UBC Undergraduate Research

Informing Intercultural Dress Codes Leisen, Trenton; Malik, Walee; Khadhair, Ahmad; Fan, Michael; Ashamalla, Mark 2019-12-05

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Informing Intercultural Dress Codes Trenton Leisen, Walee Malik, Ahmad Khadhair, Michael Fan, Mark Ashamalla University of British Columbia KIN 465 Themes: Community, Health, Wellbeing  Date: Dec 5, 2019       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.        SEEDS Informing Intercultural Dress Codes   Interculturalism, Health and Physical Activity – Kin 465   University of British Columbia   Trenton Leisen  Walee Malik  Ahmad Khadhair  Michael Fan  Mark Ashamalla      Date completed: Thursday December 5, 2019   INSTRUCTORS: Jennifer Fenton & Bryna Kopelow      1 Table of Contents Section Page Numbers Executive Summary 2-3 Introduction 3-4 Background Information/Literature Review 4-7 Methodology 7-9 Project Outcomes/Findings/Discussions 9-13 Conclusions/Recommendations 13-15 References 16-17 Appendix 18-33            2 Executive Summary The purpose of this project was to address and understand the present gaps in dress code policy at the University of British Columbia (UBC) Recreation fitness facilities. An objective that corresponds with this purpose was to identify key dress code components that promote interculturalism and inclusion. Additionally, research aimed to explore underlying clothing barriers that hinder an individual’s comfort level when entering a fitness facility. The methods used to gather information included a literature review and a survey developed using the Qualtrics software. Ideally, the findings from this paper will lead to the development of a culturally sensitive dress code that acknowledges intercultural accessibility and inclusion. An in-depth literature review highlighted a number of interesting trends. The majority of Canadian universities had a dress code present, however student and staff opinions on dress code implementation were mixed (BCIT, 2019; Lopatka, 2018). It was also found that employees of private gyms often lacked proper education and knowledge regarding dress code standards at their facility. Finally, literature showed that females can often feel targeted and may face a double standard when dress codes are inconsiderate of gender equality (Graf, 2019). Overall, public perceptions on the effectiveness of dress codes appears to be varied. Based on survey results that examined community member opinions on dress code policy, a number of insights were gathered. The majority of participants denied the idea that dress code policy impacts their decision to attend a specific facility (refer to Appendix C, Figure 1). Similarly, many respondents valued the autonomy to wear what they please and did not want their clothing choices restricted (refer to Appendix C, Figure 2). However, results were conflicting as the majority of participants responded that they would be willing to comply with a dress code if it was implemented to ensure the comfort of all patrons (refer to Appendix C,    3 Figure 3). Men not wearing shirts were most commonly cited as making respondents uncomfortable. However, laced clothing and exposed midriffs also made participants uneasy, but to a lesser degree (refer to Appendix C, Table 1) . At the conclusion of the literature review and survey, five key recommendations were made. The first recommendation is to improve employee education regarding dress codes so that all employees are well versed and consistent with dress code knowledge. Furthermore, dress codes must utilize clear and concise language to limit ambiguity for gym attendees. To support this recommendation, specific rules posted in numerous accessible formats should be developed. Another recommendation is to ensure gender equality by holding all genders to the same standard in regards to what body parts they can expose. Additionally, promoting gym dress codes from a stance of health and hygiene may aid in limiting negative responses by patrons who may otherwise feel targeted. Finally, it was clear that dress codes should not impact cultural and religious clothing. Instead, cut off tee shirts, clothing that is laced and clothing that exposes the midriff should be considered by fitness centre management when creating a dress code.    Introduction          As a health promoting university, UBC Recreation strives to get students engaged in physical activity by focusing on accessible facilities, programs and policies. UBC aims to create an inclusive physical activity environment for all community members, regardless of gender, ethnicity, age and socioeconomic status (UBC, 2019). However, there is currently a concern that gym attire at UBC fitness facilities may be a barrier to cultural sensitivity. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to address the present gaps in dress codes at UBC Recreation facilities and evaluate how they could implement a dress code that encompasses intercultural inclusion.    