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Urban Forest Inventory & Assessment Devisscher, Tahia; Nesbitt, Lorien 2019-05-31

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report Urban Forest Inventory & Assessment Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia UFOR 101 Themes: Biodiversity, Community, Land Date: May 31, 2019 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Urban Forest Inventory & Assessment Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment Executive Summary ............................................................... 1 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 1 ........................................................................................ 4 Inventory and Assessment Report ..................................................................................................................... 27 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 2 ..................................................................................... 45 Inventory Report ....................................................................................................................................................... 65 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 3 ..................................................................................... 79 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 115 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 4 ................................................................................... 134 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 149 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 5 ................................................................................... 161 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 177 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 6 ................................................................................... 191 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 216 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 7 ................................................................................... 234 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 251 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 8 ................................................................................... 265 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 290 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 9 ................................................................................... 308 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 327 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 10 ................................................................................. 341 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 360 Ecosystem Services Assessment Report: Group 11 ................................................................................. 374 Inventory Report .................................................................................................................................................... 394 2019 Dr Tahia Devisscher      Dr Lorien Nesbitt Faculty of Forestry      The University of British Columbia 5/31/2019 Urban Forest Inventory & Assessment 1URBAN FOREST INVENTORY AND ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment (UFOR 101) started from 1) the need to teach students about urban forest structure, composition, and distribution, and how these influence the ecosystem services and benefits urban forests provide, and 2) the need for a sound overview of biodiversity assets, including urban forest resources, on UBC campus. UFOR 101 was designed and implemented for the first time in 2019. It involved 61 first-year students in the Bachelor of Urban Forestry program (and one visiting student from Japan) and ran from January 2nd to April 3rd, 2019. The course introduced the students to a range of methods and tools for urban forest inventory and assessment. Moreover, it discussed how inventories and assessments are integrated into the planning and management of urban forests, with real implications for the urban forests on UBC campus. At the time of the course, UBC Campus & Community Planning (UBC C&CP) was developing the UBC Urban Forest Management Plan (UFMP). The work conducted by UFOR 101 students provided important information to support this process. In addition to UBC C&CP, other key stakeholders who contributed to UFOR 101 included UBC Information Technology and UBC Botanical Garden, whose horticulture students, under Egan Davis, contributed accompanying data on the understory. The collaboration was coordinated by the UBC SEEDS program with the intention to repeat this initiative on a yearly basis. During the first year, the work focused on a specific area of campus referred to as Phase 1 (see map below). In subsequent years, students will be working in different areas of campus until eventually urban forest inventory and assessment data will have been gathered for the entire UBC campus. The UFOR 101 course involved four modules, two major group assignments, and final group presentations of all the work. The first assignment comprised an ‘urban forest inventory’. For this assignment, students planned and implemented a basic urban tree inventory for a selected area of campus. They worked in small groups of five to six students. The final product of the assignment presents a comprehensive overview of the inventory data, analysis of the data, and the process used to collect it. All eleven inventory reports produced by the students are attached to this document.  The second assignment comprised an ‘ecosystem service assessment’. Working in the same groups, students assessed the ecosystem services provided by their selected urban forest area using the inventory data collected in the first assignment. They used different ecosystem services assessment tools and methods, including i-Tree Eco, i-Tree Canopy, and Value Mapping. Findings of the ecosystem services assessments were used to make recommendations for the UBC UFMP. The eleven reports of the ecosystem services assessment and planning recommendations are attached to this document. By the end of the course, the students were be able to: • Describe the importance and multiple uses of urban forest inventories and assessment• Discuss different approaches adopted for inventories and assessment• Use different tools to measure the tree and site parameters considered important in inventories and assessments• Carry out a basic tree inventory• Undertake assessments of the multiple ecosystem services provided by urban forests• Apply information from tree inventories and ecosystem service assessments in the urban forest management planning process at the University of British Columbia2The tree inventory data generated by students can be found at: https://github.com/UBCGeodata/opendataMap showing eleven student group zones distributed across the Phase 1 area allocated for UFOR 101 in 2019. UBC Campus view retrieved from ArcGIS online basemap for use in ArcMap 10.  3Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 1Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 1  and Planning RecommendationsGroup 1 April 3, 2019 Chelsea Cao, Elaine Hu, Charlotte Mathisen,  Ren Niikura, Michael Sandrin, Alina Ziyun Zeng University of British Columbia (UBC) 4Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 11 Work Distribution Member Section Possible Pts  Other Charlotte 1. Introduction 10.0 Layout Proofreading of everything describes​ the purpose​ of the ​ecosystem services assessment​, background​ on ecosystem services and ​typology​, and ​information on the policy context ​and ​urban forest planning and management process on campus​, drawing on material covered in class and relevant policy documents. 2. Site description 5.0 provides​ a description of the selected are​a of UBC campus assessed by your group. you can include information such as ​land use type, activities observed​ in the area, ​ types of facilities observed in the area, ​different users of the area ​, ​specific location (map)​, and ​photos of the area ​to show representative examples. This can be similar to the site description prepared for Assignment 1 (but not copy & paste; try rewording and paraphrasing) Alina 3. Regulating ecosystemservices3.1.1 Results of i-Tree Eco model 3.1.2 Methodology of i-Tree Eco model 3.2.1 Results of i-Tree Canopy model 3.2.2 Methodology of i-Tree Canopy model 3.3 Strength and weakness15.0 Layout References Appendices Editing Work distribution PPT making Describe the methods ​ used to assess and quantify ecosystem services using the i-Tree Canopy and i-Tree Eco models drawing on ​documentation for both models and material covered in class​. discuss​ the s​trengths and weaknesses​ of each method. Present the results​ of each model Elaine 3. Regulating ecosystemservices3.4 Similarities and differences 3.5 Interpretation of each model’s results 3.6 Regulating services and the outputs 3.6.1 purification of air and carbon sequestration 3.6.2 soil erosion prevention15.0 discuss​ the ​similarities and differences​ between the model results. Interpret the results of each model ​ and discuss ​how your zone provides the different ecosystem services in the output​. You may wish to ​use site photos or maps to illustrate your interpretation. 5Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 12 Ren 4. Culturalecosystem services4.1 Defining cultural ecosystem services 4.2.1 Value Mapping Approach Methodology 4.3 Visual Representation explanation  4.4 Strength and weakness of the value mapping approach  15.0 Helped editing section 4.2.2 Value Mapping  Overall proofreading Describe the methods ​ used to assess and quantify ecosystem services using the cultural ecosystem services value mapping process, ​drawing on activities and material covered in class. Discuss the ​strengths and weaknesses​ of the value mapping approach. Present the results of the mapping exercise,​ including your final map (in appendices). Chelsea 4. Culturalecosystem services4.2.2 Value Mapping Approach Result 15.0 I​nterpret the results of the value mapping ​ and discuss how your zone provides the different ecosystem services you identified and mapped. You may wish to use site photos to illustrate your interpretation. Michael 5. Urban forestplanning andmanagementrecommendations15.0 integrates the results and interpretation of ecosystem services provision ​outlined in sections 5 and 6 (regulating ecosystem services and cultural ecosystem services), and uses those results to ​make urban forest planning and management recommendations​ for your site. Make sure your recommendations ​are realistic​ and take into account the ​information you provided on the policy context and site description​ in earlier sections. 6Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 13 1. IntroductionThe University of British Columbia is not just a university but rather a welcoming, diverse, and aesthetically pleasing community where learning, biodiversity, and many more benefits take place. This report will explore these benefits, that are more formally known as ecosystem services, in the assessed area titled Zone 1. A map of Zone 1 is shown in Appendix II, figure 1. Ecosystem services can be described as the benefits that humans receive, either directly or indirectly, from the ecological processes that take place within an ecosystem (Ferrini, Konijnendijk van den Bosch, & Fini, 2017). There are four different categories of ecosystem services: cultural, regulating, provisioning, and supporting. However this report will only look at and explore two: regulating and cultural services.  1.1 Background Ecosystem services are looked at and measured because of the anthropocentric viewpoint that humans often have, meaning that they value the ecosystem because of the reasons the ecosystem benefits them. This type of viewpoint may not be accurate for all the humans, however many times holds true for the stakeholders that create and implement policies and plans for various ecosystems. This is why ecosystem services act as an important medium for communication between stakeholders, and helps urban foresters translate important issues and non-issues in order to get an ideal outcome. Furthermore, stakeholders and urban foresters use ecosystem services as incentives in planning and managing the urban forest and aim to increase them. As previously mentioned there are four different categories of ecosystem service, one being cultural. Cultural ecosystem services are non-material and often social benefits. These include the following values:  aesthetic, recreation and ecotourism, spiritual and religious, and mental and physical health. Cultural mapping is often used when measuring and valuing the cultural ecosystem services of an area because of the subjectiviness that these type of benefits have. Cultural services regularly get overlooked because of this, yet they are of great significance, and so it is always beneficial to get as much input as possible from the variety of users of an area. More on cultural mapping and the results of it from the assessment of Zone 1 will be discussed in the cultural ecosystem services section of this report.  Next are regulating services which can be described as “services related to maintaining earth’s life support system” (Ferrini et al., 2017,  p. 51). This includes the regulation of climate, air, water, pollination, erosion, diseases and pests, as well as the purification and treatment of water and moderation of extreme weather events. Many regulating services can be measured through the use of i-tree canopy and i-tree eco, which are the exact methods that were used in the assessment of Zone 1and will be described in more depth in the regulating ecosystem services section of the report.Provisioning ecosystem services are essentially the products that an ecosystem provides such as food, raw materials, medicinal resources, and freshwater. While UBC does provide some of these products, this assessment will not be exploring them because these type of ecosystem services are non-applicable in the purpose of this project.  Finally, Supporting ecosystem services are the services “necessary for the production of other ecosystem services” (Ferrini et al., 2017,  p. 52). They can be described as the processes that take place within an ecosystem and include nutrient cycling, photosynthesis, and soil formation. An inference can often be made of how efficient these services are when we measure and value regulating services. This is because regulating services are the by-products of supporting services, thus why we won’t be measuring them in the assessment of Zone 1.  7Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 14 1.2 Current Policy The university's current urban forest policy involves many gaps in the protection and management of campuses ecosystem services, as well as no clear plan or direction that the university wishes to implement in the handling and improvement of these services. Current policy documents include the UBC Vancouver Campus Plan: Design Guidelines, the Land Use Plan: Design Guidelines and the UBC Neighborhood Plans, Design Guidelines (Luker, 2019).  1.3 Purpose This assessment can be seen as a preliminary step, known as tree management and compensation, in a greater project that is being executed by UBC’s SEEDS Sustainability Program and UBC’s Campus and Community Planning (SEEDS Sustainability Program, 2019). This assessment took place in order to update an already existing tree inventory in the key campus areas of UBC’s urban forest. Updating this inventory involves measuring various characteristic such as tree ID, total height, DBH, and crown width, just to name a few. The current condition in which the urban forest is in can be assessed and from there ecosystem services can be examined. Different UBC departments which include Building Operations, Planning and Design, and Sustainability and Engineering may then use this type of examination for there own personal use, in the hopes that they will improve upon the current state of these services. As outlined by Luker (2019), planning analyst of UBC’s Campus and Community Planning, the future policy direction would include a biodiversity component of the new Green Building Action Plan and a Future Biodiversity Strategy.  2. Site Description Zone 1 is located on the north-west side of campus and is surrounded by West Mall, Crescent Rd, Main Mall, and the Music building. The land in Zone 1 is mainly institutional, however is also used for transportation and recreation.  There are three buildings contained within the zone: the Sing Tao Building, the Frederic Wood Theatre, and the Morris and  Helen Belkin Art Gallery. The Sing Tao Building was built in 1997 and is part of UBC’s Graduate School of Journalism (University of British Columbia [UBC], 2019c). It is located on the corner of Crescent Rd and West Mall, and is surrounded by medium sized trees, such as cherry blossoms, and shrubs.  The Frederic Wood Theatre is centered in the middle of Zone 1 and was constructed in 1963. It is named after the founder of UBC’s players' club, Frederic Wood ​and hosts a variety productions that are put on by the universities performing arts students ​(​Nothof, 2016)​. A wood beam facade wraps around the entrance of the building and it is surrounded by a courtyard.  The last building is the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery which is located on the corner of Main mall and Crescent Rd. It officially opened in 1995 and specializes in researching, publishing, educating, and exhibiting contemporary art and its history (UBC, 2019b). The outside of the building is contemporary in its design, which echoes the type of work and research that takes place within the building. This is showcased in its sleek use of lines and colour that make up the windows and walls of the building.  8Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 15 a) b)        c) Fig. 1: a) The Sing Tao building from the view of Crescent Rd (Mathisen, 2019); b) The front entrance of the Frederic Wood Theatre (Mathisen, 2019); c) The front entrance of the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery from the view of Main Mall (UBC, 2019)The concrete courtyard that is surrounded by trees is nestled between the gallery and the theatre. It is quite spacious which provides the users of the area lots of room to do various activities. The trees are mostly Black Pine, which are very tall and are in close proximity to the buildings. In the centre of the courtyard stands a large Oak tree which is surrounded by benches. Adjacent to the trees is the statue ​Asiatic Head ​by Otto Fischer-Credo that is positioned under the long covered walkway that cuts through the south-west side of the courtyard. The art piece is actually a replica made by Gerhard Class and it “f​eatures a large stylized head with Asian characteristics and has been variously interpreted as both a man and a woman” ​(UBC, 2019a, p. Otto Fischer-Credo, Asiatic Head). ​The statue itself and its placement is quite dramatic and reflects the artistic mood of the area. The area seems aged in comparison to the rest of the campus, and this is evident in the appearance of the buildings and the height of the trees. In addition to the Black Pine trees within the courtyard, there are four more placed within the roundabout by the large pay parking lot. They grow tall and lopsided, giving them a whimsical presence and adding a compelling feature to a somewhat bleak looking area. The large pay parking lot makes up a substantial amount of Zone 1 and can be classified under transportation land use. It is located on the lower left side of the zone and has a high amount of usage from students, faculty, and visitors.  At first glance, Zone 1 appears to be bleak and vacant, however the amount of trees along with their height give the area a sense of wilderness and serenity. In addition to that, while the area is an older part of campus, it still incorporates modern elements which help to portray the artistic aspects that take place within the walls of the buildings. Furthermore, it creates a welcoming space for users to conjugate and be creative.  a) b) c) Fig. 2: a) Asiatic Head by Otto Fischer-Credo (Mathisen, 2019); b) The Oak tree centered in the courtyard(Mathisen, 2019); c) The entrance to the pay parking lot (Mathisen, 2019) 9Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 16 3. Regulating ecosystem servicesThroughout Zone 1, 41 out of 42 trees measured have been analyzed using the i-Tree Eco model for an assessment of the vegetation’s estimated canopy cover, structure, value of the ecosystem services that the trees provide, and a few other attributes. Meanwhile, i-Tree Canopy, a model also developed by the U.S. Forest Service, was used to generate a cover assessment within Zone 1. In total, 150 points were classified as either ‘tree’ or ‘non-tree’. 3.1.1 Results of i-Tree Eco model Stated in the i-Tree Eco report, the most common tree species present in Zone 1 are the Austrian pine (​Pinus nigra​), English holly (​Ilex aquifolium​), and Japanese maple (​Acer palmatum​), which respectfully account for 19.5 percent, 12.2 percent, and 12.2 percent of the trees measured (Appendix I, Fig. 1). In the meantime, only 7 percent of the trees assessed are native to North America, while the majority originate from Europe & Asia (Appendix I, Fig. 2). Trees in Zone 1 are generally very mature in terms of basal and leaf area, and only 9.8 percent of trees have a diameter less than 6" (15.2 cm) (Appendix I, Fig.3). Urban Forest cover is approximately 25.88 thousand square feet, providing 2.375 acres of leaf area. Drawing on recent available weather and pollution data, the pollution removal by trees in Zone 1 was estimated, with ozone being the greatest pollution removed (Appendix I, Fig. 4). A total of 19.01 pounds of air pollution is removed annually, which includes ozone, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide, all which is roughly equal to an annual value of $1.25 thousand CAD (Appendix I, Fig. 4). About 9.152 pounds of volatile organic compounds are emitted by trees in Zone 1 per year, with 4.193 pounds of it being isoprene and 4.96 pounds being monoterpenes. Northern red oak, in particular, is the major emitter of this urban forest’s VOC, which enhances the formation of ozone. With an associated value of $55.8 CAD per year, carbon sequestration of trees in Zone 1 is estimated to be around 1071 pounds annually (Appendix I, Fig. 5). An estimation of 1.428 tons of oxygen is produced by trees in this area every year, which barely makes a difference due to the vast amount of existing oxygen in the atmosphere. Again, Northern red oak is accountable for producing the most oxygen due to its high accumulation of biomass (Appendix I, Table 1). In terms of surface runoff reducing, the trees and shrubs in this area reduce about 1.61 thousand cubic feet a year, contributing to a value equal to $110 CAD (Appendix I, Fig. 6). The structural value associated with the trees is $139 CAD and the functional values have been discussed above (Appendix I, Fig. 7). 3.1.2 Methodology of i-Tree Eco model i-Tree Eco quantifies urban forest structure and a variety of functional values therein usingstandardized field data and local hourly air pollution and meteorological data (Nowak & Crane, 2000). Using measurements of crown dimensions and percentage of crown canopy missing, leaf area of trees is estimated by i-Tree Eco model. Based on “a hybrid of big-leaf and multi-layer canopy deposition models”, air pollution removal estimates are “derived from calculated hourly tree-canopy resistances for ozone, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxides” (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p. 21). Values associated with air pollution removal is calculated based on “local incidence of adverse health effects and national median externality costs” (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p. 22). For this assessment in particular, pollution removal value is calculated based on “the prices of $1,348 CAN per ton (carbon monoxide), $95 CAN per ton (ozone), $13 CAN per ton (nitrogen dioxide), $5 CAN per ton (sulfur dioxide), [and] $3,408 CAN per ton (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns)” (i-Tree Eco, 2019, p. 22). 10Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 17 To estimate the gross sequestration and storage of carbon, customized local carbon values are used. Average diameter growth from the associated genus and class is added to the recently measured tree diameter for the gross amount of carbon storage and sequestration in the following year. For this assessment, values of carbon sequestration and storage are calculated based on $104 CAN per ton (i-Tree Eco, 2019). According to Nowak et al., the amount of oxygen produced by the urban forest is estimated from the amount of carbon sequestered based on atomic weights (2007). At the same time, annual avoided runoff is estimated based on the difference between runoff in the absence and presence of vegetation (i-Tree Eco, 2019). Meanwhile, structural values are directly reflected in the physical well-being of the trees (species, diameter, condition, etc.). 3.2.1 Results of i-Tree Canopy model Out of 150 points sampled, 62 of them were identified as tree, and the other 88 were non-tree. Two of the urban forest’s functions with the most economic value are annual carbon dioxide sequestration in trees ($260.70 CAD) and the annual removal of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns ($275.09 CAD), but they both have high standard errors, making the estimates lack certainty. Annual removal of ozone is estimated to be 17.65 kg and is associated with a value of $95.92 CAD, while about 5.53 kg particulate matters ranging from 2.5 to 10 microns are removed annually. All other functions have relatively small standard errors, and the estimations can be seen in the following chart (i-Tree Eco, 2019).  3.2.2 Methodology of i-Tree Canopy model i-Tree Canopy allows users to classify cover classes within an area of interest. David J.Nowak, Jeffrey T. Walton, and Eric J. Greenfield, representing USDA Forest Service, developed the concept and prototype of the tool, while the current version was developed by David Ellingsworth, Mike Binkley, and Scott Maco (The Davey Tree Expert Company) (i-Tree Canopy, 2011).To run i-Tree Canopy program, a specific boundary of the area in question needs to be defined. In this assessment in particular, tree cover is the only interest. Once the cover classes are named, i-Tree Canopy randomly lays points onto the satellite imagery of the defined zone and the users are then able to classify each point into the class that they fall upon. To maximize the accuracy, as many points as possible should be interpreted. 11Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 18 3.3 Strength and weakness In general, i-Tree Eco is a great program because once you get your inventory done, all you need to do is tabulate the data and import it into the tool, and a report will be generated for you. There is also further information provided within the report including general recommendations, relative tree effect, potential risks and so forth, making the users more familiar with both the tool and the ecosystem services assessed. Also, graphs and charts are automatically generated by this tool, which helps present the results in a clear and straightforward way. Another strength is that i-Tree Eco helps monetize the services so that they are quantified and given value, which makes the creation of projects and negotiations between stakeholders easier. i-Tree Eco, however, does not come without flaws. The software itself is easy to use, but the font point is too small, so that there is an increased risk of misreading and selecting the wrong option. i-Tree Eco is also limited to the United States, so data for other regions is not yet available. Another thing worth pointing out is that most of the time, to minimize errors in percent canopy cover, field data should be collected during the leaf-on season. However, this inventory violated this rule and therefore the standard error in estimated canopy area would be large, and i-Tree Eco cannot, by itself, recognize such error. i-Tree Canopy gives a decent overall estimation of the cover classes present in a defined area.In contrast to i-Tree Eco, it takes less time because no field work is needed. This attribute makes i-Tree Canopy a better choice when there is not enough time for an inventory to be conducted. Butwhen higher accuracy is what matters most, i-Tree Eco should be used. One of i-Tree Canopy’sdownsides is that the accuracy depends a lot on how correctly the user classifies each point. Theprogram lacks high image resolution, and so sometimes it is difficult to interpret cover classes ofpoints with poor image quality. Also, when too few points are classified, the standard error would behigh, making the estimates lack certainty. Constantly repeating the same step just to look at morepoints could be a tiring process.3.4 Similarities and differences i-Tree Eco (Eco) and i-Tree Canopy (Canopy) have similar focuses. These focuses include theestimation of economic value and amount of air pollution removal of CO, O_3, 〖NO〗_2, PM 2.5 and 〖SO〗_2​, ​also carbon removal and sequestration in both models. Results of both methods are shown in the same unit which is Canadian dollar per year for economic value and tons of gas removed per year for the amount. In addition, the estimated results are quite similar in the general directions of trends. For example, in both results report, two models both pointed out that the largest amount of air pollution removal is taken place by O_3 removal and it provides a significant part of the economic benefits. Also, they both agree with that there is not much amount of CO, 〖NO〗_2, and 〖SO〗_2 removed by the trees in zone 1. In addition, the fact that the storage of carbon is much greater than the sequestration of carbon is also emphasized in both results.  Generally, the differences between these two results include the different forms they use to show the result and the accuracy of the estimation.​ ​Literally, one of the differences between the results of the two methods is that the pollutants PM10 removal which appears and accounts for a large proportion in overall pollution removal in Canopy, however, Eco does not have that part of estimated for PM10. Meanwhile, the overall amount of air pollution removal for Canopy is slightly higher than Eco, but the total economic value of that is much lower than Eco. Differences in carbon storage and sequestration between these two methods have totally opposite result from air pollution removal. In terms of form they present the result, Canopy only has one overall value and amount of carbon storage and sequestration while Eco have all the data list out for different tree species. In terms of numerical 12Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 19 results, Canopy has much higher estimated economic value and amount of carbon in both carbon storage and sequestration than Eco. For carbon sequestration, the overall value of Eco result is approximately $46.7/yr and 0.54t (~1088lb) of carbon, while Canopy has a total value of $260.7/yr and 3.87t of carbon get sequestered. For carbon storage, Eco result in Zone 1 provide a value of $1870/yr and store 16.3t of 〖CO〗_2 , and Canopy shows overall $6547.17/yr of total value provide by Zone 1 and 97.11t carbon storage. 3.5 Interpretation of each model’s results The results of Eco are often presented in the form of graphs, showcasing different aspects of information.  Besides the value and amount of pollutants removal and carbon storage/sequestration, Eco also shows the contribution of trees in Zone 1 to the avoidance of runoff and oxygen production. Most of these results are given in the form of detailed value for each important kind. All these detailed and wide range result benefit from plenty of data input from tree inventories. In addition, this report would consider being a more helpful one for stakeholders or researchers because it is evaluated based on local criteria and make it easier to reference for future actions. On the other hand, Canopy has a relatively more general result than Eco, since Canopy estimating the vegetation coverage from randomly assigned points on the map and give the estimated value of pollutants removal and carbon storage and sequestration based on that. In this way, Canopy has more limitations than Eco while the precision of the results depends on the number of points users put, also the sharpness and accuracy of the map will affect the result as well. However, these two models still have the same focus as well as similar trends in the results and that means the factors lead to these trends is not about tree size or crown size and it is an overall estimate based on the scientific facts. For example, they have the same trends of carbon storage have a larger amount and value than carbon sequestration. Since carbon storage is the amount of carbon bound in the wood while sequestration is about the removal of carbon in the form of CO2 by photosynthesis of the plants, which in another word the long-term carbon storage. Therefore, carbon sequestration takes more time than just store the carbon, so the total amount of carbon is less than storage and further have a lower value than carbon storage per year. Examples like this one which are the trends that is a general result caused by other factors other than tree species or specific tree size may give a similar answer in both two models. 3.6 Regulating services and the outputs Benefited by the relatively high tree coverage than other urban areas, Zone 1 on campus provide various regulating services. Regulating services that provided by the trees in Zone 1 include purification of air also carbon storage and sequestration, preventing soil erosion and keep the soil fertile as well. 3.6.1 purification of air and carbon sequestration One of the most outstanding regulating services is trees improve the local air quality, therefore air pollutant removal is a common content focused by most of data analysis models and these models reports clearly show the value of removing each pollutant. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone are two main air pollutant that affects human health by reducing air concentration (Smith et al., 2011). Luckily, these two types of air pollutants are the two most significant pollutants removed by the trees in Zone 1. Since Zone 1 has two sides of the overall area that are adjacent to the driveway or parking lot which are the areas where air pollutant mainly comes from, trees planted beside these areas can effectively purify the surrounding air.  Another important source of air pollution from 13Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 110 automobile exhaust is carbon dioxide. However, benefit by regulating services of carbon storage and sequestration provided by local vegetation, part of the amount of carbon dioxide get stored in trees or removed by trees in the long term.​ ​Beside air pollutants removal and carbon sequestration, to purify the air plants are also providing oxygen to the region through photosynthesis. 3.6.2 soil erosion prevention Soil erosion is a key factor of land desertification, vegetation cover plays a vital role in preventing soil erosion (Guerra et al., 2014). The decrease of nutrient content in soil and the imbalance of nutrients will lead to soil erosion (Morgan, 2009). Vegetation is an essential condition for the complete nutrient cycle in the soil by adding organic matters and decomposition into plant-available form then uptake by the plants. According to the analysis results, although the vegetation coverage (41%) is less than half of the total area, this number is still quite high for an urban zone while average urban vegetation coverage is only 27.1% (Nowak & Crane, 2002). In addition, preventing soil erosion is an important condition for maintaining soil fertility and this is another significant regulating services that Zone 1 offers. 4. Cultural ecosystem services Analysis4.1 Defining cultural ecosystem servicesCultural ecosystem services are defined as the “non-material benefits people obtain from             ecosystems”, and it is one of the fourth pillars of the ecosystem services approach (Bolund, 1999) .                 The cultural services provided by the ecosystem can range from aesthetics, cultural significance,             spiritual experience, recreational and mental and physical health and on, all in which the amount of                benefit cannot easily be quantifiable (Bolund, 1999). Thus, the cultural ecosystem services are highly              dependent on an individual’s cultural assessment and considered to be highly subjective. This section              of the report will focus on the cultural services provided by our designated area; Zone 1, as well as the                    methods taken in order to quantify the various cultural ecosystem services provided by the zone. Unlike the other three other ecosystem services, cultural services are an example of             non-consumptive and direct use values, meaning the services provided by the environment cannot be              easily represented by monetary values or other forms. Quantifying benefits such as aesthetics are              extremely difficult, as different individuals will have a different perception of the zone. For example,               one may believe that a colorful artwork in the middle of the courtyard gives a unique contrast in color,                   thus sees the area as aesthetically pleasing. Although, another person may believe that the colorful               artwork is too busy for such location, therefore feels that the artwork shouldn’t belong there. The two                 contrasting opinions are the result of the difference in opinion depending on the individuals, and that                is the beauty of cultural ecosystem services, as there are no right or wrong answers.  4.2.1 Value Mapping Approach Methodology One approach towards quantifying the cultural ecosystem services provided by our zone was             through a method called the value mapping approach. It is essentially a series of surveys, which                transform one’s opinion into a numerical value. Zone 1 was divided into 8 distinct sub-zones A to H,                  where each would have its own unique characteristics. Through visiting each of the sub-zones, the               members have individually assessed five basic cultural ecosystem services ranging from diversity and             species richness, aesthetics, social cohesion, wilderness, and cultural significance. Then each of the             five cultural ecosystem services was graded using the scale 0-5, with 0 being “no feeling” and 5 being                  14Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 111 “very strong feeling”. This process was repeated on all 8 subzones, which as a result produced an                 “experience dimensions table”, with our individual perception towards our zone in a numerical             value(Appendix III, Table. 1). Apart from all of the numerical values that have been collected at the                 site, each members have also carefully observed some key features of the sub-zones, which was later                used in the following steps of the value mapping approach.  4.2.2 Value Mapping Approach Result Zone 1, where the group conducted the mapping approach is situated in the North-West side               of the campus, covering parts of West Mall, Crescent Road, Main Mall, and the Music building. In                 this zone, the buildings include the Sing Tao Building, which is at the left top corner of Zone 1, and it                     is part of UBC’s Graduate School of Journalism. Frederic Wood Theatre is at the center of the zone,                  which is often used for various performances. Lastly, Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery is situated                at the right lower corner of the zone. Other observable facilities within the zone include cul-de-sac,                parking lot, and a spacious courtyard. It is also important to understand that the buildings in this zone                  seem to offer some form of artistic, cultural services. Thus, depending on the group members’               perception, the assessment will highly differ.  Throughout the process of value mapping, our group has repeated the process of visiting 8               different subzones, and grading each cultural services on the scales of 0 to 5, with 0 being “no                  feeling”, and 5 being “very strong feeling”. After all the individuals have conducted their own               assessment of each sub-zones, all of the data were collected to be analyzed and visualized. One way to                  represent the overall assessment of the sub-zone was through creating a table with the sum of each                 members’ assessment of the subzone depending on different cultural zones (Appendix III, Table. 1).              