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UBC Undergraduate Research

University Creative Placemaking : Insights from UBC Students He, Susie; Hart, Liam; Sayani, Daanish; Henderson, Rachel 2020-04-14

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         University Creative Placemaking: Insights from UBC Students Susie He, Liam Hart, Daanish Sayani, Rachel Henderson University of British Columbia Course: GEOG 371 Themes: Community, Buildings, Wellbeing Date: April 14, 2020       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.     University creative placemaking: insights from UBC students  University of British Columbia - Department of Geography  In Coordination with SEEDS Sustainability, UBC Arts & Culture District, and Campus & Community Planning Susie He, Liam Hart, Daanish Sayani & Rachel Henderson  GEOG 371 Themes: Creative Placemaking, Students, Arts and Culture April 14, 2020    Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their                studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should                bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore,                   readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you                     to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about                the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.    Executive Summary 2 Introduction 4 Problem Statement 4 Literature Review 5 Creative Placemaking 5 “Creative Cities” & the “Creative Economy” 6 Critiquing Creative Placemaking 7 Power, access, and social inequality 7 Actors and Positionality in Creative Placemaking 8 Creative Placemaking at the University 9 Methodology 10 Focus Groups and Sketch Mapping 11 Online Surveys 12 Coding and Analytical Procedures 13 Analysis 14 Focus Groups 14 Meanings and value of students arts and culture 14 Institutional and spatial interactions 17 Sketch Maps 20 Surveys 21 Research Significance & Implications 23 Scholarly 23 Recommendations for Action 24 Future Research Directions 27 References 29 Appendices 31  1  Executive Summary This report analyzes creative placemaking methods by investigating how students in           formal and informal campus arts and culture produce and perform creative space at UBC. This               research question was developed through a review of creative placemaking literature, and            discussions with our campus partners. Based on our review of the literature, we distilled three               major considerations that informed our methods. Firstly, we conceptualized creative          placemaking as the production and transformation of a “sense of place” through artistic and              cultural activity, rather than a specific strategy. Secondly, we determined the need for a critical               approach that considered how student arts and culture participants and their activities are             structured by contextual barriers. Finally, we recognized the need to understand which actors             were involved in student creative placemaking, and what their roles were.  To understand the experiences, attachments and narratives of students we used focus            groups, sketch mapping exercises and surveys as our methods. Our participant demographic            consisted of students who self-described as someone engaged with campus arts and culture,             often in the role of creators, organizers or facilitators. Participants were gathered through             purposive network sampling. During focus groups, students were asked questions about their            experiences with arts and culture on campus. Sketch mapping took place during the focus              groups. Participants were first asked to draw or brainstorm their own free map of arts and                culture at UBC , and then were asked to edit and draw on an official UBC map. Survey questions                   were operationalized based on focus groups, and were used to reach a larger group of               students. We used NVIVO to code and analyse qualitative data from the surveys, sketch maps,               and focus groups.  Our findings indicated that student arts and culture participants had frequent conflicts            with the norms of the university and its institutions, which they viewed as largely hostile to                grassroots arts and culture activities that were “not productive.” We described this            phenomenon as ​resistant placemaking​. We also found that the UBC Alma Mater Society (AMS)              was an especially important overseer of student arts and culture activity. However, our findings              2  also indicated participants’ relationships to institutions were fragmented, and that some           practices had more formal support than others, which indicated institutional priorities.  Based on the outcomes of our research we were able to share some recommendations.              These included (1) a need for greater long-term resource provision across the university (such              as priority housing for students in Bachelor of Fine Arts programs), (2) a need for greater                inter-organizational cooperation, (3) more flexible resources and spaces for grassroots          opportunities, (4) an increase in social media based promotion, and (5) better signage             surrounding the Arts and Culture District. Finally, we contemplated potential future directions for future research. This included           further opportunities for developing the methodology, the addition of evaluative research and            the consideration of comparisons UBC with other universities.         3  Introduction As of late, it seems that an increasing amount of attention has been directed towards               arts and culture. There has, for example, been an expanded interest in the ways artistic and                cultural activities can contribute to the aims of “prosperity... social wellbeing, public safety, and              stability” (Markusen and Nicodemus, 2019, p. 11). This has coincided with, and often been              entangled with, an increasing interest in the opportunities of the “creative economy.”            Strangely, however, there has been relatively little investigation into arts and culture activity on              universities. Our research report, produced in partnership with UBC Arts and Culture and the              SEEDs Sustainability program, aims to explore this lacuna. Specifically, we aim to investigate             some of the social and spatial dynamics of student cultural production at the University of               British Columbia through qualitative research. We have framed our research through a careful             and critical synthesis of relevant scholarship, and selected several notable points of inquiry.             Based on our analysis, we also distill a number of recommendations for institutional actors that               could benefit student arts and culture across the UBC campus. Problem Statement Much like other large research institutions, UBC has a fairly extensive arts and culture              apparatus, both academic (e.g. UBC Film and Theater, UBC School of Music, etc.) as well as                non-academic (e.g. the Belkin Gallery, the Chan Centre). The UBC Arts and Culture district              contains within it many of the university’s formal performance venues, many of its arts and               culture related department buildings, and most of its museums. Activities and practices            associated with the Arts and Culture District tend to be more professional and curated, and               often feature renowned local and international artists. These activities include theatre, opera,            and orchestral performances, as well as art exhibitions and film showings. The formal             designation of an Arts and Culture district - and the institutional arts and culture initiatives that                have followed it - have undoubtedly played an active role in “creative placemaking” on campus.  At the same time; however, two major considerations must be made when assessing             arts and culture and “creative placemaking” at universities in general and at UBC specifically.              4  First, institutional arts and culture apparatuses are inextricably tied to, and must be analyzed in               connection with, the other operations and functions of their universities. As well, cultural             production takes countless forms across the university that are often left out by conceptualizing              arts and culture or “creative placemaking” in purely formal, bureaucratic, or institutional terms.             There are many ways to proceed from these considerations, but we have decided to focus on                students as constitutive elements of the academy that bind together the           university-as-organization and the university-as-place. Consequently, our research question        asks how students within both formal and informal campus arts and culture (e.g. registered              student clubs, unregistered groups, campus residence plays) produce and perform creative           space on campus. Under this broader question, we ask what differential tensions and barriers              these students face in this process, and how they interact with the university’s placemaking              infrastructures (whether physical, organizational, or discursive).  