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Varsity Athletics : Experiences of Diversity and Interculturalism Gold, Madi; Hu, Tracy; MacKenzie, Avery; Mah, Eric; Minhas, Gary 2019-12-05

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Varsity Athletics: Experiences of Diversity and Interculturalism Madi Gold, Tracy Hu, Avery MacKenzie, Eric Mah, Gary Minhas University of British Columbia KIN 465 Themes: Community, Health, Wellbeing  Date: Dec 5, 2019       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. 1 Table of Contents Page Number  Executive Summary 2 Introduction 3 Purpose and Objectives 3 Partnerships 3 Literature Review 4 Methodology 6 Research Questions 7 Sample Selection and Recruitment 7 Data Collection Process 7 Discussion 8 Recommendations 11 Conclusion 14 References 16 Appendix A: Survey 18 Appendix B: Figures 25 Appendix C: Work Plan 29          2 Executive Summary The purpose of this project is to examine how UBC Varsity student-athletes understand and experience diversity and interculturalism. Our objective was to identify the key areas of inclusion that support student athlete diversity; in addition, to highlight any barriers UBC Varsity student-athletes may face within their teams, across teams and within the UBC Varsity unit. The direction of this paper was determined by reviewing previous KIN 465 projects that focused on the intersection of UBC Varsity Athletics and Interculturalism. A series of short and long answer questions focused on five main components: identity, gender, race, sexuality, religion and culture, was formulated. The survey was distributed via Qualtrics, a survey platform, to assess the current UBC Varsity student athlete climate. 92 anonymous responses were recorded.  Our three main findings are as follows: (1) UBC Varsity student athletes wish for more opportunities to intermingle within their own team, as well as with other Varsity teams; (2) respondents noted there was less diversity in terms of identity, gender, race, sexuality, religion and culture within UBC Varsity as a whole, as compared to the general student population; and (3) UBC Varsity student-athletes speak highly of the pre-season athlete seminar, but would like to learn more about the resources and tools available for them. Based on our findings, we provided 3 recommendations: (1) designating a space for fostering social connection amongst student-athletes should be explored; (2) further changes in policy and educational means should be explored to better accommodate for student-athletes who have individual religious and cultural needs; and lastly, (3) increasing attendance at events, such as the Pride Parade, to increase visibility of UBC Varsity and it’s support interculturalism, diversity and inclusion. These recommendations will help to inform future policy, practice and 3 education and enhance equity, diversity and inclusion for all student-athletes; however, more research is required as this project provides only a preliminary analysis of the current UBC Varsity student athlete climate.  Introduction Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this project is to investigate how interculturalism and diversity are understood and experienced by student-athletes within UBC Varsity Athletics. This exploratory engagement examines five components of identity which include: gender, race, sexuality, religion and culture. The goal is to identify the key areas of inclusion that support student-athlete diversity; and barriers athletes face within their teams, across teams and within UBC Varsity Athletics as a whole. The information and findings gathered will be used to inform future policy, practice and education to enhance equity, diversity and inclusion for student athletes within UBC Varsity Athletics. Partnerships This research project was conducted for the UBC Kinesiology 465 course, ‘Interculturalism, Health and Physical Activity’, instructed by UBC Kinesiology faculty members Bryna Kopelow and Jennifer Fenton. This project was conducted in partnership with the UBC Equity & Inclusion Office, the UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) program, and the UBC Varsity Athletics program. UBC Varsity Athletics was represented by Gord Hopper and Jayne Blank, UBC SEEDS was represented by Jonathan Kew, and lastly, the UBC Equity & Inclusion Office was represented by Dr. Rachel E. Sullivan, who provided important recommendations for this project.  4 Literature Review Past studies provide valuable preliminary insight into diversity and interculturalism as it relates to varsity athletics within a university setting. Despite the value of these studies, however, there is a lack of conclusive research regarding the general climate of interculturalism in university varsity athletics units.  A 2015 study attempted to ascertain the extent to which interculturalism plays a role in varsity athletics at the University of British Columbia (UBC) by conducting interviews with international varsity athletes at the university (Yu, Graham, Olfato, Dosanjh, & Roughead, 2015). The majority of the athletes interviewed in this study reported that the varsity athletic environment being fostered at the university was inclusive and did not encourage them to discard their culture in order to comfortably exist in this setting (Yu et al., 2015). Building on these findings, a 2016 study explored the differences between the experiences of international and domestic university varsity athletes at UBC as it pertains to interculturalism by interviewing university varsity athletes from both of these aforementioned demographics while utilizing a specific set of interview questions for each individual demographic (Kanerva