4          One of the primary objectives of this project was to identify key components of dress codes that foster cultural sensitivity and interculturalism. To coincide with this objective, it was deemed essential to directly investigate community member experiences and concerns pertaining to dress codes at fitness facilities. The final objective of this project was to identify poorly informed aspects of dress codes that can reinforce cultural biases, in an effort to impede them from future dress codes. This project was a preliminary investigation for UBC Recreation’s dress code policy, which can provide a foundation to fully assess the effectiveness of dress codes in promoting interculturalism and inclusion within fitness facilities.          The project was developed for the course, ‘Interculturalism, Health, and Physical Activity’, taught by Bryna Kopelow and Jennifer Fenton, alongside teaching assistant Danni Zhang. The primary staff clientele for the project were Alyssa Reyes, the intramural events coordinator for UBC Athletics and Recreation, as well as Emily Jarvis, the coordinator of physical activity for UBC Athletics and Recreation. The contact person for this project was Jonathan Kew, the Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) project coordinator.  Background/ Literature Review As mentioned in the introduction, a current barrier that impedes UBC Recreation’s ability to deliver their mission statement is student and community member concerns regarding dress codes at UBC fitness facilities. Among different fitness facilities in the lower mainland, there is currently a large variety in dress code standards (UBCO Recreation, 2019; UBC Recreation, 2019). From an intercultural lens, poorly informed dress codes can reinforce cultural biases and introduce barriers to participants (Lopatka, 2018). Thus, the literature gathered in this paper will aid UBC Recreation in the development of a dress code that is truly inclusive and accessible. By    5 integrating research that investigates intercultural components, UBC fitness centres will become more welcoming and help address the issue of sedentary behaviour among community members. The first step when gathering literature was to look at the prevalence of dress codes across various post secondary institutions in British Columbia. After analyzing data from ten different schools, it was determined that six of the institutions had a dress code present in their fitness facility, while four of them did not (refer to Table 2, Appendix C) (BCIT, 2019; Douglas College, 2019; Langara College, 2019; Lopatka, 2018; Trinity Western University, 2019; UBCO Recreation, 2019; UBC Recreation, 2019; University of Fraser Valley, 2013; University of Victoria, 2019). Most notably, it was interesting that UBC Okanagan campus had a comprehensive dress code in place at their fitness facility, while the UBC Vancouver does not (UBCO Recreation, 2019; UBC Recreation, 2019). After analyzing different academic establishments, the next steps were to examine the use of dress codes in various private gyms. Many private gyms in the lower mainland are franchises; therefore their dress codes tend to vary from location to location (Gold’s Gym, 2019). As a result, facilities were contacted directly via phone call to gather data. Surprisingly, very few of the employees who were contacted knew what their facility’s dress code entailed. When an employee at a local Steve Nash Fitness World (personal communication, November 24, 2019) was asked about their dress code he replied with “I don’t know the dress code off by heart, is there something specific you want to wear?” Similarly, two local Club 16 employees (personal communication, November 24, 2019) responded by saying, “one second let me ask” and “uhh you can’t wear sandals.” These responses are a cause for concern, as it appears that employees are using their own situational beliefs to determine what patrons can and cannot wear. Additionally, the responses were very vague and none of the employees responded with any    6 certainty or conviction. This limited dress code knowledge is evidently not conducive to an intercultural environment. After assessing the prevalence of dress codes across various facilities in the lower mainland, case studies from two Canadian universities were examined. The first case study examined the school of Simon Fraser University (SFU) in Burnaby, British Columbia. Currently, SFU’s fitness facility dress code restricts crop tops, cut off shirts, tank tops that expose the nipple, sports bras, jeans and clothing with obscene language (Lopatka, 2018). SFU’s dress code was very clearly outlined and posted in many locations throughout the facility (Lopatka, 2018). Although implemented in an effective manner, student responses to the dress code were overwhelmingly negative (Lopatka, 2018). One student who was interviewed by Lopatka (2018) said “I don’t think they should be policing what we wear, I thought we left dress codes in high school” (What do SFU students think of the dress code section, para. 3). Another gym attendee questioned by Lopatka (2018) said “everyone is an adult and can decide to wear whatever makes them comfortable” (What do SFU students think of the dress code section, para. 2). From these statements, it appears that SFU students value individual autonomy and were opposed to the restrictions created by the dress code (Lopatka, 2018). The next case study focused on Western University located in London, Ontario. Western’s dress code is similar to SFU’s in implementation and has nearly identical guidelines (Fracassi, 2016). Instead