UBC Undergraduate Research

Assessing the Effectiveness of the UBC Women's Only Fitness Times : Communication Abella, Faye; Cheng, Anika; Fogelman, Mika; Magdangal, Bianca; Pham, Margaret; Sadaka, Arielle 2019-12-05

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Assessing the Effectiveness of the UBC Women’s Only Fitness Times Faye Abella, Anika Cheng, Mika Fogelman, Bianca Magdangal, Margaret Pham, Arielle Sadaka University of British Columbia KIN 465 Themes: Community, Health, Wellbeing  Date: Dec 5, 2019       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Table of Contents  Executive Summary …………………………………………………………………………… 1 Introduction ……………………….…………………………………………………………… 2 Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………………… 3 Methods ………………………………………………………………………………………..  6 Findings and Discussion ……………………………………………………………………….. 9 Conclusions and Recommendations …………………………………..………………………. 13 References……………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………… 20 Executive Summary When critically studying interculturalism and its relation to recreational and physical activity opportunities, it is crucial to consider the possible barriers which prevent members of the community from being healthy and active. University of British Columbia (UBC) Recreation has sought to implement programs and services which foster interculturalism and promote health and wellbeing for UBC’s students. One of these services is the Women’s Only Fitness Times (WOFT), which are designated times wherein self-identifying women can engage in exercise at the Activities and Recreation Centre (ARC) in a safe and private environment. These exclusive hours aim to address the challenges that women on campus face when trying to access recreation facilities.   In the interest of this course, the authors of this paper partnered with UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) in order to assess the delivery and execution of the newly implemented the WOFT. Through an extensive literature review of historical barriers to physical activity and an environmental scan of existing infrastructure, the authors of this paper were able to construct a specific methodology which aimed to critically assess the effectiveness of this service. The method of data collection consisted of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, including a comprehensive survey which was administered to students in order to further understand their experiences and gain valuable insight for this project.  After data collection concluded, the authors of this study thematically analyzed the data and deduced several patterns and common themes which informed the outcome of this project. The main findings of this project were the following: (1) the nature and/or delivery of the 1marketing of the WOFT can be improved, (2) the program might benefit from increases in guidance and instructionality for patrons, and (3) there is a substantial preference for a greater amount of time slots for this program. These findings were then consolidated in order to present the following recommendations to UBC Recreation: (1) there needs to be a general increase in the awareness of the WOFT and inclusive messaging should be used, (2) there should be an increase in the times offered, since time was the largest perceived barrier by women who wished to access the WOFT, (3) the program might further benefit from an increase in instructionality and guidance for patrons who feel unsure about how to exercise effectively and (4) the program should eventually increase the amount and type of equipment available whenever it has the resources to do so. These recommendations were curated from honest testimonies of anonymous self-identifying women on campus who participated in the survey. This report includes an overview of the existing literature, methodology, findings, and recommendations aimed to improve UBC’s WOFT and enhance opportunities for interculturalism and inclusivity at UBC. Introduction On September 17, 2019, UBC Recreation implemented the WOFT in the lower studio at the UBC ARC on Tuesdays from 7:30am-10:30am, Wednesdays from 3:00pm-5:00pm and Fridays from 3:00-6:00pm. To address accessibility, inclusion, and power imbalances that make spaces for physical activity predominantly male, UBC Recreation has allocated a space for those who identify as women with the WOFT. The new program aims to build a physical activity culture that is inclusive of all community members who wish to partake in athletics and recreation opportunities. UBC Recreation partnered with SEEDS to enlist students in 2determining the effectiveness of this program and patron experiences, including ways to offer better experiences for newcomers and to keep long-term patrons interested. The purpose of this project was to understand the communications and outreach effectiveness of UBC Recreation’s new WOFT. The anticipated outcomes of this project included helping the Recreation department create a better and more inclusive WOFT program through the evaluation of existing literature and recommendations from self-identifying women. The lead contact person for this project was Darren Stolz, Coordinator of Facility and Equipment at UBC Recreation. He helped guide the researchers through this project and provided constructive input on the survey and deliverables. Jonathan Kew, the SEEDS Project Coordinator, also provided beneficial resources and guidance to ensure the success of the project. Alyssa Reyes, the Physical Activity Manager, and Emily Jarvis, the Physical Activity Coordinator at UBC Recreation were valuable resources for support and knowledge. Finally, Danni Zhang, the KIN 465 Teaching Assistant, and KIN 465 instructors Bryna Kopelow and Jennifer Fenton were informative and instructive throughout the process of this project.  