Consequently, from the results, it was evident that the sub-zones D and E ranked lowest amongst the                 8 sub-zones, while the remaining 6 sub-zones ranked relatively better than sub-zones D and E. The                reason for these differences may be due to factors such as proper pavements for walking/biking,               existence of the art gallery, which celebrated cultural significance, benches being installed where             people can sit, as well as a spacious opening, which could allow more developments. Other positive                observations include cultural art forms in the theater as well as grassy areas and large trees, which                 enhanced a distinct aesthetic. On the other hand, the sub-zones that ranked low had significantly less                green space compared to the other areas, which may be a result of the poor location, with no space for                    green development. A road located adjacent to the sub-zone left a negative impact on our members                since safety and noise was a huge issue that arose from the two sub-zones. Sub-zone A was by far the highest scoring sectors within the zone, situated with the Morris                and Hellen Art Gallery. This sub-zone has received relatively a high score on all cultural ecosystem                services, except for wilderness (Appendix III, Table. 1). This was due to the relevance to arts hence                 fitting the aesthetics, social cohesion and cultural significance dimensions. The facility is well             developed and maintained, thus the green space was also excelling, as the species composition was               higher than other sub-zones. Sub-zone C was Frederic Wood Theatre and its high ratings are sourced                from aesthetics, social cohesion, and cultural significance aspect of the cultural ecosystem service             (Appendix III, Table. 1). This result was predicted, considering that the area was designed to have an                 artistic aspect. Sub-zones F was UBC’s Graduate School of Journalism, and it contained the Sing Tao                Building. This sub-zone had a high rating on social cohesion, diversity, and culture, as the area was                 intended to be an educational institution with a high level of social cohesion(Appendix III, Table. 1).                Sub-zone H was the zone’s spacious courtyard, and the cul-de-sac was highly rated due to its                15Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 112 aesthetics and wilderness feature, with several old trees with a unique appearance(Appendix III,             Table. 1). This area lay between the Frederic Wood Theater and the Morris and Hellen Art Gallery                 the area was characterized by a concrete floor, which made access from one building to the other                 easier. Although, our group has found that this area overall did not have enough people utilizing.  The value mapping approach has allowed every individual to express their opinion towards             different sub-zones as they wish. It’s not rare to see one person assessing the aesthetics of a sub-zone                  to be a 5, where another person would assess them as 1. Although, one consistency observed was the                  fact that parking lots and busy street do not possess much cultural ecosystem services. Sub-zones B,                D, E, and G were four of the lowest rated zones, which was consistent among all members. The four                   sub-zones are all either facing the busy street or occupy the parking space, thus had a much lower                  assessment compared to the other four sub-zones that ranked high.  4.3 Visual Representation explanation Figure 2 shown in Appendix III is an example of how the value mapping approach can be                 visualized. The red outline represents the perimeter of the zone, with sub-zones labeled as “Zone 1 A”                 or such. The different colored stars represent the hot spots for the five different cultural ecosystem                services that have been assessed throughout this project. One important fact to know is the fact that                 there are varieties in the structure of each sub-zones. For example, Zone 1A has a mix of buildings,                  paved paths, and some vegetation. On the other side, Zone 1C is almost all buildings, with very little                  buildings, and Zone 1G is almost all parking lot, with little vegetation. Taking those factors into                consideration, our group has found some relationships between different cultural ecosystem services.            For example, the blue and red stars are often found next to each other, representing that the same area                   within the sub-zone is providing both ecosystem services. Thus, we have determined that there is a                positive relationship between the species richness and aesthetics, meaning our group members have             found an area to be aesthetically pleasing if they found high species richness. Vice versa, there was                 also a negative relationship between wilderness and cultural significance. As seen on the visual, green               and orange stars are almost never located in the same area. This is simply due to the fact that our                    group’s felt that there weren’t much cultural significance in a wilderness area, rather man-made              artistic installments represented more cultural significance.  4.4 Strength and weakness of the value mapping approach The value mapping approach is an extremely sophisticated approach towards measuring           cultural ecosystem services. One of the major strengths of this method is the ability to quantify an                 individual’s non-monetary, non-material benefits, which would be impossible without this approach.           Everyone has different perception and opinion towards different topics, therefore the cultural            ecosystem services are highly subjective. Although, by forcing ourselves to represent our opinions and              feelings in numerical values, it makes the analytical process much easier. As a result, our group was                 able to quantify all 6 of our opinions of Zone 1 into charts, graphs, or any other visual representations.  Although, there are also weaknesses that arose through our experience conducting the value             mapping approach. One of the initial thoughts through the analyzing phase of the value mapping               approach was the fact that depending on the sub-zones, our group members had a very different                assessment towards the five cultural ecosystem services. For example, one has expressed that the              spacious courtyard within sub-zone H with benches and vegetation had a very strong aesthetics, while               one member has expressed that it was “too urbanized”, thus feeling that it was too much concrete and                  16Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 113 little vegetation. This is indeed the beauty of the cultural services, as there are no right or wrong                  answers. Yet the problem with the value mapping approach in our case was the scale. Due to the                  small-scaled surveying method with only 6 group members participating in this value mapping             approach, our data have become somewhat biased. In a highly subjective topic, it is not ideal to have                  small data sets, as a single member’s opinion weighs very heavily towards the overall assessment of                the zone. What would make the value mapping approach a much more accurate set of data is through                  having more data sets; thus having more people do the surveys, assessing the five different cultural                ecosystem services. Through achieving that, the biased opinion towards the zone will become a much               more unbiased view, creating a much more valuable, accurate representation of Zone 1’s cultural              ecosystem services.  5. Urban forest planning and management recommendationsIntegrating the benefits forests and other plants provide into an urban setting is a difficult task, due to the limited green space available and constant exposure to humanity and interferences that may affect growing conditions. Several approaches can be made or are already used to tackle these issues, with positives and negatives for each. As discussed earlier, the i-Tree ecosystem analysis is extremely helpful for judging what areas of an urban area or ecosystem should be focused on, and what can or should be done in order to improve the quality of life for those in the surrounding areas. Of course, there are potentials for errors and other misjudgements, but it provides the basis of what needs to be looked into further and give rough estimates about various info. The report for the area we’re focusing on, Zone 1 on the UBC campus, provides lots of helpful analyses. While the site in focus doesn’t have a lot of green space compared to other sites on campus, it is still nonetheless valuable with the ecosystem services and aesthetic appeal it provides. In order to make effective planning strategies for the future of a site, a certain aspect of the site must be used as the prime focus, and for strategies and approaches to be based around this (Wassenaer et al.,  2000). This helps keep attention to the ecosystem services this site provides, and what can be done to improve them and other aspects as well. Using I-Tree can help determine what areas or services are in need of improving, and which ones are fine as they are currently. Overall, the primary focus of urban planning within this site should be based around canopy coverage, based on the information and analysis currently. The reason for this focus is that the site is mainly dominated by buildings, asphalt and pavement, with little green space in comparison. While this grey to green space ratio can be seen as unbalanced, attempting to turn the grey space back into green space would cost lots of time and money, and would need serious assessment to make sure that it would be worth it in the long run, so the primary focus should be of the currently available green space instead. According to the analysis of the site, the feeling of wildness is the lowest out of the cultural ecosystem services this site provides, so that should be a priority, among other ecosystem services. While the green space is limited, there are plenty of opportunities to take advantage of, including using the grey space as well. Things like planters, plant pots and other ways of growing plants and small trees either indoors or on pavement can help increase the amount of green, though it does run the risk of such structures getting knocked over or damaged, affecting the plants within. If taken care of properly, ivy and vines running 17Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 114 along the sides of blank building walls may be an aesthetic choice, though care must be taken so they won’t end up negatively affecting the structural integrity of the building. Other ecosystem services may be focused on as well, such as provisioning, regulating, and supporting. Things like water runoff, potential food production and soil erosion prevention would fall under these categories and are noteworthy to keep in mind while planning. Planting fruit-bearing trees or shrubs could prove beneficial in the long run, similar to other crop-producing plants planted in community gardens in other areas of the campus. One drawback to this is the increased effort in order to have the trees produce fruit, as they require much more energy compared to other trees. Another thing to note is the fruit may not even be edible, as other studies on fruit produced in urban areas have noted products made from such fruit can exceed acceptable safety limits of lead, cadmium and other elements (Kowalski & Conway, 2018). Trees and other plants help prevent soil erosion by keeping it in place, so it doesn’t get washed out by rain, or moved by heavy winds, as well as helping complete the nutrient cycle present in soils. The plants already present are doing a great job, though there are some open green spaces with only grass on them, leaving them vulnerable, so additional trees, brushes or shrubs could be planted there to help mitigate erosion. Lastly, water runoff should be kept in mind as well, since the high abundance of grey space makes it difficult for water to enter soil, and instead accumulate on the surface. While things like drains and other ways of displacing water are available, they can be expensive to introduce, while green spaces can provide the same benefits for much cheaper. As said before, planters and plant pots on grey spaces can help mitigate water accumulation and runoff, albeit in a smaller amount. Growing trees with large canopy cover can help prevent water runoff and nutrient contamination, though this requires a lot of space and time (Matteo et al., 2006). Overall, this site has numerous amounts of ecosystem services and benefits in a small area that can be improved for more efficiency. Determining which services to focus on and base approaches and strategies on can be a tough decision, but the best course of action would to be focusing on the cultural part of the site, due to its low abundance, while keeping the other services in mind in case there can be an overlap between two or more with one solution. 18Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 115 6. AppendicesAppendix I Figure 1. Tree species composition in Zone 1 Figure 2. Percent of live tree by area of native origin, Zone 1 19Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 116 Figure 3. Percent of teen population by diameter class (DBH – stem diameter at 1.37 meters) Figure 4. Annual pollution removal (points) and values (bars) by urban trees, Zone 1 20Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 1  17    Figure 5. Estimated annual gross carbon sequestration (points) and value (bars) for urban tree species with the greatest sequestration, Zone 1          Table 1. the top 20 oxygen production species in Zone 1 21Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 118 Figure 6. Avoided runoff (points) and value (bars) for species with greatest impact on runoff, Zone 1 Figure 7. Tree species with the greatest structural value, Zone 1 22Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 119 Appendix II Figure 1. Map of the assessed area titled zone 1 Appendix III EXPERIENCE DIMENSIONS Subzone ID Diversity/ species richness Aesthetics Social cohesion Wilderness/ nature Cultural significance SUMMARY A 21 18 23 10 23 B 19 17 15 9 10 C 7 13 21 3 21 D 8 12 13 8 11 E 6 11 8 3 4 F 16 10 18 8 16 G 7 9 14 2 2 H 18 21 18 16 19 Table. 1 Sum of the individual scores of value mapping approach 23Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 120 Figure 1. Average scores of different cultural ecosystem services depending on sub-zones Figure 2. Identified hot spots of various cultural ecosystem services on different sub-zones24Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 1  21 8. References  Bolund, P., & Hunhammer, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas. Retrieved April 2, 2019, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800999000130  Ferrini, F., Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C.C., & Fini, A. (2017). ​Routledge Handbook of Urban Forestry​. London; New York: Routledge, 2017.  Guerra, A., Pinto-Correia, T., & Metzger, M. (2014). Mapping soil erosion prevention using an ecosystem service modeling framework for integrated land management and policy. ​Ecosystem, 17​(5), 878-889. doi: ​10.1007/s10021-014-9766-4  i-Tree Eco. (2019). i-Tree Ecosystem analysis. Generated by using i-Tree Eco version 6 at https://www.itreetools.org/eco/  i-Tree Canopy. (2011). i-Tree Canopy technical notes. Retrieved from https://canopy.itreetools.org/resources/iTree_Canopy_Methodology.pdf  Kowalski, J. & Conway, T. (2018). Branching out: The inclusion of urban food trees in Canadian urban forest management plans.​ Urban Forestry & Urban Greening.​ ​doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2018.05.012  Luker, E. (2019).​ Biodiversity and Urban Forest Planning​ ​[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from file:///Users/charlottemathisen/Downloads/UBC%20UFMP%20presentation%20for%20UFOR%20101%20(2).pdf  Matteo, M., Randhir, T., & Bloniarz, D. (2006). Watershed-Scale Impacts of Forest Buffers on Water Quality and Runoff in Urbanizing Environment. ​Water Resources Planning & Management, 132​(3), 144-152. Retrieved from: https://ascelibrary-org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/doi/full/10.1061/%28ASCE%290733-9496%282006%29132%3A3%28144%29  Morgan, R. P. C. (2009).​ ​Soil erosion and conservation.​ ​Retrieved from https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=j8C8fFiPNOkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&ots=woO5ORUcHe&sig=sOCNQAln8L-x6iIgP7CxwNfzUDk&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false  Nothof, A. (2016). Wood, Federic. Retrieved from http://www.canadiantheatre.com/dict.pl?term=Wood  Nowak, D., & Crane, D. (2000). The urban forest effects (UFORE) model: quantifying urban forest structure and functions. Retrieved from https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_nc212/gtr_nc212_714.pdf  Nowak, D., & Crane, D. (2002). Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental pollution, 116​(3), 381-389. Retrieved from https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/5521 25Ecosystem Services Assessment of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 122 Nowak, D., Hoehn, R., & Crane, D. (2007). Oxygen production by urban trees in the United States. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 33(3),​ 220-226. Retrieved from https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/2007/nrs_2007_nowak_001.pdf SEEDS Sustainability Program. (2019).​ ​SEEDS Sustainability Program, Campus and Community Planning [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from file:///Users/charlottemathisen/Downloads/SEEDS%20UFOR%20101%20Project%202019%20(1).pdf Smith, P., Ashmore, M., Black, H., Burgess, P., Evans, C., Hails, R., ... & Breeze, T. (2011). Regulating services.​ ​Retrieved from http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/25219/2/Ch14_Regulating_Services.pdf University of British Columbia. (2019a). Collections​. ​Retrieved from https://belkin.ubc.ca/collections/?#rodney-graham-millennial-time-machine University of British Columbia. (2019b). Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery.​ ​Retrieved from https://belkin.ubc.ca/about/ University of British Columbia. (2019c). Wayfinding At UBC Vancouver.​ ​Retrieved from http://maps.ubc.ca/PROD/index.php Wassenaer, P, Schaeffer, L., & Kenney, W. (2000). Strategic planning in urban forestry:A 21st century paradigm shift for small town Canada. ​The Forestry Chronicle, 76​(2), 241-245. doi: 10.5558/tfc76241-2 26Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 1 Analysis of UBC Campus Trees in Zone 1 and the Effects and Benefits  on the Urban Environment Group 1 2019 Chelsea Cao, Elaine Hu, Charlotte Mathisen,  Ren Niikura, Michael Sandrin, Alina Ziyun Zeng University of British Columbia (UBC) 27Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus TreesWork Distribution Member Section  ​Other Alina Introduction Data tabulation Reference list Layout & format describes ​the purpose​ of the tree inventory, as well as ​the end users​ of the inventory data collected on campus. Charlotte Site Description Proofread  everything help with style and flow provides​ a description of the selected are​a of UBC campus assessed by your group. you can include information such as ​land use type, activities observed​ in the area,​ types of facilities​ observed in the area, different users of the area​, ​specific location (map)​, and ​photos of the area ​to show representative examples. Ren Methodology  Proofread the last section  Help with grammar This section describes the ​methods used for inventory data collection on-the-groun​d, as well as the ​methods used to analyze your data in class​. A list of ​variables​ measured should be included. Michael Summary of tree inventory data Tables (see appendix)  Proofread the last section  Layout You may include tables and graphs showing findings such as ​species composition​ in your selected area, including ​species abundance (stem counts) and dominance (basal area). You may provide summary results showing the ​structure of the urban forest​ in your area, for example b​y plotting the distribution of diameter classes and height classes of the trees you measured. Chelsea Special trees in selected area You may also present results to ​showcase interesting landmark trees, for example, ​the tallest tree in your area, the tree with the largest crown width, a rare tree, or a tree of cultural importance. You may add some photos to illustrate your findings and provide key examples. Elaine Interpretation of the findings 15.0 include some interpretation of the findings produced for your area. Some forecasting may also be included to show potential future growth of trees in your area. 1 28Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus TreesIntroductionBackground Established within the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone at the left end of its country, the University of British Columbia, an institution initially designed with the image of “a clearing in the forest”, has always paid serious attention to its aesthetics (University of British Columbia [UBC], 2009). UBC strives to create a “West Coast feel” character because of where the campus is situated. The university’s development patterns have echoed this notion and the campus has gradually formed as a result of its founders’ pursuit of lush and easily accessible greeneries (UBC, 2014, p. 8). With three of its sides surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and a dense belt of forest on the other, UBC is proud of its leading role in sustainability and has a reputation of being one of the most visually spectacular learning institutions in the world (Lompart & Ikeda, 2017). Since the university’s expansion in its development of both academic and residential areas, there has been a measurable decline in trees due to the increasing gaps in campus urban forest administration policy. There is a lack in the regulation and enforcement of tree management because there is no unifying master plan. The different guidelines involved causes “management [to fall] under a complex web” (Lompart & Ikeda, 2017, p. 1). After analyzing existing guidelines and observing urban forestry practices on campus, there is a need to improve the conditions and performance of trees by the means of adequate protection and replacement. With reinforcement as its primary scope, an integrative management plan that reflects campus stakeholders’ needs and interests must be formed through the construction of solid recommendations for the future procedure (Lompart & Ikeda, 2017).  Purpose To compose a plan effective enough to meet all the aforementioned expectations in order for the trees on campus can be appropriately managed. People will benefit from the explicit recognition of resources and the attainable, long term monitoring goals cannot be set unless current conditions are fully understood (Lompart & Ikeda, 2017). A series of complete tree inventories collecting valuable information of campus tree population is crucial in the development of the UBC Urban Forest Management Plan as well as the Future Biodiversity Strategy. A complete tree inventory will also generate a detailed report on the distribution and attributes of the UBC urban forest (Bellis et al. 2017). Several tree inventories have been conducted since 2017 to provide inputs for UBC’s campus trees management plan and equip campus planners with more knowledge about trees’ current condition (Bellis et al. 2017). This inventory, in particular, was carried out with the assistance of students registered in the UFOR 101 course upon the Campus + Community Planning request to help with the pre-scoping stage. This inventory is a sample inventory performed in a selected area on campus, bounded by Agronomy Road to the south, Crescent Road to the north, West Mall to the west and Main Mall to the east. It requires an on the ground assessment of trees and aims to collect data regarding common variables that include species, DBH, crown width, tree height, etc., in order to provide campus workers with up to date greenery information. The primary goal of this inventory is to continue to update information about trees around UBC’s academic area by inputting data regarding tree growth into the collector application. The data collected is to be used for analysis, and later to suggest maintenance schedules such as removal and replanting activities. In the following stages, ecosystem services that these trees provide will be evaluated by remote-sensing through the use of i-Tree. That way campus urban forest vision can be formed and the establishment of a management plan can be promoted. By working outside of the classroom and practicing the use of different tools, students involved in this inventory are able to develop hands-on skills that will be valuable attributes in the workplace. Subsequent interpretation of data collected will also allow for critical thinking and improvement, making students better thinkers when dealing with issues in this field. By becoming more involved in projects on campus, the sense of community engagement is strengthened among the students and the staff because people will learn more about what benefits the trees provide and what can they do to make the trees’ performance even better.  End users Campus + Community Planning; a department that unites various experienced urban planners, engineers, architects, designers, building inspectors, and public consultation professionals, will contribute in shaping an engaging academic environment and sustainable communities at UBC. They will be accountable for “ensuring that any choices made about land, buildings, infrastructure, and transportation support the campus short and long-term 2 29Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Treesgoals” (Campus and Community Planning, 2018; University Properties Trust, 2018, para. 3). SEEDS sustainability program, which provides community partners with opportunities be part of “research projects that are tested on campus”, would make good use of data from this inventory as well (Social Ecological Economic Development Studies, 2019). Urban Forestry Program Representatives, Building Operations and Arborists, and Planning and Design, will later inform management of decisions and future plans, as well as monitor changes and risks (Lompart & Ikeda, 2017). Students and staff will also become more related to urban forests on campus through the increasing awareness built as a result of transforming theory into practices. What to expect In this report, the site where our group conducted tree inventory is described in terms of its landscape and structure. Land use type, activities observed and users are discussed in detail. Thereafter, methods used to carry out on the ground assessment of trees are introduced, as well as the means of interpreting the data collected. The report then highlights species composition of the site, as well as the overall structure of its urban forest, which is then followed by a description of landmark trees. Finally, the report concludes with an overall interpretation of the findings. Challenges and future projections are also covered.  Site Description The assessed area in this report can be titled as zone 1 and is shown in appendix A as Group 1. Zone 1 is located on the north-west side of campus and is surrounded by West Mall, Crescent Rd, Main Mall, and the Music building. The zones land usage is mainly institutional however is also used for transportation and recreation.  There are three buildings contained within the zone, one being the Sing Tao Building that is located in the left top corner of zone 1. The Sing Tao Building is part of UBC’s Graduate School of Journalism and was built in 1997 (UBC, 2019b). It is of a smaller size when compared to the other buildings. There are a significant amount of trees, ferns, and hedges within close proximity to the building that gives it privacy while also acting as a boundary from the road and sidewalk. The next building is the Frederic Wood Theatre and it is centered in the middle of zone 1. This building was constructed in 1963 and is named after the founder of UBC’s players' club, Frederic Wood (​Nothof, 2016)​. The theatre is used by performing arts students who put on a variety of productions that are open to the public. The front of the building incorporates an interesting wood beam facade and is aligned with medium sized trees in which two of them are placed in elevated plots. This design speaks to the buildings use.  The last building is the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery which is located in the right lower quadrant of the zone. It officially opened in 1995 and specializes in researching, publishing, educating, and exhibiting contemporary art and its history (UBC, 2019c). Much like its use, the Belkin Art Gallery has a contemporary design. This is showcased in its sleek use of lines and curves that make up the windows and walls of the building. The gallery’s architecture acts as its own art piece and art enthusiasts can appreciate its exterior along with its interior.  a) b) c) Fig. 1: a) The Sing Tao building from the view of Crescent Rd (Mathisen, 2019); b) The front entrance of the Frederic Wood Theatre (Mathisen, 2019); c) The front entrance of the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery from the view of Main Mall (UBC, 2019) The courtyard nestled between the gallery and the theatre is largely made up of concrete. It provides students with a large space to gather and socialize, as well as providing a space for theatre-goers to congregate before and after shows. There are few benches throughout the area and some have dedicated plaques. The standout 3 30Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Treesfeature, however, is the statue ​Asiatic Head ​by Otto Fischer-Credo that is positioned under the long covered walkway that cuts through the south-west side of the courtyard. The art piece is actually a replica made by Gerhard Class and it “f​eatures a large stylized head with Asian characteristics and has been variously interpreted as both a man and a woman” ​(UBC, 2019a, p. Otto Fischer-Credo, Asiatic Head). ​The piece itself along with its placement is quite dramatic and adds character to the area.  The different tree species that are within the courtyard and surround the theatre breaks up the negative space and gives the area a more dynamic vibe. Tree selection and placement almost seem random, yet is done with care as all the trees have a substantial amount of room for water to infiltrate the soil and for their roots to grow.  You can tell the area is aged in comparison to the rest of the campus, and this is evident in the appearance of the buildings, as well as how tall some of the trees are. The trees that act as the centerpiece for the cul-de-sac that is located in the center of the zone especially showcase this attribute. These trees, in particular, give off a mysterious and whimsical presence because they are tall, lopsided, and grow in different directions. They add a compelling feature to a somewhat bleak looking area.  Adjacent to these trees is a large pay parking lot which makes up a substantial amount of zone 1. The parking lot can be classified under transportation land use. It is located on the lower left side of the zone and has a high amount of usage from students, faculty, and visitors.  Zone 1 is an area that at first glance appears to be bleak and vacant, however, the placement and design of the buildings and trees give it an artistic edge. While the area is aged, it still gives off a modern impression and creates a welcoming space for users to conjugate and be creative.  a) b)         c) Fig. 2: a) Asiatic Head by Otto Fischer-Credo (Mathisen, 2019); b) The courtyard (Mathisen, 2019); c) side of the SIng Tao building and entrance to the parking lot (Mathisen, 2019)  Methodology Efficiency and accuracy become extremely important during qualitative measurements of trees in zone 1. With more than 40 trees within the area, our group developed a systematic strategy which allowed us to accurately measure every indicated tree within at an efficient rate. During our one week of a tree inventory, we used several tools that were provided by the class, which measured specific aspects of a single tree. The specifications of measurements, the methodology, as well as the tools used are listed below. All of the measurements we conducted were in metric units to keep the consistency of data.     ​Tag, Tag ID, Live/Dead First step into the tree inventory was to record general information of the tree. We first looked for a circular metal tag which indicates the specific tag ID for every tree at UBC and indicated whether or not it is attached on the 4 31Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Treestree. If it is attached, we indicated it as a “Y”, short for Yes, and “N” for No. Majority of the trees we measured had the tags, therefore we moved on to the next step which was to record the unique tag ID. This information is engraved on to the tag, and it was usually a two to four digit number. If there were no tag present on the tree, we indicated it by writing “none”. After that, our group had discussed whether the tree was alive or dead by assessing its overall appearance, leaves, and bark. We indicated a live tree as “L”, and a dead tree as “D”. We did not require any tools for these three general assessments and it was rather a visual inspection.  Tree ID & Tree Species  Tree ID number and the species are two pieces of information we gathered from the “Collector app”, which was an application our team leader possessed. This app indicates the location of the trees that need to be measured, as well as a four-digit tree ID, and the scientific name of the tree species.  Land use The land use categories were based on the i-Tree Eco categories. We would determine the land use depending on the location of the tree, however since UBC is an institution and all of our trees were within UBC, land use for all trees were indicated as “I”, or “Institutional”. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) Measuring the diameter of a tree using the “breast height” method was sometimes a challenge, as we stumbled across a group of large trees with shrubs covering the ground, thus it was hard to physically reach the tree. By using a measuring tape which specifically only indicates the diameter of a tree, a member of our team would wrap the measuring tape around the tree at the height of 1.37m, or 4.5 feet above the ground. Once the tape had completely gone around the tree, we would align the tape and read the measurement in cm. During this process, it is extremely important to keep the tape leveled and to have no gaps between the tree and the tape. Another trouble we faced were trees with multiple stems. In this case, we would measure up to the 6 largest stems (we ignored any stems <2 inches in diameter), and calculate the average, which would then be recorded as one tree. Total Tree Height Determining the total height of the tree required more complex measurements and calculations. First a member would walk away from the tree, looking parallel to the ground. As soon as the highest point of the tree enters the view of sight, they would stop. The first set of measurement we collected was the distance between this member and the tree. We made sure to keep the measuring tape level in order to avoid any overestimates or underestimates. If the tree is located on a slope, we made sure that the member was standing on the uphill side of the tree. A second set of measurements were collected using a tool called the clinometer. The same member standing away from the tree would look through this tool and line up the central line visible (also known as crosshair) with the highest point of the tree, as well as the lowest point of the tree. There are two values present when looking through the clinometer, and we used the percentage scale located on the right side of the crosshair and used this throughout the entire measurement in order to keep consistency. When looking at the top of the tree we would get a positive value such as 43, and looking at the base of the tree would give us a negative number, usually not too big, such as -10. We would use these two values to calculate the total tree height. The calculation is fairly easy. We would add up the two values, then multiply them by the distance between the tree and the member who took the measurements. For the previous example, (43)+(-10)=33, which means the height of the tree was 33% of the distance between the tree base and the member. If the member was standing 25m away from the tree, it would become 25 * 0.33 = 8.25m.  Live Crown Height Initial step for measuring live crown height was through visual inspection. Often times, the total tree height does not take into account whether the highest part of the tree is alive. It is not uncommon to see a dead branch being at the highest point of the tree, therefore in this measurement, we determined the highest live crown of a tree. Fortunately, all of our trees had a live top, therefore the live crown height and total tree height was the same for all of our trees. Although, if the live crown was not the same as the total tree height, we would use the same method as measuring the total tree height.  5 32Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees Crown Base Height  The crown base height measures the height from the ground to the lowest crown. Originally, this measurement was performed through the same technique used for measuring the total tree height. Instead of aligning the crosshair with the top of the tree, we aligned it with the lowest crown possible and used the same equation and calculations to determine the height of the lowest crown. Although some of the crowns were very short, therefore there was no need for clinometers. If the crown was reachable, we simply used measuring tape and measured the height of the lowest crown from the ground. There were also other special cases, where the crown was touching the ground. In this case, we indicated the crown base height as “0”, since there were 0cm between the ground and the lowest crown.  Crown Width  Measuring the crown width took two people with the measuring tape, as well as the other members trying to figure out the shortest and longest width of the tree crown. We would then measure the longest crown width, followed by the shortest crown width. For these two measurements, it was important to keep the measuring tape leveled while standing right beneath the crown. After measuring the two sides, we would average them out and indicate them as the crown width.   Crown % Missing  This piece of information was extremely hard to identify, as we could not measure the crown percentage missing with our tools. Rather, we had to gather as a group and discuss roughly how much of the crown was missing. Our estimate ranged depending on the tree, and it was extremely hard to identify the crown percentage missing for trees that were unique in shape and size. Some of the coniferous trees were especially difficult to identify, due to its unpredictable crown size and distribution along the tree.  Crown Light Exposure (CLE)  Crown light exposure refers to whether all five sides of the tree receives a sufficient amount of sunlight. This is another piece of information which had to be discussed among the group members. There were cases where two trees were growing right next to each other, thus one side of each tree was not receiving sufficient sunlight. In these cases, we indicated the crown light exposure as 4, since only 4 sides of the tree were receiving a sufficient amount of light.   Analyzing raw data Throughout the week of data collection, we were able to record hundreds of measurements from different trees. Numbers by itself won’t convey anything, thus we have created several bar graphs in order to see the relationships between various measurements. This allowed us to deepen our understanding of the trees that are planted at UBC. In addition, we have also used photographs taken during the time of data collection to visually represent how some of the trees we have described look like. Any other key information that conveys information by itself, such as the tree species planted, were used in several analyses, which will be explained in the results and interpretations of the data.   Summary of Tree Inventory Data   The plot we were assigned for data and collection, zone 1, had a large range of trees to analyze and totaled at 42 trees. All of them were alive, but varied in height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and more. The most common tree we analyzed was the ​Pinus nigra​, otherwise known as the Black Pine, with 8 specimens analyzed. The least common tree was the ​Aralia Elata​, also known as the Chinese Angelica-Tree, with one specimen analyzed.  Using the data collected and presented in Appendix B, we can see what ranges of DBH measurements the trees fall under. A majority of trees have a medium sized base, roughly around 20 to 40 centimeters in diameter, while a smaller number have larger bases, with only one tree, a ​Quercus rubra​, or Northern Red Oak, having a base greater than 100 centimeters outgrowing steps that a majority of the trees are still young and growing or haven’t been able to have much secondary growth in terms of width yet, possibly due to growing conditions or another factor affecting growth.    