of investigating student opinions, this article allowed Michelle Harvey, the fitness coordinator at Western, to provide her insights (Fracassi, 2016). She suggested that the dress code is beneficial based on a study that found dress codes help individuals with body image issues that often avoid the gym (Fracassi, 2016). Harvey also went on to explain that wearing full length shirts is a sanitation measure to prevent sweat from contacting the workout    7 machines (Fracassi, 2016). She was also quoted saying “people who work out in a sports bra and tiny little shorts are still going to workout if you make them do it in shorts a t-shirt. But people who have body image issues are less likely to come back to your facility if others have lower amounts of clothing on” (Fracassi, 2016). Contradictory to the SFU article, this article provides a different perspective that supports the intercultural benefits of a dress code. In the article “Gym dress codes create a problematic double standard” by Michaela Graf (2019), she highlights the potential double standard that women face when dress codes are inconsiderate of gender equality. Graf (2019) noticed a larger number of females being asked to leave the gym due to their attire, while her male friends rarely experienced any problems. She suggests that this makes her and her friends feel targeted by staff and creates a sense of anxiety that they will be publicly embarrassed (Graf, 2019). Graf (2019) also makes reference to a study that found 65% of women avoid the gym over fear of being judged, while only 36% of men felt the same way. As evident by this article, a lack of consideration for different genders diminishes the intercultural aspect of a dress code, which facilitates the exchange of values amongst others (Graf, 2019). In sum, this literature looks at the prevalence of dress codes and considers a diverse set of opinions regarding this issue. From the literature, it appears that some individuals value personal autonomy, while others believe it is important that all gym patrons feel comfortable (Lopatka, 2018; Fracassi, 2016). Additionally, the importance of gender equality cannot be overlooked when implementing and enforcing dress code rules (Graf, 2019). Methodology          The project began with a meeting with the SEEDS and UBC Recreation community partners. At this meeting, the purpose and objectives of the project were discussed.    8 Subsequently, the outline for the project and drafting potential dates to complete each component of the project were identified (Refer to Appendix A). Additionally, the project was narrowed to strictly focus on fitness facilities, rather than including aquatic centres as well. Finally, key literature sources were provided by the community partners that would be integrated in the literature review.          Following the first meeting, a literature search was conducted online using the keywords: dress codes, intercultural dress codes, interculturalism, inclusive dress codes, and gym dress codes. The literature review aimed to discover the gaps present in dress codes currently implemented in fitness facilities, barriers caused by the implementation of dress codes, and aspects of dress codes that foster inclusion and interculturalism.          Upon completion of the literature review, a second meeting with the SEEDS and UBC Recreation community partners was scheduled to update them on the progress of the project. At the meeting, the results of the literature review were discussed with the community partners. Subsequently, the information provided from the literature review was utilized to collaboratively design the theme of a survey that would be distributed to community members around the University of British Columbia. Finally, further dates were set for the completion of the survey and the final report.          The survey was created utilizing the Qualtrics software and focused on exploring the general public’s opinion to assist UBC Recreation and Athletics in developing a dress code that acknowledges intercultural accessibility and inclusion (Refer to Appendix B). Questions were designed to evaluate the overall success of dress codes in fostering a sense of inclusion and interculturalism within a physical activity environment. The survey asked participants for their demographic information, weekly physical activity levels, as well as potential benefits and    9 barriers to the implementation of dress codes in fitness facilities. Once complete, the survey was distributed over a 2-week period through social media, e-mail, text message, and word of mouth to individuals throughout the lower mainland. Upon receiving numerous responses following the 2-week period, the survey was locked. Subsequently, the survey data was analyzed and integrated with the information obtained from the literature review to develop recommendations and feedback for UBC Recreation and Athletics. The data was examined through thematic analysis, where the qualitative information was organized based on common themes that were presented in the results. Once all the information was gathered and categorized, a final presentation and report were produced. Results To start off, it was deemed necessary to obtain foundational knowledge about the participants who were completing the