Literature Review Creative Placemaking “Creative placemaking” is a somewhat murky concept that is largely discussed within            urban studies and planning scholarship. Markusen and Nicodemus (2019), elaborate on           “creative placemaking” as a new direction in cultural policy, tracing its formal adoption to the               US National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) in the late 2000s. They illustrate that this strategy                was, in many ways, a pushback against the defunding of the NEA and its programs in the 1990s.                  “Creative placemaking,” in this context, “encourage[d] arts organizations and artists to preserve            and enliven places by using their visual, musical, speech, writing, and acting skills for and in                conjunction with larger publics” (Markusen and Nicodemus, 2019, p. 11). In this context,             creative placemaking aims to incorporate grassroots arts and culture into community and            public-space planning. However, as Rich and Tsitsos (2016) point out, this definition still             remains relatively ‘fuzzy,’ and its vagueness has contributed to the popularity of creative             placemaking as a term among municipalities and stakeholders.  5  A more concrete, application-oriented discussion of creative placemaking can be found           in Richards and Duif’s (2018) book ​Small Cities with Big Dreams. ​The authors discuss creative               placemaking as a pathway to development for small cities. For such cities, they argue, creative               placemaking is a way to improve their “liveability,” and consequently garner attention and             investment. The authors emphasize, however, a distinction between creative placemaking and           “place marketing.” Creative placemaking, they state, goes beyond market processes and the            mere branding and selling of place; it transforms the materialities, social practices, and             meanings that constitute places. Following from this, the authors see “synergy between            top-down and bottom-up processes” as integral to creative placemaking (Richards and Duif,            2018, p. 15), and contend that an “attractive external image should be a by-product” of this                transformation (Richards and Duif, 2018, p. 16). Under this definition, arts and culture serve to               foster or transform a “sense of place.” “Creative Cities” & the “Creative Economy” However, Richards and Duif’s (2018) fairly innocuous and institutional characterization          of creative placemaking, along with their neat separation of market logics and social goals, is               rather problematic. As Markusen and Nicodemus (2019) point out, creative placemaking has            often been closely intertwined with political economy. Much of the initial advocacy for it              focused on “how arts spending generates income and jobs for states, localities, and the nation”               (Markusen and Nicodemus, 2019, p. 13). This is demonstrated by reports like the ‘U.S. Arts and                Cultural Production Satellite Account (1998-2016),’ which states that the economic impact           associated with arts and culture is growing. Per that report, the arts and culture ‘industry’               contributed 4.3% ($804.2 billion) of the US’ GDP in 2016, with consumers spending 32.7 billion               USD on entrance fees to performing arts events (NEA, 2019). As well, the early focus on arts                 organizations was closely tied to their ability to “rebuild neighborhoods and communities” in             the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis (Markusen and Nicodemus, 2019). Scholarship has also pointed out the close link between creative placemaking and the             idea - initially put forward by Richard Florida (see Florida, 2005) - of an emergent “creative                6  class” that is central to the growth of contemporary cities (Markusen and Nicodemus, 2019;              Rich and Tsitsos, 2016). Creative placemaking has been broadly invoked and utilized as a tool of                “creative cities” trying to attract the posited “creative class” and its accompanying economic             benefits. As Rich and Tsitsos (2016) point out, creative placemaking practices have been used              previously to “[apply] traditional economic development policies to cultural activity,” as well as             to brand places for collective consumption (Rich and Tsitsos, 2016, p. 740). Visibly then, aims of                social transformation and marketization are often closely intertwined in creative placemaking.  Yet, as Markusen and Nicodemus (2019, p. 12) point out, creative placemaking also             encompasses “decades of progressive community-culture-based placemaking” discourses, in        addition to everyday acts of cultural production. Consequently, rather than one practice,            creative placemaking should be broadly conceptualized as the production and transformation           of place through artistic practices. Furthermore, these practices can involve a range of actors              and interests beyond just large organizations, and so the relational specificities of place are              important. When we understand the links between creative placemaking and “creative city”           practices, much more scholarship becomes available, within both geographical and          interdisciplinary journals. Firstly, case studies on creative placemaking practices and “creative           city” initiatives shed light on some of their most visible forms. One widely discussed              manifestation of creative placemaking is the formation of arts and culture districts (Chapple,             Jackson & Martin, 2010; Rich and Tsitsos, 2016; Goldberg-Miller & Heimlich, 2017). Other             discussed forms include recurring cultural festivals or events (Mclean, 2014), and “tactical            urbanism,” which involves “small-scale, unsanctioned, community-led urban interventionist        activities” (Mould, 2014, p. 530). Critiquing Creative Placemaking  Power, access, and social inequality  Before assessing other thematic and theoretical concerns within these case studies,           however, it is important to discuss the broad materialist critiques they make of creative              7  placemaking and “creative city” initiatives, building on the previously mentioned fact that such             strategies have been closely intertwined with political economy and market interests. It has             been pointed out that creative placemaking initiatives have often been used to brand and sell               urban landscapes for consumption, and that appeals to “grassroots arts and culture” have been              part of this (Rich and Tsitsos, 2016; Catungal, Leslie & Hii, 2009). In most of these case studies,                  initiatives were carried out through public-private partnerships with developers or investment           groups. Consequently, appeals to “creative urbanism” and “liveability” have tended to           reproduce neoliberal and individualistic spatial logics centred around the sanitization of urban            space in order to attract capital. This has often worked to gentrify communities, resulting in the                exclusion and surveillance of poor and marginalized groups (McLean, 2014) and even            displacement (Rich and Tsitsos, 2016; Catungal, Leslie & Hii, 2009), paradoxically making            cultural production more difficult. Any discussion of creative placemaking must thus contend            with the questions that scholars raise around power, access, and social inequality. Actors and Positionality in Creative Placemaking  Beyond this, research also sheds lights on the diverse interactional processes through            which creative placemaking is realized, and on the actors typically involved in them. As              discussed by Chapple, Jackson & Martin (2010), cultural districts (and other forms of creative              placemaking) can be both formal and informal. Formal arts districts are those that are products               of public interventions, while informal ones take shape “organically”. However, the authors            show through case studies of Berkeley and Oakland that this binary hides more complex              realities and interdependencies between the formal and informal. Seemingly “unintentional”          cultural districts are, for example, often the product of “intentional coordination amongst local             social actors” (Chapple, Jackson & Martin, 2010, p. 226). Similarly, Mould (2014) complicates             the idea of “tactical urbanism” as “unsanctioned” placemaking practice, showing how it is             incorporated into contemporary planning regimes and differentially enabled by “formal”          institutions. This interplay of the “formal” and “informal” in creative placemaking becomes a             valuable point of analysis that we can use to frame our research.  