6 33Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus TreesAfter plotting the data we collected on the total tree height, we can see a pattern on how a large number of trees are at a shorter total tree height compared to the small number of trees at a larger total tree height using Appendix C. The one tree that has a total tree height greater than 30 m is a ​Pinus nigra​, also known as a Black Pine. There is a greater number of trees with a relatively short total tree height compared to taller total tree height, with trees within the 2-9 m range equaling the number of trees of all other values combined. This suggests that a large number of trees growing in this site are either young and still growing, or mature and they have had their growth limited by lack of nutrients, space or another limiting factor. Another possibility is the tree had its total height reduced by humans, due to it growing in an urban environment, and being too tall could affect several aboveground structures in a negative way. Looking at Appendix D, you can see the comparison between the live crown height (LCH) versus the crown base height (CBH), and the differences between the two. CBH is the measurement of the distance between the ground surface and the lowest living branch on the tree, while LCH is the measurement of the top of the tree crown to the lowest living branch. Combining the two will give us an estimate on how tall the tree is, but separately we can see how much of the tree height comes from the crown and how much of it comes from the trunk. All of the tree heights have a greater LCH compared to CBH, though some of the tree specimens have similar height measurements for both values. A majority of the specimens measured have a much greater LCH compared to CBH though, suggesting that these trees prioritize canopy growth rather than vertical growth, and don’t put much focus on out growing and competing neighboring trees for sunlight. There is an explanation for this behavior. Since these trees are growing in an urban area, they’re most likely pruned so each tree won’t have to spend as many resources to out-compete one another, and can instead focus on leaf growth, which can be decorative and appealing to the public eye. Special trees in the selected area Throughout zone 1, we have identified various species of trees which could be commonly found anywhere else. Within those common tree species, we observed several unique trees ranging in size, shape, and height. By analyzing our data, we have identified some of the interesting measurements and observations for these special trees. The largest tree The ​Quercus rubra​, within the family of Fagaceae, is commonly known as the northern red oak (Missouri Botanical Garden [MBG], 2019d). In zone 1, this tree had the biggest DBH (116.1714cm) and crown width value(19.47m). The average height of this tree is about 50-70 feet(15-22m) (often larger in nice conditions) and the blooming time is in May. It grows well in dry to medium moisture leveled acidic soil and in full sun (MBG, 2019d). Quercus rubra​ has a well-proportioned canopy, dense branches, and toothed and lobed leaves. Leaves turn brownish-red in the autumn and remain red for a long time (Marshall, n.d.). In the winter, the leaves still have branches (shown in Figure 3), which have a good ornamental effect and are mostly used for landscaping. ​Quercus rubra​ is a deciduous tree, with an average diameter of 90 cm, and a crown width of up to 15 meters  (MBG, 2019d). Quercus rubra​ is a producer in the ecosystem. It produces energy for itself by photosynthesis and can also convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. The tree provides many birds a chance to build their nests, as well as produces acorns, which many kinds of wildlife consume (Marshall, n.d.). Because of its ability to tolerate various conditions, it is grown in many cities and urban areas. It is often used to beautify the environment. The tallest treeThe tallest tree in zone 1 is the​ Pinus nigra​. It is usually known as European black pine, which belongs to the Pine family (MBG, 2019b). This species is native to the mountains of the northeastern Mediterranean region (MBG, 2019b). ​Pinus nigra​ is a coniferous evergreen tree and has dark-green leaves (needles). ​Pinus nigra​ performs best in well-drained soil and full sun. It grows to about 80-150 feet (25-45m) tall with a straight trunk that can measure up to 40 to 72 inches in diameter over time (Enescu et al., 2016). There are six ​Pinus nigra​ trees in our zone, and the average height of these trees is 24m, which is much higher than some of the other species. The bark of Pinus nigra​ is thick and gray-brown in color​.​ It can exist in a variety of soils and has a high tolerance of extreme 7 34Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees weather. Because of its ecological flexibility, it is the most widely used tree for reforestation. ​Pinus nigra ​can be used to control soil erosion and land rehabilitation (Enescu et al., 2016). ​Pinus nigra​ is naturalized in Canada and widely planted in urban areas to beautify and purify the environment.    The smallest tree The ​Nyssa sylvatica​ is the smallest tree in our area. The data we collected shows that this tree has the smallest value in DBH, TTH, LCH and crown width. The common name of ​Nyssa sylvatica ​is Black gum, and it can be categorized into the Nyssaceae family (MBG, 2019a). The​ Nyssa sylvatica​ in our site is only 2.835m tall, which is lower than average (30-50 feet). It is easily grown in medium to wet moisture soil with full sun exposure (MBG, 2019a). The ​Nyssa sylvatica​ has a straight up trunk and rounded crown. The leaves of this species are lustrous and turn purple in the autumn, and eventually become an intense bright scarlet as shown in Figure 5. The ​Nyssa sylvatica blooming time is in May and June, and the flowers are tiny and yellowish green in color. This tree is a major source of wild honey because its flowers are an excellent nectar source for bees. It is suggested to be used as a shade and street tree based on its gorgeous leaves during the autumn.    The tree with an important value We have only two ​Prunus serrulata ​trees on our site. ​Prunus serrulata​ is a group name and the species under this group always have small deciduous trees with short trunks. It is commonly called the Japanese flowering cherry, and reach a height of 25-40 feet (7-12m) (MBG, 2019c). The native range of this species in Japan, China, and Korea. It prefers growing in moist, fertile loam soil with full sun exposure. The flower comes in two colors, white and pink, and can be displayed in different forms of single, semi-double, and double (MBG, 2019a).  It may be fragrant or non-fragrant. ​Prunus serrulata​ is generally small, flowering trees that help to beautify the environment. There are lots of ​Prunus serrulata​ trees in Canada, especially at the University of British Columbia. The reason why UBC has a variety of ​Prunus serrulata​ trees is that John w. Neill, who was the university’s director from 1949 to 1973, was interested in this species and saw them as a favorable choice for the campus. Since the original trees started to disappear rapidly, he believed we have the responsibility to maintain and expand the diversity of these beautiful trees on the campus (Madden-Krasnick, 2018).          (Grandmont, 2019)  Fig. 3 The biggest Quercus rubra in Zone 1               Fig. 4  The Pinus nigra displaying its straight trunk and gray-brown bark          8 35Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees            Fig. 5. The bright scarlet leaves of the    Fig 6. Prunus serrulata in bloom (Rabich, 2016)                Nyssa sylvatica (Grandmont, 2006)   Interpretation of the findings Our findings in this area include the average height (12.26m) and the average DBH (36.3cm) of the trees, and the relationship between the total tree height and crown base height (CBH). We have also found the peak values of the tree data, for example, the trees with the highest and lowest heights and the trees with the largest and smallest DBH. In addition, the number of different types of trees was also covered in our study. The reasons that can be used to explain these findings and data are mainly concluded into three different factors: tree species, the degree of development or tree age, and the location of the trees.  Different tree species Different tree species often have different sizes and shapes, and their height can be very different depending on the type of tree. For example, ​Pinus nigra​ is large coniferous evergreen trees have height around 10-40m (Enescu et al., 2016). Eight of the​ Pinus nigra​ in zone 1 have an average height of 20.74m. Nevertheless, the ​Acer Palmatum​, one kind of Japanese maple tree, commonly have a tree height from 4 to 8m (15-25 feet) in urban areas (Gilman, & Watson, 1993). The four of these maple trees in this area have an average height of 7.77m. The average tree height is affected by different trees and tree species. Since the average includes the various heights of all the different species of trees, the average tree height is affected by the composition.   Degree of development The degree of development of trees can be another factor that affects the tree size in zone 1, which means the age of the trees is important to consider in the data analysis part of the measurement. Most of the trees have different height and crown size during their time of growth, therefore the tree species average size is not enough to explain why a species usually has a large average size but the species sampled from zone 1 are smaller. For example, the eight​ Pinus nigra​ was divided into two separate locations; one site with three and the other site with five. The site with three ​Pinus nigra​ are of smaller size, with an average height of 14.11m, and an average DBH of 45cm, while the five trees in the other site have an average height of 24.71 and an average DBH of 57.72cm. Since they are of the same species, the three smaller ​Pinus nigra​ trees are considered to be younger than the other five. The comparison of the trees in these two areas shows how tree age affects the tree size.  Location of the trees The location of the trees will also affect their growth rate and size.  Different places have different soil texture, sun conditions, and water resources. Since those are all the basic requirements for a plant to grow, tree size will be affected by the variation in requirements (Ordóñez et al., 2005). For example, some trees located near a building that is not tall enough will lose one side of sunshine, such as the trees in our study area which have   9 36Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Treesincomplete sunshine under the five sides of CLE. Lose of sunshine cause trees to have a shorter crown width than others of the same species and age, just like the difference between the two trees of ​Fraxinus Sp​. The one with four sides of sunlight has an average crown width of 12.15 and the one that has three sides of sunlight only has a width of 9.58m. Forecasting show potential future growth of trees Future growth will be influenced by the conditions and limitations of sunlight, nutrients, water and space for plants to grow. The forecasting of trees in our study site will be separated into two parts: size and age. Trees with a height above 15m and/or a DBH longer than 40cm are assigned into the larger trees part, and others are contained in the smaller trees part. Large trees Most of the trees in the larger tree part are usually well organized and located at a wide position with more open space. These open spaces around large trees provide a considerable range for tree growth in the future. This is important because most of these open spaces act as a basis for adequate sun exposure, and many of the trees with 5 sides of sunlight in zone 1 are located in relatively open space. The largest tree in our area is a ​Quaercus Rubra​, with DBH of 116.17cm and a height of 24.16m is a good example of open space and opulent sunlight. Trees like this are considered to grow bigger in the future and be in the upper range of average species height. In addition, an open space is a tree’s guarantee ofhelpsg enough nutrients and water for growth and survival.  a) b)     ​Fig. 7: a) Quaercus Rubra; b) example of tall trees with 5 side sunlight. Small trees Unlike the large trees in the open spaces, most of the smaller trees were planted after the buildings were built. Therefore, the sunlight coverage would be less which will hinder branch growth. This can affect the crown development in the future. However, the distances between most of the street trees that are in the same row are well defined with a space of  4-6m. This helpful in getting these smaller trees enough soil, water, and nutrients for growth. Overall, the future growth of small trees with enough space is greater than the trees located in narrow places. 10 37Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees             a)             b)          c) Fig. 8: a) street trees with reasonable distance in between; b) trees near the building; c) trees located in a narrow place 11 38Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus TreesReferences Bellis E., Ikeda T., Miao A., & Naveau A. (2017). UBC Vancouver Campus Tree Inventory Handbook. Retrieved from https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/UBC%20Vancouver%20Campus%20Tree%20Inventory%20Handbook_3.pdf Campus and Community Planning. (2018). Who we work with. Retrieved from https://externalrelations.ubc.ca/our-portfolio/campus-community-planning/ Enescu, C., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Mauri, A., & Houston Durrant, T. (2016). Pinus nigra in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. ​European Atlas of Forest Tree species, Vol. 6,​ 126-127. Retrieved from https://w3id.org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01/e015138​. Gilman, E., & Watson, D. (1993). Acer palmatum. Retrieved from http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/acepala.pdf Grandmont, P. (2006). ​Nyssa sylvatica leaves in the autumn​ [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nyssa_sylvatica_JPG1b.jpg Grandmont, J. (2019). ​Pinus nigra subsp. laricio​ [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pinus_nigra_subsp._laricio_JPG.jpg Lompart, J., & Ikeda, T. (2017). Urban Forestry Management Plan: recommendations for the University of British Columbia Vancouver Campus​.​ Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/undergraduateresearch/18861/items/1.0356640 Madden-Krasnick, H. (2018). A guide to cherry blossoms at UBC. Retrieved from https://events.ubc.ca/a-guide-to-cherry-blossoms-at-ubc/ Marshall, C. (n.d.). Lake forest. Retrieved from https://www.lakeforest.edu/academics/programs/environmental/courses/es203/quercus_rubra.php Missouri Botanical Garden. (2019a). Nyssa sylvatica. Retrieved from http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a670 Missouri Botanical Garden. (2019b). Pinus nigra. Retrieved from http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=c231 Missouri Botanical Garden​. ​(2019c). Prunus serrulata. Retrieved from http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a915 Missouri Botanical Garden. (2019d). Quercus rubra. Retrieved from: http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=i760 Nothof, A. (2016). Wood, Federic. Retrieved from ​http://www.canadiantheatre.com/dict.pl?term=Wood 12 39Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus TreesOrdóñez, L., Retana, J., & Espelta, M. (2005). Effects of tree size, crown damage, and tree location on post-fire survival and cone production of Pinus nigra trees. ​Forest Ecology and Management​, ​Vol. 206(1-3). 109-117. doi: 10.9737/hist.2018.657Rabich, D. (2016). ​Münster, park sentmaring​ [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Münster,_Park_Sentmaring_--_2016_--_1767.jpg Social Ecological Economic Development Studies. (2019). SEEDS Sustainability Program. Retrieved from https://sustain.ubc.ca/seeds-sustainability-program University of British Columbia. (2009). Cultural Landscape Study. Retrieved from https://planning.ubc.ca/sites/planning.ubc.ca/files/documents/planning-services/UBC%20Cultural%20Landscape%20Study-web.pdf University of British Columbia. (2014). UBC Campus Plan 3. Retrieved from https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/planning/policies-plans/land-use-governance-documents/vancouver-campus-plan University of British Columbia. (2019a). ​Collections​.​ ​Retrieved from https://belkin.ubc.ca/collections/?#rodney-graham-millennial-time-machine University of British Columbia. (2019b). Wayfinding at UBC Vancouver. Retrieved from http://maps.ubc.ca/PROD/index.php University of British Columbia. (2019c). Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery. Retrieved from https://belkin.ubc.ca/about/ University Properties Trust. (2018). About us: Campus and Community Planning. Retrieved from http://www.ubcproperties.com/una/ 13 40Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus TreesAppendices Appendix A (Map of Zones and Zone 1) 14 41Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees         Appendix B (DBH measurements of Analyzed Trees)               15 42Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees                       Appendix C (Tree Height Measurements)               16 43Analysis and Interpretation of UBC Campus Trees        Appendix D (Live Crown Height and Crown Base Height Comparisons)    17 44Memorial Road, UBC . April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori TanakaUFOR 101 Assignment #2:  Ecosystem Service Assessment Group 2 April 3, 2019 452 | P a g eTable of Contents 1.0 Contributions page .............................................................................................................. 3 2.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4 3.0 Site description ................................................................................................................... 4 4.0 Regulating ecosystem services............................................................................................ 6 5.0 Cultural ecosystem services .............................................................................................. 10 6.0 Urban forest planning and management recommendations ........................................... 13 7.0 References ......................................................................................................................... 15 8.0 Appendix ........................................................................................................................... 16 463 | P a g e   1.0  Contributions Page Letticia Smyth: 25639881 • Introduction • Regulating ecosystem services o Methodology o Air quality regulation o Disease and pest regulation • Urban forest management recommendations o Regulating recommendations • Formatting/editing  Nour Dalati: 86255361 • Cultural ecosystem services o Sub-Zone 2A: The Reverie Precinct o Sub-Zone 2B : A Structured Wilderness o Sub-Zone 2C: UBC’s Art Piazza o Sub-Zone 2H: First Tree Plaza • Urban forest management recommendations o Cultural ecosystem services  Dilraj Thind: 67843482 • Site description • Photography  Raphael Mendoza: 57773533 • Regulating ecosystem services o Climate regulation o Carbon sequestration o Carbon storage o Water regulation • Urban forest management recommendations o Regulating recommendations  Yoshinori Tanaka: 88029608 • Photography • Cultural ecosystem services o Connectivity o Green Vista • Urban forest management recommendations • Liaison between our group and Mr. Egan Davis at UBC Botanical Garden, Ms. Courtnae Cameron at UBC Ceremonies and Events and UBC photographer Mr. Paul Joseph.   474 | P a g e   2.0  Introduction  Specified by Emma Luker with Campus + Community Planning, an Urban Forest Management Plan is important in order to address gaps in policy around managing our campus’ natural assets and a gap in whole-systems approach to consider broader ecological, cultural and social value of these assets (2019). The purpose of the ecosystem services assessment was to add another layer of understanding to our zone. There are four ecosystem services that urban forests provide which are: provisioning services, supporting services, cultural services, and regulating services. This report highlights specifically the cultural and regulating ecosystem services.   Cultural ecosystem services allowed us to show value for things which may come from a person’s experience or preference instead of a dollar value. Cultural services include the non-material benefits people obtain from contact with ecosystems which can be aesthetic, spiritual and psychological benefits. Some aspects of cultural ecosystem services that were done include value mapping (Figure 21), where a map of each zone was separated into smaller zones A-H and everyone in the group was asked to give a value from 0-5 based on the experience dimensions: diversity/species richness, aesthetics, social cohesion, wilderness/nature, and cultural significance. These values were then added together and calculated an average to see the areas that were valued the most in each experience dimension.  Regulating ecosystem services are evaluated to show the benefits that can be provided by having trees within our zone. Regulating services are the services that ecosystems provide by regulating the quality of air and soil or providing flood and disease control (TEEB, 2011). This includes things such as air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, carbon storage, water regulation and climate regulation. All of these aspects are important to consider when planning for the future of the zone and areas that can make the overall health of the trees better for longer and make vital plans for replacement. This is important to evaluate in order to see which areas your zone needs to improve upon and where it is strong. When creating an action plan, these evaluations can be very helpful.   This report also serves as additional information for future students, SEEDS, and Campus + Community Planning at UBC. Urban forest planning and management is an integral part of the growth process. In order to evaluate the intrinsic and inherent values, ecosystem services assessments need to be considered. It is our purpose to provide reflection and future forest management recommendations for the campus given the current status of our site.   3.0  Site Description The site shown in the figure below is situated towards the northwest direction of the Vancouver campus along southwest Marine Drive and Main Mall. The area comprises of approximately 19,669.3 square meters of the land base, in which multiple buildings are located; these include the Auditorium Annex Offices, Old Auditorium, Old Administration Building, Frederic Lasserre Building, and the Music Building. Furthermore, this site houses a wide array of herbaceous plantations, and tree species of which include: Abies grandis, Acer palmatum, 485 | P a g e   Betula pendula,  Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’, Chamaecyparis pisifera squarrosa group, Cupressus nootkatensis,  Fraxinus, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus nigra, Platanus x hispanica, Prunus sato zakura group, Prunus yedonensis ‘Akebono’, Pyrus calleryana, Sorbus hupehensis ‘Pink Pagoda’, Styrax japonica, and Tilia americana. The key users and visitors of the site that are noted include: faculty members and employees of nearby schools (UBC School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, School of Community and Regional Planning, and School of Music), campus administration, and more greatly, the students.   Figure A. Inventory Site, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. Photo taken from Google Maps  Located towards the southern direction of the site, by the University Transition Program Building, and in front of the Old Auditorium Building, is the First Tree Plaza (Figure 1.1). The plaza was established in remembrance of heritage trees that were situated along the site’s northwest corner. Furthermore, the plaza plays a great role in being a place of quiet refuge and providing one with a sense of isolation that takes their mind away from the daily struggles of life; made possible because of mature Tilia americana trees that surround this specific area. In addition to the above, the fact that there are benches in the plaza gives people an opportunity to sit and relax.  Located conveniently to the east direction of the Music Building, and north direction of the Frederic Lasserre Building is this courtyard (Figure 1.2). The large deciduous tree to the left of the image has the scientific name Liriodendron tulipifera, and the set of seven coniferous trees by the building’s front side have the scientific name Pinus nigra. Moreover, there are three trees with the scientific name Styrax japonica along the west side of the Lasserre Building. The main users of this area are students since there are stairs and benches on which people can seat themselves and socialize. Other users include visitors in general since the area acts as a shortcut towards Main Mall, which saves time spent on walking.  The fact that this area is open-spaced makes this courtyard very great people for people to get together during lunch and perform activities such as skateboarding.  The sculpture shown is historically significant as it was a prize winner at the first Outdoor Sculpture show held at UBC. The prize-winning piece is located to the northeast direction of the UBC School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (inside the Lasserre 496 | P a g e   Building), which is significant since the sculpture illustrates design elements that go hand-in-hand with architecture. The key feature of this sculpture is that it attracts the attention of people (especially students, but also tourists) from Main Mall as a result of being very visible, in which they further get attracted by the courtyard and go make a visit.  A group of three large Platanus x hispanica trees is seen to the northwest of the UBC Opera (Figure 1.3). These trees act as a gateway that separates the inner portion of the campus on the east from the parking lot on the west. The main users of this area are students who pass through in order to get to their next class; there are many classes in the vicinity as indicated by a huge combination of schools, buildings, and departments nearby. The students can also use this space for socialization as there are is a set of stairs for seating and therefore relaxation. A key feature to note is the wide tree canopy cover, which will help to control the urban heat island effect, especially since a large amount of pavement is existent, by providing shade.  The sculpture shown in the image above is found in the centre of the plaza, which is located in the center of the assessed site (Figure 1.4). The sculpture, having been donated by Alfred Blondell, is not only a cultural recognition but an attraction that catches the eyes of many people, whether it be students or visitors. The large ground area of the plaza makes the space ideal for many people to get together and socialize. Furthermore, there are Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’ trees located in the plaza, at the face of the Old Auditorium, which not only help to boost the aesthetic appeal, but also help evoke feelings of refuge.  This area of the site is divided through the center by Memorial Road which creates a walkway for its users to travel between Main Mall, the plaza, and parking lot (Figure 1.5).  Benches are located along the walkway of Memorial Road which allows for people to relax and socialize. Surrounding Memorial Road on each side is an alley of trees given the scientific name Prunus yedonensis. The vegetated line that stretches along the Memorial Road walkway plays a role in the infiltration of stormwater that goes downhill. The main users of this area are students, visitors, as well as tourists who simply pass through and/or come to admire the aesthetics, especially during the spring-time blooms.   4.0  Regulating ecosystem services Methodology There were two models used to assess and quantify the regulating ecosystem services in our zone; i-Tree Eco and i-Tree Canopy. In order to use i-Tree Eco, we had to upload our tree inventory data into the program. This allowed us to analyze the benefits and costs our inventory provides along with many other ecosystem services. There is also an option to forecast based on the tree inventory data that we collected. Using i-Tree Eco is reliable since it uses the exact data that we collected on our trees in order to provide an analysis on our site. A drawback to using i-Tree Eco was that some information was not available for some of our regulating ecosystem services (for example pollution removal) because either the amounts were too small or necessary information in order to value them were not available for our location. 507 | P a g e    To use i-Tree Canopy, you have to select your zone on a google map. Then you have to choose an area in the United States that would be similar to Vancouver (e.g. Washington), and then you proceed to plot random points within your zone. One must determine whether the point is ‘tree’ or ‘non-tree’ in order for i-Tree Canopy to calculate tree benefit estimates (for example: CO, NO2, O3, SO2). The more points that you plot on the map, the more accurate your percent cover and tree benefit estimates will be. The drawback to using i-Tree Canopy is that it doesn’t calculate the statistics based on the tree inventory data like i-Tree Eco, instead it’s estimated using random sampling based on what each point is classified as. There is a chance for human error with this method as well as the opportunity for different results if you perform this assessment multiple times.   Air Quality Regulation In order to analyze pollution removal for our zone, I chose to compare the results from i-Tree Canopy and i-Tree Eco before deciding to use i-Tree Canopy. This gave a well informed and accurate analysis of the benefits our trees make to the environment as well as the structural values associated. For each model, a comparison was made for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5).  The i-Tree Canopy tree benefit report estimates using random sampling and the data below was based on 100 points within our zone. i-Tree Eco provides similar information based on our tree inventory data, but the provided a value of zero for some of the trees either because the information was not available in our area or the reported amounts were too small to consider. Another difference is that i-Tree Eco is able to provide this information for each tree in our inventory. The i-Tree Canopy provides better information for pollution removal, but it isn’t 100% reliable either since it’s dependent on the person choosing the plot points and the randomness of the plots selected. This is important information to acknowledge when doing a data analysis like this. The results below compare the tree benefits analysis between each model for pollution removal in our zone.    i-Tree Canopy i-Tree Eco Value (CAD) Amount (oz/yr) Value (CAD) Amount (oz/yr) CO $2.47 44.80 $0.03 0.80 NO2 $4.79 357.28 $0.04 93.60 O3 $259.88 2182.56 $0.87 294.70 SO2 $0.64 128.32 $0.01 43.90 PM2.5 $1,026.81 749.6 $0.73 6.80 Figure B: Tree Benefits Analysis between i-Tree Canopy and i-Tree Eco - Pollution Removal (Letticia Smyth, 2019)     518 | P a g e   Disease and Pest Regulation The potential pest risk report on susceptibility to pests by stratum according to i-Tree Eco, presented results for 36 pests and diseases. The structural value and leaf area are also estimated based on the number of trees that we have indicated through our tree inventory (i-Tree Eco, 2019). The susceptibility report from i-Tree Eco calculates the damage that a potential outbreak could have based on species diversity in our tree inventory. The number of susceptible trees reflects only the trees within our inventory that could experience mortality due to pests and no other species that may be present in the area (i-Tree Eco, 2019). Since the report shows the total number of trees susceptible to pests and disease and not the species directly affected by each type of pest or disease, we can only speculate the repercussions of this data should any of the trees become susceptible.  Out of all of the trees in our zone, 16 are susceptible to pests including: western spruce budworm, winter moth, sirex wood wasp, southern pine beetle, pine shoot beetle, large aspen tortrix, gypsy moth, fir engraver, emerald ash borer, dogwood anthracnose, balsam woolly adelgid, and Asian long-horned beetle (i-Tree Eco, 2019). The structural value of the trees that are susceptible to pests is $92,637(i-Tree Eco, 2019). The leaf area percentage of trees susceptible to pests is 35.1% (i-Tree Eco, 2019).  Climate Regulation Climate change is one of the biggest threats our planet is facing. Due to human development, there has been an increase in levels in atmospheric carbon, contributing to climate change. Urban forests are vital components of the ecosystem as they play an important role in mitigating climate change. Trees are vital as they can function not only as a sink through carbon fixation during photosynthesis, but also as a storage for carbon, in the form of biomass (Nowak et al., 2001)  Carbon Sequestration  Urban trees are able to sequester atmospheric carbon in their tissues as they grow, influencing various processes (i.e. building energy use), and altering carbon emissions from their source (Greenfield et al., 2014). Integrating the data of all the 50 trees in i-Tree Eco, the gross carbon sequestration is estimated to be about 1096 pounds of carbon per year. This gross annual amount is associated with a value of Can $57.2 (i-Tree Eco, 2019). The carbon sequestered can be visualized in a different manner as this value is equivalent to about 179 gallons of diesel consumed, about 2,000 pounds of coal burned, or 0.318 homes’ electricity use for one year (Environmental Protection Agency, 2019).   529 | P a g e    Figure C: Estimated Carbon Sequestered and Values of Urban Tree Species(i-Tee Eco, 2019)  Based on the data generated by i-Tree Eco, the top species that sequesters carbon are Daybreak yoshino cherry, London plane, and Fastigate hornbeam. Daybreak yoshino cherry, being the top tree species, sequestering about 250 pounds of carbon, takes about 28% of the population of the trees, dominating the urban forest of the site with the highest number of trees. The second top tree species with the greatest sequestration is London Plane. Even though there are only 3 London planes in the site, they sequester a high amount of carbon as they are one of the most mature trees in the site (i-Tree Eco, 2019).  Carbon Storage Another way urban forest can mitigate climate change is through storing carbon within its accumulated tissue. About 19.3 tons of carbon is stored by all 50 trees located in the zone (i-Tree Eco, 2019). This value is equivalent to an annual carbon emission from 6-single family homes, CO2 emissions from about 8.2 million cellphones charged, or annual carbon emissions from 14 automobiles (3). The amount of carbon stored increases as the trees get mature and grow.  Figure D: Estimated Carbon Storage and Values of Urban Tree Species  (i-Tee Eco, 2019)          5310 | P a g eThe analysis of the urban forest of the zone through i-Tree Eco revealed that Austrian pine stores 23.6% of the total carbon stored, being the top greatest species for carbon storage. Austrian pines take about 14% of the population of the trees in the site, with 7 fully mature trees. The single Grand fir in the zone on the other hand, stores about 2.4tons of carbon, which is about 3.5x more than a single Austrian Pine (i-Tree Eco, 2019). The Grand fir in the site, referred to as the “Goliath” is the biggest tree located in the zone. Both sequestration and storage of carbon increases as the tree develop and grows, however, a significant factor that can affect these regulating services is maintenance. The carbon that is stored, can be released when a tree dies and decomposes. Maintenance of the trees is the key to keep the trees in good condition, further increasing the benefit we get from urban trees and mitigating climate change impacts. Water Regulation Another regulating services we benefit from urban trees is through regulation of water as they affect the various aspects of water such as movement, quantity, and quality. Urban trees, vegetation and shrubs have the capacity to control floods, water flow and the variability of water. They reduce surface runoff through infiltration and storage within their roots, intercepting rain (BISE, 2019). In addition to this, they are also capable of treating and purifying, absorbing toxic substances from water (BISE, 2019). The site is estimated to reduce runoff, by about 2.27 thousand cubic feet per year, in association to the total annual precipitation in 2010 of 46.4 inches (i-Tree Eco, 2019). All three of the London planes located in the zone, has the highest total avoided runoff of about 440 cubic feet (i-Tree Eco, 2019). The surface runoff avoided can be increased through adding more permeable surfaces by increasing number of healthy trees, maintaining vegetation along the zone, and proper management. 5.0  Cultural Ecosystem Services Sub-Zone 2A: The Reverie Precinct Aesthetics and Architectural Design: We cannot analyze the cultural services provided by this area without diving into its history, design, and architecture. The two meters recessed courtyard has a mid-century modern design that follows the surrounding buildings’ 1960’s design, under the principle of grid forms and straight simple lines. The upward verticality of this grade of tall Pinus nigra contrasts the background of low-rise horizontal buildings (Figure 1) with simple linear façade grids of intersecting perpendicular frames. The same can be said to the red oak and the two tulip trees, as they all share a vertical lofty outline rather than widely spread apart branches which redirects your vision upwards, towards the sky (Figure 1). You can’t help but notice that the trees’ location and species were carefully integrated into the design and concept and are an integral part of the overall composition of the sunken courtyard. This reveals just how much the landscaping and architecture are interrelated, interdependent, and complementary in their 5411 | P a g e   pursuit to establish a specific prevailing theme for this entire site on which they both harmoniously coexist.   Theme and Prevailing Ambience : The recession of the courtyard establishes a sense of privacy, where one can escape the traffic and noise of main mall, crescent road, and the parking and seek refuge in this platform which is semi-isolated but connected; as it is easily accessible from all directions, and open but enclosed within its surrounding buildings (Figure 2). This creates the perfect ambience for visitors to submerge themselves within the calmness and serenity created by the grade of pines, garden beds, and fence of trees behind the benches. This courtyard contributes great values and benefits for experiences of relaxation and peace of mind.  Sub-Zone 2B: A Structured Wilderness Aesthetics and Design: Diverse and multicultural species were chosen to form the grid of cherry blossom trees on both sides of the pedestrian and cyclists; lanes, the bushes and plants of the central rain garden/swale, and the Virginia creepers decorating the walls of the raised garden beds of Japanese snowbell. This area is garnished with various colors at different seasons throughout the year, as the cherries blossom in pink welcoming spring, the rain garden showcases degradations of green and yellow bushes during summer, and the Virginia creepers dress the walls in red during the fall (Figure 3, 4).  Theme and Prevailing Ambience: The diversity of species and colors and the organized linear grid that the lanes, trees, rain garden, and raised garden beds follow, all together create a structured wilderness that visitors can enjoy all year long. It is constantly changing the ambience by adding and removing natural elements throughout the continuous seasonal cycle. Visitors can meditate towards the direct end view of “Tuning Fork” sculpture and the outline of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the distant background of the Nitobe Memorial garden from one end (Figure 5), and W. Robert Wyman plaza on the other end.  Sub-Zone 2C: UBC’s Art Piazza Aesthetics and Design: This open piazza is designed for fine arts students enrolled in music, art, architecture, and theater. It is centered with a sculpture named “Tuning Fork” (Figure 6). The sculpture’s two upright complementary elements symbolize the deep interconnections between the various arts disciplines. Its vertical linearity also accompanies the trees and contrasts the horizontal buildings in the background. This arts piazza intersects sub-zone 2A through the walkway covered passage, allowing the flow of design and similar grid principles of the 1960’s from one courtyard to the other. The piazza is a meeting hub for the students from different faculties and hosts various social gatherings and interactive events. Even though it is encircled by rows of trees and memorial road, the piazza’s floor is dominated by grey concrete slabs and lacks green cover.    