survey. There were a total of 77 participants in the survey where the majority (70%) fell between the age range of 20-24. There was an equal percentage of participants in the 25-34 and 35+ age ranges at 13%, while the smallest percentage of responses came from the 15-19 age range at 4% (refer to Appendix C, Figure 4). In terms of the ethnic diversity amongst the survey participants, the majority (59%) were Caucasian, while 25% were Asian, 1.25% were Indigenous, and 15.75% were of other ethnic backgrounds (refer to Appendix C, Table 3). To gain an understanding of the frequency of physical activity participation of the survey respondents, one of the preliminary questions was designed to reveal how often they participate in physical activity every week. This is an important statistic to measure to ensure that opinions were gathered from individuals who were both active and sedentary. By getting the opinions of both groups, this allowed the exploration of dress code barriers from two distinct perspectives. Based on the survey results, the majority of respondents participate in physical    10 activity 3 to 4 times per week (refer to Appendix C, Figure 5). Although few participants were completely sedentary, there was still a good spread across the board in activity levels.          The key findings that were obtained through the survey revealed that opinions were quite mixed throughout all respondents. To investigate the impact that dress codes have in influencing people’s decisions to attend a fitness facility, this question was posed: “Does a gym’s dress code play a role in your decision to attend a fitness facility?” The majority of respondents (67%) denied the significance of the role that a dress code plays in their decision. Many were indifferent, while only 12% of participants took into account the dress code when choosing a fitness facility to attend (Appendix C, Figure 1). Unfortunately, some facilities have dress codes in place that might be a bit too ambiguous, which can cause individuals to hesitate on attending certain fitness facilities. In the article “City gym clothing rules updated: 'What am I going to do, call ahead and ask?” written by Natasha Riebe (2017), she highlights the frustrations that one gym patron faced when she was asked to leave the gym because wearing a sports bra was not acceptable. This patron felt it was hard to make a decision about what to wear based on the all-too-general statements that her gym’s dress code policy made, such as “be mindful of the comfort of other users.” (Riebe, 2017).  Participants were then asked if clothing choices should be restricted at fitness facilities to ensure a more welcoming and comfortable environment. This question was posed to highlight one of the key aspects of an intercultural environment, which is that all individuals should feel welcome and comfortable to strive for their goals (Lee & Wong, 2016). This is important as participants need to feel safe and accepted to facilitate inclusion and intercultural learning. According to Kopelow and Fenton (2019), one of the components of an intercultural environment is understanding and respecting the diversity of all individuals. In terms of dress    11 codes, this can be seen as respecting both the parties that are in support of and against the implementation of dress codes. The majority of participants responded no to this question, demonstrating that they would rather have the autonomy to wear what they please at the potential risk of infringing upon the comfort and values of others (refer to Appendix C, Figure 2).  Despite most respondents being against restrictive dress code policies, over 70% of them agreed that they would comply with a dress code if one was implemented, while under 3% explicitly said they would not be willing to comply with a dress code to ensure the comfort of others (refer to Appendix C, Figure 3). In the article "4 things to consider before implementing a dress code policy” written by Krystle Orlando (2019), she suggests that those who are against dress codes generally feel this way because they feel that they inhibit freedom of expression or reinforce harmful ideas about class, gender, or sexual behavior. To further explore what specific items of clothing made some of the respondents uneasy, a number of clothing options were listed for participants to rate their comfort levels. The only clothing options that made the majority of participants (51%) uncomfortable was men not wearing shirts, while the other clothing options did not have significant results. Nonetheless, laced clothing and midriff exposed were the other two clothing options most commonly cited as making participants uncomfortable at 13% and 7%, respectively (refer to Appendix C, Table 1). Although this could imply that these clothing items should be restricted, some gym owners may take these results and create a gym dress code policy that is unintentionally biased to a particular gender, as was previously seen in Graf (2019).           