Literature review The WOFT in UBC fitness facilities is a newly implemented program that was introduced with the intention of addressing barriers to physical activity, specifically for the self-identifying women on campus. Early assessment of the WOFT can provide ongoing recommendations for this program and thus improve its overall execution, informing the organization of how newcomers might perceive this program, and whether or not long-term patrons would adhere to this program. This project supports UBC Recreation in achieving their sustainability goals. For 3instance, the UBC Wellbeing Strategic Framework (n.d.) focuses on “accessible programs, policies, and facilities that support physical activity for all ages and abilities.” UBC Recreation has taken steps to fulfill this objective through the WOFT program. These designated hours support the inclusion and accessibility of all self-identifying women who wish to partake in athletic and recreation opportunities. Thus, the findings of this project are valuable to the organization on a large scale and might help inform supportive interaction practices, outreach strategies, and improve program development.  Despite the common knowledge that physical activity has a range of benefits, levels of physical activity remain low amongst Canadians, with women displaying some of the most alarming rates (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018). For instance, fewer than one third of females were able to complete just one repetition of muscular strength according to the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018). Low muscular strength levels among women, combined with noticeable levels of inactivity, are a significant health concern for this population (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018).   Gyms are marketed as providing accessible spaces for women to engage in health-promoting activities (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018). However, a closer look at gym spaces through a feminist-informed lens can reveal that these spaces are not always as safe, inclusive, and empowering as they claim (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018). Gyms often “reflect and perpetuate gendered power relations and highly prescribed cultural expectations for femininity around women’s bodies, appearances, strength, and abilities” (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018, p. 477-478). Leisure spaces, especially those grounded in notions of appearance, sexual attraction, and body image are not devoid of gender expectations (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 42018). Although cultural beliefs about health are presumably well-intended, structures of inequality and unequal power are often perpetuated in the health and fitness domain (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018). It is imperative to consider the cultural context of fitness centres in order to understand the barriers that women face when accessing gyms.  The barriers to engaging in physical activity that women experience can be divided into three categories: psychological and cognitive factors, sociocultural factors, and environmental factors (Caperchoine, Mummery, & Joyner, 2009). An example of a psychological barrier is low self-esteem and poor body image. The female participants of Caperchoine et al.’s (2009) study reported joining a gym for health purposes but quickly withdrawing thereafter because they felt intimidated by other members, especially by male members and the gym’s staff. This is vital information, as it demonstrates how the atmosphere of a facility can largely impact a participant’s adherence to it.   Another notable issue in the realm of physical activity is the fact that men’s participation in fitness reinforces dominant conceptions of masculinity and heterosexuality, while women’s participation does the opposite (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). Media representations of strong women in sport perpetuate the stigma that female athletes move ‘too far’ outside the accepted boundaries of femininity, and this is accomplished by sexualizing and/or trivializing their athletic performances (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). When seeking to answer the question ‘Why don’t more women use the weight room?’ Bolin and Granskog (2003) found that women’s descriptions of the weight room were similar to descriptions of a male-dominated occupation: it is “an intimidating space” that prompts feelings of discomfort (p.148). However, weight rooms are not intimidating simply because they are dominated by men; rather, they are intimidating because of 5a ‘Gendered Knowledge Gap’ (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). Specifically, those who start lifting weights later in life are likely to be women, while considered ‘veterans’ are likely to be men (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). This often leads to women trying to catch up in their knowledge of weightlifting, including figuring out how to use equipment and learning formal and informal rules (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). This has valuable implications for the presence of staff or personal trainers on site to help women gain confidence in their skills and feel more comfortable with accessing leisure and exercise spaces.  In Ostgaard’s (2006) doctoral dissertation in which she investigated the cultural characteristics of a women’s only gym, she identified several aspects of the space that users felt were extremely meaningful to them. For instance, women reported that smaller spaces were more welcoming and intimate, whereas crowded spaces in which users must fight over machines were extremely frowned upon (Ostgaard, 2006). Women also favoured the safety that these spaces provided, particularly in avoiding the male gaze present in co-ed gyms (Ostgaard, 2006). Notably, many felt that women’s only facilities offered them a safe space to learn and ask for help in regards to certain machines and equipment, whereas in a co-ed facility these inquiries may have been greeted with impatience (Ostgaard, 2006). When analyzing the delivery of the WOFT at UBC, it was highly important to keep these complexities in mind.  Methods Data Collection Mixed-methods research was used in this project to investigate the communications and outreach effectiveness of UBC Recreation’s WOFT. Mixed-methods research involves 6qualitative and quantitative approaches, which utilizes the strengths and counteracts the limitations of each method (Doyle, Brady, & Byrne, 2016). One of the deliverables of this project included getting feedback from women about their preferences, perceived barriers, and general sentiments towards WOFT. The most effective method of executing this investigation was to create a survey (Appendix A) because surveys provide measures of people’s thoughts and attitudes with validity and reliability, while reaching a broad study population (Kowalski, McHugh, Sabiston, & Ferguson, 2018). To encourage participation, the survey’s length was regulated to take a maximum of five minutes and a compensation of five free drop-in passes to the ARC and BirdCoop Fitness Centres or a $25 UBC Bookstore gift card were advertised.  The study population included self-identifying women who have attended the times, have not attended the times, and women that represented diverse backgrounds. Convenience sampling was used in this study as selection was based on easy access to participants (Kowalski et al., 2018). The sampling frame included a variety of methods in various locations on the UBC campus in order to sample from diverse populations and cultural groups.  Since the implementation of the UBC WOFT is relatively new, it was recognized that not many people may have attended the hours. Therefore, the survey was divided into two sections based on the ‘yes or no’ question: “Do you currently/have you ever attended UBC Recreation’s Women’s Only Fitness Hours?” (Appendix A, Question 7). This made the survey more concise and captured distinct perspectives from those who have and have not attended the WOFT. The survey included closed-ended questions, such as multiple choice, ‘yes or no,’ ‘select all that apply,’ and Likert scale questions (Kowalski et al., 2018). For example, participants were asked to rate the practicality of the space (size, amount and type of equipment, cleanliness, time, 7location, etc.) using a 10-point Likert scale, where 1 meant “not practical” and 10 meant “very practical” (Appendix A, Question 9). The survey also included open-ended questions, which allowed participants to reflect on their experiences in their own words. For example, “What barriers might prevent you from accessing WOFT?” (Appendix A, Question 13). These open-ended questions contributed to acquiring any details that were not accounted for in the closed-ended questions and added to the richness of the data (Kowalski et al., 2018). Procedures After completing the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans course on research ethics, a literature review was conducted to gain insight about challenges, barriers, and the overall experience of women in fitness facilities. The researchers also attended the WOFT to examine the space. With the guidance of the community partners and the information from the literature review, the survey was created and then published on Qualtrics survey software. Gender identity was specified based on Sullivan’s (2019) lecture ‘Positive Space’ (Appendix A, Question 1). The survey was advertised to all