8  Another notable tension within existing research is defining actors within creative           placemaking processes, particularly “creatives” or “artists” as a group. Goldberg-Miller &           Heimlich, (2017), drawing on Florida, conceptualize ‘supercreatives’ as the “class” who           “traditionally have been thought of as artists, such as painters, sculptors, dancers [and             beyond]” (p. 120). Furthermore, the scholars investigate the presumably close relationship           between supercreatives and creative placemaking as a “new class” (Goldberg-Miller &           Heimlich, 2017). Yet this is problematic. While creative placemaking implies within it the             participation of some “creatives,” “creatives” are not a monolithic group, and large positional             and class differences exist between people that can be called artists. For example, as McLean               (2017) highlights, even community artist groups have internally tense and varied relationships            to creative placemaking and branding initiatives, as some artists may be excluded by the same               programs that others artists benefit from. Furthermore, as Pratt (2010) points out, “creativity”             is extremely contingent, as “what may be creative in one place or time may not be creative in                  another context” (p. 19), which questions the validity of attempts to internally measure it as               Florida (2005) does. Artists’ differential relationships to and interests within creative           placemaking initiatives are thus another central consideration within our research, as are the             contextual meanings of arts and culture. Creative Placemaking at the University  Thus far, the literature discussed has largely studied and critiqued creative placemaking            and the spatial logics of “creative urbanism” within the context of cities. However, because our               research is within the context of a university, we also have to understand how universities are                connected to these phenomena. There have been some examples of creative placemaking            initiatives in university contexts. One of these is what Curtin University (in Perth, Australia) calls               ‘place activation’. This initiative attempts to increase involvement in arts and culture on             campus, by allowing students to submit what they would like to see through their website. The                website also outlines events and programs in the arts (Curtin University, n.d.).  Nonetheless, there is little research directly on the topic of universities and creative             placemaking, but scholarship has noted the ways universities are connected to previously            9  discussed trends in the “creative economy.” Even Richard Florida has emphasized “the            university’s role in the broader creation of talent” and in fueling the posited “creative class”               (2005, p. 153). Universities are closely implicated in the kinds of market processes discussed in               the literature. Over the last several decades, it has been pointed out, universities have broadly               oriented themselves towards markets, and have emphasized research and knowledge          production (particularly in STEM fields) as engines for economic growth (Berman, 2012). This, of              course, manifests differently from institution to institution, and should be seen as taking hold at               not only an organizational level, but also at the level of daily student life. Furthermore, as                already discussed, artistic and cultural production, which takes place across university           campuses, is embedded in these social-material contexts. However, despite some examples           and all the large-scale speculation about universities as “incubators” for talent and creativity,             there has been little investigation into how students actually engage in embodied cultural             production, and how they construct place through that production. This is precisely what our              research seeks to explore. Methodology Our discussion and critique of existing scholarship provided us with three foundational            ideas on which to design our research. Firstly, creative placemaking needs to be understood              and conceptualized in broader terms as the production and transformation of a “sense of              place” through artistic and cultural activity, rather than a specific strategy or set of practices.               Secondly, arts and culture are embedded in and mediated by various social-material contexts,             and any study of creative production and activity must consider how artists and their activities               are differentially impacted by these larger contexts. Finally, cultural production is the result of              complex interactions between “formal” and “informal” actors, and research in creative           placemaking must study the specificities of these actors and interactions rather than reifying             the simple division. In the context of the academy, students are valuable for this because they                embody both the university as an organization and as an interactional space.  10  Due to our need to understand the experiences, attachments and narratives students            embody and construct using arts and culture, we used multiple qualitative methods - including              focus groups, sketch mapping and surveys - triangulating our research. Our sampling frame was              limited to UBC students with existing connection(s) to UBC arts and culture. Specifically,             students with existing connections were determined by student affiliation with one or more             organizational or institutional affiliation to UBC arts and culture for one winter term or longer.               For example, students participating in or leading arts-based student groups or organizations,            students studying bachelor of fine arts, and so on. Using non-probability network sampling, we              purposefully sampled students’ with varied affiliations to UBC arts and culture to facilitate             diverse student perspectives and backgrounds. Due to our three month time constraints,            manpower constraints, and emergency public health restrictions, our sample size was limited to             38 students: we conducted three focus groups with a total of eleven students, and received 27                completed student surveys. Each participant was asked in some way to describe their             affiliation(s) to UBC arts and culture. This prefaces our research with a comprehensive and              succinct understanding of each student’s positionality in regards to UBC arts and culture.  Focus Groups and Sketch Mapping Using three focus groups of eleven students total, we explored the student experience             of arts and culture within the broader university, examining how students produce and perform              creative spaces. Specifically, we aimed to answer questions such as:  - What is arts and culture to students?  - What are students’ experiences of and involvement in arts and culture?  - What barriers exist to producing arts and culture at UBC for students? Ultimately, the focus group structure aimed to facilitate a structured yet organic conversation             (Clifford, French & Valentine, 2010). Furthermore, focus groups are useful for orienting            researchers to a new field (Clifford, French & Valentine, 2010). Given the lack of research on                student-based creative placemaking at universities and in the context of UBC, focus groups             could help establish preliminary understandings on the abovementioned. With these          11  considerations in mind, our focus group questions (see Appendix A) were intended as loose and               flexible guides that could be revised or improvised based on the circumstances. Participants’             informed consent for focus groups was recorded through consent forms which provided details             on research purposes and procedures. Using the same sampled groups, we conducted a sketch mapping exercise asking            students to draw maps describing their spatial experience of university arts and culture. These              sketch maps complemented the focus groups by illustrating the spatial dimensions,           concentrations and limitations of participant experience. This exercise addressed questions          such as:  - Where spatially is student experience tied?  - Where is student placemaking naturally happening? - Where can it be facilitated? The sketch map exercises took place during the focus group sessions, after the completion of               group discussions. Participants were given a sheet of paper that was blank on one side, and had                 an official map of UBC campus on the other side. They were asked to first draw a free map of                    their arts and culture activity on the blank side, and to then draw on top of the official map. In                    both cases, we told participants that they should draw without restrictions, so as to minimize               the imposition of spatial meanings or constructs on them. By asking students to draw out               where and what they think means arts and culture at UBC we aimed to develop a deeper                 understanding of the ‘place’ of arts and culture at UBC.  Online Surveys  Surveys (see Appendix C) were operationalized based on focus group data, and            functioned as a way of further measuring the variables and specific themes that had arisen in                focus group discussions. These consisted of some classificatory questions (which assessed, for            example, what a respondent's affiliation with arts and culture is), but largely focused on              behavioural or attitudinal data. As focus group participants consistently discussed the ​function            12  and ​motivations of arts and culture in student and campus life, as well as their ​institutional                interactions and support ​these were the primary focus of our questions.  We used a mix of open and closed format questions. Answer choices in closed format               questions were constructed based on the explicit ideas mentioned by students. For example, in              one question on student motivations for participating in arts and culture, we included             “Enjoyment,” “Social bonds,” “Building skills or experience,” “Creating social change,” “Benefits           for future goals or career,” as these encompassed the range of motivations discussed by focus               group participants. Nonetheless, in recognition that these may overlap or not be exhaustive, we              used matrix questions or enabled respondents to check more than one answer, and included              fill-in options on all closed ended questions. Open-ended questions, meanwhile, were coded            using the codes developed for focus group transcriptions. Surveys were developed online using UBC’s ​Qualtrics ​platform and were selectively           distributed through purposive network sampling. Samples were, once again, restricted to           students affiliated with arts and culture groups for a minimum period of one semester. Many               respondents were students who had been contacted about but were unable to attend focus              groups. Completion rates were a notable challenge, as more than ten students did not finish               the whole survey. Incomplete surveys had to be discarded, leaving us with 27 completed              responses. This relatively limited number of responses, along with our use of non-probability             sampling, limits our ability to make generalizable inferences. However, this is unconcerning as             our surveys were largely meant to supplement and apply the concepts developed in our focus               groups to a slightly larger group. Coding and Analytical Procedures Focus groups were the most central source of data, and served as the foundation for               other methods. Sketch map exercises built on the discussions that preceded them, and surveys              were operationalized on the basis of preliminary focus group analysis. Consequently, focus            group transcription and coding was the earliest step of data analysis, and provided the basic               codes through which surveys and sketch maps were analyzed as well.  13  Our coding was, of course, loosely informed by the themes discussed in the literature,              which had also shaped the questions that we asked participants. Nonetheless, our process             broadly resembled an exploratory ‘grounded theory’ approach, since codes and patterns were            continuously developed as transcripts were read. Our formal codebook (see Appendix D) largely             consisted of descriptive codes, while analytic themes were developed and constructed in notes             by looking at the overlap between different coding categories and comparing them with             concepts found in the literature. The larger themes that developed from these centred around              the value and meanings of student arts and culture, dynamics of participation, and the              relationship of both of these to university institutions and organizations. Analysis Focus Groups Meanings and value of students arts and culture Before discussing the meanings of student cultural production, it is important to note             that focus group participants acknowledged student arts and culture to be diverse. Students             acknowledged that there are different and fragmented meanings and motivations for           “creativity” across campus. This compliments the idea, as articulated by Pratt (2010), that             creativity can’t be seen as insular or having a “pure” form. Rather, creative practices are               situated and entangled with contextual motivations. The majority of participants, for example,            emphasized the value of arts and culture to forming ​communities and social bonds in the               context of a large research university. The following statement from one participant captured             this larger sentiment: When I came to UBC I found it really hard to meet people here... and I found that through arts                    and culture, and specifically music, so far it's been the only way that I've been able to make                  meaningful connections with people. Similarly, most participants also conceived of arts and culture as a means of ​enjoyment​, which               overlapped with the aims of friendship and community building. In one group, for example,              students consistently drew comparisons between arts and culture activities and parties, stating            14  that they “are both ways of having fun and letting loose,” and allow students to have a “healthy                  social culture on campus.” When discussing the high attendance and popularity of their own              club’s (UBC Improv) performances, one participant stated that it had to do with those              performances being an accessible and “safe environment” for students to laugh and drink, as              they did not necessarily need “a certain level of knowledge” to enjoy it. ​Many participants also                conceived of arts and culture as a form of qualitative ​personal fulfillment and expression​,              emphasizing that “there’s a lot of vulnerability in art, and being involved with the arts; there are                 a lot of emotions and a lot of people.” Under this reasoning, arts and culture participants were                 “in it to make something really beautiful.” In the context of the university, participants viewed these values and meanings of arts              and culture as broadly in conflict with UBC institutions and their understandings of arts and               culture. One dimension of this conflict was that participants saw their individual artistic             activities as opposed to their other student responsibilities. One group voiced this conflict as              such: P1: I find that, when I do music and arts and culture, they give me a bit of my life that isn't                      associated with academics. So it's a bit of an escape from the rest of my life. P2: Yeah I was going to say the exact same thing. Hip-hop is a real escape from all the academia                    that I face on a daily basis. While student arts and culture was discussed as an “escape” from the norms of the university,                it was also inversely seen as being ​restrained by them. When asked about the barriers to                student participation, participants in every session spoke personally about how a lack of             financial support and high academic expectations produced “exhaustion” or “apathy.” This           exhaustion was seen as a barrier to the mental and physical “presence” needed for artistic               activity. Students also related these individual conflicts to the broader dimension of            institutional culture. One participant stated: P3: We have this productivity mindset where people forget that art doesn't need to be               productive. You can go to enjoy things; it doesn't need to be you accomplishing something. But                15  that's all we know how to do right now. It's just, “well I'm here and I'm having fun, and that                    makes me feel terrible.” Participants also frequently gave examples of how “UBC...tries to market itself as a really              academic place,” and consistently agreed that the university does not fund or appreciate “art              [as much] as