After analyzing the quantitative data that was gathered from the results, the qualitative responses provided by participants were then investigated. This data showed a similar pattern as found in the literature regarding dress codes in fitness centres, as there were again two distinct perspectives. On one end of the spectrum, there were individuals who believed that dress codes    12 would support a more inclusive and welcoming environment. The most compelling of these statements was the following:  “I personally have seen the attire at the UBC facilities in the last few years become more minimalist and it often makes me uncomfortable. As a woman who is rather affluent when it comes to fitness and exercising, it discourages me from wanting to be in that space.”  In the article by Fracassi (2016), she displays the opinion of Michelle Harvey who also is in favour of a dress code. Harvey seems to feel that a dress code policy based on personal hygiene, health, and creating a welcoming environment is perfectly reasonable (Fracassi, 2016). At the other end of the spectrum, there were individuals who believed that dress codes restrict their self-expression and cultural identity. One of the quotes that stood out was the following: “Outside of proper shoes and clothing that won’t damage equipment, I think it’s encouraging that people are able to wear what they want, as it can help encourage personal wellbeing and confidence.”  This opinion is in congruence with the opinion of many other individuals who are against dress code implementation. According to Lopatka (2018), these individuals feel that being able to take your clothes off in the gym should be a personal right. From an intercultural perspective, this data was challenging to maneuver as it is necessary to protect the comfort of all fitness facility patrons. It must be acknowledged that people should be allowed to freely express themselves as clothing choices are a big part of an individual’s identity. However, this mindset may be difficult to implement for individuals who feel that their discomfort and safety is compromised as a result of this freedom of expression. At the core of this topic, a dress code that provides a conducive environment for patrons to feel    13 comfortable and facilitate social connections in order to foster interculturalism should always be kept in mind (Kopelow & Fenton, 2019).  Conclusions/Recommendations  After a cohesive review of the literature and results, several recommendations were established that can potentially help address the present gaps in dress codes at recreational facilities. The first recommendation is based on personal interactions with gym employees and management. The employees at Steve Nash and Club 16 (personal communication, November 24, 2019) located in the lower mainland, lacked the proper training and knowledge regarding dress code policies at their respective facilities. This should be considered to be unacceptable, as employees are the first point of contact for gym patrons and it is critical that they are well-versed and consistent in their facilities dress code. If employees are negligent to their company’s dress code policy, it can create a sense of ambiguity and frustration among patrons who do not know exactly what articles of clothing are permitted or prohibited (Riebe, 2017). Specifically for UBC Recreation, if staff are not well-versed in regards to the dress code, it will lead to a failure to comply with their goal of providing an inclusive physical activity environment (UBC, 2019). To ensure others feel comfortable and looked after, it is critical for employees to be knowledgeable of the dress code and for them to be gym ambassadors by following the dress codes themselves.          As previously mentioned by Graf (2019), she saw a larger number of females compared to men being asked to leave the gym because of what they were wearing, resulting in herself and her friends feeling targeted. Thus, the second recommendation developed is to ensure equality is attained when developing a dress code, and that all genders should be held to the same standard in regard to which body parts they can expose. For example, if one gender is not allowed to expose their nipples then another gender should not be allowed to either.    14 A concise and well-worded dress code is a must to ensure there is no confusion amongst those attending the facility. Therefore, if a dress code is to be developed, it must use very clear and specific language to reduce any uncertainty regarding what is allowed and what isn’t. For example, “Clothing that makes others uncomfortable, or is too revealing” is too vague. Similarly to the dress code at SFU, it should be provided in numerous formats such as posters around the gym and it should be accessible to all members and staff (Lopatka, 2018). Whether or not to implement a dress code is up to facility management. However, if a dress code is being implemented, a few clothing items should be considered as they were most commonly brought up as concerns by individuals who supported dress codes in our survey and in our literature review (Fracassi, 2016). From the survey results and literature, this included gym patrons not wearing shirts, men’s cut offs, exposed midriff, and laced clothing (Fracassi, 2016).          