self-identifying women on campus through posters (lecture halls, student union buildings, student housing, and recreation facilities; Appendix B), social media posts by UBC Recreation and the researchers’ (Website, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram), emails to sixty-nine Alma Mater Society clubs, and in the UBC Athletics and Recreation Newsletter. The survey was also available on a tablet device located at the WOFT. The data collection period encompassed seventeen days (October 27 to November 13, 2019), and afterwards the data was analyzed. The work plan and project timeline can be found in Appendix D.  8Data Analysis The other deliverable of this study was to use the data from the survey to make recommendations for the WOFT programming. Based on the mixed-methods study design, bar graphs were used to summarize the quantitative data and tables were used to summarize the qualitative data gathered from the survey participants (Appendix C). For the Likert scale question, descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data by calculating the measures of central tendency. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the open-ended questions by identifying themes within the qualitative data (Kowalski et al., 2018). A deductive approach was utilized in order to determine common themes in the answers based on the themes revealed in the literature review (Kowalski et al., 2018). The information from the literature review was applied to the responses as they often involved implicit context and assumptions. The final core themes then advised the final recommendations, which will now be discussed.  Findings and Discussion From the 165 participants that responded to the survey, 91.52% identified as female (Appendix C, Figure 1) and 43.64% and 41.82% were in the age range of 15-19 and 20-24, respectively (Appendix C, Figure 2). Lastly, 81.11% respondents were students (Appendix C, Figure 3). One key finding from this project was the several implications for the nature and/or delivery of the marketing of the WOFT at UBC. Out of the 165 participants, 81.99% reported that they had never attended the WOFT (Appendix C, Figure 7). Furthermore, the most reported reason why participants did not attend the WOFT was due to their lack of awareness of the program, indicated by 64.44% of the respondents (Appendix C, Figure 9). Additionally, the most 9reported way that patrons felt the hours could be made more accessible or of interest to them was by increasing publicity (f = 34; Appendix C, Table 2).  Interestingly, one participant offered suggestions on how to ensure the marketing and messaging for the WOFT at UBC is inclusive. They advised against listing terms such as “weight loss” or “toning” as primary motivations for working out, as these perpetuate the harmful parts of “diet and fitness culture” (Appendix C, Comments 1). Although the WOFT marketing does not currently include messaging of this nature, this open response supports the findings of the literature review, wherein gym spaces are not always as safe, inclusive, and empowering as their marketing claims (Fisher, Berbary & Misener, 2018). As Ostgaard (2006) mentioned in her dissertation, the intersections of gym and macro culture directly influence the reasons why women are reluctant to go to the gym, with body pressure and pressure on their exercise motivation being reported as large contributors to these feelings of reluctance. In the gym Ostgaard (2006) researched for her dissertation, fitness and health were illustrated on ‘how to’ posters however, there was also an emphasis on attractiveness and cultural ideals in the names of certain classes (i.e., Trim and Tone, Guts and Butts) which implied that women need to shape these areas of their body (Ostgaard, 2006). In this way, mixed-messaging is a prevalent and common mistake in fitness centres and is something to be cautious of (Ostgaard, 2006).  Another notable finding from the research was that the WOFT may benefit from providing some sort of guidance or instruction for its patrons, as 9.49% of participants reported that they did not feel knowledgeable about using the equipment at the gym (Appendix C, Figure 9). When asked how the WOFT could be made more accessible, six participants suggested that holding information sessions or workshops might be useful; additionally, two participants said 10having more staff on hand to help would also be preferred (Appendix C, Table 2). Ten participants reported that “lack of knowledge about working out” and “nerves” were perceived barriers that prevented them from accessing the WOFT (Appendix C, Table 3).  