5512 | P a g e   Theme and Prevailing Ambience: The row of hornbeam trees acts as a green barrier to hide the concrete opera building and offer a natural view surrounding the sculpture. Memorial road from one side offers a variance of colors and London plane (Platanus x hispanica) on the opposite side hide the recessed parking and orients the view towards the outline of the Nitobe Memorial garden in the far end (Figure 5). This offers the piazza a variation of natural views from all directions and creates the perfect ambience for art and nature admiration. The benches offer resting stops and encourage sitting and meditation, however you still feel a bit distant from nature as it surrounds you but is not integrated within the piazza itself.   Sub-Zone 2H: First Tree Plaza Aesthetics and Design: The primary reason for this plaza to rank aesthetically the lowest, is perhaps due to its location behind and in between the back alleys of the surrounding buildings. It is accessible from four directions through the back lanes of the buildings. Such prominent trees should have been hosted in an attractive landmark site, open and clearly viewable from all directions. As one of the oldest sites on the current UBC campus, this area deserves more attention and the honorable treatment as a historical site.   Theme and Prevailing Ambience:  The plaza is clearly smothered by close concrete buildings, and no special importance is given to its trees. Although students pass by every day, the majority fail to notice the historical values behind the trees, as they are not highlighted in an eye-catching manner. The garbage bins are located right at the edge of the plaza, and beside their repelling smell, they distract your view away from the trees from all directions (Figure 7). The plates engraved with the age of the trees are small, located below our eyesight, and covered up by soil most of the times (Figure 8). In addition to that, linden attracts a lot of aphids throughout their growing season, and the aphids excrete sticky liquid, which makes the floor and benches underneath sticky and slippery. In fact, the concrete panels of the plaza are a bit stained from it and darker in color. All  these factors render the plaza inhospitable and unencouraging for sedentary and socializing activities.  Connectivity One can access the West Mall by one of two paths from the Main Mall: Memorial Road or the courtyard between the Frederic Lasserre Building and the Belkin Art Gallery.  Both paths are connected with the covered walkway hosting the art installation (Figure 9), and eventually merge at UBC’s Art Piazza in between the School of Music building and the Old Auditorium of the UBC Opera, which houses another art installation (Figure 6).  At the bottom of the wide staircase west of the Art Piazza, three large London plane trees (Platanus x hispanica) spread their long, twisty limbs to welcome people who are going up the stairs and seeing off those coming down the stairs (Figure 10). The area in front of the stairs is occupied by a parking lot, however, there are young trees growing slowly into large ones along the walk path in front of the University Transition Program Building, which guides 5613 | P a g e   pedestrians to the West Mall.  This walk path has a garden feature at the corner just before it reaches the West Mall.  There are shrubs (Pinus mugo and others) and well manicured flower beds at this corner, and this collection of vegetation buffers the busy feeling of the road (Figure 11).  It is a small feature, yet very effective as a green barrier.  Together the paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) at this corner, form a tunnel of shade and exhibit beautiful colour with their fine leaves and beautifully contorted trunks.  At this point, the pathway meets the shadow of ‘the Goliath,’ our largest tree, a grand fir (Abies grandis) which stands welcoming right next to the University Transition Program Building (Figure 12).  Regardless of its confined location, this tree exhibits a strong life force with scars that tell the history of its survival and limbs that stretch out like arms ready to embrace.    Green Vista  Memorial Road received a major facelift in 2013, transforming it from a regular paved road with parking spaces into a beautiful walk path equipped with benches, a rain garden, and rows of cherry blossom trees. (Figure 3, 13, 14, 15)  Remarkably, pedestrians’ views are occupied by a green vista to both the east and west of Memorial Road: large trees at either end create thick walls of green in the growing season.  In the fall, deciduous and herbaceous foliage in this location present a wide variety of colours, contrasted against the dark green of the coniferous foliage in the background. In the winter, the awe-inspiring silhouette of the deciduous trees with sparkling raindrops instead of foliage entertain viewers’ eyes, promising the spring season will come again.   6.0  Urban Forest Planning and Management Recommendations  The garden bed on the east side of the School of Music Building has multiple mature rhododendron.  They are all overgrown in their location, branches are brushing against the building wall and the walking path, and the area is filled with garbage.  This garden bed can be well revitalized when smaller, shade tolerant species, such as Hosta, Astilbe, Euphobia, Hellebores, Sword ferns, small shrubs such as Choisya, Skimmia, and Pieris fill this site, with a colourful display of flowers and foliage throughout the year.  Regulating Recommendations Goal:  Climate change adaptation Objective: Increase green space coverage and diversity while decreasing hardscape coverage Strategy 1: Resilience through biodiversity Strategy 2: Temperature reduction through removal of air pollutants Strategy 3: Maximize carbon storage and sequestration Strategy 4: Reduce VOC emissions from vehicles Action Plan: Increase canopy cover by 10% in 5 years, plant 3 giant sequoia trees in 5 years on the north side of the parking lot (west edge of our zone)   After completing the regulating services assessment, some important factors to consider is that most of these ecosystem services come from the large species that are present on our zone. This includes the 7 Pinus nigra, the 3 London plane, the Abies grandis, and the Sawara 5714 | P a g e   false cypress. In order to ensure there is no great loss of ecosystem service benefits, it will be important to plan for how to replace them including how many trees, what species, and when to begin planting them. The action plan above was made to take these concerns into consideration.  Cultural Recommendations Sub-Zone 2A This courtyard has much more potential to be harnessed. Although the grade of pines grants esthetic and spiritual functions to the courtyard, it is not utilized as much as it should. Inspired by the grade of red maple (Acer rubrum) in front of the Nest building (Figure 16), were students enjoy lying down under the sun, having a picnic, and hosting various events, we hope to convey similar recreational activities in our courtyard. To make it more inviting and hospitable, the prevailing irish ivy (Hedera hibernica) needs to be removed and grass planted to cover up the entire hill. This will provide more green spaces and opportunities to immerse within nature and  underneath the pine canopy and attract more visitors to this area (Figure 17). The tulip tree is raised into garden beds, by simply raising the edges and installing wooden benches on top, more inviting spaces for socializing and resting are gained. We also recommend reinstalling the “Cumbria” sculpture (Figure 18), as it further adds vibrance and artistic perspectives to the courtyard.  Sub-Zone 2C Increasing the green cover within the piazza itself will integrate it more with its surrounding nature, render it further hospitable, offer more permeable surfaces and provide shaded areas. We recommend substituting some of the panels with soil beds and planting more trees to create a direct link between social activities and green spaces (Figure 19).  Sub-Zone 2H Our primary target for this plaza is restoring the historical and cultural prominence of UBC’s first trees. We noticed that our site hosts four different sculptures (Figure 20). Touring around our site, visitors will experience similar and complementary spiritual experiences as they follow along the 1960’s ambience and come across the artworks at different locations, which enhances connectivity and linkage among our sub-zones. However, when they reach the tree plaza, they find themselves in an alley and the sensation of art and nature admiration starts to fade away. It is important to sustain the same course of experiences throughout the tree plaza as well. Installing a fifth sculpture in the plaza as a representation of  the age and prominence of these trees will liberate them from their concrete surroundings and highlight their values. Art can not only invite more visitors to the plaza, but also honor UBC’s oldest remains.     5815 | P a g e   7.0  References Biodiversity Information System of Europe. (2019). Ecosystem Services. Retrieved from: https://biodiversity.europa.eu/topics/ecosystem-services Greenfield, E. J., Hoehn, R. E., Nowak, D. J., Lapoint, E. (2012). Carbon Storage and Sequestration by Trees in Urban and Community Areas of the United States. Retrieved from: https://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/pubs/jrnl/2013/nrs_2013_nowak_001.pdf i-Tree Demo UBC. (2019). I-Tree Ecosystem Analysis: Urban Forest Effects and Values. Luker, E. (2019). UBC UFMP presentation for UFOR 101.pdf [PowerPoint presentation] Nowak, D. J., Crane, D. E. (2001). Carbon Storage and Sequestration by Urban Trees in the USA. Retrieved from: https://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/2002/ne_2002_nowak_002.pdf TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2011). TEEB Manual for Cities: Ecosystem Services in Urban Management. www.teebweb.org UBC Campus+Community Planning, Greening the campus, July 26, 2013. Retrieved from https://planning.ubc.ca/news-events/newsletter/2013-07-26/greening-campus UBC Campus Sculptures. (2012, December). Retrieved April 2, 2019, from https://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/sculptures/sculptures1.html  United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2019). Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator?fbclid=IwAR1KBri9xaiPxM9vCyg88tyOBnKKRHmLJiQumhGTtNysCOmBtgcV-k3lC0A   5916 | P a g e   8.0  Appendix   Figure 1. Courtyard in front of Lasserre building, UBC. March 11,       Figure 2. Retrieved from Google Maps, 2019. Edited by Nour Dalati.2019. Photo taken and edited by Nour Dalati.    Figure 3. Memorial road, post-renovation, UBC. Photo retrieved from Wikimedia commons https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Memorial_Road_UBC.jpg Figure 4. Memorial road, UBC . April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.    Figure 5. Memorial Road, UBC. March 13, 2019. Photo taken and edited  by Nour Dalati.  Figure 6. The “Tuning Fork” by Gerhard Class, 1968,  in front of the Music Building,  UBC. UBC Archives photo #1.1/15764. Retrieved from  https://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/sculptures/sculptures1.html 6017 | P a g e     Figure 7. First Tree Plaza, UBC. March 11, 2019. Photo taken by Nour Dalati. Figure 8. First Tree Plaza, UBC. March 11, 2019. Photo taken by Nour Dalati.   Figure 9. ‘Asiatic Head’ by Otto Fischer-Credo, 1958/replica by Gerhard Class, 1977, at the north end of the walkway, UBC. April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.    Figure 10. London plane, staircase and parking lot, UBC. April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.     Figure 11. Small green barrier at Memorial Rd. and West Mall, UBC. April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.       Figure 12. “Grand Fir” West mall, UBC. March 13, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka. 6118 | P a g e     Figure 13. Memorial Road, pre-renovation. Photo retrieved from https://pricetags.ca/tag/ubc/page/4/ Figure 14. Memorial Road, post-renovation.  Photo retrieved from Wikimedia Commons https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Memorial_Road_UBC.jpg   Figure 15. Memorial Road, post-renovation, the rain garden. Photo retrieved from UBC Campus + Community Planning  https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/news-events/newsletter/2013-10-18/turning-rainfall-resource Figure 18. “Cumbria”, In front of Lasserre Building, UBC. Retrieved from http://thetalon.ca/wp-content/uploads/ 2014/10/1737504296_d5a55cd5f3_z.jpg  Figure 16: Maple Grade in front of Nest, UBC. March 29, 2019. Taken and edited by Nour Dalati.  Figure 17: Pine Grade in front of Lasserre building, UBC. March 11, 2019. Taken and edited by Nour Dalati. 6219 | P a g e     Figure 19. The Arts Plaza, UBC. April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka, edited by Nour Dalati. Figure 20. Retrieved from Google Maps, 2019. Edited by Nour Dalati.    Value Mapping Stars indicates highest average value point among our group members, relative to other elements.   Diversity Aesthetics Social Cohesion Cultural Significance Not strong in any values (average point <2.0)     Figure 21. Retrieved from Google Maps, 2019. Edited by Yoshinori Tanaka       Figure 1.1. First Tree Plaza, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 6, 2019. Photo taken by Raphael Mendoza Figure 1.2. Courtyard next to the Frederic Lasserre Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. April 2, 2019. Photo taken by Dilraj Thind 6320 | P a g e     Figure 1.3.  Courtyard next to the Frederic Lasserre Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. April 2,  2019. Photo taken by Dilraj Thind Figure 1.4. A set of mature trees near the front of UBC Opera, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.   Figure 1.5. The “Tuning Fork” Sculpture in front of the Music Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka. Figure 1.6. Memorial Road,  UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. April 1, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.   64      Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka        Inventory Site, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. Photo taken from Google Maps  Assignment 1: Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment UBC Winter Term 2  Group 2 | UFOR 101 | February 10, 2019  65PAGE 1 Table of Contents 1.0  Group Contribution Description ............................................................................. 2 2.0  Introduction ............................................................................................................. 3 3.0  Site Description ........................................................................................................ 3 4.0  Methodology ............................................................................................................ 7 5.0  Summary of Tree Inventory Data ............................................................................ 8 5.1  Points of Interest ..................................................................................................... 10 6.0  References ............................................................................................................... 13 66PAGE 2 1.0  Group Contribution Description Letticia Smyth - 25639881 • Group leader • Excel file tabulation and management • Data analysis • Summary of tree inventory data • Formatting and grammatical review  Nour Dalati - 86255361 • Introduction • Methodology • Data analysis  • Summary of tree inventory data  Dilraj Thind - 77843482 • Site description  Raphael Mendoza - 57773533 • Site description • Photography  Matteus Yep - 20967659 • Introduction • Methodology  Yoshinori Tanaka - 88029608 • Points of interest within Summary of tree inventory data • Photography 67PAGE 3 2.0  Introduction  The tree inventories created by UFOR 101 students, will act as a database of the trees located on the UBC campus. The tree inventories serve various purposes vital for the maintenance and growth of the urban forest of UBC. Developing an urban forest management plan for UBC Vancouver campus, requires an understanding of the current urban forest coverage, existing trees’ locations, species, and health, to better asses, maintain, and enhance the current urban forest. The fundamental basics of such study is found in the data collected in the tree inventories. Whether through maintenance schedules for pruning, assessing the health and determining needs for removal and tree replacement,  or pest and disease control, tree inventories act as an asset to the management of all trees on campus. The tree inventories also serve as a platform to enhance current management policies, implement stronger strategies, and encourage more sustainable practices that allow urban forest management to meet UBC’s sustainability goals. The inventories are the building blocks for visualizing the ecosystem services provided by the urban forest and assessing the potential services it is capable of providing in the future.   The end users of the inventory come from a wide spectrum of disciplines. Authorities such as municipalities can benefit from the tree inventories by comparing the urban forest of UBC to other surrounding cities, and assessing budgets, hazard prevention, and possible future policies and plans. Researchers and academics like NGOs, professors, and students, can use the data from the inventories to study and conduct advanced research into various disciplines such as quantifying and qualifying ecosystem services and socio-economic dynamics. Citizens also benefit from such inventories as they become more involved in the management of the urban forest of the shared UBC community and aware of the various services valuable to their health and well being.   Through our tree inventory and report, we aim to contribute to the establishment of such a prominent database that will act as the premises for our second assignment, and hopefully for future sustainable development projects in the UBC community.   3.0  Site Description The selected site is located on the northwest portion of the Vancouver campus along SW Marine drive and Main Mall. It encompasses about 19669.3 square meters of land where various buildings are located. The main land use of the selected site is for institutional and park purposes, mainly for students and university employees. The main buildings within the scope of the site includes the Frederic Lassere Building, Music Building, Auditorium Annex Offices, Old Auditorium and old Administration building.  The main users of the site are students, employees and faculty members of UBC School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, School of Music, School of Community and Regional Planning, and Campus Administration. In addition to this, the site is covered by 68PAGE 4 herbaceous plantations and an array of tree species including  Platanus hispanica, Pinus nigra, Tilia americana, Prunus yedonensis ‘Akebono’ and Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’.    Figure 1. Memorial Road,  UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 4, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.  The site is divided in the middle by Memorial Road, creating a walkway through the Plaza and parking area. Memorial road is surrounded by an alley of Akebono Cherry trees, sitting area, and vegetation swales located in the middle of Memorial Road for stormwater runoff infiltration as it is a downhill slope. The swales act as infiltration basins, as well as visual and aesthetics purposes. The formally planted Prunus yedonensis ‘Akebono or Akebono Cherry trees creates movement leading to the Plaza. In addition, benches and a seating area are located along the walkway of Memorial Road.   Figure 2. The “Tuning Fork” Sculpture in front of the Music Building UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 4, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka. The Plaza, the center of the site, provides an open space where not only students can sit down, interact with each other, and a space of refuge, but also a great place for campus visitors to see. The plaza also provides an entry to the site where all the street meets as well as the parking lot. The “Tuning Fork” sculpture is located in the middle of the plaza. The sculpture, donated by Alfred Blondell, provides a cultural tribute to the artist and UBC School of Music. Along the borders of the plaza are formally planted deciduous Caprinus betulus ‘Fastigiate’, also known as European Hornbeams, overlooking the windows of the Old Auditorium (University of British Columbia, 2019). 69PAGE 5  South of the site, in front of the Old Auditorium, adjacent to the University Transition Program Building, is the First Tree Plaza. The plaza was made in remembrance and commemoration of the heritage trees that were located along the northwest corner  of the site. The plaza has provided a space for relaxation with the benches located in the plaza, and a sort of isolation or place of refuge as the plaza is surrounded by mature Tilia americana trees.   Figure 3.  Courtyard next to the Frederic Lasserre Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 6, 2019. Photo taken by Raphael Mendoza  This courtyard is conveniently located to the north of the Lasserre Building, and east of the Music Building.  The area is a great place for individuals to socialize as there are benches in the vicinity, as well as stairs on which people can seat.  The open space has been witnessed to be an ideal spot for students gathering during lunch or performing pastime activities such as skateboarding. A lot of visitors are also seen to pass through the area since it allows for easier access to Main Mall - a shortcut that saves walking time.  The courtyard also is a motivating factor for students who are studying art or design in either the school of architecture or music, or the art gallery; all three buildings are located closely across each other.  The large surface area and square footage of the courtyard allow for an inspiring view when looking outside the windows, while the trees can filter out excessive sunshine to help keep the building cool and lower air conditioning costs in the summer months.  The large tree seen in the image has the scientific name Liriodendron tulipifera. Towards the right (not shown in image) were a set of seven trees given the scientific name Pinus nigra.  Along the west side of the Lasserre Building (also not shown in image) were three trees with the name Styrax japonica. 70PAGE 6  Figure 4. A set of mature trees near the front of UBC Opera, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 4, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.  Towards the northwest direction of the UBC Opera is a set of three large trees given the scientific name Platanus x hispanica. The role that these trees play is that they act as a gateway leading towards the interior portion of the campus; isolating the parking lot on the west side from the inside part of the campus on the east. The stairs are a place of choice for people to socialize during the times of sunshine in the warmer months, in which the wide tree canopy cover plays a key role in providing a cooling effect via shade. In greater terms, the trees are also very beneficial in controlling the urban heat island effect. This is because the shade, again, provided by the large canopy would prevent the concrete from heating up which is witnessed around much of the surrounding. This area is known for its higher level of traffic also because of students walking to their next class; which could include a wide range of buildings since there are many schools and departments in the vicinity.  The walkway shown above is a structure that can lead individuals from the set of mature trees by the UBC Opera (shown in figure 4) to the courtyard that is north of the Lasserre Building and to the east of the Music Building (shown in figure 3). A walk through this walkway feels like a haven that evokes feelings of peace and tranquility; this is since it is very quiet, roofed, and free from a large crowd. Furthermore, the plants and shrubs immediately along one side of the walkway are also significant as they take the individual’s attention away from everyday struggles and causes them to de-stress and improve focus once again. In addition to this area being a great place for students to de-stress and restore focus, the walkway has also been a very popular place for art students to rehearse acting or practice photography/filming. Nonetheless, tourists have also been witnessed walking through this space. Something to note is that individuals might also pass through this walkway as it can provide shade from intense sunlight and shelter from rain, since it is, again, roofed. 71PAGE 7 4.0  Methodology Our group conducted a traditional ground-based field survey, where we measured and assessed all 50 trees located on our plot and from which we created our tree inventory. With the guidance of the Collector App, we established the borders of our zone. We began our work from the south corner behind the UBC Opera Building and covered our plot in an organized manner from one street to another until we reached the final destination behind the Lasserre Building. The first step was to match the tree on site with the same tree on the Collector App. We checked the tree tag on site and recorded the tree IDs found on the app. We determined the land use according to the i-Tree Eco categories and being located around UBC faculty buildings, all of our trees are categorized as institutional. We identified the species and genus from the Collector App. Using different measuring tools, we were able to measure various dimensions of the trees, such as the stem diameter at breast height (DBH) using the diameter tape, total tree height (TTH), living crown height (LCH) and crown base height (CBH) using the clinometer, and the crown width using the tape measure talley.   The DBH was measured at 1.37 m above the ground, and raised the measurement point enough to avoid swelling stems or branches in trees with irregularities. We came across two trees having more than one stem and applied the necessary adjustments to ensure proper measurement. The DBH of each of the multiple stems was measured and the average DBH was calculated.   The right side of the clinometer was used to estimate the percentage height. We measured the distance from the clinometer to the tree, recorded the percentage of the top and base of the tree, and calculated the total tree height by adding the two numbers then multiplying their sum by the distance. The crown base height was calculated using the percentage side of the clinometer as well, to record the percentage of the distance from the ground to the base of the live crown, and the distance from the base to the top of the live crown. We calculated the CBH by multiplying the sum of both percentages by the distance from the clinometer to the tree.  The percentage of crown missing was estimated based on observing the tree crown from at least two directions and visualizing the space missing between branches. Pictures from class lectures were used as a reference in making these estimates. The trees were observed in broad daylight where we assessed each side and the top for any areas where the trees would not be receiving sunlight. Some examples for sunlight blockage were from adjacent buildings or taller surrounding trees. The trees were then given a number from 0 to 5, indicating the crown light exposure (CLE).  To measure the crown width, we used the tape-measure talley to estimate the width of the crown on the longest side and then a perpendicular measurement. The crown width is calculated by the average of both sides, being their sum divided by two. 72PAGE 8 5.0 Summary of Tree Inventory Data The summary of our tree inventory data starts with the abundance of species composition. We have a quarter of our trees that are individual species, so we have highlighted in Figure 5 all of the species with 3 or more trees and in Figure 6, the pie chart comprises of the single tree species that are present in our zone.   Figure 5. Composition of Species: Abundance. Species consisting of >2 trees in our zone.  Figure 6: Composition of Species: Abundance. Trees that are included in the ‘other’ category.   Figure 7: Composition of species that dominate our zone.  The figure above highlights that over 50% of our urban forest consists of three main species: Pinus nigra, Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiate’, and Prunus yedonensis ‘Akebona’. There was also a 20% dominance by the individual trees in our zone. This made for an interesting composition in our zone since there were multiple areas that had all the same species and then some areas that were comprised of individual trees of varying species. 73PAGE 9  Figure 8. Urban Forest Structure. This graph shows the basal area coverage for the trees in each DBH class.   Figure 8 shows that the basal area was greater with the trees in the top DBH classes even though they only consisted of 8% of our total inventory. There is a large sample of trees that are in the 10-30 cm DBH classes which make up half of our total number of trees but have a basal area coverage less than the mean BA of .81 cm.   Figure 9. Urban Forest Structure: Total Tree Height.   Figure 9 represents to total tree height categorized by 6 different tree height classes. The tree heights in our zone range from 3.38 m to 28.51 m. The majority of our trees were within the 5-10 m tree height class which consisted of mostly Prunus yedonensis ‘Akebono’. The least number of trees were within the >25 m class and were both Pinus nigra. 74PAGE 10  Figure 10. Urban Forest Structure: Individual Tree Height and Mean   In figure 10, the scatter graph represents the height of each tree within our zone organized by species (alphabetically). The green line demonstrates the mean height which is 12.56 m. This can either mean that most of our trees are young plantings or smaller species selections.   Figure 11. Urban Forest Structure: Crown Width.   The individual trees have been sorted in this graph by species to highlight the similar size of crown width within the same species as well as the variability from one species to the next.   5.1  Points of Interest Group 2 had a great opportunity to perform the tree inventory on a site with remarkable points of interest. The elements described here are good examples of the cultural benefit which an urban forest provides us.  75PAGE 11 Firstly, in the courtyard behind the Geography Building, one can find a rock with a plaque commemorating UBC’s First Tree Plaza: “The first in a row of Class Trees running south behind the Geography Building, this Large Leaf Linden, Tilia platyphyllos, was the University’s first Class Tree. Initially planted at UBC’s Fairview Slopes Campus by the Graduating Class of 1919, it was later moved to its current location when the UBC Campus was relocated to Point Grey in 1923.” Since 1919, the graduation tree planting ceremony has been one of UBC’s traditions, and some 8,000 trees have been planted (University of British Columbia, 2019). In the UBC Report from May 3rd, 2007, this Tree Plaza is highlighted in an interview with Professor E.P.Oberlander: “In the 60s and 70s this area was the place to think, meet and visit with fellow students and to enjoy the natural beauty of the campus.” (Waugh, 2007)  According to the article, this plaza was once taken over by dumpsters, and it was no longer utilized as a ‘plaza.’ The President’s Advisory Committee on Campus Enhancement alongside with UBC Campus and Community Planning worked together to revitalize this area into a garden with benches and the commemorative plaque. (Waugh, 2007) The trees standing now are likely not the original trees planted in 1919; they look much younger. We found it significant that the graduation tree planting ceremony started exactly 100 years ago, and the site we surveyed includes the original location of the ceremony. This Tree Plaza has become, for sure, the place for thinking and visiting for the students of today.   Figure 12. The First Tree Plaza behind the Geography Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 4, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.  Figure 13. The First Tree Plaza Commemoration Plaque behind the Geography Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 4, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka.  Secondly, there is an impressive stand of seven Pinus nigra in the courtyard surrounded by Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, the School of Architecture Building and the School of Music Building. It is hard not to notice these large pine trees with their impressive form and height: some of them are close to 30m tall, and they are planted to form a group in the graded ground, which has an enhancing effect on the size of these trees as a whole. According to Egan Davis, Principal Instructor Horticultural Training Program at UBC, the planting design displayed here was a common trend in 1970’s (Personal communication, 2019).  76PAGE 12 This landscape architecture was designed successfully with foresight of the future of these trees in this courtyard, which suites very well to its given space without posing any possibility of failure in the near future. Additionally, one of these Pinus has a heavy lean which shows the acrobatic ‘bonsai’ quality in a large scale. All of them are in good health and they seem to be contributing to the quietness of the courtyard. Figure 14. Pinus nigra grove beside the Architecture Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 4, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka. Figure 15. Pinus nigra grove beside the Architecture Building, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 4, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka. Lastly, an Abies grandis on West Mall, south of the intersection at Memorial Road stands out.  David Tracey, the author of Vancouver Tree Book refers to this tree as ‘Goliath’ in his book. (Tracey, 2016) Indeed, it is a remarkable specimen. Despite the challenges to its growth and well-being, it stands gracefully with a grand height and form, full of foliage and strong life force. This Goliath marks near 21m in height, and it has a large trunk of near 120cm DBH. It is precious to see a tree this large in the urban setting; the contrast between the human infrastructure and the tree is visually impactful. Near the top of this tree, part of its trunk is exposed due to loss of branches, which adds great character to the tree. Compartmentalization, which is a defense mechanism against pathogens entry into the tree tissue (cambium, phloem and xylem), has successfully protected the part that survived. This trunk is visually scarred, however other parts of the same trunk are fully alive and functioning because of this defense mechanism. With trees, scars often add aesthetic beauty and the record their history. We admire their wisdom and resilience.  Figure 5. Abies grandis on West Mall at Memorial Road, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia. February 8, 2019. Photo taken by Yoshinori Tanaka. 77PAGE 13 6.0  References Tracey D. (2016) Vancouver tree book - a living field guide. Abies grandis (pp.52-53) University of British Columbia. (2019) Graduation at UBC - Tree Planting Ceremony. Retrieved from https://graduation.ubc.ca/event/about/tree-planting-ceremony/ University of British Columbia. (2019) UBC Campus Sculptures. Retrieved from https://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/sculptures/sculptures1.html Waugh B. (2007) Revitalized social space links campus to its grad roots. UBC Reports (Vol.53 No.5 May 3, 2007).  Retrieved from UBC News https://news.ubc.ca/2007/05/03/archive-ubcreports-2007-07may03-gradroots/ 78 79 Contributions:   Name  Contributions  Sam Clement Cover Page  Management Opportunities  Introduction Editing  Image creation Appendix  Liam Gannon Cultural Services Editing Site Description  Site Observation Traffic Map Chanel Yee Group Leader i-Tree ECO sections III,IV,V,VI i-Tree Canopy versus i-Tree Eco Results Comparison iTree Eco Methods of Model  Kristi Ellerbroek I-Tree ECO sections I,II,VII,VIII,IX  I-Tree Canopy  References Site Observation Dave Choi Introduction Site description Eric Wei  Cultural Services Site Observation Traffic Map         80 Introduction The objective of ​Assignment 2: Ecosystem Services Assessment​ is to draw upon ​Assignment 1: Inventory analysis, ​and assess the provision of ecosystem services at Zone 3 on the UBC Vancouver campus. The intent of this report is to provide stakeholders such as UBC Campus + Community Planning and UBC SEEDS an overview, assessment and informed suggestions regarding the ecosystem services provided by Zone 3. A previous inventory was conducted by UBC in 1998 which surveyed over 11,000 trees. Seventy-one trees were inventoried in our assigned area. Being a main thoroughfare for student traffic, and being historically relevant, the ecosystem services provided by Zone 3 are essential at making this space on campus an effective institutional environment, a proper assessment of these ecosystem services is essential for preserving this environment. Currently, students, professors, tourists and alumni enjoy and actively use this space on campus. In the future, UBC Vancouver Campus + Community Planning will use the gathered information to guide management opportunities and plans (UBC SEEDS, 2018, p.6). Future management choices include tree maintenance, risk assessment, the removal of trees in poor health, and the plantation of new trees in areas which require more species diversity or more overall tree abundance.   Site Description ​- ​See figures 1,2,3 Zone 3 is a two hectare area located on the north west end of UBC Vancouver campus. This land is fully institutional because it is situated within the university campus. It is important to consider the fact that “UBC lies on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territory of the musqueam people” (UBC, 2017). Main mall and West mall, the two arterial roads in Zone 3 are connected by Agricultural Road that serves as a collector road. Agricultural Road is subject to heavy pedestrian traffic. Many students from Ponderosa and Place Vanier use Agricultural Road to get to the main arterial road for classes. The close proximity of the Math Building, Geography Building, and the Sauder School of Business drive a large population of users to utilize Agricultural Road. It is also common to see UBC utility vehicles pass through Zone 3 along with the pedestrians. This has caused issues with soil compaction along Agricultural Road ​(See figure 4)​. Additionally, Zone 3 has many antiquated grey infrastructural with rich historical value.  Zone 3 is home to 16 tree species, with the most abundant species being: “Sawara Cypress” (Chamaecyparis Pisifera), the “Katsura” (Cercidiphyllum Japonicum), the “Autumn Brilliance” (Amelanchier grandiflora) and the “Japanese Crepe Myrtle” (Lagerstroemia fauriei). Across the seventy trees inventoried, there was diversity of native and non native tree species which reflects the diverse socio demographic nature of UBC. This biodiversity is helpful to maintain a healthy ecosystem and to improve ecosystem services in the area. Additionally, there are six basswood trees and three oak trees planted for the legacy and honor of the past graduates of UBC. In Zone 3, the integration of open green space layout along with the infrastructure provides a rich urban forest impression of the campus.     Ecosystem Services Analysis  Regulating Services I-Tree ECO Report Analysis iTree Eco Methods of Model Data retrieved from field work including tree species identification, DBH, total tree height, live crown height, crown base height, percent crown missing, and crown light exposure, was formatted in an Excel spreadsheet and then submitted to the iTree Eco software program. Through the standardized field 81 data, the program was able to quantify the structure of the urban forest and its associated services including: ● "Urban forest structure (species composition, tree health, leaf area) ●  ​amount of pollution removed hourly by the urban forest, and its associated percept air quality improvement throughout a year ● total carbon stored and net carbon annually sequestered by the urban forest ● effects of trees on building energy use and consequent effects on carbon dioxide emissions from power sources ● structural value of the forest, as well as the value for air pollution removal and carbon storage and sequestration ● potential impact of infestations by pests, such as Asian longhorned beetle, emerald ash borer, gypsy moth, and Dutch elm disease.” (iTree Ecosystem Analysis, 2019).  I. Tree Characteristics of Urban Forest Biodiversity is an essential factor to measure urban forests health and resiliency. In this section, results in species abundance and DBH classes measured by I-Tree Eco will be analyzed to asses Zone Three’s ecosystem conditions and resulting in regulating ecosystem services. For this section, i-Tree ECO created visualizations of Group Three’s tree inventory data to highlight Diameter at breast height (DBH) classes, species composition, and species origin. In Zone Three there is a total of 70 trees making up the urban forest composition in the zone. The urban forest in Zone Three is comprised of 70 total trees and 16 tree species. The most common tree species in the zone include Sawara False Cypress, making up 28.6% of the total tree population, and Apple Serviceberry and Katsura Tree that make-up 12.9% of the tree population each (​See figure 5​). According to I-tree ECO, these 17 species originate from all around the world, with 54% from Asia, 17% from North America, and only 4% from British Columbia, while the remaining 18% of tree species are of unknown origin (​See figure 6​). Diameter at breast height (DBH) in zone three varies widely. 