et al., 2016). In line with the study conducted by Yu et al. (2015), this study identified that the bulk of international university varsity athletes interviewed reported that the team fostered a "cohesive environment" in which their "cultural values and norms were co-created" (Kanerva et al., 2016). Additionally, most domestic university varsity athletes interviewed reported a university varsity athletic environment that adequately works to ensure social integration occurs within this context (Kanerva et al., 2016). Anderson et al. (2018) lead a study that evaluated the impact of the varsity athlete orientation (held in 2018) on interculturalism in the UBC varsity athletic environment. In order to evaluate the impact of this orientation a survey was distributed to UBC varsity athletes, the results of which concluded that 5 many of these athletes reported feeling neutral to "extremely prepared" to work with athletes that exhibit differences based on "race, gender, age, or values" (Anderson et al., 2018). Despite some previous research indicating a university varsity athletic environment that fosters interculturalism, there are findings among the previously referenced and various other studies that contradict this indication. For example, Yu et al. (2015) found that, generally, international varsity athletes perceive the athletic department at UBC to lack adequate promotion of “intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity" and used this finding to posit that the varsity athletic climate at UBC consists of a low level of interculturalism. Abelson, Doria, Stelmachenko, and So (2017) conducted directed a study that examined the role of UBC varsity athletic coaches in fostering an intercultural environment among the teams they coach and attempted to determine methods of increasing the aptitude of coaches when it comes to "understanding and communicating interculturalism." Through interviewing various varsity athletics coaches at UBC, the findings of the study could help to explain why a low level of interculturalism may exist in university varsity athletic units (Abelson et al., 2017). Some of the coaches interviewed reported that they felt there was not a substantial amount of cultural diversity among the members of their respective teams (Abelson et al., 2017). Additionally, the majority of the coaches interviewed did not know whether there were any athletes with intellectual disabilities among the members of the respective teams that they were coaching, did not know how to facilitate the inclusion of athletes with disabilities of this kind, were culturally and historically unaware of First Nations, and did not know how to promote First Nation involvement in university varsity sports (Abelson et al., 2017). The study conducted by Kanerva et al. (2016) also found that the international university varsity athletes interviewed identified that "language barriers and sport culture practices" were the most prominent cultural discrepancies present in the varsity athletic environment at UBC. 6 While, in general, athletes may report that diversity is a "celebrated" among university varsity sport units, it has also been reported that a need for additional work could be necessary in order to ensure that there is an optimal environment for diversity to flourish in this sport context (Yu et al., 2015). One method of achieving this could be increased efforts to raise awareness regarding diversity among university athletic units  (Yu et al., 2015), which could work to quell a reported lack of understanding among domestic university varsity athletes regarding the concept of interculturalism as well (Kanerva et al., 2016). In order to fully understand this topic, it is important to consider perspective and how this can affect interculturalism and diversity in university varsity athletic units. A 2016 study that evaluated the factors that influence “student perception of the… LGBT climate on NCAA member campuses” via the responses to a climate survey that was distributed to NCAA athletes identified that “students of color often report a more hostile environment at predominantly White institutions than white students” at the same institution (Greim, 2016). This helps to illuminate how survey responses may be partially dictated by personal context. Additionally, it has been reported that the perspective of university athletic coaches regarding interculturalism can have a substantial influence on the intercultural environment of the athletic department and, by extension, the athletes themselves (Anderson et al., 2018). Methodology The study was conducted to investigate how UBC addresses intercultural diversity and inclusion in their sporting culture according to student athletes. The research began by viewing previous generations of SEEDS papers on Varsity Interculturalism to better understand the literature (Dong et al., 2015; Olfato et al, 2015). This helped to direct the study towards its 7 purpose. Three separate meetings were held throughout the semester with community leaders in order to ensure that the project was on track.  Research Questions          The research questions were based on divisions of our purpose/hypothesis aiming to assess the comprehension and awareness of interculturalism among UBC Varsity Athletes. These divisions were: (i) how interculturalism, diversity, inclusion is understood by student athletes (ii) the key areas of inclusion that support student-athlete diversity and interculturalism (iii) the barriers that inhibit interculturalism, diversity and inclusion. All of which pertain only to their team, sport and/or department. The introductory questions were proposed to gain further understanding of participant demographics. Sample Selection and Recruitment  The sample selection was chosen through the project contact, Dr. Racheal Sullivan who is the Equity Facilitator at the Equity and Inclusion office contacted. She further contacted Gord Hopper (Director of Athletic Performance and Team Services) and Jayne Blank (Manager - Athlete Services and Compliance) who helped distribute our survey questionnaire to various UBC Varsity Teams. Since the dissemination of the survey, 98 responses have been received from UBC Varsity athletes thus far.  