As mentioned by Michelle Harvey, wearing full-length shirts is a sanitation measure to prevent sweat from making contact with gym equipment (Fracassi, 2016). She also mentions that individuals who work out in a sports bra or “tiny little shorts” are likely to still workout if dress codes implied that they had to work out in a t-shirt and regular shorts (Fracassi, 2016). However, for those with body image issues, Michelle claims that they are less likely to come back to a facility if others have few articles of clothing on (Fracassi, 2016). From these statements, a final recommendation of promoting dress codes from a stance of health and hygiene should be made (Fracassi, 2016). It is suggested that an individual who is asked to comply with a dress code will be more willing to comply if it is for the sake of reducing the transmission of germs and bacteria (Fracassi, 2016). As evident in our results and literature review, some individuals take offense to dress codes that limit their autonomy to choose what they wear just for the sake of covering up,    15 therefore promoting it from a different stance could be beneficial to successful enforcement of the dress code (Lopatka, 2018).          The purpose of this project was to address and understand the present gaps in dress codes at recreation facilities. One of the ways this can be done is by developing a dress code that acknowledges intercultural accessibility and inclusion. The strengths of this report are that it encompasses responses from university aged students, meaning the results on dress codes can be applied to different university institutions. The report represents perspectives from both sides of the topic and highlights common barriers that are faced by the community. However, the generalizability of this report to the general public is limited as it primarily encompasses a younger age group. In order to make these results more transferable to the general population, further research should be conducted at community recreation centres across the lower mainland that have a wide variety of age groups attending. The results portrayed very few concerns regarding cultural and religious barriers to dress codes. However, it is possible that cultural and religious biases exist, which may affect individuals from attending recreational facilities. Thus, further research should be conducted regarding the impact that cultural and religious wear has on individuals at different facilities. A final limitation of this report would be the lack of specificity in the survey questions. The ability to question participants individually may have allowed for more detailed results and may have uncovered unique barriers that cannot be determined through a conventional survey. The topic of dress codes is evidently very sensitive and multifaceted as displayed by the case studies conducted at Western and SFU. The findings and recommendations represented in this report display the complex nature of this topic across the lower mainland.        16 References  BCIT. (2019). Policies and Procedures. Retrieved from https://www.bcit.ca/recreation/policiesandprocedure.shtml Capilano University. (2019). Weight Room. Retrieved from https://www.capilanou.ca/student-life/campus-community/athletics--recreation/weight-room/ Douglas College. (2019). Fitness Facilities. Retrieved from https://www.douglascollege.ca/student-life/get-healthy/fitness-facilities Fracassi, S. (2016, September 14). Western’s recreation dress policy sparks debate on campus. The Gazette. Retrieved from https://westerngazette.ca/news/western-s-recreation-dress-policy-sparks-debate-on-campus/article_43ae5be8-7abc-11e6-a327-87ff54bbac8b.html Gold’s Gym. (2019).The Opportunity. Retrieved from https://franchising.goldsgym.com/the-opportunity/ Graf, M. (2019, May 17). Gym dress codes create a problematic double standard. The Triangle. Retrieved from https://www.thetriangle.org/opinion/gym-dress-codes-create-a-problematic-double-standard/ Kopelow, B., & Fenton, J. (2019). Kin 465: Interculturalism, Health, and Physical Activity; Week 2 - Sept. 12 [Course Presentation]. Retrieved from https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/41914/files/5413341?module_item_id=1383545 Langara College. (2019). Gymnasium and Lockers. Retrieved from https://langara.ca/campus-facilities/gym-and-lockers/index.html Lee, D., & Wong, V. (2016). Activities for everyone, everywhere: An intercultural physical       activity guide. Vancouver, BC: RC INTERactive & JW Sporta. Lopatka, V. (2018, June 20). The current SFU gym dress code isn’t working. The Peak. Retrieved from https://the-peak.ca/2018/06/the-current-sfu-gym-dress-code-isnt-working/ Orlando, K. (2019, August 9). 4 things to consider before implementing a gym dress code policy. Tribe Method. Retrieved from https://medium.com/tribe-method/4-things-to-consider-    17 Before-implementing-a-gym-dress-code-policy-d7be7bced959 Riebe, N. (2017, January 11). City gym clothing rules updated: 'What am I going to do, call ahead and ask?'. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/city-gym-clothing-rules-updated-what-am-i- going-to-do-call-ahead-and-ask-1.3930276 Trinity Western University. (2019). Fitness Centre. Retrieved from https://www.twu.ca/school-human-kinetics/athletic-facilities/fitness-centre UBC. (2019). About UBC Athletics & Recreation. Retrieved from http://www.athleticsandrecreation.ubc.ca/about-ubc-athletics-recreation/ UBC Recreation. (2019). Fitness Centre and Fitness Classes Rules & Etiquette. Retrieved from https://recreation.ubc.ca/fitness-classes/fitness-centre-rules-etiquette/ UBCO Recreation. (2019). Hangar Dress Code Policy. Retrieved from https://recreation.ok.ubc.ca/campus-recreation/hangar-dress-code-policy/ University of Victoria. (2019). Dress Code Policy. Retrieved from https://vikesrec.ca/sports/2016/2/18/health_0218160143.aspx                      18 Appendix  Appendix A: Group Work Plan        19       20     Appendix B: Informing Intercultural Dress Codes Survey Questions  Introduction: The aim of this survey is investigate and analyze the present gaps regarding dress codes at UBC Recreation facilities. Currently, fitness facilities tend to vary greatly in their dress codes and poor dress code implementation can reinforce cultural biases. Thus, we seek to explore community member perceptions and opinions to help UBC Recreation develop a dress code that acknowledges intercultural accessibility and inclusion. Additionally, data collected from this survey will be used to help determine the best practices for implementation of a dress code at UBC fitness facilities. The primary investigators for this survey are KIN 465 students in    21 partnership with UBC Recreation and the SEEDS Sustainability program. To protect privacy, participant responses will be kept completely private and confidential. Completion of the survey should take between 5-10 minutes and upon finishing the survey students may include their e-mail address to be entered to win a $25 gift card to the UBC Bookstore. Should you have any questions or concerns regarding the survey please do not hesitate to contact Jonathan Kew who is the SEEDS Coordinator at SEEDS.coordinator@ubc.ca. We thank you in advance for your time and input  Demographic Questions: Q1. What is your age? o 15-19  o 20-24  o 25-29  o 30-34  o 35+   Q2. Are you a Canadian citizen? o Yes  o No    Q3. What ethnic background(s) do you identify with? The Canadian Census identifies the following categories in its Census of the Population. Please indicate how you self-identify. This self-identification is not intended as an indication of one’s place of origin, citizenship, language or culture and recognizes that there are differences both between and among subgroups of persons of colour. If you are of mixed-descent, please indicate this by selecting all that apply, rather than using the “other” line unless parts of your self-identification do not appear in this list.  Aboriginal peoples of Canada   Indigenous (outside of Canada)   Arab - optional specify:________________________________________________  Black - optional specify:________________________________________________  Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macau)  Filipino  Japanese     22  Korean   Latin, Central or South American (e.g. Brazilian, Chilean, Columbian, Mexican) - optional specify:  Southeast Asian (e.g. Cambodian, Indonesian, Laotian, Vietnamese, etc.) - optional specify:________________________________________________  Taiwanese  West Asian (e.g. Afghan, Iranian, Syrian, etc.) - optional specify: ________________________________________________  White - optional specify:________________________________________________  If none of the above, please specify ___________________________________________  Unsure  Prefer not to answer   Display This Question: If What ethnic background(s) do you identify with? The Canadian Census identifies the following categories... = Aboriginal peoples of Canada   Q4. Click to write the question text o First Nations (status or non-status)  o Métis o Inuit o Unsure  o Prefer not to answer    Q5. Do you identify with or adhere to a religious or spiritual tradition or community? o Yes  o No  o Unsure/Questioning o Prefer not to answer      23 Display This Question: If Do you identify with or adhere to a religious or spiritual tradition or community? = Yes   Q6. What religious or spiritual tradition or community do you identify with or adhere to? o Bahai  o Buddhist   o Christian   o Hindu   o Jewish   o Muslim   o Shinto  o Sikh   o Taoist   o Traditional (Aboriginal/Indigenous) Spirituality   o Wiccan   o Unsure/Questioning   o Other Religions (please specify:) ____________________________________________ o Prefer not to specify     Q7. What is your gender identity?  o Woman  o Non-binary o Man o Unsure/Questioning o Prefer not to answer   Q8. Are you someone with trans experience (meaning that your gender identity does not align with your sex assigned at birth)? o Yes o No o Prefer not to answer    24   Q9. Do you identify as:  o Heterosexual/Straight  o Gay/Lesbian  o Bisexual/Pansexual  o Asexual  o Queer  o Questioning/Unsure o If none of the above, please specify: ____________________________________________    Q10. Do you have any of the following disabilities or ongoing medical conditions that have affected your everyday functioning? o Physical disability   o Blind/Visually impaired  o Deaf/Hard of Hearing o Mental Health Condition  o Neurological (learning disability, ASD, Traumatic Brain Injury, ADHD, etc.)  o Chronic Health Condition (Crohn's, HIV, etc.)  o If none of the above, please specify: ___________________________________________ o I don't have a disability or ongoing medical condition o Prefer not to answer    Qualitative Questions:  Q11. How many days you exercise in the week? o None  o 1-2 times  o 3-4 times  o 5-6 times  o Daily        25  Q12. Have you ever