As previously mentioned in the literature review, alienating and intimidating feelings experienced by women in the gym can largely be attributed to the Gendered Knowledge Gap, with which women feel the repercussions of when working out (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). Women are often placed in a position where they must supplement their own knowledge of weightlifting, including how to use equipment and what the rules may be (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). Such knowledge gaps are culturally developed and perpetuated over time, then perceived as ‘natural differences’ between boys and girls (Bolin & Granskog, 2003). Bolin and Granskog (2003) suggest that one should explore how both individual and institutional structures play a role in creating and maintaining a knowledge/skill gap between women and men in fitness, and how to narrow that gap. Ostgaard (2006) had a similar finding as many of the women she interviewed reported not entering the weight room because of two distinct reasons: 1) discomfort caused by being one of, if not the only, woman present and 2) a general lack of knowledge about weightlifting. This knowledge gap was supported by the research findings of this report, as one participant expressed, “...There also feels like [there is] an existing foundation of knowledge required to enter a gym and use it efficiently. And that knowledge feels inaccessible” (Appendix C, Comments 1). Women in this study revealed that they would feel more comfortable in the gym if more women were present (Ostgaard, 2006).   Another key finding from the data was a general preference for a greater amount and variation of time slots. Approximately 10% of the participants who had not attended the hours 11stated that the time slots do not work in their schedule (Appendix C, Figure 9). When asked if the current times were convenient, responses were split with approximately 49% saying ‘yes’ and 51% saying ‘no’ (Appendix C, Figure 11). When asked what times would be more convenient, responses were varied with a slightly larger emphasis on weekday evenings (22.70% of participants) and weekend mornings (18.44% of participants; Appendix C, Figure 12). Twenty-two women reported that more time slots and varied time slots would make the WOFT more accessible (Appendix C, Table 2). The number one barrier that prevented women from accessing the WOFT was time (f = 43; Appendix C, Table 3). Time as a barrier must be explored further as it could refer to the time slots available or the amount of personal time women have for physical activity in their schedule. Normative gender roles that enforce childcare and chores as female responsibilities make it difficult for women to make their own health a priority, which leads to their decreased physical activity participation (Segar, Jayaratne, Hanlon, & Richardson, 2002). In developed countries, employed women still do more overall labour than men (approximately 5–10 hours more per week) including their job, household, and childcare duties (Tavares & Plotnikoff, 2006). Segal et al. (2002) introduced an empowerment-based physical activity intervention to women, which addressed conflicts related to female gender roles and allowed them to feel more comfortable making time for self-care and physical activity. This intervention demonstrated that addressing women’s socio-psychological constraints increased the amount of time available for physical activity (Segal et al. 2002).  Family gender roles may serve as a predictor for the limited time women aged 25 years or older are able to participate in physical activity (14.55% of participants; Appendix C, Figure 2). 12Despite these implications, this may not be very applicable to the majority of the survey demographic, women aged 15-24 years (85.46% of participants; Appendix C, Figure 2). Rather, time may be a barrier for this cohort of students because they are restricted by their busy academic and extra-curricular schedules. This is consistent with Arzu, Tunzun, and & Eker’s (2006) research, which reported that the greatest barrier to not participating in physical activity for university students was time constraint due to schoolwork, social, and family commitments. According to the results of this survey, more time slots during weekday evenings and weekend mornings may allow greater flexibility for student’s busy schedules in order to participate in the WOFT (Appendix C, Figure 12). Conclusions and Recommendations Considering that the WOFT is a relatively new program from UBC Recreation, it is important to note that some recommendations may not be logistically practical. With this in mind, the researchers propose recommendations in the following areas: marketing, timing, instruction, and space. These recommendations aim to provide a more effective and inclusive exercise facility for self-identifying women at UBC. To improve the marketing strategies for the WOFT, the researchers suggest widening the marketing perimeter. For example, promotional materials such as posters and digital advertisements can be displayed in areas beyond the recreation centre. The UBC Hospital, popular lecture buildings and libraries including the Walter C. Koerner, Irving K. Barber, Woodward, David Lam, Education, and Law buildings would be effective places to promote the program because they reach a wide variety of people, including women of various cultures, 13religions, ages, abilities and occupations. Both program awareness and messages conveyed in fitness advertisements are crucial in encouraging women to engage in physical activity (Caperchoine et al., 2009). The language used is an important