Data Collection Process  In a meeting with Dr. Racheal Sullivan, Qualtrics (a simple web-based survey tool to conduct survey research) was set up as the hose site for the survey. Participants clicked on the provided link to access the survey. Upon receiving responses, they were reviewed the qualitative 8 (short-answer) questions and quantitative (Likert-type) questions in order to analyze trends. The analysis method utilized to identify common themes within the is called coding.  Two forms of coding were utilized. The first type focuses on the participant’s responses in coherence with the literature. The first type focuses on the participant’s responses in coherence with the literature. Through these methods, we were able to identify recurring or outlying responses. We used this to form suggestions and recommendations on how to improve interculturalism in Varsity Athletics.   Discussion The goal of the survey was to explore the intercultural and diverse experiences of student-athletes within UBC Varsity Athletics. The survey was distributed to all Varsity Athletic teams by UBC Athletics representatives Gord Hopper and Jayne Blank, acting as a gate-keeper. Additionally, the survey was in partnership of UBC Kinesiology course, 465 ‘Interculturalism, Health and Physical Activity’ instructed by Bryna Kopelow and Jennifer Fenton, UBC Equity and Inclusion and the UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) program. The survey was completely anonymous and retained 92 responses, which were used to draw key themes and patterns regarding interculturalism within UBC Varsity Athletics. The research used five key components of identity; gender, race, sexuality, religion and culture to discuss inclusion, diversity and interculturalism between teammates and other sports teams at UBC. Utilizing qualitative and quantitative questions, participants were asked their perspective on what defines inclusion, diversity and interculturalism, how they perceived these factors were incorporated into their sports community and finally what more could be done to 9 foster an environment to support these factors. Participants were asked to apply these three pertinent questions to three main levels. Firstly, thinking about these questions in reference to themselves and their teammates. Secondly, applying these same ideas to their coaches and how they could influence their team culture. Finally, making suggestions to UBC Athletics as a whole and advise on how they could cultivate a superior environment. Keeping in mind that the findings of the study will be used to create future policies and practices that foster, equity, diversity and interculturalism for student athletes within UBC Varsity Athletics.  Three key findings were recognized in the results of the study, each with a focus on inclusion, diversity or interculturalism. Inclusion was best defined as an “active, intentional, and ongoing engagement with diversity in communities —in ways that increase awareness, content knowledge, cognitive sophistication, and empathic understanding of the complex ways individuals interact within (and change) systems and institutions” (“Equity and Inclusion Glossary of Terms,” n.d.) (Figure 3). Interviewees from the survey suggested that there are little to no events where athletes can get to know each other and share the athlete experience (Figure 5). UBC student-athletes believed a communal space for all teams would increase inclusion between sports teams. The findings suggest that there is a need for the opportunity for these teams within the UBC varsity unit to interact with each other in a specific place that is not sport centric. A place where more focus can be placed  on social interaction and “intermingling with other teams” (Figure 4). An area for members of the UBC varsity unit to socially interact will allow these members to develop a “sense of place,” which is vital in creating a space that they will “want to return to, time and again” (Frumkin, 2003). Additionally, specific places have been shown to “affect our performance as we work and study” (Frumkin, 2003). Some places (such as 10 places of social gathering) are considered “great good places” for developing “sense of place” (Frumkin, 2003).  Diversity was outlined as “the wide variety of visible and invisible differences that contribute to the experiences of individuals and groups” (“Equity and Inclusion Glossary of Terms,” n.d.) (Figure 2). Student-athletes noted there was little diversity of individuals within UBC Athletics or coaching staff. Specifically, participants noted the lack of LGBTQ representation at these levels. Student-athletes believe correcting this would be the first step in creating a supportive and open environment for current and prospective LGBTQ athletes. Sport is notoriously homophobic and commonly involves discriminatory language from coaches and athletes (Norman, 2016). Solving this issue within individual sports teams starts from the top, the coach (Iida & McGivern, 2019). Athletes are more likely to engage with the LGBTQ community if they perceive their coach supports the attitudes of LGBTQ individuals (Toomey & McGeorge, 