34% of the 70 trees have a DBH under 6 inches (15.2 cm) which indicates that these trees are either quite young or the species in this class are traditionally small. 29% of these trees have a DBH in a range of 6-17 inches (15.24-43.18cm) and the majority, 37% of trees have a DBH larger than 18 inches (45.72 cm) (​See figure 7​). This results in 46 of the trees being in larger DBH class which indicates that these trees must be of an older, larger composition and structure. These results of species type, origin, and DBH indicate that there is some substantial biodiversity in Zone Threes urban forest, but there is slight domination in Sawara False Cypress, species from Asia, and larger DBH class. This indicates that tree selection is swayed towards larger trees, and since Sawara False Cypress originates from Japan, there is a slight preference of regional aesthetic in the area. The DBH class dominance could also indicate that the majority of trees in the zone were planted many years ago, giving time to DBH to become larger. Tree diversity in regards to species type, species origin, and DBH ensures a resilient ecosystem that can enhance regulating services. Regulating services that can be improved through substainatal species diversity include moderation of extreme events and disease and pest regulation (​Bank, 2010). Biodiversity can also increase cultural services such as aesthetic appeal through adding a “wildness” aspect in the diverse area.  II. Urban Forest Cover and Leaf Area Vegetation cover in urban areas can be a good indicator of urban forest ecosystem services in urban areas. I-Tree ECO assesses leaf area and tree canopy cover by USING measurements of percent crown missing and crown dimensions input by users( i-Tree ECO, 2019, pg. 21). According to i-tree ECO, Zone Three has 37.41 thousand square feet of tree cover, which equals to approximately 32% canopy cover in the zone ( i-Tree ECO, 2019, pg. 7) 82 Leaf area is a factor that contributes to overall ecosystem health due to the nutrients in leaves as well as their insulating properties and their ability to manage infiltration of rainwater into the soil (​Taugourdeau et al, 2014).​ ​In Zone Three it is estimated that there are 3.836 acres of leaf area ( i-Tree ECO, 2019, pg. 7).​ ​The dominant tree species contributing to leaf area are American Basswood, Sawara False Cypress, and English Oak ​(See figure 8)​.​ ​It is worth noting that although some of these species may have low representation in tree population, they significantly contribute to leaf area in Zone Three. English Oak and American Basswood only make up 11.5% of the total species population of Zone Three, but these two species contribute to 45.3% of the total leaf area in the zone ​(See figure 8). III. Air Pollution Removal by Urban Trees Urban forests "reduce air temperature, directly removing pollutants from the air, and reduce energy consumption in buildings, which consequently reduce air pollutant emissions from the power sources” (iTree Eco, 2019). When not removed, air pollution leads to poor human health, damage to materials and equipment and ecosystem processes, and reduced visibility. For this measurement, iTree Eco collects data for ozone, sulfur, dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter that is less than 2.5 microns due to relevance towards human health. iTree Eco’s estimates were determined by hourly tree-canopy resistance towards the pollutants stated above based on data collected from large leaf and multi-layer leaf canopy complexions well as leaf phenology and area. In terms of particulate matter that is 2.5 microns in size or smaller, there is possibility for this pollutant to either be released back into the atmosphere or removed during precipitation events. In the uncommon event where this resuspension occurs, an increase in atmospheric pollutant concentration will result. Air pollution value is calculated by Vancouver’s health effect incidence and median externality costs on the effects of the listed pollutants based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program. The program’s damage function approach “is based on the local change in pollution concentration and population” (iTree Eco, 2019). This analysis uses the pollution removal vale of $1,348CAN per ton of carbon monoxide, $95CAN per ton of ozone, $13 per ton of nitrogen dioxide, $5CAN per ton of sulfur dioxide, and $3,413 per ton of particulate matter that is less than 2.5 microns. The report also mentions that trees emit volatile organic compounds that can contribute to ozone formation. However, integrative studies have revealed that an increase in tree cover leads to reduced ozone formation (Nowak and Dwyer 2000). Upon further research, it is concluded that tree plantings will still improve air quality regardless of this factor, but species that emit a low amount of volatile organic compounds should be considered (USDA Forest Service, 2002).  Data is depicted on a three axis bar graph with pollution removed (pounds), pollutants (elements), and value (thousandths of a CAN$) on respective axes ​(See figure 9)​. Zone 3 removed the most ozone of the 5 pollutants accounted for at nearly 20 pounds worth $0.9CAN. Particulate matter removes one of the lowest amounts at around two pounds worth, but is valued the most at the closest to $1. Results include that the more available field data and pollution and weather data, the greater amounts of ozone trees can remove. Our zone removes a combined amount of 29.08 pounds of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (>2.5 microns in size), and sulfur dioxide per year, and is valued at $1.93 a year. The 29.08 pounds per year is equivalent to roughly 1.5 gallons worth of carbon emissions released. Trees in this site also emit around 7.4 pounds of VOC which contribute to ozone formation. iTree Eco’s documentation gives recommendation to improve air quality.​ (See figure 10)   IV. Carbon Storage and Sequestration Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration has to do with tree’s ability to convert inorganic, atmospheric carbon to organic form. Trees alleviate climate change especially in urban environments by sequestering atmospheric carbon and storing it in their tissue to build biomass. This calculation looks at the carbon 83 dioxide released from buildings and emitted from fossil-fuel based power sources and the amount of carbon that gets sequestered which increases with tree size and health. Estimated carbon sequestration was calculated using tree’s average diameter growth with the addition of the tree condition and then added to the existing tree diameter to measure carbon sequestration through carbon storage; the “tree dry-weight biomass was converted to stored carbon by multiplying by 0.5.” (iTree Eco, Appendix, p. 22).  Another three axis bar graph represents carbon sequestration in pounds, by species, and the annual value. Sawara false cypress sequesters about 410 pounds of carbon worth about $22 while Apple serviceberry sequesters the least at about 25 pounds and valued at around $1. Overall, the zone sequesters 1,335 pounds of carbon annually, valued at $69.6 CAN ​(See figure 11)​. The amount sequestered is equivalent to the emission of five cars that each hold twelve gallons of gas.  Carbon Storage Through carbon sequestration, trees build biomass and store carbon and release it back into the atmosphere when they die; it is an indicator of carbon released during decomposition. Carbon storage takes into account the amount of carbon found in woody vegetation above and below ground. Carbon storage was calculated using the dry-weight biomass which was then converted to stored carbon by multiplying by 5. Tree maintenance also has an effect for it allows continual carbon storage but can also contribute to carbon emissions. iTree Eco suggests that using wood of dead trees for wood products or to heat buildings will help reduce carbon emissions from the natural decomposition of from fossil fuel or wood based power plants. Results found that Sawara false cypress store and sequesters the most carbon of the site; storing approximately approximately 51.3% of the total carbon at 13.7 tons stored and 33.1% of all sequestered carbon valued at about $1,350/yr. Total results include 25.1 tons of carbon storage worth $2.61 thousand. Using the Red Oak trees that are along UBC’s Main Mall, that weigh roughly 2.16 tons, Zone 3 of 70 trees stores about 12.5 Red Oaks worth of carbon (​See figure 12​). iTree Eco is specifically useful in this case due to the contribution of each species in terms of carbon storage. Unfortunately, it does not include the species abundance in relation to other species and there is no clarity in regards to whether it is the species itself that stores more carbon or if it is due to the higher species abundance.  Value for Carbon Storage and Sequestration is based on Vancouver carbon values calculated at $104CAN per ton.  V. Oxygen Production Oxygen production is related to amount of carbon sequestered by trees which is connected based on atomic weights: “net O2 release (kg/yr) = net C sequestration (kg/yr)” (iTree Eco, 2019). For the purpose of this inventory report, oxygen production was determined from gross carbon sequestration and does not accounts for decomposition.  iTree Eco’s documentation is seen through a table with the top 20 oxygen production species in Zone 3 see . It includes, oxygen (pounds), gross carbon sequestration (pound/yr), number of trees, and leaf area (square feet) (​See figure 13)​. However, it does not specify if it is the average leaf area of the tree or not. A positive aspect is that it shows leaf area relation and the abundance of tree species as well as shows the oxygen produced as well as carbon sequestration per year. This data displays that oxygen production is relatively insignificant due to stable oxygen already present in the atmosphere and its production through aquatic systems; the atmosphere is a large reserve of oxygen. iTree Eco proposes that “[i]f all fossil fuel reserves, all trees, and all organic matter in soils were burned, atmospheric oxygen would only drop a few percent (Broecker 1970).” This scenario provided emphasizes the insignificance of oxygen production in the Zone. Sawara false cypress produces 1,177 pounds of oxygen, the most in the zone where the zone produces a total of 1.78 tons of oxygen/year. Upon further research, results included that the average 84 human inhales about 2.18 tons of oxygen a year; therefore, our zone produces roughly half of what one human would need to breathe in a single year.  VI. Avoided Runoff Avoided runoff is a benefit of trees and shrubs in urban areas. It is directly related to surface runoff which is the amount of precipitation that does not get intercepted or absorbed by vegetation or soils and other permeable surfaces. The presence of vegetation and root systems “promote infiltration and storage in the soil” (iTree Eco, 2019). Vegetation such as trees and shrubs intercept pollution from runoff that can end up in wetlands, lakes, oceans, and streams; however, iTree Eco only takes into account the precipitation that is intercepted by leaves, not including branches or bark. iTree Eco’s analysis came from the calculation of Vancouver’s annual precipitation and took the difference in annual avoided run off with and without vegetation present. Avoided runoff value is determined by estimated local values of Vancouver. In the case that local values are not available, the national average is taken and converted to local currency with exchange rates applied. The value of avoided runoff is calculated with the price of $0.07CAN per cubic feet. Zone 3 captures about 2.46 thousand cubic feet of avoided runoff a year at a value of $160 CAN. This is is equivalent to 69,659.44 liters worth of avoided runoff. The documentation for avoided runoff in Zone 3 is portrayed on a three axis bar graph with avoided runoff, species, and value (CAN$) on their respective axis. Tilia americana (American basswood) captures the most runoff in the zone at about 850 cubic feet of avoided runoff worth around $55 (​See figure 14​). On the other hand, holly species capture the least amount at less than 50 cubic feet worth around $1. Weaknesses of this include the misrepresentation of the quantity of species in the graph and how species abundance affects avoided runoff. Common names are also used rather than scientific and the holly species is not specified.  VII.   Trees and Building Energy Use  Trees have the ability to reduce building energy consumption in summer months by shading building, providing evaporative cooling, and blocking wind (iTree Eco, 2019, Pg. 15). Trees can affect energy consumption depending on location and distance of trees in regards to built infrastructure (iTree Eco, 2019, Pg. 15). Energy use savings can be estimated by measuring tree distance and direction to space conditioned infrastructure (iTree Eco, 2019, Pg. 15). For the purpose of Zone Three’s report, this data was not collected. Collection of this data in the future could give the UBC community information about annual energy savings in warm and cool seasons.  VIII. Structural and Functional Values Structural and functional values of urban forests estimate monetary values from benefits that trees provide in urban areas. Structural value is based on individual tree composition such as species type, age, and canopy cover, as well as carbon storage capacity in trees and their roots ( i-Tree Eco, 2019, pg. 16). Structural value is assessed in i-Tree Eco by estimating the monetary value of trees by the American Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers ( i-Tree Eco, 2019, pg. 22)​. ​The American Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers estimates value based tree species, condition, location, and diameter to produce structural value data used in i-Tree Eco (Nowak et al 2002) According to i-tree Eco, the major species that contribute to structural value include Sawara False Cypress, American Basswood, English Oak, and Incense Cedar, which amounts to approximately CAD $258 thousand structural value.  Functional values are based on the services trees perform and include carbon sequestration, avoided rainwater runoff, and pollution removal (​Lavorel, 2013). ​ ​i-tree Eco estimates that carbon sequestration in Zone Three values to CAD $70, avoided rainwater runoff is CAD $162, and pollution removal accounts to CAD $1.93 which equals to $233.93 functional value annually ​(See figure 15)​. 85 According to i-tree Eco analysis, the sum of structural and functional value in Zone Three equals CAD $260,843 ​(See figure 15)​.  IX. Potential Pest Impacts Various insects and diseases can infest urban trees and can potentially kill trees. These potential pest impacts can reduce the health and structural value of urban forests (MacLean, 2016). i-Tree Eco estimates potential pest risk by evaluating pest range maps from the Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team (FHTET) ( i-Tree ECO, 2019, pg. 23)​. ​Pests tend to have different tree hosts depending on location. In Zone Three, the most likely species to potentially damage tree species include Gypsy Moth, Winter Moth, Oak Wilt and Sudden Oak Death (fungus species), and the beetle species Polyphagous shot hole borer (i-Tree ECO, 2019, Pg, 17). According to the Zone Three i-Tree Eco report, these potential pests can cause a structural value reduction of CAD $154 thousand. This considerable value reduction demonstrates the significance of proper continuous management in urban forests, despite prominent establishment initiatives.   I-Tree Canopy i-Tree Canopy estimates tree cover and tree given functional services for a classified area through a random sampling process. This data is acquired through the classification of ground cover types by using Google Maps aerial photography (​i-Tree Canopy, n.d.).​ ​According to i-tree Canopies assessment for Zone Three, the zone contains a canopy cover of 29.3 percent with a standard error of +/- 5.26 percent. Total non-tree cover, which includes any built infrastructure or structure without green composition comprises 70.7 percent of the total area of Zone Three, which has a standard error of +/- 5.26 percent. i-Tree Canopy also measured estimated tree benefits in Zone Three. According to the i-Tree Canopy report, Zone Three removes 13 ounces of CO, 7 pounds of NO2, and 47 pounds of O3 annually ​(See figure 16)​. Additionally, Zone Three trees remove approximately 15 pounds of Particulate Matter (PM10) and 2.6 pounds of Sulfur Dioxide annually. Sequestered and stored Carbon Dioxide is also measured by i-Tree Canopy, with an estimated value of approximately 5 tons of CO2 sequestered by trees, and approximately 129 tons of CO2 stored in trees on site ​(See figure 16). i-Tree Canopy obtains data from user input by a series of data points that identify vegetative spots using Google Maps aerial photography. This method can produce results that measure relative tree cover in a confined area. This method can be helpful for an estimated canopy cover, but there is a possibility of standard errors in this method, as illustrated by Zone Three’s suggested 29.3 percent canopy cover with a standard error of +/- 5.26. This method is also prone to human input errors while establishing points on the aerial view map. Estimated tree benefits also have a possibility of standard error, which an average +/- 4.97 standard error for tree benefit amounts of CO, NO2, O3, CO2, ect. Although these estimates may not be entirely accurate, data from i-Tree Canopy is beneficial to visualize relative amounts of canopy cover and tree benefits. i-Tree Canopy can be an effective tool to approximately estimate ecosystem services through vegetative cover analysis. Such ecosystem services that can be estimated include moderation of extreme weather events, pollination, and pest mitigation, and can possibly inform stakeholders on climate, water, and erosion regulating services through estimated vegetative coverage (​Lavorel, S. (2013) & (​Bank, W. (2010)​.   i-Tree Canopy versus i-Tree Eco Results Comparison  During this inventory and ecosystem services assessment, both iTree Eco and iTree Canopy contributed qualitative and quantitative results for regulating services. While the two produced some overlapping summaries, the two programs differed in various ways. Using Zone 3’s field data, iTree Eco produced a sum of all values for respective services (such as air pollutant removal) where as iTree 86 Canopy provided the individual measurements and values of respective pollutants; therefor, iTree Canopy is more specific with numbers and Eco gives an overview of values.  In terms of methodologies used in the respective software, iTree Eco uses standardized field data and local hourly air pollution and meteorological data to quantify urban forest structure and its numerous effects. iTree Canopy’s accuracy relies on the ability of the user to classify points into accurate classes being tree or non-tree. The number of points in the system also influences results; the more points, the more accuracy.  The Eco program was especially useful for giving an overview of the enter forest including methodologies, calculations, results, and summaries. Canopy focused specifically on canopy coverage within the zone and the benefits such as pollutants removed and carbon that is sequestered and stored through the canopy coverage of the urban forest. In terms of result values, numbers varied between the two programs. A cumulative value of the overlapping air pollutants removed came out to be around 60.46 pounds in iTree Canopy whereas iTree Eco revealed 29 pounds. Similarly, monetary values differed substantially where Canopy produced a much larger number and also had different currencies. When such results are reviewed, standard error is important note. Another comparison between results is the inclusion of particulate matter that is greater than 2.5 microns in the iTree ​Canopy report as opposed to iTree Eco measuring particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less.  Cultural Services   Zone 3 assessment of ecosystem services used several methods of analysis including a value mapping process, analysis of the areas traffic-pedestrian flows and observations of various social interactions. Those analyses led to the creation of three different metric related figures presented in the following section. The first figure represents the value mapping process which produced 5 value maps individually addressing specific subcategories. The second figure is a visual representation of the pedestrian traffic flows through out Zone 3. The third and final figure is a hot spot analysis representing the various specific areas of social cohesion and cultural significance within Zone 3.   Value Map:  In order to create the five value maps, each member of group 3 was given the opportunity to assess Zone 3 based off of five subcategories; Diversity and Species Richness, Cultural Significance, Aesthetic, Social Cohesion and Wilderness/Nature. Zone 3 was then divided into smaller subzones. Each member of the group individually assessed each subzone by each subcategories using a scale from zero to five. The values indicating low to high values respectively. The average values were then taken for each subzone within each category to create the visual map.  Evaluating each of the subcategories through value maps has its strengths and weaknesses. The evaluation was goal oriented and quantitatively based. Its assessment was conducted by students with a significant familiarity with Zone 3; however, it is important to note that it was not performed by full time users of Zone 3. Additionally, not all subcategories are easily converted from qualitative feel to quantitative values. Depicting qualitative observations through quantitative values may have resulted in inaccurately depicted data. The maps indicate the average values given to each subcategory through the opacity of the green shading within each subzone. A darker shade of green is associated with a higher value, and a lighter shade or no shading indicates a weak to a non-existent value.   87 Aesthetic: ​See figure 17 The figure created for aesthetics reveals that the project area has a fairly consistent aesthetic throughout Zone 3. Although this may seem positive and the presence of an existing aesthetic is a good foundation, the average values for Zone 3 range between 2.5 to 3. This sets a good foundation for the project area to further improve its aesthetic, which will contribute to the overall value of Zone 3.   Diversity and Species Richness: ​See figure 18 The overall diversity and species richness of Zone 3 greatly varies subzone to subzone. The two mathematics buildings have the greatest surrounding species diversity and richness at an average of approximately 3.25. The geography building and surrounding subzones are in the middle with an approximate average value of a 2.25. The lowest evaluated subzone is at the Koerner library with an average value below 1. It should be a priority to not only increase the areas values but to have greater diversity within all of the Zone 3’s subzones.   Social Cohesion​: See figure 19 Zone 3’s overall social cohesion is low with nearly all values remaining below a 2.5, with the exception of two subzones. The current social cohesion within Zone 3 is provided by the several worn down benches located around the math and geography buildings and the urban gardens in the courtyard of the geography building. There is significant room for improvement around the remaining subzones to provide opportunities for cohesion.   Wilderness/ Nature:​ See figure 20 The multiple subzones’ abilities to mimic a feeling of the natural environment held fairly consistent throughout the project area. The values all ranged on the lower end of the rating scale and leave great opportunities for improvement. The far side of the geography building had the greatest feeling of immersion in nature due to the stand of tall, relatively mature false cypress. The false cypress donate themselves specifically to providing a wilderness associated feeling year round, as coniferous trees maintain their canopy throughout the winter season.   Cultural significance​: See figure 21 Cultural significance is consistently low throughout Zone 3. Only one subzone has as a significant contribution to cultural significance, located in the courtyard of the geography building. This concentration of cultural significance is provided by the several graduation trees, as well as informational and commemorative plaques located around the courtyard (​see figures 22,23 and 24​)​. It is important to note that the graduation trees are monocultural. With one tree already dead, it is important to consider the conservation of these trees as well as future species diversification in order to mitigate imminent risk towards this aspect of cultural services.   Traffic Flow Map: ​See figure 25 The pedestrian traffic flow map was created by three members of the group observing the different traffic patterns of Zone 3 at various locations and times. After observing  the area over an elapsed time of approximately 3 hours between the 3 individuals, the observations were then categorized per each main path, sidewalk or street. These flow patterns were then assessed on the basis of volume to create the final map.  The traffic map’s creation is a qualitative approach at attempting to understand Zone 3’s uses and traffic flows. Although the observation  times were varied, not all variations of potential environmental 88 factors were observed. This could cause potential variations in traffic flow, however the overall variation in times of day as well as scheduled days were considered during the observation process.  The traffic map illustrates the highest volume of traffic throughout Zone 3 traveling along the sidewalk of west mall, down agricultural road, in between the math annex and the math department, and finally traveling down the left cross path in the courtyard. More moderate levels of traffic flow through the furthest side of the geography building and in between the geography building and the mathematics department. The lowest levels of traffic travel in and out of the buildings.  The various traffic flows throughout Zone 3 reveal important implications about Zone 3’s use. The heavy volume of traffic flows throughout Zone 3’s main paths with reduced volumes entering and exiting the buildings suggest that Zone 3  is primarily used as a thoroughfare. This is important to acknowledge, as many of Zone 3’s cultural services should be focused on benefiting the pedestrians passing through the area, additionally to the users of  Zone 3’s buildings. The traffic map reveals the areas of heaviest pedestrian occupation and should be used to model future placement of many cultural services. Currently the sites highest valued cultural services exists in the less trafficked areas. Considering these locations and the Zone 3’s current traffic patterns will considerably increase the area’s effectiveness towards cultural services.   Hot Spot Map: ​See figure 26 The hot spot map was created using the same method as the pedestrian traffic flow map. During the observation process, observers noted locations of social cohesion where users would rest and interact amongst each other. These locations were marked as hotspots along with areas around Zone 3 that were noted to provide cultural significance to its users. The hotspot approach used is an objective approach that analyzes the physical environment provisioning of cultural services. It is a effective way to view how Zone 3 provides cultural services based on its physical surrounding but may miss areas of social cohesion that exist sporadically, unrelated to the obvious physical environment.  The hotspot approach used is an objective approach that analyzes the physical environment provisioning of cultural services. It is a effective way to view how Zone 3 provides cultural services based on its physical surrounding but may miss areas of social cohesion that exist sporadically, unrelated to the obvious physical environment.  The hotspot map displays two different categories of hotspots.. The purple hot spots, indicating social cohesion, are comprised of a combination of provided seating, and a table located outside the geography building. The yellow hotspot indicate areas of cultural significance that Zone 3 has to offer. This map highlights a stand of graduation trees as well as locations that feature various commemorative or informational plaques.  The hotspot map, like the values map, indicates a significant concentration of the locations for both social cohesion and cultural significance. In order to improve the effectiveness of these cultural services a greater distribution of these services would be beneficial.          89 Management Opportunities   Compiling evidence from ​Assignment 1; Inventory Analysis​ and evidence from ​Assignment 2; Ecosystem Services Assessment, ​group 3 informed strategic management options.   Methodology When developing a methodology to inform management options for ​Zone 3​ we first looked at the management cycle; Where are we know? Where do we want to go? How do we get there? Have we arrived? Due to the nature of this assignment, we decided to focus mainly on the first three steps of the management cycle. Saying this, upon suggesting improvements for Zone 3, it is important to set logical and quantitative goals in order to evaluate future progress.  Swot Analysis  To begin; Where are we know? Our group conducted a SWOT analysis for Zone 3. When conducting a SWOT analysis, the site was assessed for its ​Strengths​, ​Weaknesses ​, ​Opportunities ​, and ​Threats​. By compiling the information from three separate SWOT analysis; (tree inventory, regulating ecosystem services, and cultural ecosystem services), the group developed an overall SWOT analysis for our site; See Appendix Figure 26   Overall SWOT Analysis; See figure 27   Goal Planning  Once the SWOT analysis had been conducted our group discussed in what ways we could improve the site (keeping in mind the opportunities and threats which have been identified). First, we decided four goals; broad topics for how our site could improve. Next, 4 feasible objectives corresponding to each goal were decided. When choosing objectives, feasibility and use of existing opportunities were the most important factors.   Goal #1: Increased Permeable Ground - See appendix figures 28 and 29  Objective: Replace all impervious pathways with permeable brick pavers. Taking into account the existing pathway network, we noticed high non-permeability, and the high risk of water pooling/flooding at our site, the first goal our group established was increased permeable ground. To achieve this, an objective of replacing all impervious pathways with permeable brick papers was set. If achieved this would create a more reliable stormwater management system, add aesthetic value and add approximately 19280 sq ft of permeable ground to the site.   Goal #2: Increased Cultural Awareness - See appendix figures 30 and 31  Objective: Redesign graduation tree plaques  Considering the lack of awareness surrounding the geography class trees at site 3, our group decided the second goal should be cultural awareness. The existing class trees at site 3 are greatly overlooked due to lack of proper representation. Rather than a plaque depicting the purpose and story behind these trees, deteriorating rocks with engraved class years tell the story of the trees. To improve this, our group made an objective to redesign the graduation tree plaques. By redesigning the class-tree plaques in order to better explain their purpose, and adding 90flowers surrounding class trees, there will be a greater value surrounding cultural awareness at site 3, greater aesthetic value, and greater appreciation towards UBC alumni. Goal #3: Increased Climate Change Mitigation - See appendix figures 32,33,34,35 Objective: Add carbon storing elements to site 3. After discovering the relatively low carbon sequestration per year and relatively low particulate removal, our group set a goal to improve climate change mitigation at site 3. To achieve this goal, our realistic objective was to use empty space such as building roofs and walls more efficiently. Our vision for this objective is to create a green wall on the back of the Koerner library and a green roof on top of the geography building. Through these mechanisms, over 30000 sq ft of carbon-storing elements will be added to site 3, there will be better roof-top water absorption, added aesthetic value, and increased particulate removals. Goal #4: Increased Social Cohesion - See appendix figures 36 and 37 Objective: Create an urban green space for students to congregate Noticing the heavy traffic and inefficient use of space at site 3, our group saw the potential for an improvement in social cohesion. After setting a goal for increased social cohesion, considering the opportunity section of the site analysis, we set an objective to redesign the large unused courtyard in the center of site 3. We envision a social hotspot, this would include a set of picnic tables and chess boards, added deck space, and 1427 ft of added rain gardens. Picnic tables, chess boards, and added deck space will provide students with 1681 sq ft of redesigned study, recreation, and leisure space. Rain gardens will improve aesthetics, stormwater regulation and the connectivity of green infrastructure (such as integration with existing rain gardens on site). Another main point in this objective was to ensure all areas remain permeable, as water pooling was an issue previously in this area. 91 Appendix                    Figure 1:​ Front of Geography building                  Figure 2:​ Courtyard in centre of Zone  92                   Figure 3:​ Math Annex building                        Figure 4:​ Soil compaction Zone 3  93  Figure 5: Species Population Graph   Figure 6:​ Species Origin Graph  94  Figure 7:​ Species DBH Graph   Figure 8:​ Species leaf area Graph          95              Figure 9:​ Air pollution removal by trees                    Figure 10:​ Urban forest management strategies to help improve air quality           96  Figure 11: ​Annual gross carbon sequestration and value                      Figure 12: ​Estimated Carbon Storage and Values 97  Figure 13: ​Top 20 oxygen production species    Figure 14:​ Avoided Runoff and Value 98  Figure 15: Structural Values  Figure 16: Tree Benefit Estimates         99   Figure 17:​ Aesthetic Value Map   100   Figure 18:​ Diversity and Species Richness Map    101  Figure 19:​ Social Cohesion  102Figure 20:​ Wilderness / Nature 103  Figure 21:​ Cultural Significance        104 Figure 22:​ Stand of Graduation trees 105  Figure 23:​ Community garden information sign  Figure 24: ​Graduation class benches  106                  –​ = High volume of traffic –​ = Moderate volume of traffic  –​ = Lower volume of traffic –​ = Minimal volume of traffic Figure 25:​ Traffic Map            107   –​ = Areas for Social Cohesion –​ = Elements of Cultural Significance  Figure 26:​ Hotspot Map        108 Strengths - High traffic area - A broad range of DBH classes - Diverse age range - Relatively high canopy cover   Weaknesses - Low permeable ground - Many species, however, lack of representation from some species - Dominance by few tree species - Lack of social activity / social cohesion - Low awareness of cultural significance  -Low yearly carbon sequestration and particulate removal Opportunities - Large unused courtyard - Roof-area on multiple buildings - Existing pathway network - Existing graduation trees Threats - Pest outbreak - Flooding - Tree death  Figure 27​: Swot analysis for Zone 3                 Figure 28/29:​ Before and After; Increased Permeable ground         109                     Figure 30/31:​ Before and After; Increased cultural Awareness   Figure 32:​ Before: Geography building roof  110  Figure 33:​ After: Geography building roof                   Figure 34/35: ​Before and After: Carbon storing elements (Green Wall)      111                Figure 36/37:​ Before and After: Redesigned social space                           112 References   Bank, W. (2010).  Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change : The Economic Problem. Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change : The Economic Problem​. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18379.  How many trees does it take to produce oxygen for one person? (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2019, from BBC Science Focus Magazine website: https://www.sciencefocus.com/planet-earth/how-many-trees-does-it-take-to-produce-oxygen-for-one-person/ I-Tree Canopy. (n.d.). Tree Canopy v6.1. Retrieved from ​https://canopy.itreetools.org/  I-Tree Ecosystem Analysis UFOR_Group_3_Analysis [Program documentation]. (2019, February)  Lavorel, S. (2013). Plant functional effects on ecosystem services. ​Journal of Ecology,​ ​101​(1), 4-8. Retrieved from ​http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/stable/23354660  MacLean, D. A. (2016). Impacts of insect outbreaks on tree mortality, productivity, and stand development. Canadian Entomologist, 148, S138-S159. doi:​http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.4039/tce.2015.24  Nowak, D. J. (n.d.). ​THE EFFECTS OF URBAN TREES ON AIR QUALITY​. 5. UBC 2017 Stadium Neighbourhood Tree Inventory Project_0.pdf​. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/UBC%202017%20Stadium%20Neighbourhood%20Tree%20Inventory%20Project_0.pdf Nowak, D.J.; Crane, D.E.; Dwyer, J.F. 2002a. Compensatory value of urban trees in the United States. Journal of Arboriculture. 28(4): 194 - 199.      113 SEEDS, U. (2019, January 13). ​​PowerPoint​​ [PPT]. Vancouver: Tahia Devisscher. * Seeds presentation from Jan 9 2019 *  Taugourdeau, S., Maire, G. L., Avelino, J., Jones, J. R., Ramirez, L. G., Quesada, M. J., . . . Roupsard, O. (2014). Leaf area index as an indicator of ecosystem services and management practices: An application for coffee agroforestry. ​Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment,​ ​192​, 19-37. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2014.03.042  114   115University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Contributions: Group Member: Contributions: Sam Clement  58384082 Report:  - Cover Page - Data Calculations - Introduction - Site Description  - Figure Creation - References Pages Fieldwork:  - Crown light exposure - Crown percentage missing - Crown width  - DBH - Species identification - Tree ID Eric Wei 19443001 Report: - Facilitation/ determination of summary section and metrics - Appendix - Data Entry - Data Calculations - Figure Creation - Summary: - Native vs. Exotic Species Field Work: - Total Tree Height - Crown Base Height - Live Crown Height - Recording Tree Tag ID Chanel Yee (Group Leader) 57531873 Report: - Data entry - Methodology section - References page - Revision  Fieldwork:  - Crown light exposure - Crown percentage missing - Crown width  - DBH 1 116University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 - Species identification - Tree ID Liam Gannon 31459944 Report:  - Facilitation/ determination of summary section and metrics - Data Entry - References page  - Data Calculation - Revision - Summary Section:  - The Difference in Total Tree Height (TTH) from Live Crown Height (LCH) vs. Species and Average Crown Missing Percent per Species - Relative Basal Area in percent per Species Field Work: - Total Tree Height - Crown Base Height - Live Crown Height - DBH - Species ID - Tree ID Dave Choi 86747680 Report: - Facilitation/ determination of summary section and metrics - Figure Creation - Data Entry - Data calculations - Data review & corrections - Summary Section - Average Crown Base Height and Crown Width per Species   Fieldwork:  - Tree ID - Species ID - DBH - Land use  - Tree Tag  2 117University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Kristi Ellerbroek 58306267 Report:  - Figure Creation  - Data calculations - Summary Section  - Crown Light Exposure - Coniferous vs. Deciduous Species Fieldwork:  - Tree ID - Species ID - DBH - Land use  - Tree Tag                             3 118University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Figure 1: ​ Inventory site for group 3. Locations of the three most abundant tree species are included;  see legend in top left corner.   Introduction         The purpose of this project is to update the University of British Columbia Vancouver Campus’ tree inventory by performing inventories divided into several sections around the UBC Vancouver academic core. Using predefined tree identification numbers and locations found on the collector app for ArcGIS, metrics are added to the existing database, including location, species, size, structure and health. This information will provide important insights into the structure, diversity, and condition of the urban forest on campus. In the future, UBC Vancouver Campus + Community planning will use the gathered information to guide management opportunities and plans (UBC SEEDS, 2018, p.6). Future management choices include tree maintenance, risk assessment, the removal of trees in poor health, and the plantation of new trees in areas which require more species diversity or more overall tree abundance.  