along Main Mall.  Location (1) is the only site with a negative response. The main reason for this rating is that the site is “boring.” The site is a transitory space meant for commuting, there is no space to stop and engage with the site at all. This is also the location that experienced the most people refusing to participate in surveys as most were in a hurry to get to their destination. Some notable details mentioned are trees, greenery, open space, nothing special, boring, poor infrastructure, transportation, and food. Location (2) is split between good and indifferent ratings. Most comments about safety and cleanliness were mentioned here. Notable details mentioned include trees, aesthetic, cleanliness, safety, gray space, monoculture, same as other places on campus. Location (3) received only good ratings from participants. Every single person approached for surveys here also agreed to Figure 6. Location 1. Figure 7. Location 2. 148participate. We believe the aspect, time of day, and user context are uncontrolled factors which may have influenced the positive results at this location. Notable details mentioned: trees, greenery, vegetation, views, landscape, open space, animals, culture; people, totem pole, variety in the environment.  With only one negative response from Location (1), our zone can be generally considered a liked space that creates positive associations, but we must consider factors which may have influenced survey responses. Each location mentioned trees (most frequent), greenery, and vegetation from many participants as a good attribute, as well as frequent mentions of cleanliness, safety, and open space. Some surveys mentioned the sun as an aspect they enjoyed. Combined Interpretation of Sentiment Map and Experience Value The results of value mapping and sentiment surveys have been overlaid on the subzone map to help visualize trends. The 3 subzones (2A, 2B, 2F) with the best ecosystem service rankings are colour-coded green, subzone (2C) with median ecosystem services is colour-coded yellow, and the 3 subzones (2D, 2E, 2G) with the least/worst association to ecosystem services are colour-coded red. The three sentiment mapping surveying locations are plotted and colour-coded in the same manner.  The survey responses coincided with the experience ratings as there was a general trend of negative responses towards East Mall. The subzones and locations that receive more sunlight in the afternoon tend to score higher in ratings. The impact of sunlight and time of day surveys were conducted may have more impact than previously thought. Furthermore, neighbouring subzones appear to have influence on the experience of a location. With the difficulty of distinguishing boundaries between the subzones, the appearance and sightlines of a subzone affected the response to the adjacent location. For instance, locations 1 & 2 with the visibility of (2D) and (2E) respectively, received worse responses to the survey. Therefore, it may be beneficial to consider the zone even when looking to improve only a particular area, likewise, degradation or impr