2018). Therefore, Coaches are expected to lead by example with their teams to create an inclusive and diverse program for LGBTQ athletes (Iida & McGivern, 2019). This could include coaches helping all team members interact with LGBTQ members, as well as implementing strategies to support LGBTQ athletes and any discrimination they may receive (Iida & McGivern, 2019). Interculturalism was described as  “connections created across cultural differences to foster mutual learning, and to create something new that contributes to social change.” (Cureton, 2016) (Figure 1). Participants spoke highly of the pre-season athletic seminar’s effectiveness on addressing intercultural matters. The pre-season athletic seminar generally addresses racist, homophobic and other sensitive issues that may present in an athletic environment (Anderson et al., 2018). Past seminar’s gave students scenarios of racial slurs, sexual assault and hazing, 11 where they had to record the proper steps to handle these situation (Anderson et al., 2018). UBC student-athletes expressed the importance of these sessions to help educate students on how to deal with these common circumstances. However, the findings of the study suggested athletes wanted to learn about resources and tools they could use to deal with uncomfortable situations such as these. The student-athletes saw such importance in the pre-season seminar they suggested increasing the frequency of the program to once or twice each term. The effectiveness of these pre-season seminars are crucial for student-athletes to understand that interculturalism goes beyond race and ethnicity, and instead links multiple, different cultures (Fenton & Kopelow, 2019). Recommendations After completing the research and concluding the findings, there are several recommendations for UBC Athletics to implement in future policies. First, we suggest designating a specific space for varsity athletes to facilitate interculturalism and diversity between all teams. A notable response from a varsity athlete indicated that there are little to no events in which athletes can get to know one another and share experiences (Figure 6). We believe a designated space will encourage student-athletes to intermingle and create meaningful friendships with one another. Furthermore, we hope this area would also be used by Thunderbird Alumni and UBC Athletics staff, to further integrate athlete’s with positive role models and leaders. We propose an athlete centered space outside of a professional sport-setting may help improve the community environment and promote inclusivity by allowing athletes to connect with one another.  12 Widely addressed among participants was the mandatory pre-season athletic seminar hosted by UBC athletics. This orientation was introduced to varsity athletes prior to the start of their seasons and highlighted the importance of inclusion, interculturalism, and diversity. The seminar addressed important issues about racial slurs and ‘locker room talk’, which makes the players feel more comfortable and safe. One respondent indicated that the Varsity athletic seminar at the beginning of the year made them feel welcome and supported (Figure 10). Considering the orientation has proved to be beneficial, we would like to apply several recommendations to the current existing framework. Firstly, we recommend UBC Athletics increase the frequency of the orientation, preferably to once or twice a term. Participants requested follow up seminars or reminders of how to deal with the discrimination previously addressed in the initial orientation. Secondly, we advocate for coaches to attend future seminars as team culture is generally created, cultivated and maintained by the coaching staff (Figure 10). These recommendations will provide student-athletes the skills to support minority and international groups and frame relationships between communities (Moskal & North, 2017). Thus, the UBC Varsity Athletics Department should continue implementing the preseason mandatory athletic seminar, with minor adjustments to frequency and compulsory attendance of coaches. Additionally, some respondents from the survey indicated that being a first-year athlete required specific responsibilities (Figure 8). When compared to upper year varsity athletes, first year athletes often are looked down upon and in some cases can be involved with college hazing incidents. A study conducted by Johnson & Chin (2016), demonstrates the impact of engaging athletes in outdoor-based and adventure education-based orientation as a substitutional method to traditional forms of sport initiation for first year athletes. Although the traditional initiation 13 method of hazing, forces first year athletes in the engagement of degrading, humiliating, and abusive activities; the introduction of cooperative outdoor team activities contributes towards an inclusive climate, promoting team cohesion, communication and support among veteran and rookie athletes (Johnson & Chin, 2016). Our recommendation to reduce hazing is for UBC Athletics to provide teams the tools to create a unique initiation experience for young athletes. This experience will focus on fostering a friendly and welcoming environment, which develops a comfortable experience in a new sport-setting. We suggest teams to participate in activities that do not involve drinking and are centered around the teams' history. This could further bond teammates by having individuals in pairs; one younger athlete and one senior athlete. Furthermore, responses from the survey revealed that UBC Varsity Athletics should be more accommodating of athletes with different religious and cultural backgrounds (Figure 9). One of the participants