factor to consider in marketing strategies. The researchers suggest focusing on women’s physical abilities and the health benefits of exercise. This prevents the perpetuation of women’s appearance, sexuality, and traditional roles around fitness. In addition, including clear statements of the location and time by using bold and large text fonts would enhance the effectiveness of the promotional materials. As Kopelow & Fenton (2019) discussed, the two most common challenges in physical activity are the recruitment and retention of women. To improve the WOFT recruitment and retention, the researchers recommend to have staff available to promote the program during UBC Clubs Day and other UBC Recreation events. Videos of the gym on the WOFT web page would be beneficial so prospective participants can obtain a visual of the space, including the available equipment and the size of the WOFT gym. The researchers also recommend having WOFT social media accounts such as Instagram and Facebook. Social media marketing can positively affect program effectiveness because it supplements knowledge acquisition and customer interaction (Nguyen, Xiaoyu, Melewar, & Chen, 2015). This also distributes program information in a proactive and interactive manner while building a community of women from various multi-cultural backgrounds.  As previously mentioned, lack of time remains to be one of the biggest barriers to physical activity (Caperchoine et al., 2009). As Verhoef, Love and Rose (2008) stated, school responsibilities, parenthood, marital status and employment are significantly related to women’s physical activity engagement. It is important to consider these factors in the planning of effective 14exercise programs for women in different social contexts, such as the WOFT. Since the lowest scoring practical component of the WOFT is the limited program availability, the researchers recommend adding hours during weekday evenings and weekend mornings because participants reported these times to be the most convenient. Based on the survey responses, the researchers also suggest having the program available during peak hours of the BirdCoop and the ARC. This will help with the crowdedness of the co-ed fitness centres during these hours and may provide a more intimate and safe atmosphere for women (Ostgaard, 2006). Research has indicated that women who start using weights later in life lack knowledge on how to use equipment and execute exercises (Ostgaard, 2006). An increase in instruction and guidance would allow women to feel confident and comfortable training in the WOFT and would make the space more accessible for beginners. Having posters around the space demonstrating how to perform certain exercises with proper technique and different variations with the current equipment is recommended to increase accessibility. Typically, women’s only facilities offer women a safe space to learn and ask for help in comparison to a co-ed facility where asking for guidance was met with impatience (Ostgaard, 2006). Data from the survey supports these recommendations as some women stated that they would benefit from more instruction, visual descriptions or guidance on how to use equipment. These posters can make the space more inclusive to all physical fitness levels from beginners, intermediate, and advanced skill levels.  In addition to posters, having a trainer at the WOFT would be beneficial for answering questions or assisting women with exercises. As previously mentioned, women typically start using the gym later than men and need to catch up on their knowledge of weightlifting, including figuring out how to use equipment and learning formal and informal rules (Bolin & Granskog, 152003). The presence of a female trainer could help women become more confident in their abilities so that they could feel more comfortable accessing exercise spaces. Another recommendation would be to host introduction sessions in which a trainer can teach basic exercises with free weights, barbells, and machines. This would allow women to become more familiar with equipment, learn new exercises and proper technique, and ask questions before attending fitness facilities. These workshops could focus on a variety of areas including; strength, endurance, balance and flexibility, and learning how to structure a workout plan. These recommendations are supported by the survey data in which women indicated they would like to be more in control of their physical fitness. Therefore, advertising the support of a trainer once a week at the WOFT and the opportunity to participate in an introductory exercise workshop may promote gym accessibility and encourage female participation.   