Site Description The defined project site for is a two-hectare area on the north-west end of the UBC Vancouver                 campus. The land use of the site is one hundred percent institutional; however, it is important to note,                  “UBC lies on the traditional, ancestral and unceded territory of the Musqueam people”(UBC, 2017).  The project area has two main roadways, West Mall, which runs on the west boundary of the defined area, as well as Agricultural Road, a non-public vehicle pathway which runs on the south boundary of the defined site. Agricultural road is heavily trafficked by students as it connects UBC’s main mall to West Mall. The road also acts as main route in the network of pathways in the site, leading students to buildings such as the Geography Building, Math building and  Integrated Sciences Building. Due to the frequently trafficked pathways through the center of the site, the main users of this area are students traveling to class. Although a large percentage of site use includes transit, in warmer seasons the area may be popular amongst students as an outdoor study space. Due to the proximity of the Math Building, Geography Building and the Sauder School of Business, the population of students is greatly diverse in terms of represented faculty. This project area is home to 16 different tree species, the most abundant species include: “Sawara Cypress” (Chamaecyparis Pisifera), the “Katsura” (Cercidiphyllum Japonicum), the “Autumn Brilliance” (Amelanchier grandiflora) and the “Japanese Crepe Myrtle” (Lagerstroemia fauriei). In total, 71 trees were mensurated on our site (​Table 1)​, along with these trees a great variety of shrubs and flowers were found. The defined site provides a great mix of native and non-native trees (​see graph 1 on appendix) 4 119University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 which suits the diverse sociological environment of UBC, an element which is greatly important in any urban forest.   Graph 1: ​Native Tree Species Vs. Exotic Tree Species.           Along with great diversity, the natural elements of this site provide the community with a variety of ecosystem services. This site provides valuable cultural services to the university through six basswood trees and three oak trees which are dedicated to several previously graduated classes.          In terms of the significance of the predefined site amongst the whole UBC Vancouver campus, this site offers an open-layout greenspace which allows for many natural benefits otherwise unavailable to students amongst the often “grey” university campus. The site may seem negligible amongst the large Vancouver campus; however, as seen in the figures and graphs below, it plays an important role in the greater urban forest.  Table 1: ​Species found in project area, 71 trees total, 16 species.  Species Common Name Count  Species Common Name Count Acer Palmatum Japanese Maple  1  Crataegus Hawthorn 1 Amelanchier grandiflora Autumn Brilliance  5  Ilex pernyi Perny Holly 2 Arbutus Menziesii Pacific Madrone  2  Laburnum x watereri vossii Bean Tree 1 Calocedrus Decurrens Incense Cedar 3  Lagerstroemia fauriei Japanese Crepe myrtle 5 Cedrus atlantica "Glauca" Atlas Cedar 1  Prunus sato zakura group Japanese Cherry 3 Cercidiphyllum Japonicum Katsura 9  Pyrus calleryana Callery Pear 5  Chamaecyparis Pisifera Sawara Cypress 20  Quercus robur Common Oak 3 Corylus Maxima purpurea Purple Leaved Filbert 4  Tilia americana Basswood 6 5 120University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Methodology:  For the purpose of this paper and the UBC Inventory report, team members were assigned to collect data in terms of tree ID and species in correspondence with Collector for ArcGIS. Students were also tasked with locating tree tags if applicable, recording land use, measuring diameter at breast height, total tree height, live crown height, crown base height, crown width, crown missing, and crown light exposure in the defined area. Measurements were taken in the field and calculations were to be completed after relevant data was collected.  Methods Used for Inventory Data Collection On-the-Ground The methodology used for field work execution involved the basic procedure of data collection with the inclusion of the team’s own method. Team members were divided into smaller groups of one to two, each assigned with different tasks in terms of what measurements to be taken. Where some tasks turned out be quicker, the leading group created the path for the remaining groups to follow in correspondence with their order of trees.   Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) The first group that set out located trees and recorded the tree ID number and species from the Collector for ArcGIS app, checked for a tree tag and recorded it if applicable. The group then identified if the tree was living or dead, classified the land use, and recorded diameter at breast height using the diameter tape measure. This group would then outline and create the path for the rest of the group members to follow in terms of the order of trees to measure. For this purpose, the team created their own style of keeping track of trees, aside from the information given on the app. Each tree was given a number ranging from 1-71, marking each tree with its assigned number as the group created the path.  Total Tree Height, Live Crown Height, Crown Base Height The next group that set out was in charge of recording data for total tree height, live crown height, and crown base height with the use of the clinometer.  Total tree height was measured along the main stem of the tree from the base to the top, regardless of the live crown height for this specific measurement. These measurements were taken by measuring the distance from the base of the tree to the person standing with the clinometer. The percent seen on the right side through the clinometer is then recorded.  The procedure explained above applied to the measurement of live crown height and crown base height with a few adjustments.  Live crown height and crown base height measurements were taken from the same distance away from the tree base as the total tree height measurements. Percentages were recording using the clinometer from the base of the tree to the top of the live crown along the main stem. Crown base height measures the height from the base of the tree to the height of the live crown which is determined by the lowest level of live foliage on the last branch. For trees that had a large crown base height, the same procedure used to measure total tree height was repeated with the clinometer. For trees that had a relatively low crown base height, an eslon tape measure was used. The calculations for the measurements listed above were all done in the same manner. The equation goes as followed: the absolute value of the sum of the two percentages taken from the base and the top of the tree, the top of the live crown, the base of the crown and finally multiplying that by the distance in meters.  During the data synthesis process, team members noticed some discrepancies and inaccuracies in some of the recorded values in regards to total tree height, live crown height, and crown base height. Certain numbers did not align with realistic values, therefore a comparison between Google Maps Street View and the site was conducted where members compared the recorded height of the tree to the height of 6 121University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 the closest building. Upon realizing that some trees did not have realistic heights, members returned to the cite to remeasure with more accuracy.   Crown Width Crown width measured the width of the crown in two directions, long and short with the use of an eslon tape. Calculations were made by taking the average of the two measurements to result in an overall crown width of each tree in terms of meters.   Percent Crown Missing and Crown Light Exposure These two measurements were performed without the use of tools or technology. Percent crown missing was determined by two team members standing about 90 degrees apart with the tree as the focal point and estimating the percent of the crown that was missing. Each prediction was made by looking at the specific tree’s crown potential and the percent of the crown volume that was not occupied by branches or leaves due to pruning, die back, etc. This percent was estimated and recorded. In regards to crown light exposure, each tree had a potential of having five sides getting exposed to sunlight. This was determined by taking note of the presence of buildings and other trees or objects that could interfere with the amount of sunlight a tree received.   Methods Used to Analyze Data/Figures: The following figures (including a variety of tables and graphs) were prepared in a manner to best display variations in data as well as the significance and relationship between multiple measurements. Standard deviation portrays the possible room for error in data collection in the field as well as calculation discrepancies.  Relative Basal Area in Percent per Species Basal area, the area of the cross section at diameter at breast height of a tree stem (Natural Resources Canada, 2019), reports on the percent of area that each species occupies and correlates with individual tree size, biomass, leaf surface area, and canopy cover (Nitoslawski, 2016). This calculation assesses tree composition which aids in understanding species dominance in the given cite. Variables include tree species and basal area, taken from the formula: Relative Abundance=basal area of species i/total basal area (McPherson & Rowntree, 1989; as cited in Nitoslawski, 2016).   Species Abundance  The species abundance table (​see table 1 in appendix) ​provides a general overview of the trees collected. This counts the trees and gives that basic diversity breakdown in terms of species. Table 1 can inform future decisions for diversification through its numerical count of tree species dominance. Variables include tree species name and the number of each species.   Native vs. Exotic Species  Research was conducted to determine which of the following trees that were inventoried are native to the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone and those that are foreign to the region. This comparison, as portrayed through a pie graph ​(see graph 1 of appendix)​, provides implication of the effects that these trees will have on local fauna; the more abundant native trees are beneficial for the local wildlife species. This data determines the urban forest’s resilience for the more exotic and diverse species present, the less likely a species specific disease will clear the entire site.  Variables include the amount of tree species broken into native versus exotic categories.    7 122University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Coniferous vs. Deciduous Species  The purpose of graph 2 of the is appendix is to depict the seasonal implications towards specific species and the urban forest’s ecosystem services. For example, this graph gives insight as to which tree species will have an active canopy during winter that will be able to provide ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration year-round. The variables include tree species that are either coniferous or deciduous.    Crown Light Exposure  The crown light exposure pie graph ​(see graph 3 of appendix)​ portrays which trees (not species specific) have exposure to sunlight, ranging from one to five sides of possible exposure. This information provides detail as to which trees are receiving optimal sunlight exposure for production purpose such as photosynthesis and tree growth. This displays the reciprocal effects between sunlight and the presence of trees in close proximity to each other and buildings. Trees were separated in terms of how many sides were exposed to light: one to two sides, three sides, and four to five sides.   The Difference in Total Tree Height (TTH) from Live Crown Height (LCH) vs. Species and Average Crown Missing Percent per Species  Calculations were made to determine which species are thriving better in their current environment and which are experiencing health decline, as seen through the difference of these two measurements. The difference in Total Tree Height and Live Crown Height ​(see graph 4 of appendix) reports on the amount of dead top a tree has and gives the overall live/dead status of the tree. Variables include tree species and the associated difference in each average tree height and live crown height.  In the same area of methodology but on different figures​ (see graph 4 and graph 5 of appendix)​, the average crown missing percentage per species is included in comparison to the difference in TTH from LCH per species. The two in comparison with each other can report on the average decline in canopy percentage in each species.   Average Crown Base Height and Crown Width per Species  These two measurements in comparison with each other depict the height between the base and crown as well as the width of the crown per species ​(see graph 6) . This information displays how much space a tree is taking up in terms of horizontal width and its proximity to buildings and areas of institutional use. This data allows the university to consider the spatial limits of trees that the university wants to allow as well as possible pruning opportunities.​ ​Variables include the average crown base height per species and the average crown width per species.  Summary of Tree Inventory data:  T​he site inventory measured all 71 tree’s within the defined project area. The following section analyzes the different metrics and graphs compiled from the measurements in order  to gain a better understanding of the site’s urban forests composition. This analysis will be useful to help inform future decision making, and strategies. The data compiled in this report can also be used to create further comparisons and draw different conclusions about the site’s composition, beyond what is contained in this report.   Relative Basal Area in percent per Species After determining the relative dominance in terms of basal area, approximately 70% of the site’s overall basal area was occupied by three species: ​Amelanchier grandiflora ​(40.18%), ​Tilia americana (15.18%), and​  Chamaecyparis Pisifera ​(14.18%) ​(see graph 8 on appendix for the full breakdown)​. According to Nitoslawski (2016), relative dominance is an important figure in understanding the urban 8 123University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 forests’ overall diversity (p. 73). Having three tree species comprise 70% of the forests’ basal  area shows space for  improvement on the site’s species diversity. The concern of diversity is amplified by the fact that ​Amelanchier grandiflora ​takes up nearly half of the site's total basal area. If this species were to be infected by a disease or pest, it could be at risk to significantly decrease the area’s overall provisioning of ecosystem services. The risk is due to the basal area’s nonlinear correlation to canopy availability, leaf size and overall tree biomass (Bartelink H.H., 1997). The sites’ relative basal area metrics are a strong indicator of the need to further improve species diversity within the defined area.   Native vs. Exotic Species Having a blend of native and exotic species is prefered over having a single-species dominated canopy. Single-species dominated canopies are at risk for mass mortality resulting in a substantial loss of ecosystem services. Native species have been shown to house a greater spectrum of insects and mites than more recently naturalized, also known as exotic, species (Nitoslawski, 2016). In addition, native tree species have been shown to encourage native bird diversity and are less likely to become invasive (Nitoslawski, 2016). Referring to the native vs. exotic species pie chart in graph 1 of the appendix, there are 75% more exotic species than native species. After analyzing this data and seeing the impacts that native trees have on local ecosystems, it can be concluded that more native trees should be planted on this plot to promote the diversity of birds.   Coniferous vs. Deciduous Species 9 124University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 In terms of tree class composition, the defined project area was relatively equal in terms of coniferous and deciduous trees. In the site, 49.3% of trees were coniferous and 50.7% of trees were deciduous. This metric could be compared to analyze specific tree class needs regarding optimal maintenance and landscape planning based on tree class characteristics, health requirements, and leaf litter maintenance. Additionally, canopy cover of coniferous versus deciduous could be used to determine how much canopy cover is lost in winter, or relative pruning needs for the two species classes.      Crown Light Exposure  Crown light exposure classification is a method used to measure the amount of light received by a trees crown (Bechtold, 1970).  In the defined project area, crown light exposure was used to measure the amount of sunlight available for trees regarding obstructions from the built and natural environment around the area. 15.5 % of 71 trees measured had crown light exposure on five sides; this indicates that 15.5% of trees had optimal crown light exposure with very minimal obstruction. The bulk of the site’s trees (62%) had a moderate crown light exposure of four (35.2%) or three sides (26.8%). This dominant group is pretty befitting considering the obstruction from the necessary infrastructure in the surrounding area, with relatively decent crown light exposure. As indicated from the graph, 16.9% of the assessed trees had a crown light exposure of two sides, and 5.4% had a crown light exposure of one side. This indicates that these trees had relatively poor exposure, within a range of two to one sides of the crown exposed to light. This data could be used to assess obstructions from other trees and the built environment, to consider tree health and overall possible growing conditions for present trees in the site.   The Difference in Total Tree Height (TTH) from Live Crown Height (LCH) vs. Species and Average Crown Missing Percent per Species The difference in total tree height from the live crown height was taken in order to determine the average dead top of each tree species. The average crown percent missing per species is an assisting determinant in the overall health of the tree. These two metrics compared per species helps determine how healthy trees are in their current environments. The species with the greatest average dead top is Calocedrus Decurrens ​at just over 2m, the second is  ​Laburnum x watereri vossii ​at 1m, and the third is Chamaecyparis Pisifera​ at .6m. In terms of percent crown missing the tree species with the greatest 10 125University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 average canopy decline are ​Laburnum x watereri vossii ​and ​Cedrus atlantica "Glauca,​ both missing 40% of their canopy. The species suffering from the second most canopy decline is ​Corylus Maxima purpurea, missing 38.75% of its canopy. The comparison of these two metrics displays that ​Laburnum x watereri vossii​ is on average one of the tree species suffering from the greatest visual decline in the defined project area. Another species also suffering from greatest average overall visual decline is ​Calocedrus Decurrens,​ with an average dead top double the amount of any other species and with the 7th greatest percent of tree canopy missing at 25%. Using these two metrics as a comparison can inform future planting strategies and determine which species (or species with similar needs and characteristics) will be best fit for the project area.      11 126University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Average Crown Base Height and Crown Width per Species These two measurements give insight into the specific species’ tree forms. The crown base height and crown width per species gives us a comprehensive pruning schedule of a specific tree species. The trees’ average crown width provides sufficient information about space requirements. Depending on the location, trees with relatively larger crown width may require frequent pruning. With this knowledge, stakeholders can determine an ideal tree species to a certain location based on the average characteristics and space requirements of a tree species. In our project site, the three tree species with the largest average crown height species in order were: Quercus robur, Tilia americana, and Cedrus atlantica "Glauca".               12 127University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 References  Bartelink, H. H. (1997). Allometric relationships for biomass and leaf area of beech (Fagus sylvatica L). ​Ann. For. Sci. ​ doi:10.1051/forest:19970104 Bechtold (1970, January 01). Crown Position and Light Exposure Classification-An Alternative to Field-Assigned Crown Cl... Retrieved from ​https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/62 McPherson, E., & Rowntree, R. (1989). Using Structural Measures to Compare: Twenty-Two U.S.  Street Tree Populations. ​Landscape Journal,​ ​8​(1), 13-23. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/43323997 Natural Resources Canada, & Forest Service. (2019, February). Basal area. Retrieved from http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/terms/330 Nitoslawski, S. (2016, June). MANAGING AND ENHANCING URBAN TREE DIVERSITY: A COMPARISON OF SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT IN TWO CANADIAN CITIES. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from https://dalspace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/handle/10222/72096/Nitoslawski-Sophie-MES-SRES-August-2016.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y SEEDS, U. (2019, January 13). ​PowerPoint​ [PPT]. Vancouver: Tahia Devisscher. * Seeds presentation from Jan 9 2019 *  UBC. (2017, July). Musqueam & UBC. Retrieved from http://aboriginal.ubc.ca/community-youth/musqueam-and-ubc/      13 128University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Appendix  Graph 1 Native Species vs. Exotic Species  Table 1 Species Abundance Species found in project area, 71 trees total, 16 species.  Species Common Name Count  Species Common Name Count Acer Palmatum Japanese Maple  1  Crataegus Hawthorn 1 Amelanchier grandiflora Autumn Brilliance  5  Ilex pernyi Perny Holly 2 Arbutus Menziesii Pacific Madrone  2  Laburnum x watereri vossii Bean Tree 1 Calocedrus Decurrens Incense Cedar 3  Lagerstroemia fauriei Japanese Crepe myrtle 5 Cedrus atlantica "Glauca" Atlas Cedar 1  Prunus sato zakura group Japanese Cherry 3 Cercidiphyllum Japonicum Katsura 9  Pyrus calleryana Callery Pear 5  Chamaecyparis Pisifera Sawara Cypress 20  Quercus robur Common Oak 3 Corylus Maxima purpurea Purple Leaved Filbert 4  Tilia americana Basswood 6 14 129University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Graph 2 Coniferous vs. Deciduous  Graph 3 Crown Light Exposure   15 130University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Graph 4 Difference in Total Tree height and Live Crown Height   Graph 5 Average Crown Missing (%) per Species   16 131University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Graph 6 Average Crown Width and Average Crown Base Height per Species  Graph 7 Average Crown Total Tree Height vs. Average Live Crown Height per Species  17 132University of British Columbia, Urban Forest Tree Inventory, 2019 Group #3 Graph 8 Relative Basal Area (%) vs. Species  18 133   GROUP 4 Ecosystem Services Report        Course: UFOR 101 201   Instructor: Dr Tahia Devisscher, Dr Lorien Nesbitt Members: Kay Lin, Satyam Soni, Tim Su, Yiyang Wang,Grace Zhang, Yi Zhang Date: April 2nd 2019     134CONTRIBUTION DESCRIPTION   Kay Lin: ​Responsible for the method and the interpretation of regulating services. Finished             the i-tree Eco and i-tree Canopy assessment. Formatting for the report.  Satyam Soni: ​Introduction and site description. References. Part of Urban Forest Planning            and Management.   Tim Su: ​Urban Forest Planning and Management Recommendations. Creating experience          dimension value graphs.  Yiyang Wang: ​ Write cultural ecosystem services interpretation and outcomes;  Create hotspot and value coloring maps/ draw visualization of site recommendation (via            Procreate software).  Grace Zhang: ​Describe the methods used to assess and quantify ecosystem services using             the cultural ecosystem services value mapping process, drawing on activities and material            covered in class. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the value mapping approach.             Screenshot and editing pictures for regulating services, formatting for the report and            appendix.   Yi Zhang: ​Responsible for the result and the interpretation of regulating services.          135  I. Introduction The following report focuses on the next aspects of our site analysis: ecosystem             service assessment. Ecosystem services are the different type of benefits provided by the             ecosystem. It can be an ecosystem influenced by humans like an urban forest or an               environment with limited human intervention. There are four different types of ecosystem            services: provisioning services, regulatory services, cultural services and supporting         services. Provisioning services include materials provided by the environment like food,           timber, medicines etc. Regulatory services are the services which help manage and control             other processes like stormwater management and microclimatic control in urban areas.           Activities like tourism, social cohesion etc. are examples of cultural services provided by the              ecosystem while supporting services includes services such as animal habitat and soil            nutrient recycling. This report particularly focuses on regulating and cultural services of our             site. We have used various inventory tools like i-Tree and i-Tree Eco to analyze these               aspects of our site . This was done by using various metrics such as carbon sequestration,                oxygen production, etc. We also found some areas in our site which have potential for               improvement in terms of aesthetic appeal as well as better management.   Site Description  Our analysis included a thorough analysis of all the trees in a complete block of               UBC campus. The block included the area cornered by Jack Bell and Leonardo S. Clink               building on West Mall along with Triple O’s restaurant and Henry Angus building on the               Main Mall.  For analysis, our block was divided into eight        smaller zones 4A - 4H. All these zones were separately          analysed on each aspect while carrying out inventory so         as to better understand the ecosystem services provided        by the site.  The land in our site is primarily dominated by         educational buildings, food outlets, coffee shops, a       library as well as parking spots. A majority of the users           of this site include UBC students, staff, workers        followed by visitors or tourists. Our site includes various         educational buildings along with parking spaces, cafes       as well as eateries.  Interestingly, our site also includes a Powerhouse       in Zone B which supplies potable water around UBC         (Source: Energy and Water Services, UBC). Moreover       we also found places within the site which includes run-down buildings and areas with              limited human activities. These areas showed signs of improper management because of            presence of trash spread around and therefore had scope for improvement.     136  II. Regulating Ecosystem Services 1. Method During the process, two assessment models were used to measure the ecosystem            service values and potential risks in our zone. One is i-tree Eco Model and one is i-tree                 Canopy. To use i-Tree Eco Model, we preconditioned the inventory data of trees that have              been measured in our site to fit the requirement of i-tree Eco Model. Using i-tree Eco Model                 to process our inventory data and send it to the i-tree eco and waited for the final report.                  Base on the hand write report that they sent back, we selected the information we need to                 continue the assessment. To use i-Tree Canopy, we open i-Tree Canopy website and then defined our zone              area on the map.100 points were selected and divided into trees and no-tree, all judgements               are based on the group member who conducted the assessment. After that, we got the               estimating report of ecosystem services values that base on the points we selected and              divided. 1.1 Strength and Weakness The strength of i-Tree Eco model is that it can generate more accurate report and it is                 more accord with the actual condition of our site because the model is run based on the                 inventory data which measured all trees in our zone. Furthermore, the handwrite report             include many useful information such as avoid water run-off and pest risk. However, to              increase the accuracy of the report, it needs actual inventory data to run the model and it                 also took time to get the feedback ecosystem services report, which is highly time              consuming. The accuracy of report depends on how accurate our inventory data is. Our              inventory data missed a part of trees that can not be measured in our zone, hence our                 ecosystem services report is less accurate. The i-Tree Canopy is easy to conduct and we can get the result as soon as we                 finished the process. The accuracy of the report data is based on the number of points that                 are selected. Beside that, the judgement of whether a point belongs to tree or not is decided                 by group member, which is subjective and it will influence the accuracy of the data by the                 member’s knowledge about the site. We chose 100 points for the assessment which is much               less than standard amount of points that are needed to conduct the assessment which is 500,                therefore, the data we received from i-tree Canopy are estimated values. 2. Result 2.1 Canopy cover: The tree canopy cover is 17.2% and the non-tree cover is 82.2%. Table 1 shows the                tree benefit estimates. 137     2.2 i-Tree Eco Report: Urban Forest Cover and Leaf Area: Trees cover about 33.83 thousand square feet of              zone 4 and provide 3.998 acres of leaf area. In zone 4, the most dominant species in terms of                   leaf area are sycamore spp, Sawara false cypress, and European white elm. The 10 species               with the greatest importance values are listed in the table below.  2.3 Air Pollution Removal by Urban Trees Pollution removal was greatest for ozone (Figure 1). It is estimated that trees remove              27.96 pounds of air pollution (ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2),             particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5)2, and sulfur dioxide (SO2)) per year with              an associated value of Can$1.91.  In 2019, trees in zone 4 emitted an estimated 7.293 pounds of volatile organic              compounds (VOCs) (3.336 pounds of isoprene and 3.957 pounds of monoterpenes).           Emissions vary among species based on species characteristics (e.g. some genera such as             138oaks are high isoprene emitters) and amount of leaf biomass. Forty- two percent of VOC               emissions of the urban forest were from Austrian pine and sycamore spp. These VOCs are               precursor chemicals to ozone formation.  2.4 Carbon Storage and Sequestration The gross sequestration of zone 4 trees is about 1382 pounds of carbon per year with an associated value of Can$72.(figure 2)  Trees in zone 4 are estimated to store 22.5 tons of carbon (Can$2.35 thousand). Of               the species sampled, Sawara false cypress stores the most carbon (approximately 12.4% of             the total carbon stored) and Eastern cottonwood sequesters the most (approximately 7.95%            of all sequestered carbon.)(figure 3)  2.5 Oxygen Production Trees in zone 4 are estimated to produce 1.843 tons of oxygen per year. (See in appendix                 A)  1392.6 The similarities and differences Both two tools show the canopy cover, but it is expressed by percentage in I-tree canopy                 and is expressed by exact size in i-Tree Eco. In terms of absorption of pollutants, i-Tree                Canopy shows the removal amount and value of seven kinds of polluting gases, but I-tree               eco report shows only five types of polluting gas absorption and value without PM10 and               CO2. It shows the amount and value of carbon sequestration and storage per year. It also                shows the value of top 10 tree species in the form of a histogram. In terms of the amount,                   the absorption amount of CO is consistent in the results of the two tools. The absorption                amount of NO2, O3, and SO2 are all higher in i-Tree Canopy, and the absorption amount of                 PM2.5 is higher in I-tree eco. In terms of the value, the value of O3 and PM2.5 is all higher                    in I-tree eco. The value of CO, NO2, and SO2 is consistent in the results of the two tools. In addition to pollutant removal, carbon sequestration, and storage, as well as canopy             coverage, the i-tree eco report also presents other regulating ecosystem services, including            oxygen production, runoff avoidance, and energy-saving function. So it is more specific.            The data of i-tree eco report come from our field survey, so they are more accurate and                 reliable. 3. Interpretation The result of i-tree canopy shows the service of carbon sequestration, climate            regulation, and air purification. Canopy coverage determines the ability of trees to absorb             carbon and regulate temperature. The low canopy coverage in the result indicates that the              trees in the zone do not have an excellent ability to absorb carbon, so the ability to curb                  climate change will be weak. Moreover, it does not provide enough area to regulate              temperature. However, trees in this area absorb a variety of pollutants, and the amount of               ozone is the highest, demonstrating their good ability to purify the air. In the i-tree eco                report, in terms of pollutant absorption, the sycamore spp has the highest percentage of leaf               area with an excellent ability to absorb pollutants. However, this species emits a large              amount of volatile matter, which can cause the formation of ozone and thus offset some of                the environmental benefits. In the map of our zone (Figure 5), the location of this tree                species is in the orange circle, indicating that the trees in this area have a strong function of                  pollutant absorption. The absorption of various pollutants also reflects the ability of trees in              this area to clean the air. Next ecosystem service is carbon storage and sequestration which               helps to mitigate climate change. The Sawara false cypress stores the most amount of              carbon. In the map of our zone, the location of this tree species is in the red circle, indicating                   that the trees in this area have a strong function of carbon storage. Eastern cottonwood has                the highest amount of carbon sequestration and produces the largest amount of oxygen. In              the map of our zone, the location of this tree species is in the purple circle, indicating that                  the trees in this area have strong functions of carbon sequestration and oxygen production to               improve the air quality.  140The trees in our site help reduce approximately 2.36 thousand cubic feet of water              run-off a year, which worth about Can$160. The sycamore species, Sawara false cypress             and European white elm are the top three species that help avoid most of water runoff in the                  zone. It is important to take these three species into consideration when we are planning to                improve the regulating ecosystem services of this area. The report shows that Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) has the biggest threat to trees              in our zone. About 18% of trees of the site can be threatened by ALB, which has a potential                   loss of Can$12.2 thousand in structural value. Southern pine beetle has the highest potential              loss which worth Can$28.1 thousand in structural value. It attacks most of pine species in               our zone, such as loblolly, Virginia, pond, spruce, shortleaf, and sand pines. Therefore, it              needs to pay more attention on the pest impact and compensatory value of the trees we                selected to plant in our site.  II. Cultural Ecosystem Services When assessing the cultural ecosystem services, we started with an experience value            survey. The survey is an evaluation sheet that contains five ecosystem services, and             everyone in the group has an opportunity to present their thoughts toward our zone. The               three cultural services that we measured are specifically social cohesion, cultural           significance, and aesthetics.                            The picture above shows the summary and average score for the entire group. While              we are making the assumptions, we considered some aspects that helped us to interpret              values. Within social cohesion, the associations that we looked at were communication, the             sharing of resources, and the community buildings. Moreover, for aesthetics values, we paid             attention to the available spaces that students and staffs could occupy. Also, the             attractiveness of recreational value was also recognized. As for the cultural services, the             cultural significance was not visible, most of the infrastructures were new. 141 Based on the summary of the survey, we came up with one chart for each subzone.                As shown in the graph, the chart is very straight forward, and all the values are presented.                 Finally, we colored the map of our zone according to the values and marked down the                hotspots by stars in the subzones (as shown in picture 1 and 2 below). Different colors of the                  stars represent different service dimensions, and the size of the stars are various relative to               their scores (proportions). The strength of the value mapping approach is that the graphs are made according to               the result of the survey which involves various opinions. Each individual might have             different perceptions of recreational and aesthetic values based on their different           backgrounds. It is a benefit to generate a summary value map that incorporates diverse              objectives. Although we can consider diversity as a strength, it can also become a weakness               when the scale of the survey is significant. For example, when we were examining the               aesthetics value for our subzone G, only two people out of six scored above two.               Preferences can predominantly affect the result for the value mapping.  Picture 1: hotspots in among subzones (red stars: aesthetics; orange stars:social cohesion The hotspots are made to reflect the most significant value the subzones have. It is                apparent that most of our zones have provided decent cultural ecosystem services, especially             in aesthetics and social cohesion dimensions. The place where users tend to get social              142cohesion are mostly at the corner of two busy roads, or where crowds meet. For example, in                 A and H subzone, it is at the corner of two roads; in subzone D, it is at the downslope of the                      parking lot exit. However, of the three perspectives we covered in the survey, the cultural               significance dimension is the most, not obvious. It got relatively low scores because there              are less or no construction or landscape design showing culture elements, such as sculptures,              totem column, etc.  Also, it should be pointed out that there are not stars in both B and E subzones,                 because the values of these three aspects are all below average as we assessed. The key                reason is that ecosystem services users receive depend on the land use type the zone covers.                Among the eight subzones, B and E are the only ones that have utility land use. The other                  subzones are mostly used as institutional or transportation (Group4_InventoryReport, 2019).          There are a couple of powerhouses operated by UBC utility department at the back of               Sauder Business Building in B and E areas. Additionally, there is a garbage disposal area at                the border of A and B area, which belongs to the Triple O’s and Tim Horton's cafe. All of                   these functions have made it hard for B and E subzones to provide users with a high quality                  of cultural ecosystem services.  