indicated that they were unable to attend church due to the scheduled practice times (Figure 7). Student-athletes should be respected for their religious beliefs and their practices. It would provide an increased intercultural atmosphere within the varsity athletic community if all athletes engaged in similar practices as those who are religious. This not only enhances inclusion, but also cultivates an understanding of interculturalism within their sport. A study done by Birky, Schramm, and Soheilian (2011), revealed that prayer behavior has been found to be an effective method in reducing tension and stress. It is reasonable to highlight that mental practice techniques and prayers will increase the significance of the athlete’s performance (Birky et al., 2011). Therefore, it would be encouraging if other athletes supported those that are religious on their teams, by joining them in prayer before and after the games. It would be essential if there were sessions held for varsity athletes that incorporate religious practices so that those who are religious can feel welcomed and not different than the rest of the team.  14 Lastly, we would like to address the decreased visibility of marginalized groups within UBC Athletics and UBC Varsity teams (Figure 11). To rectify this, we recommend varsity athletes attend events such as the Pride parade to help promote interculturalism and improve diversity within the UBC community. By attending the Pride parade, it demonstrates the support UBC Varsity provides for the LGBTQ+ community. A participant in the survey felt the more visible marginalized groups were, the more they would feel included and connected (Figure 12). Conclusion This project was an exploratory engagement diversity/interculturalism as understood and experienced by UBC Varsity Student Athletes. Through this engagement, we have worked to identify key areas of inclusion that support student athlete diversity; in addition, to highlight any barriers UBC Varsity student-athletes may face within their teams, across teams and within the UBC Varsity unit. The responses from our Qualtrics survey that a series of short and long answer questions (focusing on identity, gender, race, sexuality, religion, and culture) allowed us to gain key insight into the aforementioned areas of focus for this paper. We utilized these responses to assess the current climate of diversity/inclusion/interculturalism in the UBC Varsity Athletic Student culture and inform how to enhance equity, diversity, and inclusion for all student athletes.    Our findings gleaned three primary recommendations, including (1) designating a space for fostering social connections amongst student-athletes should be explored; (2) further changes in policy and educational means should be explored to better accommodate for student-athletes who have individual religious and cultural needs; and lastly, (3) increasing attendance at events, 15 such as the Pride Parade, to increase visibility of UBC Varsity and it’s support interculturalism, diversity and inclusion.  Recommendations produced from this project may be utilized by UBC SEEDS, UBC Varsity Athletics, and the UBC Equity and Inclusion Office (partners for this project) to help inform future policy, practice and education and enhance equity, diversity and inclusion for student athletes at UBC.                16 References Abelson, J., Doria, M., Stelmachenko, A., So, M., & Thornhill, A. (2017). Coaches’ role in interculturalism. Anderson, Z., Barnett, L., Berlet, C., Bourchier-Willans, A., Vadot, E., & Tardif, C., (2018). Interculturalism and varsity athletics: evaluating orientation sessions. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report. Birky, I.T., Schramm, J., & Soheilian, S. S. (2011). Influence of god beliefs, religiosity, prayer,  and mental imagery on the performance self-efficacy of Collegiate Varsity Athletes. American Psychological Association. 3.  https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.1037/e680582011-001 Cureton, K. (2016). Bias, stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from University of British Columbia KIN 465 https://connect.ubc.ca/ Donohoe, R., Kanerva, A., & Morgan, C. (2016). Interculturalism in varsity athletics at the university of british columbia: creating meaningful connections. Equity and Inclusion Glossary of Terms. (n.d.) UBC Equity and Inclusion Office. Retrieved from https://equity.ubc.ca/resources/equity-inclusion-glossary-of-terms/#difference Fenton, J. & Kopelow, B. (2019). Interculturalism, health and physical activity [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from University of British Columbia Kin 465 https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/41914/files/5377321?module_item_id=1373346 Frumkin, H. (2003). Healthy places: exploring the evidence. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1451-1456. 17 Greim, R. D. (2016). You Can Play, but Can You be Yourself: How LGBT and Non-LGBT Student-Athletes Perceive the Climate of NCAA Division I Athletic Departments (Doctoral dissertation). Iida, P.C. & McGivern, C.T. (2019). Creating an LGBTQ+-affirming locker room: education from prevention. Multicultural Education, 26(2), 17-22. Johnson, J., & Chin, W.J. (2016). Hazing rites/rights: using outdoor- and adventure  education-based orientation to effect positive change for first-year athletes. Journal of  Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning. 16:1. 16-30. DOI: 10.1080/14729679.2015.1050681. Moskal, M., & North, A. (2017). Equity in education for/with refugees and migrants—toward  a solidarity promoting interculturalism. European Education, 49(2/3), 105–113.  