sports or other things, like engineering, medical school.” On a day-to-day basis,               they stated that this manifested in a largely “dead” campus culture and very few active or                pop-up arts events and spaces. At the same time, participants acknowledged that student arts and culture is also             practiced in different forms across campus, and that some of these forms are more              “professional” and “marketable.” Participants in one group explicitly discussed how many           students also saw arts activities as a way to demonstrate skills and “build resumes” in a highly                 competitive environment. Relatedly, in the same conversation, one participant voiced a desire            for different tiers of participation in arts activities, where there would be “a more professional               level and then one that's just for fun.” These discussions thus noted a contrast between the                unproductive/unprofessional and productive/professional meanings of student arts and culture         activities, while also associating the latter with inaccessibility. These more “professional” forms were also seen as more compliant with the            institution’s motivations and ideas regarding the value of arts and culture. For example,             participants expressed frustration at the way UBC had constructed large art installations            (specifically the tree shadow outside the Student Nest) by “outsourcing [them] to someone,”             instead of sponsoring student art projects. Similarly, when asked about their interactions with             the formal UBC Arts and Culture District and provided with pamphlets about it, participants in               all focus groups generally voiced a lack of identification with the district. To most, it lacked the                 “vibrance” of arts and culture spaces that came with grassroots social activity, and appeared              largely as a collection of venues. Some participants explicitly categorized the district and the              activities advertised by it (such as opera, theatre, and museums) as “professional” and             consequently saw them as inaccessible, even if they personally attended those events. These             were contrasted with first-year residence plays, which were described as accessible and            16  valuable for community building, as they had low barriers to entry. As participants noted, there               used to be three plays that were “consolidated into one” in 2019, which meant “not as many                 people [could] participate.” Participants contrasted these two types of events to indicate            institutional priorities. In the eyes of participants, UBC institutions understood the meaning and             value of arts and culture in a more professionalized and competitive capacity, and as a way to                 bolster the university’s image. Despite some support for student arts and culture that complied              with these aims, students broadly thought that “the school itself doesn’t do enough for arts and                culture... you really have to create it yourself.” This function of student arts and culture could                thus be described as ​resistant placemaking, since ​it was seen as taking place in opposition to                the social, cultural, and spatial norms of the university. Institutional and spatial interactions The conflicts that participants discussed around the meanings and value of arts and             culture also manifested in their described interactions with formal university offices.           Participants mostly discussed interactions with the UBC Alma Mater Society (AMS), suggesting            that student arts and culture is heavily concentrated under that organization. Firstly, every             group expressed intense frustration with the process of organizing arts and culture events and              gaining access to spaces. Several participants detailed the requirements they had to navigate.             These involved contacting a number of different people, acquiring various different permits            four to six weeks in advance, and, in many cases, hiring private security companies and AMS                catering. Participants emphasized that this was prohibitively expensive, and agreed that it            “discourages those who don't have as many resources.” Furthermore, participants consistently           agreed that access to institutional spaces and resources came with heavy restraints on their              activities, and required them to comply with strict behavioural codes. These ranged from             prohibitions on alcohol consumption, to restrictions on the content of paintings. For example,             one participant discussed how they were not allowed to serve a bannock platter during an art                exhibition with indigenous themes because the AMS could not provide it. Similarly, one             participant recounted that their group was almost barred from holding an outdoor acoustic             music event because of complaints from two faculty members, and had to “fight for it” to                17  proceed. Participants discussed these regulations as a way of maintaining the “brand…            landscape and… the visual identity of the campus.” Campus institutions were thus seen as              enforcing the spatial codes of the university as a productive and professional space. Per participant’s accounts, student arts and culture groups respond to these formal            barriers and constraints in various ways. First, as per some participants’ accounts, a number of               groups resist institutional incorporation. For example, one participant who was part of the             campus radio station, CITR, expressed relief at the fact that they “get [their] funding from               [their] annual fundraiser,” rather than a university organization. Another participant discussed           how her group, The Calendar, was unassociated with university organizations and worked only             with independent spaces on campus, which freed them from formal restrictions. However, she             also discussed that this decreased visibility, making the group more insular and less accessible              for many students. Additionally, participants discussed how the policies and logistical barriers            created by university organizations pushed student arts and culture groups towards hierarchy,            as there was a greater need for executive positions to take on responsibilities among otherwise               voluntary groups. This concentration of power was once more seen as creating competitiveness             and inaccessibility, as student groups “are supposed to be representing a diverse class of              people but… only have three or four voices.”  However, once more, it’s important to emphasize that student arts and culture groups’             relationships to university institutions were fragmented, and that these institutions do not            necessarily operate as a cohesive, intentional whole. Participants had varied positional           relationships to university organizations, which granted differential access to resources and           spaces. For example, one participant noted that she had been hired in a paid position by the                 UBC Arts and Culture District. This not only gave her support to pursue her activities, but, in                 combination with her position as a Theatre student, also granted her access to many of the                venues and spaces within the district that most others did not have access to. Similarly, one                participant who was part of the Visual Arts Students Association discussed getting resources             from his department as well as several other organizations like the Walter Gage Fund and Social                Justice Centre. The fragmentation and university organizations, resources, and arts spaces was            18  illustrated by the fact that most participants in all groups were unaware of or had little overlap                 with these different organizations and resources. Additionally, participants pointed out that not all arts and culture activities are handled             the same way by university organizations. For example, one participant explained that            organizing a landing spot for UBC’s Pride event was much easier than most of his other                interactions with the AMS. Similarly, another group agreed that the AMS devotes considerable             resources to “one-time events… like Block Party.” This illustrates once more how specific             events and forms of arts and culture are selectively enabled based on university organizations’              priorities. Nonetheless, participants broadly saw themselves as engaging in resistant          placemaking against formal university infrastructures when creating arts and culture events or            spaces.  