Picture 2: value color mapping based on the average score Moreover, we made color maps reflecting the distribution of one category of value             around our zone. The darker color demonstrates the higher average score of one specific              value. Overall, the distribution of cultural ecosystem services is unequal within our zone.             When we look into the single service. When comparing aesthetics and social cohesion, we              found out that subzone A and H rank high in both aesthetics and social cohesion. Because                they are at at the vital geographical spot where there is a large volume of people, especially                 during peak hours. Additionally, there are popular campus cafes located close to or in the               subzones (see picture 3). That is why not only constructions are visually appealing but the               potential of social activities is high. Looking into the cultural significance color map, we              noticed that even the highest mark is lower than the average score of the previous two                aspects. But A and G have a relatively high score because we consider the UBC information                technology located in these two zones have high historic value, which creates the cultural              and aesthetic atmosphere for the users, including students and staff.  143 Picture: Triple-O’s cafe located at the corner of subzone A (Yelp, 2019)    III. Urban Forest Planning and Management Recommendations:       (Powerhouse in zone B)  After observations throughout our inventory, there are planning and management          recommendations the group wishes to address. The first recommendation is to increase            canopy cover over targeted areas. Displayed in the color mappings previously along with             physical observations, subzones B and E lack aesthetic value due to poor canopy cover and               poor management. By planting more trees and increasing green spaces, both regulating and             cultural ecosystem services can be enhanced. More canopy cover increases carbon           sequestration, this is especially important when there are multiple powerhouses located in            the two zones which affects the air quality. While increase in green space will increase its                aesthetic value, and create a more presentable environment.   144 (Tree in zone B) (Tree in zone E) Furthermore, there are specific trees in subzones B and E that requires management,             which leads to the another recommendation which is better management and maintenance            around targeted areas. Large trees should not be planted near building (shown in the two               photos above) as this limits the health and growth of the trees itself. Because of limited                growth space, theses trees were observed to grow away from the building, resulting in tilt of                the trees. This could be very dangerous as the trees may collapse if no action is taken.    (Visualization picture drawn by Yiyang Wang) Subzone C is rated relatively high in aesthetics value, the zone had high canopy              cover and high species diversity, however, there is always room for improvement for each              of the subzones, if there were benches put along the sidewalks for people to socialize and                appreciate the green spaces, it will significantly increase the social cohesion value. This can              be complemented by adding deciduous trees like Red Oaks which have a high aesthetic              appeal because of their wide canopy. Moreover, the trees also allow sunlight to pass through               during winter (as it loses its foliage) while keeping it shady during hot summer months.  Adding on, Subzone A has a high value of social cohesion, but there could be more                canopy cover along the pavement walkways to further increase its aesthetic value. Once             these recommendations are implemented, these zones would be perfect illustrations. 145 (Visualization picture drawn by Yiyang Wang)                                     146                                                ​     References Energy and Water Services, UBC (n.d.). Water. Retrieved April 2, 2019, from http://energy.ubc.ca/ubcs-utility-infrastructure/water/ Group4_InventoryReport, (2019). UFOR 101 assignment 1. Photograph of UBC Triple O’s, (2019). Yelp. Retrieved from: https://www.yelp.ca/biz/triple-os-vancouver-7        147 Appendix A  148   GROUP 4 INVENTORY REPORT        Course: UFOR 101 201   Instructor: Dr Tahia Devisscher, Dr Lorien Nesbitt Members:  Grace Zhang, Kay Lin, Satyam Soni, Tim Su, Yiyang Wang, Yi Zhang Date: February 10th 2019       149 CONTRIBUTION DESCRIPTION  Kay Lin ​: Responsible for the content of methodology of total tree height and crown base height                and participated in the summary and analysis; responsible for the measurement of total tree              height and crown base height during the field work; participated in data tabulation.  Satyam Soni​: Responsible for measuring DBH, crown light exposure, percent crown missing,            and writing the introduction, site description and pictures, along with complete final editing and              revision of the document.  Tim Su ​: Responsible for the content of methodology of DBH and Crown width. Responsible for               Measuring DBH, crown width, total tree height, and crown base height.  Yiyang Wang​: Responsible for the making the graph(summary table, land use graph) and             writing relative content in the summary of the inventory data; Responsible for recording the data,               evaluating CLE, and percent crown missing during the measurement process; Also tabulating            part of the data into excel sheet.  Grace Zhang ​: Responsible for the content of methodology of percent crown missing, crown             light exposure, data collection, and revision of the summary. Participated with the measurement             of total tree height, crown base height and crown width during fieldwork.  Yi Zhang: ​Responsible for logging data into the excel with Yiyang Wang; Responsible for              making the graphs of composition and abundance, DBH classes and Total height classes, as well               as the analysis of the graphs. Downloading the app to guide group members and Participating               with the measurement of total tree height, crown base height and DBH, etc during fieldwork.              150 Introduction The plot for Group 4 had a diverse variety of tree types. Some were huge while others                 were tiny and while some were wide others were relatively narrow. We also found a few trees                 missing from the app and added their coordinates in the plot data. The following sections contain                a detailed description of our analysis of the plot. The purpose of our study is to study the                  condition and size of the canopy cover on campus. This involves a detailed analysis of individual                trees by assessing them on specific metrics like canopy height, width, etc. This will help the                Urban Foresters and arborists on campus manage the UBC canopy cover more effectively by              providing them with detailed information of trees on campus. Moreover, the data from the report               will further help us in our ecosystem service assessment later this semester.    Site Description Our analysis included a thorough     analysis of all the trees in a complete block         of UBC campus.The block included the      area cornered by Jack Bell and Leonardo       S. Clink building on West Mall along with        Triple O’s restaurant and Henry Angus      building on the Main Mall.   The land in our site is primarily       dominated by educational buildings, food     outlets, coffee shops, a library as well as        parking spots. A majority of the users of        this site include UBC students, staff,      workers followed by visitors or tourists.      The image on the right shows various       educational building in the site along with       Parking spaces, cafes, etc. (Source: Google Maps) On detailed analysis, it was found that there are areas within the site which includes               run-down buildings and area with limited human activities. The site also included two trees              which were missing from the online app. The trees were marked M1 and M2 in the inventory                 data, and their accurate coordinates were noted using Google Maps.       151Methodology Methodology Tools Description Total Tree Height Measurement Clinometer Eslon tape ● We chose a place where the distance is about the tree          height or more than tree height. Making sure that the         top and the base of the tree can be seen clearly from the            space and the sighting to the top of the tree is no           greater than 60° and the sighting to the base of the tree           is larger than -15°. Otherwise, there would be an error         during the measurement.● After choosing the place, the next step is to hold tight          the tape and measure the horizontal distance between       the eyes of the person and the tree that will be          measured by using the eslon tape and then read the         value.● Using the clinometer to look at the top (aº) and the base           (bº) of the tree and read the value at the same place.           There are left and right two scales that can be read. The           left scale is the degree and the right scale is the          percentage. The one we chose is the left scale which         shows the degree of the line of sight to the horizontal          distance.● We estimated the tree height by using trigonometry.       Taking the values that we read before and using the         formula:ree Height tan a∘ an b∘)×DistanceT = ( + t(Upslope)ree Height tan a∘ an b∘)×DistanceT = ( − t(Downslope)Then we got the final estimation of tree height.(Ferrini,2017) 152    Height to Crown Base Clinometer Eslon Tape Method 1 (High Crown Base) ● We chose a place from where the crown base and the           base of the tree can be seen clearly. ● After choosing the place, the next step is to measure          the horizontal distance between the eyes of the person         and the tree. ● We chose the lowest live foliage on the last branch in           the live crown as the crown base. ● Using the clinometer to look at the crown base (aº) and           the base (bº) of the tree and read the value of the left             scale which shows the degree at the same spot. ● We used the formula: ● rown Base Height tan a∘ an b∘)×Distance  C = ( + t(Upslope) ● rown Base Height tan a∘ an b∘)×Distance  C = ( − t(Downslope) ● Then we got the final estimation of Crown base height. Method 2 (Low Crown Base) ● We chose the lowest live foliage on the last branch in           the live crown as the crown base. ● Using the eslon tape to measure the height from the          ground to the lowest live foliage on the last branch in           the live crown. Diameter at Breast Height Diameter Tape ● For consistency, one member was dedicated to       measuring the DBH. ● DBH measured 1.37 meters above ground, using the        diameter tape, measure from ground 1.37 meters on the         person’s body and make a mark. (Avoids measuring        1.37m from the ground for every tree). ● Stand as close to the subject tree (uphill side if slope           present), label the point on the tree that corresponds/is         parallel to the point on the person’s body. ● Using the diameter tape, measure the DBH from that         point, record the data. ● Repeat Tree with multiple stems  ● Measure DBH of up to six stems (selecting largest ones          if more than six total) ● Overall DBH = the square root of the some of all           squared stem DBHs Tree with irregularities at DBH ● Measure slightly above 1.37 meters where there are no         irregularities/branches. 153Crown Width  Eslon tape ● Two people required ● Using observations, deduce the side with the longest        crown width, start measuring from that position. ● One person holds the Eslong tape and stands directly         below one end of the tree crown, the other extends the           tape to the other parallel end of the crown, take the           measurement and record. ● Rotate 90 degrees and repeat. ● Take the average of the two measurements. Percent Crown Missing  ● Two people need to participate when assessing the percent crown missing. Both should stand perpendicular to the tree so that they can see the entire tree while making an assumption about the percent foliage absent. Percent of Crown missing estimation mainly relies on observation, and the conclusion is made after combining two people’s feedback. The difficulty confronted during fieldwork was that deciduous trees do not have foliage covering during winter. Although the assessment could be accomplished, the result for percent crown missing might slightly imprecise. Crown Light Exposure  ● The crown light exposure indicates the different directions of trees receiving sunlight. The maximum of crown light exposure is from five sides, which include front, back, left, right and top. Not all the trees have five sides, trees that planted close each other will not receive direct light due to other trees blocking. Data collection  ● During fieldwork, one person in the group is responsible for recording the data and marking down trees that have already measured. While organizing the data, there is more information that should include are tree tag (if exist), tree ID, tree species and particularly land use. Most of the info can be found on the tree app, and land use is determined according to the i-Tree Eco categories.   Summary of the inventory data Effective management and ecosystem services evaluation are impossible to be carried out            without detailed data collections on the location, structure, and condition descriptions of trees             154(Nowak et al., 2008). The variables we measured during the inventory mainly fall under the               categories of location(land use), 1D structure( DBH, total tree height, base height, and crown              width), and condition( crown light exposure and crown missing) (Ferrini,2017). We calculated            the original data and expanded into more categories, for example, the 2D structure( basal areas).               Interpreting the quantitative data into the graphs help us and the end users understand the integral                structure of the forest in the area.               Table 1: Summary Table As we can see from the summary table, the SD(standard deviation) of the DBH is the                highest among that of all the attributes. However, this does not mean that the diameter varies the                 most among all the attributes. When converted into meters, the crown based height shows the               highest diversification. That is because, during measurement, we see some of the trees have their               lowest branch on the ground, which means the base height is zero. We also notice that the DBH                  as well as the basal area show low variation among different trees in the inventory area. Most trees in the inventory area have the crown missing rate under 50%, which shows a                decent average health condition of trees and the maintenance work conducted by the concerned              personnel. No trees in the area have a canopy missing above 80%. Additionally, the proportion               of trees which are growing with little exposure is low. Although the construction on campus can                block some of the sunlight, most of the trees enjoy light exposure from 3 or more directions.                 There are no dead trees in the area. 155  Photo1(by Yiyang Wang): The stem covered by dense leaves ​. It should be noted that there are two trees which are missing from the App. In order to                  supplement the database of the App, we collected all their information and put down the               coordinates of their longitude and latitude using google map. During the measurement, we             missed some of the data due to the inconvenient condition of the tree location. Some of the trees                  have a dense crown cover at breast height, where we are not able to measure the DBH (Photo 1);                   some surrounded by the large thorn shrub, which means we cannot measure the total and base                height using Elson tape.  156 Table 2: Land use distribution According to the pie chart derived from the data, about 58% of the trees are located in the                  institutional areas (Greenland close to faculty buildings). The vacant land, including the large             unmaintained area, takes up the second largest share at 12.15%.   Table 3: Total height classes 157It is evident from the graph that most of the trees in the inventory areas are no more than                   20 meters. Also, the trees that are not higher than 10 meters have the largest population. The                 reason why those trees are relatively short is that they are planted in recent years. The average of                  the total tree height is 11.90 meters, with a moderate standard deviation at 7.4 (see summary                table). There are no trees taller than 30 meters in the area. Table 3: DBH classes As for the DBH classes, the trees are mainly in the range of 10 to 30 cm in DBH. The                    basal area is the highest in the DBH classes of 50-80 cm. The number of trees which are in the                    range of 80-100 has the lowest number. We can see that there are mainly small trees in this                  plot.The  tree species in 50-80 DBH classes have the medium number of trees.            Table 4:Tree composition and abundance There are 26 tree species in total in the inventory area. As for the tree composition and                 abundance, the ​Acer x freemani "armstrong" and ​Fagus sylvatica "duwyck" ​and ​Tsuga            canadensis are the dominant tree species in the plot. The number of Tsuga canadensis is the                highest, while the number of ​Magnolia grandiflora "little gem" ​is the lowest. The ​Tsuga              canadensis is known as the eastern hemlock, which is a native species around Canada (NAL               158Digital Repository). As for the basal area, the Chamecyparis pisifera squarrosa has the largest              sum of the basal area, while the Cryptomerica japonica has the lowest. From the graphic, we can                 see that the richness of the plant in the plot is high because there are more than 20 species in the                     plot, but the evenness is low because the number of some tree species such as ​Acer x freemani                  "armstrong" ​and ​Tsuga canadensis ​is more than 5, while the number of most of the tree species                 is 1 or 2. Some trees have the small basal area with the large number of tree species such as the                     Amelanchier grandiflora ​, while some trees have the large basal area with the low number of tree                species such as ​Chamecyparis pisifera squarrosa ​. There is a large number of ​Acer palmatums ​,              for the reason that this tree species has high aesthetic value for students, faculty members, and                visitors. The ​Chamecyparis pisifera squarrosa ​in a row is used as the separation between              different park lot.                          159References Ferrini, F., Bosch, Cecil C. Konijnendijk van den, Fini, A., & Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. (2017). Routledge handbook of urban forestry. New York; London;: Routledge. Nowak, D. J., Crane, D. E., Stevens, J. C., Hoehn, R. E., Walton, J. T. and Bond, J. 2008a. A ground based method of assessing urban forest structure and ecosystem services. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 34, 347–358  NAL Digital Repository.Temporal and spatial variation of terpenoids in eastern hemlock (tsuga canadensis) in relation to feeding by adelges tsugae. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Terpenoids in Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) in Relation to Feeding by Adelges Tsugae,  160       Ecosystem Services Assessment and Analysis  Group #5  April 3, 2019   Tyler Doucet Jeannine Felix Diana Satkauskas Michael Spenrath Maija Wootton                     161Contributions:  Tyler Doucet: ● Regulating Ecosystem Services ● Wilderness and Nature Significance   Michael Spenrath:  ● Visual Mapping Images ● Photoshop Images ● Introduction ● Cultural Significance ● Cultural Ecosystem Services  Maija Wootton: ● Site Description ● Photos  Diana Satkauskas:  ● Introduction ● Diversity and Species Richness Significance ● Management Recommendations ● Editing  Jeannine Felix: ● Value Mapping Introduction ● Social Cohesion Significance ● Aesthetics ● Editing            162Introduction:            The purpose of our ecosystem services assessment and analysis is to use our site data collected throughout the term, along with the results from i-Tree Eco, i-Tree Canopy, and the numerous value mapping exercises performed to inform the UBC stakeholders about the ecosystem services in the site. With this information we can provide some management recommendations to maximize ​the benefits our site provides to the campus as a whole.  Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystem functions. These benefits can be direct or indirect (Bolund & Hunhammar, 1999). They are divided into four broad categories: supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural. Supporting services are derived from the basic functioning of any ecosystem. These services can include nutrient cycling, photosynthesis, and soil formation. Services which help regulate air quality, stormwater, pollination and water purification are referred to as regulating services. Provisioning services provide people with food, fresh water, medicine, and energy. Lastly, cultural services which cannot be monetized, include the benefits gained towards mental and physical health, recreation, ecotourism, aesthetics, and spirituality. However, in this report only regulating and cultural ecosystem services will be assessed and analyzed in depth. The maps depicting supporting and provisioning services may be found in the Appendix.  The stakeholders of our site include: UBC SEEDS, Campus and Community Planning, Building Operations, the current students and staff of UBC who interact with its urban forest, along with prospective students and guests of the campus. Using the results of our ecosystem services assessment and analysis, these UBC stakeholders can obtain information that can better inform their decisions when creating a management plan for UBC’s urban forest.  Due to there being an unforeseen large amount of trees on our site, we only completed a tree inventory of subzones 5B, 5C, 5I, 5H and half of 5A. To create the ecosystem services maps of the site seen later in the report, we used the results of i-Tree Eco and i-Tree Canopy to the rank the prominence of the ecosystem services in these subzones. The ranks of the other subzones, 5D, 5G, 5F, 5E and the other half of 5A, were based on visual observation alone.   Site Description:    Centrally located on the UBC campus, site 5 sits on the northwest corner of the Martha Piper Plaza, known for having the UBC fountain. Being located on school grounds, the site was 163classified as an institutional land type, providing services to students, faculty, and staff on campus. To evaluate the ecosystem services, the block was further divided into nine subzones,  visible in Figure 1, to be able to further elaborate on the details of the different areas and variances between them. The site is bordered by a service road, the Scarfe building itself, frequently used walkways, and an open courtyard between buildings.                   ​Figure 1 Observing how the land is used, not many recreational activities were noticed in the area while completing the tree inventory. There is a large abundance of impermeable surfaces across the block, mostly for vehicle accessibility and areas with heavy foot traffic. The green spaces and trees throughout perform a sufficient job at mediating the harsh impact of the hard surfaces. An example of this would be the courtyard, as it serves many purposes: celebrating Aboriginal culture by showcasing their artwork (Figure 2), providing a garden for people to enjoy, and adding an aesthetic appeal for the surrounding offices that overlook it (Figure 3).  The trees themselves serve different purposes. There were much more trees than shrubs throughout the entirety of the site, with the majority of the trees planted in close proximity to the buildings in the area. This aids in regulating temperature by mediating winds, decreasing the amount of harsh sunlight that enters the building, and providing a natural view for the people inside. Trees were also used to create multiple smaller areas within larger ones, in order to create multipurpose spaces. An example of this is shown in Figure 4, where a parking lot is separated from the garden by a row of trees and shrubs.   Figure 2   Figure 3      Figure 4     164Regulating Ecosystem Services:   The regulating ecosystem services results were drawn from i-Tree Canopy’s and i-Tree Eco’s analysis and benefits assessments of the site. Using the data compiled by i-Tree Canopy and i-Tree Eco, the group’s observations, and course content, we were able to use prominence mapping to hone in on the services provided by each subzone in the site (seen in Figure 5). Various regulating ecosystem services were considered, including carbon sequestration and storage, pollination, air control, moderation and removal of pollution, water regulation, among others.  Upon using both the i-Tree Canopy and i-Tree Eco programs to assess the site’s function and value, it became evident that little variation existed amongst the results. i-Tree Canopy estimates tree benefits based on the canopy cover of areas, results for our site can be seen in the Appendix. i-Tree Eco provides assessments based on not only groupings of trees, but individual trees and their species composition and structure. The benefit results from both methods were examined and considered when compiling results for mapping to err on side of caution. The values of the benefits appeared to be the same with both softwares, however a benefit of using i-Tree Eco was because more variables other than canopy cover are taken into account, it is more accurate upon estimating the values                                            ​Figure 5 of individual trees. For example, the results of the i-Tree programs found the site to have a gross carbon sequestration of 164.15 kg/yr. However​, ​ i-Tree Eco assessed the species ​Salix spp. ​to sequester​ ​25.34 kg/yr, allowing further assessments and data to be compiled on specific subzones, specific species, and individual trees. When looking at individual trees, i-Tree Eco has a more comprehensive assessment because of its ability to compile data on individual trees as opposed to groupings of canopy.  The advantages of using the i-Tree Canopy and i-Tree Eco models to assess regulating ecosystem services are that the results provide a quantitative, numerical value, providing an accurate representation of the site’s benefits as a whole. i-Tree Canopy and i-Tree Eco however do not account for all variables, rather just the trees inventoried. It is limited in identifying other 165variables, such as the bee habitat found in the site. These variables are not accounted for in i-Tree, thus when using only this software users are restricted in their ability to understand the full value of their site and manage it accordingly. Compiling the i-Tree Canopy results and our personal observations to create a prominence map proved to be the most effective means of evaluating regulating ecosystem services.  Our i-Tree Canopy results concluded that our area currently has approximately 25% canopy cover with a 4.29% Standard Error. As a site, the i-Tree Canopy survey determined that annually the trees in the site removed 1.53 kg of NO2, 10.20 kg of O2, and 3.19 kg of PM10, contributing to the overall pollution removal of the trees in the site. Graphed above (Figure 5) is the i-Tree Eco report on the monthly removal of pollution, displaying similar results of pollution regulation as i-Tree Canopy. Currently stored in the site is approximately 56.12 tonnes of CO2, equivalent in weight to roughly 10 Asian Elephants (weighing ~ 5.4 tonnes) and has a gross carbon sequestration of 164.15 kg/yr, equivalent in weight to one Fraser’s dolphin (weighing ~164 kg).                                                                                  ​Figure 6  Upon mapping the site, it ranked on average 2 points out of a potential 5 on our point system scale. Significant variations between different subzones exist within the site. Two areas, Groups 5C and 5D received zero points in terms of regulating ecosystem services, as they were predominantly composed of buildings. Area 5H has a pond contributing to stormwater regulation, as well as a bee habitat introduced by UBC students, which ultimately contributed to the site receiving a full 5 points. While it is not calculated within i-Tree, “insect pollination of wild plants is a critical life-supporting mechanism underpinning ecosystem services (Vanbergen. A, 2013, p.251)”, and provides benefits to not only the trees and plants in its subzone, but in the surrounding area as well. Group 5I which received two points, includes the two large ​Salix spp. ​that contribute to roughly 15% of gross carbon sequestration at 25.34 kg/yr.  The site’s trees were relatively small as determined in our initial inventory and assessment, as seen in the i-Tree Eco assessment which states that 75.7% of trees were less than 6” in diameter. This was evident in the low scoring for regulating ecosystem services, as they did not provide as many functions and benefits as fully mature trees may have.      166Value Mapping:  As part of the cultural assessment of the site, the subzones were each ranked on a scale from zero to five in terms of the prominence of the value in the subzone. Each member ranked the value based on their own opinion, then the average of these numbers represented the ranking of the subzone. The values assessed and illustrated in the following section are: Diversity and Species Richness, Aesthetics, Social Cohesion, Wilderness and Nature, and Cultural Significance.  Diversity and Species Richness:                                                ​Figure 7          The site had a wide variety of diversity and species richness. In groups 5C and 5B even though the back maintenance alley was fully paved, there were still some vines and shrubs along the wall. The score may be low, but the area still deserved some recognition that there are some species present. 5H and 5I were given a perfect five because there were many trees present in a variety of species. These trees were purposely planted to be diverse, as they are near a seating area and large windows of the Neville Scarfe Building. Not only is species diversity excellent ecologically since it reduces the impact of pathogen infestation, but it is also very aesthetic (Keesing, Holt & Ostfeld, 2006). The appearance of a group of many diverse trees is very pleasant and may attract people to these areas.  Aesthetics:                                                                           ​Figure 8  The site was highly variable as a whole regarding aesthetics. The subzones that scored the lowest (5B and 5C) were ranked so low because there was very little space for greenery around the building. When there was vegetation it was not diverse or particularly appealing to view. Section 5D ranked one of the highest because of its beautiful trees and the public Ponderosa courtyard that has a pleasant outdoor area. The courtyard is a calming space because the Ponderosa Commons buildings that surround it keep it quiet and secluded from the noisy, fast paced sidewalks and roads in sections 5A, 5E and 5F. 167Social Cohesion:                                                                ​Figure 9  The site ranked relatively low in terms of social cohesion. The maximum score given was three out of a possible five. One of the subzones that scored highest was section 5H. It was given a higher score because it includes a very aesthetically pleasing garden with benches provided for people to sit and relax. The high diversity of vegetation planted in the area makes the site interesting to look at and lets users of the space feel captivated, averting boredom. Despite the beauty of the garden, the space is not frequently used due to the fact that it is difficult to find or come across. The site overall consists mostly of buildings and concrete back alleys and it is quite secluded. Unless someone is trying to find a shortcut to their destination, they are unlikely to walk through the area. Even section 5A did not score high even though it is the most heavily trafficked area of the site. This is because it is a fast-moving pathway in which people do not tend to stand around and talk or admire the outdoors. There are no benches along the path for people to sit and enjoy the area. However, this may be because of the sloped topography.  Wilderness and Nature:                                                             ​Figure 10           The site scored in the mid-range for wilderness and nature. UBC campus is very urbanized and densely populated, and thus all areas provoking wilderness and nature in the site were placed through human intervention. In group 5H areas of wilderness included a pond, a bee habitat, and a gardened area, which were all placed there by either students or university staff. However, group 5H scored in the mid range, while area 5I received the full five points because unlike the nature in 5H which was manicured and highly managed around a seated area, 5I has a less conformed planting pattern and evoked more of a sense of nature and wilderness.      168Cultural Significance:                                                                ​Figure 11             While mapping the cultural significance of our zone, we evaluated how well each subzone was able to demonstrate the following characteristics: ​Opportunity for Research & Education, Sacredness, and Aboriginal People's Traditions.  The value mapping performed for cultural significance of the site produced low results, with the exception of subzone 5H. Subzones 5B, 5C, 5E, and 5F received a rating of zero due to these subzones being dominated by buildings and roads while severely lacking in vegetation and culturally significant attributes, such as native tree species or aboriginal symbols. Subzone 5H demonstrated a high score for cultural significance due to the Aboriginal Art located in the site along with the presence of native tree species such as ​Tsuga heterophylla​ (Coastal Western Hemlock) and a diverse range of vegetation present.    Cultural Ecosystem Services:                                                   ​Figure 12           Upon mapping the different values of the subzones in the site, we considered the different cultural ecosystem services our site has to offer: mental and physical health benefits, recreation and ecotourism, aesthetic values, and spiritual and religious values. Overall, our site as a whole received a score of 1.67/5 for its cultural ecosystem services. Meaning, our site is severely lacking in cultural ecosystem services and provides insufficient benefits to users.           Most of the subzones rank low, scoring around the zero to two range. These low ratings are primarily due to the high number of grey infrastructure and impermeable surfaces, such as walkways and service roads that are present in the site along with low amounts of vegetation. More specifically, subzones 5B and 5C are ranked at zero due to these areas being dominated by the Neville Scarfe building and its maintenance alley, which provides little to no cultural services to users. Additionally, subzones 5A, 5E, 5G, 5F, and 5I received low ratings due to the zones also being dominated by grey infrastructure, as well as having scarce culturally significant aspects.  169          Subzones 5H and 5D scored higher for their cultural significance. Subzone 5D is characterized by containing some green spaces and a variety of vegetation for users to interact with. The maximized value of 5H can be attributed to the following: a lush array of vegetation which is indicative of high species diversity and composition, abundant aesthetic values and most importantly the Aboriginal art that is present in the seating area of the zone (Figure 2).         The mapping exercise we performed resulted with our site having very little cultural ecosystem services present. However, the exercise itself may not have provided completely accurate results of the services since this was an individual exercise and the results are based on the aggregation of only five students’ objective perspectives and values chosen to be assessed in the subzones. To achieve more accurate results in the future, increasing the number of individuals performing the value mapping would minimize the standard error. ​Moreover, the non-material benefits received from the site, such as spiritual enlightenment, aesthetic values and experiences, and cognitive development are some of the unique cultural services provided, but sinc​e these benefits are ​often based on individual’s perspectives, it is difficult to monetize the value these services produce.   Urban Forest Planning and Management Recommendations:  Because climate change is becoming more severe and its effects are becoming more noticeable, we recommend adapting to climate change. It is predicted that Vancouver’s winters will become even wetter than they are now, which will lead to intense flooding if the city is not prepared (Jakob, McKendry & Lee, 2003). For this reason, we propose increasing stormwater regulation in our site. This can be done by increasing canopy cover because canopies intercept raindrops and decrease the amount of runoff (Asadian & Weiler, 2009). Also, a large proportion of the site was covered with impermeable surfaces, such as buildings, sidewalks, and paved roads. As seen earlier, the fully paved back alley in the site (subzones 5C and 5B) scored a 0 for regulating ecosystem services. These surfaces do not allow water to absorb into the earth and cause it to pool, so to regulate stormwater it is important to decrease the amount of impermeable surfaces on the site.  Currently the site has 25% canopy cover, and we advise increasing it to 30%. This can be accomplished by planting at least 35 new trees. 35 trees would increase the amount of trees on the site by approximately a half. Even though this is relatively a large number of trees compared to how many are already on the site, the planted trees will be young, so their canopies will not be as large. As they mature, the canopy cover will increase. In addition, rainwater swales may be created. Rainwater swales are basins which are covered with plants that often grow in wetlands. Not only do they regulate rainwater, but they are very aesthetic and may increase social cohesion (Echols & Pennypacker, 2008).   170Figure 13  Figure 14   171Figure 13 is a bare patch in the site along University Boulevard. There is a great deal of planting potential in this area. We propose planting a proportion of the 35 trees here, as well as creating a rainwater swale (seen in Figure 14). This is a high traffic area at UBC, and the view is currently unpleasant. With proper landscaping, this area will have a completely different impression and increase stakeholders’ satisfaction of the aesthetics in this space. To decrease the amount of impermeable surfaces on the site, we advise replacing the roads with permeable pavers and the sidewalks with gravel paths. These substratums have spaces which allow water to get through and be absorbed. We understand because the roads and sidewalks are currently not cracked and in good condition, this recommendation may seem useless and a waste of funds. However, this action is preemptive and will save the university money in the long run. Instead of paying continuously for recurring water damage from flooding, the university would only pay a one time fee for the road replacement.   Figure 15          172Figure 16              Figure 15 is the maintenance alley behind the Neville Scarfe Building. It is completely paved and has a slight downward slope towards the building. If there is more flooding than usual, immense problems may occur. Figure 16 depicts our vision of this area with permeable pavers and rainwater swales.                173References:  Asadian, Y. & Weiler, M. (2009). A new approach in measuring rainfall interception by urban  trees in coastal British Columbia. ​Water Quality Research Journal, 44​, 16-25. https://doi.org/10.2166/wqrj.2009.003  Bolund, P. & Hunhammar, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas. ​Ecological Economics,  29​, 293-301. ​https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00013-0  Echols, S. & Pennypacker, E. (2008). From stormwater management to artful rainwater design.  Landscape Journal, 27​, 268-290. ​doi: 10.3368/lj.27.2.268  Keesing, F., Holt, R. D. & Ostfeld, R. S. (2006). Effects of species diversity on disease risk.  