https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.1080/10564934.2017.1343088 Norman, L. (2016). Cross-gender coaching. Women in Sports Coaching. M.N. Lavoi (Ed.). London, Routledge. Toomey, R.B., & McGeorge, C.R. (2018). Profiles of LGBTQ ally engagement in college athletics. Journal of LGBT Youth, 15(3), 162-178. doi:10.1080/19361653.2018.1453428 Yu, A., Graham, K., Olfato, M., Dosanjh, G., & Roughead, T. (2015). Discovering varsity athletics: creating an inclusive community.    18 Appendix A: Survey KIN 465 - Interculturalism within UBC Varsity  SURVEY QUESTIONS As a Varsity Athlete at UBC, we would like to invite you to participate in a survey about your team and personal views of interculturalism. This survey is in partnership with UBC Varsity Athletics Department, Equity and Inclusions Office and SEEDS through a kin 465 based project. Participation in this survey is voluntary and participants can withdraw at any time. All results are anonymous and confidential in any subsequent reports. If you require more information please contact Rachael Sullivan at the Equity and Inclusion Office.  Section 1:   1. What year of study are you currently in? a. 1st b. 2nd c. 3rd d. 4th e. 5th f. Graduate g. Post-graduate 2. Are you a domestic student-athlete or international student-athlete? a. Domestic student-athlete b. International student-athlete 3. Which ethnic background(s) do you identify with? The Canadian Census identifies the following categories in its Census of the Population. Please indicate how you self-identify. This self-identification is not intended as an indication of one’s place of origin, citizenship, language or culture and recognizes that there are differences both between and among subgroups of persons of colour. If you are of mixed-descent, please indicate this by selecting all that apply, rather than using the “other” line unless parts of your self-identification do not appear in this list. a. Aboriginal peoples of Canada b. Indigenous (outside of Canada) c. Arab-optional specify: d. Black- optional specify e. Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macau) f. Filipino g. Japanese h. Korean 19 i. Latin, Central or South American (e.g. Brazilian, Chilean, Columbian, Mexican) - optional specify: j. Southeast Asian (e.g. Cambodian, Indonesian, Laotian, Vietnamese, etc.) – optional specify: k. Taiwanese l. West Asian (e.g. Afghan, Iranian, Syrian, etc.) – optional specify:  m. White – optional specify: n. If none of the above, please specify: o. Prefer not to answer  [If “Aboriginal peoples of Canada” was selected, the following question would appear] 4. Which Canadian Aboriginal group do you identify with the most? a. First Nations (status or non-status) b. Métis c. Inuit  d. Prefer not to answer  5. Do you identify with or adhere to a religious or spiritual tradition or community? This question relates to religion, a person’s self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization nor a currently a practicing member of that group. a. Yes b. No c. Prefer not to answer  [If ‘’yes’’ is selected, the following question would appear] 6. What religious or spiritual tradition or community do you identify with or adhere to? a. Bahai b. Buddhist c. Christian d. Hindu e. Jewish f. Muslim g. Shinto h. Sikh i. Taoist j. Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 20 k. Wiccan l. Other Religions (please specify:) m. Prefer not to specify 7. What is your gender identity? a. Woman b. Non-binary c. Man d. Prefer not to answer 8. Are you someone with trans experience (meaning that your gender identity does not align with your sex assigned at birth)? a. Yes b. No c. Prefer not to answer 9. Do you identify as: a. Heterosexual/Straight b. Gay/Lesbia c. Bisexual/Pansexual d. Asexual e. Queer f. Questioning/Unsure g. If none of the above, please specify: h. Prefer not to answer 10. Do you have any of the following disabilities or ongoing medical conditions that have affected your everyday functioning? a. Physical disability b. Blind/Visually impaired c. Deaf/Hard of Hearing d. Mental Health Condition e. Neurological (learning disability, ASD, Traumatic Brain Injury, ADHD, etc.) f. Chronic Health Condition (Crohn’s, HIV, etc.) g. If none of the above, please specify: h. I don’t have a disability or ongoing medical condition i. Prefer not to answer Section 2: As this survey is being conducted for Kin 465: We are interested in learning more about how interculturalism, diversity and inclusion are understood within UBC Varsity Athletics student body.  1. Choose the definition that most closely defines Interculturalism? 21 A. Interculturalism refers to connecting across cultural differences to foster mutual learning to create something new that contributes to social change.  B. The view that we all benefit when we actively encourage connections between people from different cultures C. “Interculturalism refers to connections created across cultural difference to foster mutual learning, and to create something new that contributes to social change.”  2. Choose the definition that most closely defines Diversity? A. Diversity refers to the varied perspectives and approaches to work which members of different identity groups bring.  B. Diversity refers to the wide variety of visible and invisible differences that contribute to the experiences of individuals and groups. C. Diversity is a concept meant to convey the existence of difference and is created when people who are different from one another come together, and includes everyone in the room.  3. Choose the definition that most closely defines Inclusion? A. Inclusion represents a person’s ability to contribute fully and effectively to an organization.  