19  Sketch Maps Figure 1: Student sketch map examples Sketch maps revealed the geographically placed narratives of UBC and Vancouver arts            and culture for UBC students, revealing their sense of geographically placed creative narratives             (See Fig 1 & Appendix F). The AMS Nest, and organizations within the Nest was one of the most                   cited locations to embody a creative place for students with fourteen references, evident in the               tree map below and Appendix E. Interestingly, although students did not cite the Arts and               Culture District, various venues within the District were frequently visualized. While this            enabled the Arts and Culture District to be visualized seventeen times, it also showed that               students lacked knowledge of and place identity with the Arts and Culture District. Specifically,              the Chan Centre was frequently referenced in maps. This may show that students had creative               attachments to the Arts and Culture District, even if they were not informed of the formal title                 of the District.  20   Figure 2: Treemap visualizing the nested hierarchy of locations where the size of each triangle represents the                 amount of coding references at each node. Other significant spaces visualized by students included “home,” the Life building, UBC            residences and various venues in Eastside Vancouver such as Red Gate Society and the Riot               Theatre. Conclusively, these maps acted to spatialize and visualize the oral anecdotes of arts              and culture discussed in the focus group.  Surveys Surveys both supported and complicated the understanding of student arts and culture            as predominantly a form of resistant placemaking. When respondents were asked in a matrix              question how important various motivations were to their individual arts and culture            participation, they responded as a whole with the following results:   21  Motivation Weighted score Enjoyment 52 Social bonds 40 Building skills or experience 39 Benefits for future goals or career 32 Creating social change 23 Table 1: Total weighted importance of various motivations for survey respondents. In their answers, respondents largely did seem to conceive of student arts and culture              especially as a means of enjoyment, community building, and personal development rather            than as a means of professional advancement. Yet it is also apparent that these motivations               were not necessarily mutually exclusive at an individual level, as individual participants could             simultaneously have various and intertwined reasons for participation. However, when asked           how their arts and culture activities fit in with their other student responsibilities, the majority               (18/27) of respondents implicitly or explicitly noted a conflict between the two. As well, when               asked what barriers exist to student arts and culture participation, the majority (17/27) of              respondents discussed concerns related to productivity and professional value. While the           inferences we can make from this data are limited, they are consistent with focus group               participants’ discussions of arts and culture activity as both an escape from the norms of the                university, and as hindered by it.  Surveys also provided some insight on institutional interactions. When asked which UBC            organizations or administrative bodies they interacted with for their arts and culture activities,             respondents gave the following results:  22  Organization Count AMS  12 Academic Faculties/Departments/Schools 9 UBC Arts and Culture Office 6 I do not interact with any UBC administrative bodies/offices 6 Residence Life 2 Campus and community planning 1 UBC Student Housing and community Services 1 Table 2: Total number of survey respondents’ that interacted with various university organizations for arts and                culture activities. While we once again can make limited inferences from this data, it is consistent with our focus                 groups in suggesting that student arts and culture participation takes place under a variety of               separate organizations, but that the AMS is an especially important overseer. Research Significance & Implications Scholarly As discussed in our review of the literature, existing scholarship has established the rise of arts                and culture and creative placemaking as means of achieving economic growth and            development (Markusen and Nicodemus, 2019). As well, it has also established the widespread             use of creative placemaking initiatives in the “creative economy” as a way of attracting human               and financial capital to urban spaces through the branding and marketing of urban landscapes              (Rich and Tsitsos, 2016; Catungal, Leslie & Hii, 2009). Coinciding with this, there has also been                speculation about the relationship of universities to the “creative economy,” as “creators of             talent” and human capital that fuel the posited “creative class” (Florida, 2005, p. 153).              23  Meanwhile, research has established the increasing orientation of universities toward market           aims, as engines for economic growth (Berman, 2012).  The results of our analysis provide preliminary insights into the micro- and meso-level             manifestations of these large processes at the university, while also problematizing these            concepts. Our research on student arts and culture participants at UBC supports the notion that               cultural and institutional norms at the university are oriented towards productivity and            professionalization. However, rather than fueling a uniform “creativity,” this cultural and           institutional context selectively enables specific forms of arts and culture while largely            discouraging forms that are “not necessarily productive” or marketable. In this context, the             latter are a form of ​resistant placemaking ​that tend to serve the purposes of grassroots               community building and enjoyment, in opposition to students’ academic responsibilities. This           highlights the vagueness and non-uniformity of “creative economy” processes, and the need, as             shown by Pratt (2010) and McLean (2014), to look at the contextually and positionally specific               consequences of these processes. The meanings and positions of arts and culture may similarly              vary even between different universities. Recommendations for Action Overall, students felt that the University did not recognize or emphasize arts and             culture, creating systemic barriers to participation for students. Students often compared the            University's prioritization of varsity athletics to fine arts, which was evidenced by who was              given priority access to campus housing: P4: BFA students should really have priority housing as well… do you know how scary it is…                 being in the theatre until 2am in the morning and then having to get home, do you know how                   scary that is? But if I [lived] near [the theatre]… some people have to transit for two hours. No                   one in the BFA program sleeps, that’s essentially what it is. The participant notes that the decisions of the University in priority housing access has              ramifications for the embodied safety and health of students on campus. Based on this, we               recommend that UBC Student Housing and Community Services should review their provision            24  of priority housing, and broaden such to include Bachelor of Fine Arts students, and perhaps,               other groups. This is one example of how the University can combat systematic barriers to               ensure that the University itself does not act as a hindrance to participation.  Furthermore, increased funding, resources and employment may act as platform-like          mechanisms to allow students to practice creative placemaking. Students emphasized grant           funding and equipment as effective platforms for student creative placemaking: P5: For funding, I know the Walter Gage Fund is a go to place for a lot of arts and culture on                      campus. It’s like Grant Writing 101. I know that our academic journal this year was funded by the                  Walter Gage Fund and I know that the Social Justice… Centre also allocates a lot of funding for                  events… that are socially engaged or activist in nature… my department [The Department of Art               History, Visual Arts and Theory], also gives student associations a lot of fundings as well. P2: I wish the AMS would help provide that [music] equipment for the outside, because… all they                 do is… use it for the inside… it really doesn't give us a lot to work with in terms of what kinds of                       events we can make and where we can operate… we have that [equipment] resource I just wish                 that it could be used outside. One student spoke specifically to the Arts and Culture District, citing paying artists and              reclaiming campus spaces for marginalized groups as effective practices to uplift student            creative placemaking: P4: [UBC Arts and Culture District is]... reclaim[ing] artistic spaces. Having students perform in the               Chan Centre, having performances for Women’s Day in the Life building.