Ecology Letters, 9​, 485-498. ​https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00885.x  Jakob, M., McKendry, I. & Lee, R. (2003). Long-term changes in rainfall intensities in  Vancouver, British Columbia. ​Canadian Water Resources Journal, 28 ​, 587-604. https://doi.org/10.4296/cwrj2804587  Vanbergen, A., & Insect Pollinators Initiative. (2013). Threats to an ecosystem service: Pressures  on pollinators. ​Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,​ ​11​(5), 251-259. Retrieved from  http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/stable/23470505                 174Appendix: i-Tree Canopy Results175 Provisioning Services Mapping   Supporting Services Mapping 176          UBC Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment   Group 5  February 10th, 2019                          177 Contributions:  Jeannine Felix:  Summary Checked all clinometer calculations Editing of report  Diana Satkauskas:  All graphs and tables Calculations for graphs Clinometer calculations DBH calculations Found coordinates for missing trees Editing of report  Maija Wootton:  Data entry Site Description Clinometer calculations  Tyler Doucet:  Data entry Summary Clinometer calculations Checked DBH calculations Conclusion  Michael Spenrath:  Introduction              Methodology Clinometer calculations    178 Introduction:            The purpose of an urban forest inventory and assessment is to record detailed characteristics of urban trees to help determine the benefits they provide, as well to assess the physical conditions of the trees (Bond & Buchanan, 2006​)​. More specifically, the purpose of our inventory is to record the data of trees located on the UBC Vancouver Campus which will be further used in an assessment of the campus’ urban forest as a whole. The data we collected is critical for assessing future conditions of trees while also providing an estimate of the many ecosystem services they currently provide. Our data will further help UBC determine a plan of action for maintaining and managing these trees in the short and long term. Our inventory data will be presented to the stakeholders of the UBC urban forest and to the UFOR101 class. The stakeholders include: UBC SEEDS, Campus and Community Planning, Building Operations, and the students and staff of UBC who interact with its urban forest. With the data we collected, the stakeholders of UBC’s urban forest can develop a plan to maintain and manage the trees individually and as a whole, while also implementing ways to improve the area.  Site Description:                                                                                                              ​Figure 1 Our site was centrally located on the UBC campus in Vancouver, BC. Most of the trees were measured were surrounding the Neville Scarfe Building (visible in Figure 1), found on the south west corner of Martha Piper Plaza. Being located on school grounds, the site was classified as an institutional land type.  The site is bordered by a service road, the Scarfe building itself, walkways which are frequently used, and an open courtyard between buildings. The courtyard serves many purposes: celebrating aboriginals by showcasing their artwork (Figure 2), providing a garden for people to enjoy, and adding an aesthetic appeal for the surrounding offices that overlooked it (Figure 3). Observing land use, not many recreational activities were noticed in the area while tree inventories were being taken. The trees themselves served different purposes. Because a majority of the trees are planted in close vicinity of the buildings in the area, they take part in regulating temperature by mediating winds, decreasing harsh sunlight entering the building, and providing a natural view for the people inside. Trees were also used to create multipurpose spaces in close proximity by using them as dividers. An example of this is shown in Figure 4, where a parking lot is separated from the garden by a row of trees and shrubs.     179 Figure 2                                         Figure 3                                       Figure 4  Methodology:             Over the course of three weeks our group performed numerous on-the-ground measurements of trees located in UBC’s urban forest. These measurements and corresponding data are vitally important for quantifying the value of the urban forest and the numerous benefits it provides. Measurements performed included: Diameter at Breast Height (DBH), Total Tree Height (TTH), Live Crown Height (LCH), Crown Base Height (CBH), Crown Width, Percent Crown Missing, and Crown Light Exposure (CLE). Among these, numerous other non-measurable characteristics were recorded, such as: tree ID, tag number (if applicable), tree genus and species, whether the tree was alive or dead, and the use of the land where the tree was located. This section of our report will further demonstrate how these measurements were performed and the importance of the measurements for the inventory.  Prior to this inventory, the group members had some experience using the equipment (from past courses taken at UBC). However, this inventory allowed for the students to further perfect their skills and become more efficient when using the devices. Equipment used for the measurements included: DBH tape, clinometer, compass, measuring tape, chalk, a clipboard, and a data collection sheet on water proof paper to ensure the recorded measurements could not be affected by external agents. Over the two-week period of on-the-ground data collection, each group member actively participated during and outside of the scheduled class time. Each member had an opportunity to work with each and every piece of equipment; this ensured that each member could be able to become familiar with the equipment and adequately perform required measurements. Having specific guidelines to follow during the inventory, the group members followed a similar pattern when measuring and recording data for each tree. First, members would record the tree ID number (from the ArcGIS mobile app) and the tag number of the tree (if applicable). Then, it was determined if the tree was alive or dead. Using the ArcGIS app, the tree genus and species was recorded. Lastly, the land use type on which the tree was located was determined, Our zone was determined to be completely Institutional. After recording the non-numerical data of the tree, the supplied equipment was used to measure and record characteristics of each tree.  180           Starting from the northwest corner of the plot (seen in Figure 1 in the Site Description), the inventory was performed in a counterclockwise manner, measuring each tree in an orderly fashion. Individual measurements for each tree were not performed in a strict order, but rather group members worked as a team to perform numerous measurements simultaneously to ensure maximum efficiency of time and effort. For trees with a diameter greater than 2.54 cm or 1 inch at breast height (approximately 1.37m from the base of the tree), the DBH tape was wrapped around the trunk of the tree on the uphill slope side and the measured diameter was recorded. For instances where a tree had more than one stem, up to six of the largest possible stems were measured and recorded. These measurements were later used to determine the aggregated DBH using the following equation: Overall DBH = the square root of the sum of all squared DBH stems. Total Tree Height (TTH) was measured using the clinometer. Using the right scale on the clinometer (% values), the values for the top and base of the tree were measured and recorded. Then, the distance the individual measuring the TTH was standing from the tree was recorded as well. To determine the TTH, the recorded values were input into the following equation: TTH = ( % at top + | ​% at bottom ​| ​) x  Distance Live Crown Height (LCH) was also measured using the clinometer. The distance and value for the top of the tree remained the same, but the lowest hanging point of the tree’s crown was measured and recorded in % value. The same equation used for TTH was used to calculate LCH, but using the value of the lowest hanging point of foliage instead of the base of the tree. If needed, the clinometer was used to measure Crown to Base Height (CBH) as well. If used, the distance, live crown base, and base of tree values were the same as the prior measurements. However, in most cases this method was not required, as the students could just use the measuring tape to measure the distance from the live tree crown to the base of the tree. Crown width of the tree was measured by two group members using the tape measure. The long and short widths of the crown were measured in metres and recorded. These two values were then used to determine the average crown width of the tree. Crown Light Exposure (CLE) and percent canopy missing were estimated by the group members using their best judgment. For CLE, a maximum of 5 sides could be exposed to light, but given the locations of our trees, this was not often the case. In most circumstances only a few sides of the crown were exposed due to coverage from other larger trees or infrastructure located in our zone. Percent canopy missing was an estimated value based on how much of the tree group members believed was missing due to factors such as maintenance, growing conditions, or external agents (i.e. wind or climate). The recorded data of the trees in our plot was put into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet so all the values could be organized efficiently and make the graphing component of our Summary easier to complete. Using Excel, a group member was able to graph Species Abundance, DBH 181 Classes, Species Dominance, Species Composition: Abundance and Dominance, Total Height Classes, and DBH Classes: Abundance and Composition and the DBH and Height Relation. These graphs visually represent the data we collected within our plot and the characteristics of trees located in the UBC Vancouver Campus’ urban forest.  Summary:   The following is a collection of our data, visually represented through various graphs, examining trends in measurements, species composition, and relations between the two. A summary table of the data is in the Appendix.   Figure 5  Upon graphing the species abundance of the tree population in the site, it is evident that urban foresters, municipal arborists, and UBC community attempted to plant with diverse species composition in mind. The 67 trees inventoried in the plot totaled to 21 different species. This species richness contributes to the overall diversity of the tree community. This genetic diversity provides basis for resistance and resilience against external stressors from the environment, the introduction of large scale disease or pest devastation, or climate change.  Furthermore, a diverse urban forest with abundant populations means the ecosystem services the trees in the population provide are derived from multiple different sources, rather than the smaller pool of functions one may find in an urban forest with fewer species. Ecologists have concluded, “biodiversity is not just a matter of the number of species in a community. The truly important measure is diversity of functional traits.” (Beck, 2013).  182 The diversity in the site also provides aesthetic values, creating a complex urban forest through the selection of both non-native and native trees, deciduous and coniferous, with varying size, forms, and physical characteristics. The species of highest abundance in the plot was ​Acer circinatum​, a tree native to southwest British Columbia. The community as a whole is very rich in diversity, with ten of the 21 species being native to countries outside of North America, most notably in Asia and Europe.    Figure 6  One way to define species dominance is through the measurement of the basal area of each tree, which can be calculated using the diameter at breast height. Basal area refers to the amount of area a species takes up in relation to the area of the plot and is represented in meters squared. The basal area calculated for plot 5 is visualized in the graph above. ​Tsuga heterophylla​, more commonly known as Western Hemlock, is considered the dominant species for this plot because it has the largest basal area in relation to the other tree species present. Thuja plicata ​ is the least dominant.  183  Figure 7  Fig. 7 represents species abundance in relation to species dominance. Observing the graph, it is easily seen that the dominant species is not necessarily the species with the highest abundance. ​Acer circinatum​ (commonly known as vine maple) has the highest abundance. However, it has a basal area less than half of the basal area of the most dominant species, ​Salix sp.​. ​Tsuga heterophylla​ has the highest basal area, yet there were only four individuals of this species located throughout the plot. This means the ​Tsuga heterophylla ​ located on the plot were quite large compared to the other trees. It can also be inferred that the ​Acer circinatum​ were quite small, as ten of them were located on the plot, but overall had a lower than average basal area.  184  Figure 8  By using diameter at breast height (DBH) at 1.37 meters as the standard to measure tree diameter, it creates consistency across all trees in the plot. With those measurements, data can then be interpreted to estimate biomass or carbon storage. As seen in the graph, over half of the trees in the plot fell into the 1-10 cm DBH class, and the majority of trees had a DBH below 20 cm. Of the 67 trees inventoried, less than ten fell into the 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm DBH classes. While interpreting this data, it is important to look not only at the species of trees planted, but the space that they occupy, and the potential space they could occupy at maturity. “Regardless of the size class of the tree species, reduced planting space resulted in reduced maximum DBH.” (Cowie, Grabosky, and Sanders, 2013).  The section of the plot along University Boulevard, in between Main Mall and Education road, housed trees with some of the largest DBHs in the plot. Although the large areas did not have unlimited soil, the trees were not in tree pits or small plantings strips. Trees in the plot that had been densely planted along the sides of buildings, in tree pits, and in planting strips account for the large number of trees falling in the 1-10 cm DBH class. Access to unlimited soil and sufficient area for root growth directly control all measurements of tree size, as “tree canopy volume is proportional to natural height and DBH” (Cowie, Grabosky and Sanders, 2013). A tree with a large root system is able to support a broad canopy.  185  Figure 9  Fig. 7 depicts the DBH classes in relation to species abundance and dominance. It can be observed that the DBH class with the highest basal area has a range between 10 and 20 centimeters, and is not the class with the most trees. The DBH class with a range from 1-10 centimeters has the most individual trees. However, since the DBH is so small, they do not take up enough space to have a high basal area. The two largest classes (20-30 cm and 30-40 cm) included trees with larger diameters than the 10-20 cm class, but there were not enough trees in each of those classes to merit a high basal area overall.     186 Figure 10  The graph above portrays the relationship between the total height of the trees (grouped into classifications of five metres) and the number of trees present in the plot. It is apparent that most of the trees on the plot measured less than five meters in height. This is likely due to the limited amount of space, nutrients, and sunlight available to aid their growth in the urban setting.  Figure 11 187 When plotting the DBH and height relation with respect to each species, it became apparent the two measurements were correlated. There is a high concentration of species at certain areas on the graph with little variation, despite the range of different native and non-native trees. The graph may be interpreted to paint a larger picture of the environment that the trees are growing in, as unfavourable environmental conditions affect the entire tree phenotypically. This graph could also be further used to predict the growth of the trees if the age of the trees were known and the growth rates of each species were understood.  Conclusion  Through the data collected in this inventory, the variation within UBC’s urban forest became evident. Not only did the plot exemplify diverse species composition, it also illustrated variations within species and within measurement classes. Plant growth is controlled by various environmental factors, including competition, accessibility to water, availability of nutrients, and temperature. Although a tree may be genetically predisposed to have certain characteristics, ultimately a combination of genotype and environment will determine the trees phenotype. In plot 5, some environmental factors that controlled plant growth were confined spaces such as planting beds and shared spaces. As some trees mature and grow larger, they require more resources, ultimately stunting growth of nearby smaller trees and plants. Urban trees require more maintenance than forests in non-urban areas because of the stressors that urbanization and density create. “Crown spread and trunk diameter reduced as non paved surface is reduced” (Watson, 2013); this is evident in the dense and confined areas of plot 5, as the majority of trees fell within the lowest measurement classes. Although trees in urban forests are limited in their potential growth, with proper maintenance and tree selection, a tree may grow and persist in suitable planting conditions. Of the 67 trees sampled, all were alive and the canopy missing rarely totalled over 50%. With the data collected in this inventory, we hope the UBC stakeholders, staff, and community have a better understanding of the species diversity, health, ecosystem services in its urban forest that will aid and shape the future growth the forest will eventually incur.            188 References:   Beck, T. (2013). ​Principles of Ecological Landscape Design. ​Island Press, WA. p.118.  Accessed February 9, 2019 from: ​http://courses.library.ubc.ca  Bond, J., & Buchanan, B. (2006). ​Best management practices: Tree inventories ​.  Champaign, IL: International Society of Arboriculture. Accessed February 9, 2019  from:​http://unri.org/ECO%20697U%20S14/Tree%20Inventories%20BMP-ISA%2 02.pdf Sanders, J, et al. (2013). ​Establishing Maximum Size Expectations for Urban Trees with Regard  to Designed Space. ​International Society of Arboriculture. Accessed February 10, 2019  from: ​www.reasearchgate.net  Watson, G.W and Himelick, E.B. (2013) ​The Practical Science of Planting Trees. ​Champaign,  IL: International Society of Arboriculture.                     189 Appendix:  Summary Table  Live SD Dead SD Trees 67  0  Species 21 0 DBH mean (cm) 11.5087 (±6.4076) 0 0 BA mean (m​2​) 0.0136 (±0.0166) 0 0 Total height mean (m) 6.0655 (± 3.7428) 0 0 Crown base mean (m) 1.2127 (± 0.9915)  Crown width mean (m) 4.9099 (±3.9410) Canopy missing:   < 10% 7 10-30% 35 31-50% 23 51-80% 1 > 80% 1 Crown light exposure  1 6 2 17 3 17 4 21 5 6  190 UFOR 101 AS02 Group 6 March 3, 2019     Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment        Group 6 individual Contribution:  Chang Liu: Methodology and Zone A to Zone E analysis of cultural ecosystem assessment Finnley He: From I-Tree Eco methodology to Evapitransiration  Wendy Liu: From i-tree canopy to addition analysis from results of i-tree canopy Finnley He and Wendy Liu: together finish compare and contrast part Xuan Chen: Intruduction & Recommendation Zhenjie Bao: Site description, cultural ecosystem assessment from Zone F to K  1911 Introduction The intrinsic functionality of ecosystem services has progressively reached a consensus among the ideology of sustainable city. As being defined, ecosystem services are a variety of beneficial goods and services which humans obtain from ecosystem (Christensen, et al., 1996). According to the conceptualization of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2013), ecosystem services are classified into four categories including provisioning (e.g. food, water, raw materials), regulating (e.g. climate regulation, air quality regulation), supporting (e.g. soil formation, nutrient cycling) and cultural services (e.g. recreation, aesthetic value), while only two services (regulating and cultural) will be evaluated in this assessment. In order to gain more attention from the stakeholders, environmentalists have created ecosystem service assessment to provide readers with a better understanding of current ecosystem service, and it helps urban planners and decision makers to effectively adjust the current situation and increase the value of ecosystem service. At the Vancouver UBC campus, the ​Land Use Plan gives the significant stands of urban trees, and these natural vegetation areas are designated on ​Schedule C: Plan Areas ​as ‘tree guideline areas’ to receive further planning process; for example, trees over 15 cm DBH will be replaced with an appropriate size tree to ensure the safety (Land Use Plan, 2015).   Site description The site ( ​see figure 1) ​ where we accessed is made up by the UBC Earth Science Building (ESB) excluding Main Mall area in front of the ESB and the UBC Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS). Earth Science Building is a building for the Faculty of Science. Specifically, it is home to Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Statistics, the Pacific Institute of the Mathematical Sciences, and the dean’s office of the Faculty of Science. CIRS is a living lab of UBC and is used to test new ideas regarding human well-being and environmental issues. There are multiple faculties such as agriculture and Forestry share this building for interactive researches, and some of UBC services department office such as water supply department are set up in this building as well. The land use type of this site is belong to the institutional land use category. Users in this area are students, instructors, staff and visitors. Academic activities were the dominant activity type was observed by operators in this area, activities including teaching, studying, researching and some group working. And, most people just pass through this area rather than staying. Pedestrian circulation in this area is huge due to its location is close to the West Parkade and West Mall.  Regulating ecosystems services assessment Regulating services of urban forestry are defined as the benefits obtained from the regulation              of ecosystem processes such as reduce stormwater runoff, carbon dioxide sequestration, air            pollutants removals and cool summer air temperature. To define regulating service           assessments, two different i-tree tools have been used such as i-tree canopy and i-tree eco.     1922 i-Tree canopy: i-tree canopy is one of the models which indicate tree canopy coverage and its benefit               estimates based on percent tree canopy of a specific area.   Methodology:  There are three main steps to use i-tree canopy: determining boundary outlines which Draw              the boundary of the inventory area, defining land cover class descriptions which has defined              as tree, impervious road, impervious building and grass. Last step is deciding cover type              category since i-tree canopy generated random sample points which has detailed 100 points             for each municipality to define a significant cover class characterization. The strengths of             those methods are easy-control and make users easily to learn how to use this model. Also, it                 has a fast efficiency which means users will quickly get the report since all the steps has                 finished. The weakness of those methods which have low ability to manipulate GIS             shapefiles through the ‘Define Project Area’ tool and Google Mapmaker to determine            boundaries. The i-tree Canopy program determines the percentage of the coverage category            by detecting random points in satellite images covering the current Google map. As the              number of points increases, the accuracy of percentage estimation will increase with the             decrease of standard error. But the number of points increases, the more time will be needed.                In addition, since the Google Maps satellite imagery in i-tree canopy is not high definition               enough and some of the new planted trees will not be covered, then the error will be increase.   Results of canopy cover: After those steps, i-tree canopy has provided a report. The table (figure 2) below is showing                canopy cover percentage. There are     around 25 percent of tree canopy and       overall about 75 percent of non-tree      areas. Non-tree areas represent around     21 percent of impervious road, 44      percent of impervious building and 10      percent of grass surface.  (Figure 2 )  Results of benefit estimates: (Figure 3)   1933 The second data (figure 3) shows benefits based on those 25 percent of tree canopy of the                 inventory area. The i- tree canopy currently uses the county-level multipliers to estimate             annual air pollutant removals and associated monetary values. There are 7 categories that is in               an annual amount and monetary value: carbon monoxide removal(CO), nitrogen dioxide           removal(NO), ozone removal(O3), particulate matter less than 2.5-micron removal(PM2.5),         sulfur dioxide removal(SO2), particulate matter greater than 2.5 microns and less than            10-micron removal(PM10*), and carbon dioxide sequestration in trees(CO2seq). The amount          and monetary value of carbon dioxide stored in tree which indicate as a non-annual rate and it                 is a total biomass amount(CO2stor).These annual estimates are based on values in            lbs./acre/yr. and CAD$/T/yr. i- tree Canopy currently uses the county-level multipliers to            estimate annual air pollutant removals and associated monetary values. The SE means the             standard error. To sum up, the annual carbon dioxide sequestration has the highest amount              around 6.07 to 8.61 tonnes and highest monetary value of 374.31 to 531.13 Canadian dollars.               Annual carbon monoxide removal has the lowest amount about 0.96 to 1.36 lbs. And annual               sulfur dioxide removal has the lowest monetary value that is around 0.22 to 0.32 Canadian               dollars. Overall, the total monetary for all of those air pollutants removal annually is around               1069.87 Canadian dollars. In addition, the 25 percent of tree canopy of inventory area has               already stored carbon dioxide in trees around 152.35 to 216.17 tonnes and monetary of              9400.31 to 13338.71 Canadian dollars.   Addition analysis from results of i-tree canopy: From research, an average Vancouver household will produce around 7.2 T of carbon dioxide              per year and a typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.6 T of carbon dioxide annually. In the                 inventory area, carbon dioxide sequestered annually in trees is about 7.34 tonnes. So, it is               equal to around one Vancouver household carbon dioxide emission and about 1.6 vehicle             carbon dioxide emission per year. However, the tree canopy of the inventory area has stored               carbon dioxide in trees around 184.26 tonnes that emitted by 25 Vancouver household CO2              emissions and 40 vehicles.For further analysis from the results of tree canopy percentage, tree              canopy of the inventory area is lesser than non-tree areas. The reason is because trees of                inventory area are mostly scattered and smaller compare to trees at UBC main mall. This map                (see figure 4 ) is showing the general tree canopy of the inventory area for group 6 which has                   been indicated by green lines.   I-Tree Eco methodology The I-Tree Eco is a flexible software application in accessing and managing the community trees and forests. To be specific, this is a suite of tools designated to quantify the community forest’s structure, environmental effects and ecological value by providing environmental services. Under the sampled area, detailed information on ecosystem services regulation can be obtained by the further extensive data collection. In a simple way to say, the location of the tree inventory should be clarified at first, and which is followed by the data collection through selecting species, DBH, Land use, total tree height, crown size and crown light exposure in I-Tree Eco software in order to let the system identify the variables needed for  1944 analysis. Then, inputting the inventory data that has been created in assignment 1 is important for the system to do the categorization. As a result, the I-tree Eco will generate ecosystem provision results which are reported as both quantities and economic value.   Analysis from the results of I-tree eco, benefits and shortages of this system Carbon storage, sequestration Carbon storage is a method of capturing carbon dioxide emissions and store them in tree’s biomass such as roots, stumps and branches. This is frequently mentioned as a potential way to mitigate the heat island effect. From the result of I-tree Eco, two Tulip trees and seven European beeches belong to those with the relative high capability for carbon storage, intaking around 11.5 ton respectively from the sample area. The monetary value produced from these tree species is up to 1225.36 Can$ (Tulip tree) and 1182.02 Can$ (European beech), whereas three golden-chain trees could absorb 13.72 ton of carbon that is worthy 1430.07 Can$. Throughout the tree inventory area, ten Japanese zelkovas have the strongest ability in absorbing around 20 ton carbon into their structures and they can save 2000 Can$ to the UBC campus. In comparison, only one Wollemi Pine is planted, and from the reported table about the hydrology effects and the carbon storage of tree by species, Wollemi pine has the lowest ability in restoring 0 ton carbon, and it has almost no contribution in enhancing the community forest performance. Generally, the amount of carbon dioxide that trees sequester from the atmosphere depends on tree size, growth rate and tree condition through the process of photosynthesis.  Leaf area is what provides most of the environmental services. The greater the leaf area, trees have the greater the shade that is provided, the greater the carbon that is sequestered, the greater the amount of air pollution that is removed, and the greater the amount of storm-water that is intercepted as well as the greater value of avoided runoff. It is reported that in I-tree Eco, leaf area from Japanese zelkovas is 0.40 acre (12.6% of leaf area in the sample area) which is the highest value in removing pollution from the environment. The combined effect of average DBH (26.43 in) and height (2.88 ft) reveal the fact that as the stands of tree grow, the tree structure develops stronger and the canopy cover from overall 10 Japanese zelkova trees turns greater, accounting for 4907.5 ft​2 ​ ​in the inventory area and that is equal to approximately five Olympic-size swimming pools (Hallett Taylor, 2018). The oxygen production by those trees is around 800 lb annually. Each year, the total benefits that can be obtained by the carbon storage, gross carbon sequestration, pollution removal, energy savings are 2091.83 Can$. In the campus, Japanese zelkovas are located in the open space beside the Earth Science Building and Pacific Museum of Earth (shown in green dots in graph 5). The spatial distribution of tree is great and most of them are planted with sufficient developing space. Buildings around them function as an office area, and this do not create too much pollution and disrupt the carbon sequestering ability for trees. Overall, this phenomenon explains why Japanese zelkovas have the greatest supply in environmental services.     1955     However, for the single Wollemi Pine, this tree species’ leaf area is 0.003 acre with the 0.001 leaf biomass. 5.9 in DBH and 12.8ft of height result in the low canopy cover (21.6ft ​2​). In a normal case, a mature tree will grow around a meter a year. If the plant is not fertilized and kept in a low light condition, it will grow slowly. Even though the Wollemi Pine tolerates a wide range of soil types, it favors a well-drained, slightly acid fertile soil (Taking care, n.d.). This tree species is inventoried during the winter, the lack of moisture makes it hard to observe the mature plant’s   (Graph 5) growth and do further evaluation of ecosystem services. Thereby this explains why Wollemi Pine has the least impact in regulating the environmental services. In the sampled area, Wollemi Pine is located between Earth Science Building and Pacific Museum of Earth (shown in red dot in graph 5). These two blocks significantly affect the tree’s healthy structural development by obstructing the process of photosynthesis.     Therefore, the table provided by the I-tree Eco software estimates the leaf surface area and leaf biomass for each single tree species inventoried by size classes. This report are quite beneficial to stakeholders, managers and foresters to determine the amount of leaf area and biomass each species have, which species are providing those services, and in which size class the majority of those services could be provided. In other words, this can help managers to have a clear understanding to plan for urban forest sustainability. Tables about pollution removal and carbon storage by measured trees are provided to show the existing tree’s ability to remove the pollution in the atmosphere, and this helps for the plan the future development strategies. But from the I-Tree Eco, data shown in the result of the system is inaccurate, and this is not suitable as an indicator for the long term urban tree’s coordination. Wollemi Pine is a typical tree that contradicts the I-Tree Eco software’s data due to those staff ( as well as our students) do the measurement in height and DBH under the undesirable season for the tree’s development. And this is hard to evaluate the true and reliable economic value from the tree.  Evapotranspiration  The potential evapotranspiration is an indicator meaning the amount of water which would be lost from a surface completely covered with vegetation, and this is important to part of the water cycle to evaluate the demand of moisture in soils. From the I-Tree Eco, the avoided runoff value by Japanese zelkova is calculated by the price 15.76 Can$ annually. But for the Wollemi Pine, only 0.14 Can$ can be saved for the avoided runoff. As a result, the hydrology effects by measured trees can tell stakeholders and urban tree planners in deciding the promising planting area for each tree species. After considering the provision of water in each precise area, the tree species’ planting can possibly be ensured . Overall, the analysis from I-  1966 Tree Eco provides a comprehensive assessment and serves as a platform on which to develop strategies to enhance environmental performance as well as human wellbeing and health.   Compare and contrast the I-Tree canopy and I-Tree Eco  Generally, both software are used to evaluate the regulating services in the ecosystem by outputting data in order to strengthen stakeholders understanding to trees in the inventory area. Through the discussion, analysis and conclusion, a vibrant environment might be provided for citizens to enjoy a healthy life. The similarity between the two software is the carbon storage and sequestration which is valued by money. The air pollutant removal including CO2, SO2, PM2.5, NO2, O3 can be evaluated through the results of two systems as well. By comparison, the results of I-Tree canopy is presented through random dots in the map of inventory area using the Google Maps satellite imagery. Each time it needs to define each dots’ categories. As for the I-Tree Eco, the related variables for tree analysis such as the carbon storage and hydrology of trees are categorized into different parts systematically. By looking at different data tables and graphs, it can be easy to find out each detailed figure such as each tree species tree canopy, whereas in the I-Tree Canopy, only the general tree canopy for all of the tree species can be found. What’s more, structure summary by stratum and species, composition and structure, species distribution by DBH classes, hydrology effects of trees by species are a bunch of tables in I-Tree Eco. However,  I-Tree Canopy has only provided tree canopy or non-tree area cover and the benefit estimates based on percent tree canopy which covers by different air pollutants removal amount and their monetary value.   Cultural ecosystems services assessment Cultural ecosystem services states the importance of human well-being in ecosystem services assessment and decision making (IUCN, 2015).  Methodology  The value mapping process of cultural ecosystem services is divided into five steps. The first step is to learn what is cultural ecosystem services assessment, that is defined as “the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences” (Sarukhán and Whyte 2005). In the lecture, there are the five dimensions of evaluations in different aspects of cultural services that need students to value, which includes species richness (diversity), aesthetics, social cohesion, wilderness (nature), and cultural significance. The next step is valuing different zones individually based on 0 to 5 scales to represent the extent of each dimension. The third step is to record all data from each group members on an excel data sheet. Then, calculating the sum of each value in each zone from all group members separately, getting the average scales of every single value in different zones, and putting all results in a new data table (e.g. under the value of diversity, Average=(scale 1+ scale 2+...+scale n)/n).  The final step is using the table to analyze each feeling dimensions in different zones, which can use graphs in analysis.   1977 The benefit of this methodology is that researchers can personal experience the values and give the score base on personal and actual feelings. Also, they can have a better understanding of cultural ecosystem services and remember well by looking at the map to have spatial analysis. However, the scores can vary with people, and it is a  subjective research, so different people can have different scores, which does not have the correct answer and can vary differently. Also, another disadvantage is that the number of participants is only a few, which is less accurate and objective than the research that has more participants. Therefore, the method is good for having personal experience, but it still needs more participants to value different dimensions to decrease the deviation.  Zone A is an area beside the Main Mall, which contains part of the Earth Science Building and Neville Scarfe Building and the green space between these two buildings (see figure 6). This area has a higher scale of species richness relates to other values because there are at least three different tree species along the side of the building (see figure 8). Also, many small green vegetations were planted beside trees, which increases the values of both diversity and aesthetics. The scores of social cohesion and wilderness are the two lowest values in Zone A, The area is near the side door of ESB building, which means most students who pass by the area are on the way to the classed, even though there are benches near the green area, only a few people may sit their. Also, some trees, that are not domestic species, were designed to be planted in this area, so the area is a highly artificial managed area, which makes the scores of wilderness and social cohesion to be lowest in the area.                                                  (Figure 7)   Zone B is the area from the edge of the Earth Science Building NW to the West Mall. This area is the biggest section with the most green spaces. Trees were planted massive and messy in the middle part (see figure 10). On both sides, trees that near ESB are new planted, which is organized and formed a small bosque. Trees on the other side on West Mall are also along the street and pedestrian road. That is the reason why wilderness is in the middle of the scales. Also, the pedestrian circulation is very high in the zone, but there is no space to seat, so the scale of social cohesion is also the at the middle level. The cultural services also do not significantly reflect on the site. The diversity of species is the highest in all zones because of its largest green area and the most tree species and vegetations, which form a beautiful place for people in surrounding buildings.   1988   (Figure 9) Zone C (see figure 12) is a thin rectangle area with parallel pedestrian road and a line of trees on a slope. The green cover is very low because the trees were planted in recent years. The distributions of the scores are similar also low compares to other zones. Trees were planted in a large parterre that is separated with people, and it provides shades to pedestrians, so social cohesion is not high. There is only one tree species in the parterre and has been well-managed, so the wilderness is low. The rest of the values does not have significant impacts and feelings to people.