B. Inclusion is actively, intentionally, and continuously bringing historically and/or currently underrepresented and/or marginalized individuals or groups into processes, activities and decision/policy making in a way that shares power C. Inclusion is active, intentional, and ongoing engagement with diversity in communities —in ways that increase awareness, content knowledge, cognitive sophistication, and empathic understanding of the complex ways individuals interact within (and change) systems and institutions  Short Answer Questions: 4. What new traditions, values, or norms have you learned since being an athlete at UBC? 5. Did you feel you are able to contribute to your team culture in a meaningful way? 6. Do you think UBC Varsity Athletics values diversity, inclusion and interculturalism? Why or Why not?   Section 3: This section is for athletes to identify areas of inclusion that support student-athlete diversity and interculturalism within their teams, across teams and within the UBC Varsity unit.  Please circle the number below that indicates how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Circle one number for each statement. 22 1 - strongly disagree 2 - disagree 3 - neutral  4 - agree  5 - strongly agree  Team:  1. My team supports my Sexuality  1 2 3 4 5 2. My team supports my Gender Identity 1 2 3 4 5 3. My team supports my Culture 1 2 3 4 5 4. My team supports my Race 1 2 3 4 5 5. My team supports my Religion 1 2 3 4 5  Sport: In competition (League Games/Tournaments, Usport, NAIA, Club) 6. My sport  supports my Sexuality  1 2 3 4 5 7. My sport supports my Gender Identity  1 2 3 4 5 8. My sport supports my Culture 1 2 3 4 5 9. My sport supports my Race 1 2 3 4 5 10. My sport supports my Religion 1 2 3 4 5 Department: UBC Varsity Athletics  11. My department supports my Sexuality  1 2 3 4 5 12. My department supports my Gender Identity  1 2 3 4 5 13. My department supports my Culture 1 2 3 4 5 14. My department supports my Race 1 2 3 4 5 15. My department supports my Religion 23 1 2 3 4 5  Short Answer Questions: 16. What new traditions, values and norms have you learned since being an athlete at UBC? 17. What do you think could be done to help athlete's feel more included in teams?  18. In what ways can your team and the athletics department as a whole, help support diversity, inclusion and interculturalism?  Section 4: This section is for athletes to recognize any barriers that inhibit interculturalism, diversity and inclusion, and if these barriers stem from their team, sport and/or department.  Please circle the number below that indicates how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Circle one number for each statement. 1 - strongly disagree 2 - disagree 3 - neutral  4 - agree  5 - strongly agree  Team:  1. My team limits the full expression of my Sexuality  1 2 3 4 5 2. My team limits the full expression of my Gender Identity  1 2 3 4 5 3. My team limits the full expression of my Culture 1 2 3 4 5 4. My team limits the full expression of my Race 1 2 3 4 5 5. My team limits the full expression of my Religion 1 2 3 4 5  Sport: In competition (League Games/Tournaments, Usport, NAIA, Club)  6. My sport limits the full expression of my Sexuality  1 2 3 4 5 7. My sport limits the full expression of my Gender Identity  1 2 3 4 5 8. My sport limits the full expression of my Culture 1 2 3 4 5 24 9. My sport limits the full expression of my Race 1 2 3 4 5 10.  My sport limits the full expression of my Religion 1 2 3 4 5  Department: UBC Varsity Athletics 11. My department limits the full expression of my Sexuality  1 2 3 4 5 12. My department limits the full expression of my Gender Identity  1 2 3 4 5 13. My department limits the full expression of Culture 1 2 3 4 5 14. My department limits the full expression of my Race 1 2 3 4 5 15. My department limits the full expression of my Religion 1 2 3 4 5  Short Answer Questions: 16. If you agreed or strongly agreed, can you provide examples any barriers that made you feel excluded from participating in UBC Varsity. 17. How do the barriers you’ve listed above affect your Varsity sport experience? 18. How could UBC Athletics eradicate these barriers within UBC Varsity climate to make yourVarsity sport experience better?               25 Appendix B: Figures Figure 1: Interculturalism Definition  Figure 2: Diversity Definition              26 Figure 3:  Inclusion Definition   Figure 4:  Q45 - Do you have any additional comments, concerns or questions about your experience as a student athlete you would like to share with the research team and/or anonymously with UBC Varsity Athletics? Answer: “I would prefer if the varsity athletes intermingled more within different teams”  Figure 5:  Q48 - How could UBC Athletics eradicate these barriers within UBC Varsity climate to make your Varsity sport experience better? Answer:”...Athletes hub like mentioned earlier? Where athletes can mingle in a more intimate setting - it's different than when you're at a rowdy TAC (thunderbird athlete council party). You can discuss things more personally and actually make friends.”  Figure 6: Q37: In what ways can your team and the athletics department as a whole, help support diversity, inclusion and interculturalism? ‘’It would be helpful to have an athlete hangout area so we could meet other teams to strengthen...community.’’ ‘’...host more events that can get everyone to know each other.’’   Figure 7:  Q33: What traditions, values and norms have you had to ’let go of’/stop doing since you joined Varsity athletics? - ‘’Going to church on Sunday’’ - ‘’Catholic values, don’t speak about my beliefs often’’ 27 - ‘’Harder to attend church just because our games are scheduled at that time.’’  