… They had this ‘Every               Kind of Love’ event recently which was just artists from around the Vancouver and campus               community all coming together… it was supposed to be more inclusive and it was performed in                the Telus Theatre and it was like yes, this is an artistic space that we are reclaiming for more                   inclusive purposes… it was incredible, things like that should happen more often… paying artists              was wonderful. Rather than focusing purely on top-down approaches to creative placemaking and large            investments in professional art, these insights suggest that the University should increase its             usage of low barrier mechanisms similar to those described to create platforms for grassroots,              student-driven creative activations. Evident in the mechanisms described by participants,          25  effective platforms are often well funded, low barrier, loose associations that do not come with               intense supervision or many restrictions. Because arts and culture activities and resources are             fragmented, inter-organizational cooperation could also be facilitated by providing coordinators          that can direct student groups through booking processes or guide them to the different              available resources that they may not be aware of. Throughout the focus groups, some              students were aware of a portion of resources on campus, while other students were aware of                others, and participants only learned about these resources from one another. Participants also voiced a need for effective communication through greater social           media engagement to market arts and culture events. Specifically, students recommended           greater Facebook presence: one student noted that ​“the events I go to are the ones Facebook                reminds me of.” ​Participants spoke to the importance of personal networks, expressing that             seeing or being invited by their friends on Facebook was a primary cause for event attendance.  Lastly, students articulated a lack of place identity in the District to distinguish it from               the rest of UBC, and an inability to see themselves within the District: P3: Nothing about this pamphlet that really speaks to me… the word that really comes to mind                 is... ‘bourgeoisie.’ Like just [go to the] Museum, go to the Opera, and go to the Theatre. P1: When I think of an arts and culture district I think much more vibrant… like Main Street in                   Vancouver… whereas the Arts and Culture District here seems kind of like it's just a few venues                 that are close to each other and there's not much of an actual identity. This was evident in sketch maps, where venues within the District were highly             visualized, but students were unaware of the existence of an Arts and Culture District. To create                place identity and enable students to reclaim and make visible in the Arts and Culture District,                students suggested using events and public space activations to capitalize on high value             (socially, visually, financially) spaces in the Arts and Culture District. One student compared Lee              Square to the Rose Garden, arguing the potential of the Rose Garden to be vibrant as Lee                 Square through event activation. Therefore, the university could empower students to use and             reclaim District spaces by piloting low-barrier public spaces for art and event activation.  26  Finally, increased visible signage marking out arts and culture spaces may establish the             existence of the Arts and Culture District for students, and ensure that arts and culture venues                are associated with the District by students. This is needed due to the lack of association of                 significant art and culture places cited by students - such as the Museum of Anthropology or                Chan Centre - with the Arts and Culture District. Future Research Directions Since creative placemaking is deeply rooted in human interactions and participation,           gaining participant knowledge was essential for our research. Due to time constraints and the              occurrence of COVID-19, some of our initial methodologies were not fully implemented. With             more time a number of steps would have been taken. Expanding on what we have done with                 the focus groups, they would be increased in size to our original goal of 11 people per focus                  group. This would be further enhanced by adding students that are not affiliated with arts and                culture at UBC in order to obtain ideas from more diverse backgrounds. Furthermore, tailoring              research to how Aboriginal students are included and excluded in arts and culture may facilitate               understanding of the tensions between creative placemaking, unceded territory, and UBC.           Furthermore, examining categories such as gender, ethnicity and sexuality may further reveal            the experiences and associations that, intersectional and marginalized, groups have with           creative placemaking on campus. Secondly, place-based interviews could be conducted, based           on the methods developed by Holton and Riley (2014) specifically for undergraduate students.             These would be tailored to individual interviewees, allowing them to pick specific sites that are               important to their arts and culture activities. These could be valuable for assessing how arts and                culture participants interact with and transform actual spaces during their activities. This would             help to further triangulate our research and allow us to view concepts from a different angle.                Place-based interviews would help further conceptualize students’ relations to spaces of arts            and culture on campus.  With regard to future research directions, evaluative research would be effective for            both analysing current creative placemaking strategies on campus but also testing methods            that were recommended to us by the students during focus groups. By observing and              27  participating in events that fall under ‘creative placemaking’ on campus we could examine the              concepts that had been discussed in the focus group prior. Taking this one step further, we                could use the ideas surrounding creative placemaking that students have shared in order to              create an event, examining how these ideas play out in the real world and allowing us to test                  the effectiveness of our recommendations. In terms of expanding the project further, there is potential for examining the university               campus against other university campuses. This idea was brought to light during the discussions              in the focus groups. Many students mentioned universities from their home cities in Canada              and pointed out arts and culture events which had been effective at those universities. Often               these examples were used as a critique of creative placemaking opportunities on the UBC              campus, pointing out that commonly ‘free spaces’ were not available for pop up events on               campus due to the requirements of booking outdoor space as well as noise complaints. Much               of this was linked by students to UBC working to cultivate an image of academic prowess in                 forfeit of campus culture. By studying the practices and successes of corresponding universities             through their arts and culture initiatives, we could argue for and implement a cultural shift in                the importance of Art and Culture for the university.   28  References Berman, E. P. (2012). ​Creating the market university​. Princeton Univ. Press. Catungal, J. P., Leslie, D., & Hii, Y. (2009). Geographies of Displacement in the Creative City: The                 Case of Liberty Village, Toronto. Urban Studies, 46​(5-6), 1095-1114. doi:          10.1177/0042098009103856 Chapple, K., Jackson, S., & Martin, A. J. (2010). Concentrating creativity: The planning of formal               and informal arts districts. City, Culture and Society, 1​(4), 225-234. ​doi:           10.1016/j.ccs.2011.01.007 Clifford, N., French, S., & Valentine, G. (Eds.). (2010). ​Key Methods in Geography (2nd ed.).               