exercised at a fitness facility? If so, were there dress codes present? o Yes and there were dress codes present  o Yes, but there were no dress codes present  o I have not attended a fitness facility   Display This Question: If Have you ever exercised at a fitness facility? If so, were there dress codes present? = Yes and there were dress codes present   Q13. Did you agree that it was important for the gym to have a dress code?  o Yes  o No    Display This Question: If Have you ever exercised at a fitness facility? If so, were there dress codes present? = Yes and there were dress codes present   Q14. How likely were participants to adhere to the dress code?  o Everyone followed the dress code o Only some individuals followed the dress code  o The dress code was not enforced at all    Display This Question: If Have you ever exercised at a fitness facility? If so, were there dress codes present? = Yes, but there were no dress codes present   Q15. Would you prefer that your gym has a dress code that may be restrictive, but ensures the comfort and safety of all participants?  o Yes  o No I would prefer to dress freely  o Indifferent       26 Display This Question: If Have you ever exercised at a fitness facility? If so, were there dress codes present? = I have not attended a fitness facility   Q16. If a gym had a dress code in place would you be more likely to attend a fitness facility?  o A lot more likely to attend  o Somewhat more likely attend  o Indifferent  o No I would not be more likely to attend    Q17. Does a gym's dress code play a role in your decision to attend a fitness facility? o Yes  o No  o Indifferent    Q18. Do you think individuals should be able to dress as they please at the gym? o Yes o No o Indifferent   Q19. Should clothing choices be restricted at fitness facilities to ensure a more welcoming and comfortable environment? o Yes o No    Q20. Do any of the following dress attires make you uncomfortable?   Extremely uncomfortable (1) Moderately uncomfortable (2) Neutral (3) Unaffected (4) Midriff exposed o   o   o   o      27 Tank tops/Cut offs o   o   o   o   Laced Clothing o   o   o   o   Skin-tight clothing o   o   o   o   Religious wear (Burqa, Hijab, Turban, etc.) o   o   o   o   Men not wearing shirts o   o   o   o      Q21. Do you think people wearing exposing clothing at the gym should be asked to change if it makes other participants uncomfortable? o Definitely yes  o Probably yes  o Might or might not  o Probably not  o Definitely not    Q22. If you attended a gym would you be willing to comply with a dress code to ensure everyone feels comfortable? o Yes  o Maybe  o No   Q23. Do you think a dress code at a gym interferes with peoples self expression? o Definitely yes o Probably yes      28 o Might or might not   o Probably not  o Definitely not     Q24. Do you believe a dress code would encourage inclusion and accessibility? o Definitely yes o Probably yes  o Might or might not  o Probably not  o Definitely not   Q26. Which of these elements of a dress code are most important to you? o Freedom to wear what you want  o Ability to perform athletically o Prioritizing the comfort of others o Safety of all participants    Q27. What would be the best way to inform facility members about a dress code? o Posters throughout the gym o In the signup contract to the facility o Through a video sent out to students and faculty o Other ________________________________________________   Q28. How large a role do the following variables play in your decision to attend fitness facilities? (0 = minimal influence, 100= a large role)              Time  Fear of judgement from others  Expenses  Comfort levels at fitness facilities     29 Other peoples gym attire    Open-Ended Questions:    Q29. Do you have any personal comments about the presence of dress codes at a fitness facility? ________________________________________________________________   Q30. Are there any certain pieces of fitness clothing that make you uncomfortable at the gym? ________________________________________________________________   Q46. If you would like to be entered to win a $25 UBC Bookstore gift card please fill in your e-mail address below. ________________________________________________________________   Appendix C: Tables and Figure  Table 1: Ratings of how Uncomfortable Respondents Felt about Various Clothing Items                30 Table 2: The Prevalence of Dress Codes at Various Post Secondary Institutions   Table 3: Various Ethnic Backgrounds of Participants     31  Figure 1: Participants Ratings of if a Dress Code Impacts Their Decision to Attend a Specific Fitness Facility (X axis: Total number of votes ; Y axis: Participants ratings)    Figure 2: Responses From Participants on if Clothing Choices Should be Restricted to Create a More Welcoming Environment at Fitness Facilities     32  Figure 3: If Participants Would Comply With a Dress Code To Ensure the Comfort of Other Gym Patrons (X axis: Total number of votes; Y axis: Participants willingness to comply)    Figure 4: Break down of the Ages of Survey Respondents (X axis: Age ; Y axis: Number of respondents)        33  Figure 5: How Often Participants Exercise Weekly (X axis: Total number of votes; Y Axis: How many times per week)    

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