Figure 8:  Q35: What traditions, values, and norms have you (or your team) added since becoming an athlete at UBC?  “the notion of a hierarchy between athletes from upper years and lower years, being willing to do the dirty work to get them to like me”   Figure 9:  Q46: How do the barriers you’ve listed above affect your Varsity sport experience?   ‘’I haven’t experience[d] it personally but indirectly through hearing conversations - it’s made me less open in conversation and opening up my life. If someone said something negative about me of my race, sexual orientation, or preference….’’   Figure 10:  Question 37: In what ways can your team and the athletics department as a whole, help support diversity, inclusion and interculturalism?  ’’The varsity athlete seminar at the beginning of the year is helpful.’’ ‘’Have coaches attend information events and give them the tools to change their team’s culture.’’ ‘’Continue to foster a culture of support and open-mindedness. Ensure focus on team goals that will allow teams to bond together and face adversity regardless of any social or physical differences that may be present.’’ ‘’Open dialogue between coaches and their superiors…’’  Figure 11:  Q37: In what ways can your team and the athletics department as a whole, help support diversity, inclusion and interculturalism? - ‘’...get involved with pride…invite all Varsity athletes to walk during the parade as a celebration of sport, and to support the community.’’     Figure 12:  Q48: How could UBC Athletics eradicate these barriers within UBC Varsity climate to make your Varsity sport experience better? - ‘’I would say visibility and recognizing. Celebrating LGBTQ2+, POC athletes, increasing visibility of marginalized groups. The more visible, the more inclusion people will feel 28 included and connected. "If they're up there, I can be too". There was a study showing that students preferred teachers who were marginalization or of a visible minority because of their lived experience shared knowledge.’’                29 Appendix C: Work Plan  KIN 465 CBEL Project Workplan 2: Varsity Interculturalism Madi Gold (44297159), Tracy Hu (36649168), Avery MacKenzie (30713151), Eric Mah (40132152), Gary Minhas (78301025)  Name of Project: "Varsity Athletics: Experiences of Diversity and Interculturalism” - SEEDS Project   Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”): 1) “To conduct a literature review of interculturalism, diversity, and inclusion in University Varsity Athletic units. 2)  To formulate a survey that will engage the UBC Varsity Student body about these issues and ask for experience and feedback. 3)  To perform a cursory analysis of the data and formulate 3-5 recommendations arising from the analysis and literature review.” - Varsity Interculturalism Research Project Description Form Deliverables (“what are we going to create?”): - We will be creating a survey to inform 3-5 recommendations that will encourage varsity sports to be more inclusive and identify what barriers athletes feel in their teams and community. - Quantitative and qualitative data that better informs the current literature on interculturalism.  Methods (“how are we going to do this?”): - Conduct background and literature review on varsity students and interculturalism in athletics. - Create and distribute a survey (using Qualtrics) in order to collect quantitative and qualitative data from UBC varsity athletes regarding their general experience and understanding of diversity/interculturalism (focused on the five main components of identity, gender, race, sexuality, religion, and culture) within their teams, across teams, and within the UBC varsity unit as a whole. - Analysis of findings and brainstorm 3-5 recommendations based on the results of survey - Written report - Literature review draft is complete - Introduction review draft is complete - Started on Methodology  - Awaiting responses from Varsity teams  - Analysis of responses to begin next week  - Meeting with Dr. Sullivan on November 4th - Final Meeting with Dr. Sullivan + Presentation on November 18th 30 - CBEL In-Class Presentations to begin on November 21 (Date TBD)  Project Members Skills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability  Tracy Hu - Quantitative and qualitative analysis  - Limitations - Paper Review Contact Person Liaison  – responsible to make initial contact, set up meetings and maintain contact, and gather feedback on deliverables - Helped create survey questions - Input survey questions into Qualtrics - Responsible for updating work plan - Writing Introduction and Abstract  Monday: 12-2 Tuesday: 12:30-2 Friday: 12-2  Wednesday: 12-3:30 Thursday: 12:30-2   Madi Gold - Quantitative research - Survey results - Current rugby culture - Helped create survey questions - Writing Discussion/Findings - Formatting of Final Project Report - Adding Appendices   Monday: 9-2 Wednesday: 9-2 Friday: 9-2  Avery MacKenzie - Writing - Literature Reviews   - Helped create survey questions - Writing literature review. - Assist with data analysis and the formulation of recommendations.  - Conclusion Monday: 12-4 Wednesday: 12-4 Friday: 12-4 31  Eric Mah  - Team player  - Literature Reviews  - Love analyzing sports   - Writing recommendations section - Helped create survey questions  - Attended all meetings - Helped with APA format of references   Monday: 12-2 Tuesday: 12-2 Wednesday: 12-3   Gary Minhas - Former varsity basketball player, love being in team environments - Survey optimization - Back-up Contact Person Liason  - Helped create survey questions  - Analysis of survey questions - Writing Methods   Monday: 11-2 Wednesday: 11-2 Friday: 11-2      

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