SAGE Publications. Curtin University. Our Projects: Place Activation. Retrieved from Florida, R. L. (2005). ​Cities and the creative class​. Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203997673 Goldberg-Miller, S. B. D., & Heimlich, J. E. (2017). Creatives' expectations: The role of              supercreatives in cultural district development. Cities, 62​, 120-130. ​doi:         10.1016/j.cities.2016.12.011 Holton, M., & Riley, M. (2014). Talking on the move: place-based interviewing with             undergraduate students. Area, 46(1), 59-65. https://10.1111/area.12070 Markusen, A., & Nicodemus, A. G. (2019). Creative placemaking: Reflections on a 21st-century             American arts policy initiative. ​Creative Placemaking (1st ed., pp. 9-27). Routledge. doi:            10.4324/9781315104607-2 McLean, H. (2014). Digging into the Creative City: A Feminist Critique. Antipode, 46​(3), 669-690.              doi: 10.1111/anti.12078 Mould, O. (2014). Tactical Urbanism: The New Vernacular of the Creative City. Geography             Compass, 8​(8), 529-539. doi: 10.1111/gec3.12146 29  NEA. (2019). ​The U.S. Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account (1998-2016)​.  Pratt, A. C. (2010). Creative cities: Tensions within and between social, cultural and economic              development: A critical reading of the UK experience. City, Culture and Society, 1​(1), 13-20.              doi: 10.1016/j.ccs.2010.04.001 Rich, M. A., & Tsitsos, W. (2016). Avoiding the ‘SoHo Effect’ in Baltimore: Neighborhood              Revitalization and Arts and Entertainment Districts. International Journal of Urban and           Regional Research, 40​(4), 736-756. doi: 10.1111/1468-2427.12376 Richards, G., & Duif, L. (2018). ​Small Cities with Big Dreams (1st ed.). Routledge. doi:               10.4324/9781351201193          30   Appendices Appendix A - Focus Group Questions - First a brief solo task. Please say your name, year, program, and your affiliation with arts                and culture? - What do you consider as being arts and culture? - What attracted you to partake in arts and culture on campus? - What role does it play in your life? Is this something you think you will carry                forward? - What is the relationship between your academic activities and arts and culture            activities? - What factors play into students partaking in such activities? - Who do you tend to see partaking in these activities? Are there any noticeable              differences between who you interact with within and outside of your creative            activities? - What role do you see yourself as playing in building this university as a space?  - Which university entities or offices do you interact with on a regular basis (e.g. the AMS,                UBC Arts and Culture, faculties and departments) for the purpose of creating or             engaging in art and culture? - How do they impact your arts and culture activity? - What resources do you need to engage with or partake in art and culture? - How do you get these resources? - What would you improve about those resources and what resources do you wish             you had? - What campus spaces are central to your artistic and cultural activities? - What is your relationship to the designated Arts and Culture district? - Are you content with the amount of art and culture you engage with/partake in? 31  - If not, what barriers do you see as students that limit your interactions?  32  Appendix B - Baseline Maps   33  Appendix C - Survey GEOG 371 - Student Arts and Culture Survey Start of Block: Consent Q1 This survey is being conducted as part of a research project for ​GEOG 371: Research Strategies in Human                   Geography​. The purpose of our study is to explore how students within both formal and informal campus arts and                   culture (e.g. registered student clubs, unregistered groups, campus residence plays) produce and perform creative              space on campus.  If you choose to proceed, your survey records will be kept private, and information shared within the research                  paper will be anonymized. We appreciate your contribution to our research project. o​ ​Proceed  (1) End of Block: Consent Start of Block: Relationship to Arts and Culture Q2 How do you participate/have you participated in Arts and Culture at UBC? Select all that apply. ▢ Member of AMS registered student club(s)  (1) ▢  Member of other student club(s)  (2) ▢ Degree program (e.g. School of Music, Visual Arts, etc.)  (3) ▢  Campus residence groups (e.g. residence plays)  (4) ▢ As an audience member or attendee at Arts and Culture events  (5) ▢ Other (please describe)  (6) ________________________________________________ End of Block: Relationship to Arts and Culture Start of Block: Motivations for participation Q3 To what extent is/was your participation in Arts & Culture at UBC motivated by each of the following:   Primarily (1) Somewhat (2) Not at all (3) Enjoyment (1) o  o  o  Social bonds (2) o  o  o  Building skills or   experience (3) o  o  o  34  Creating social change   (4) o  o  o  Benefits for future goals    or career (5) o  o  o  Other (please describe)   (6) o  o  o   End of Block: Motivations for participation Start of Block: Arts and Student Life Q4 How do/did your Arts and Culture activities fit in with your other responsibilities as a student? ________________________________________________________________ End of Block: Arts and Student Life Start of Block: Barriers to Participation Q5 What do you think are the primary barriers to student Arts and Culture participation? ________________________________________________________________ End of Block: Barriers to Participation Start of Block: Institutional Interactions Q6 In the process of your Arts and Culture activities, which UBC administrative bodies/offices do/did you interact                 with? ▢ AMS  (1) ▢  UBC Arts and Culture Office  (2) ▢ Academic Faculties/Departments/Schools  (4) ▢ Campus and community planning  (8) ▢ Other (please describe)  (5) ________________________________________________ ▢ I do not interact with any UBC administrative bodies/offices.  (6) Display This Question: If In the process of your Arts and Culture activities, which UBC administrative bodies/offices do/di... != I do not                   interact with any UBC administrative bodies/offices. Q7 What are your interactions with these bodies/offices like? How do/did they facilitate or hinder your Arts and                  Culture activity? ________________________________________________________________ 35  End of Block: Institutional Interactions Start of Block: Arts and Culture Spaces on Campus Q8 Which campus spaces do/did you interact with in your Arts and Culture activities? How do/did these spaces                  facilitate or hinder your activities? ________________________________________________________________ End of Block: Arts and Culture Spaces on Campus Start of Block: Arts and Culture District Q9 Have you heard of the UBC Arts and Culture District? o​ ​Yes  (1) o​ ​No  (2)  End of Block: Arts and Culture District        36  Appendix D - Focus Group Codebook Nodes Name Files References Accessibility, Barriers and Concerns 1 15 -Individual 2 8 -Structural-Cultural 3 36 -Structural-material 3 64 Interactions with/responses to institutional infrastructures 0 0 -Discursive 3 22 -Organizational 3 58 -Physical+spatial 3 33 Motivations (and thoughts on) 1 1 -Of students 1 3 --Community building and social bonds 3 55 --Enjoyment 3 19 --Learning and Self-fulfillment 3 14 --Productivity + Professional aspirations 3 21 -Of university institutions 3 30 Student position and participation 2 4 -Experience or skill 3 15 -Hierarchy 3 15 37  -Roles 3 21 Value of Arts and Culture 3 24             38  Appendix E - Sketch Maps Codebook Locations/Nodes Name Files References Bus 3 3 Friend's Homes 3 3 Home 5 5 UBC 11 76 AMS Nest 9 14 CiTR 2 2 Hatch Art Gallery 1 1 Pride Collective 1 1 The Gallery 1 1 The Pit 1 1 Arts and Culture District 8 17 Belkin Art Gallery 1 1 Buchanan 3 3 Chan Centre 5 6 Frederic Wood Theatre 3 3 Museum of Anthropology 2 2 Rose Garden 2 2 Audain Arts Centre 1 1 Binnings Studios 1 1 Bus Loop 1 1 Bus Loop Restaurants 2 3 Doug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Centre 1 1 Film Crews 1 1 Geography Students Association 1 1 Great Dane Cafe 1 1 Koerner's Pub 2 2 Lee Square 2 3 Knoll 1 1 39  Life Building 4 4 Main Mall 3 3 Martha Piper Fountain 2 2 Mercante 1 1 Nitobe Gardens 2 2 Residence 3 8 Orchard Commons 1 1 Ritsumeikan-UBC House 1 1 Totem Park 2 2 Vanier 1 1 Scarfe Building 1 1 Sprouts 2 2 Theatre-Film Production Building 1 1 Tim Hortons 1 1 UBC 350 1 1 Wreck Beach 1 1 Vancouver 7 18 Beach 1 1 Downtown 3 6 Davie Street 2 2 Pubs & Cafes 2 2 Eastside Vancouver 4 6 Chinatown & Eastside Art Galleries 1 1 Commercial Street 2 2 Fox Cabaret 1 1 Red Gate Arts Society 1 1 Rio Theatre 1 1 Granville Island 1 1 Queer Spaces & Parties 1 1 Stanley Industrial Alliance Stage 1 1 Gulf Islands 1 1 Internet 1 1 40  Appendix F - Sketch Maps Codebook      41   42 


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