Another improvement area of the WOFT is the gym equipment that is currently provided. In the survey, some women expressed the need for more intermediate-level strength training equipment such as barbells and squat racks. A lack of variety in strength training equipment assumes that women don’t use certain equipment and limits more experienced women who have higher levels of physical fitness. Survey participants recommended increasing the number of squat racks and rubber mats as there was not enough available when the gym got busier. It was also recommended to include a cable machine and more cardiorespiratory equipment such as a treadmill and an elliptical, however it is understood that budget and resources may be a barrier to these recommendations. The addition of more strength and cardiorespiratory equipment may make the space more inclusive because it acknowledges all skill levels, from beginners to advanced individuals (Bolin & Granskog, 2003).  16Aside from these recommendations, the WOFT space was scored quite well among the survey participants. The gym should continue to provide a safe, clean environment with quality equipment, welcoming staff and inclusive language, in order to maintain a positive environment where women can learn new skills and experience success on their personal goals (Kopelow & Fenton, 2019). With the findings of the literature review and the survey, the researchers hope that these recommendations can be implemented to improve the communications and outreach effectiveness of the WOFT and create a more intercultural and accessible environment.  17References Arzu, D., Tunzun E., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university   students. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine, 5(4), 615-620. Retrieved from https://  www.jssm.org/ Bolin, A., Granskog, J., & Project Muse University Press Archival eBooks. (2003). Athletic   intruders: Ethnographic research on women, culture, and exercise. Albany: State    University of New York Press. Caperchoine, C., Mummery, W. K., & Joyner, K. (2009). Addressing the challenges, barriers, and  enablers to physical activity participation in priority women’s groups. Journal of    Physical Activity and Health, 6(5), 589-596. doi:10.1123/jpah.6.5.589 Doyle, L., Brady, A.-M., & Byrne, G. (2016). An overview of mixed methods research:    Revisited. Journal of Research in Nursing, 21(8), 623–635. doi:      10.1177/1744987116674257 Fisher, M. R., Berbary, L. A., & Misener, K. E. (2018). Narratives of negotiation and    transformation: Women's experiences within a mixed-gendered gym. Leisure Sciences,   40(6), 477-493. doi:10.1080/01490400.2016.1261744 Kopelow, B., & Fenton, J. (2019, September). Actively engaging girls and young women.   [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/41914/files/5605588?  module_item_id=1418268 Kowalski, K. C., McHugh, T. F., Sabiston, C. M., & Ferguson, L. J. (2018). Research methods in  kinesiology. Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press. 18Nguyen, B., Xiaoyu, Y., Melewar, T. C., & Chen, J. (2015). Brand innovation and social media:   Knowledge acquisition from social media, market orientation, and the moderating role of   social media strategic capability. Industrial Marketing Management, 51(1), 11-25. doi:   10.1016/j.indmarman.2015.04.017  Ostgaard, G. D. (2006). FOR “Women Only”: Understanding the cultural space of a women’s   gym through  feminist geography (Doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State    University). Segar, M., Jayaratne, T., Hanlon, J., & Richardson, C. (2002). Fitting fitness into women’s lives;  Effects of a gender-tailored physical activity intervention. Women’s Health Issues, 12(6),   338-347. doi:10.1016/S1049-3867(02)00156-1 Sullivan, R (2019, October). Positive Space. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/41914/pages/guest-speaker-dr-rachael-sullivan?module_it em_id=1421152 Tavares, L., & Plotnikoff, R. (2006). Not enough time? Individual and environmental    implications for workplace and physical activity programming among women with and   without young children. Health Care for Women International, 29(3), 244-281. doi:  10.1080/07399330701880911 Verhoef, M., Love, E., & Rose, S. (2008). Women’s social roles and their exercise participation.   Women and Health, 19(4), 15-29. doi:10.1300/J013v19n04_02 Wellbeing Strategic Framework. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15 2019, from https://wellbeing.ubc.ca/framework  19Appendix A: Survey  1. How do you identify? a. Female b. Cisgender c. Transgender d. Gender Neutral  e. Genderqueer f. Non-binary g. Two Spirit  h. Other  2. What is your age range? a. 15-19 b. 20-24 c. 25-29 d. 30-34 e. 35-39 f. 40+ 3. Are you a student, staff, faculty, or other? (Select all that apply) a. Student b. Staff c. Faculty  d. Other  4. How many times do you engage in a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity a week? (Physical activity may include playing, working, active transportation, chores, and recreational activities - e.g. purposeful walking, yoga, strength training) a. 0 b. 1-2 c. 3-4 d. 5+ *If “0” is selected, the survey would skip to question 7 5. What is your motivation for engaging in fitness activities? (Select all that apply) a. Health related reasons b. Aesthetics c. Weight loss d. Break from school/work e. Social connections f. Other ______ 206. What types of fitness activities do you engage in? (Select all that apply)  a. Organized sports (varsity, intramural, club, recreational, etc.) b. Fitness center (weight training, conditioning) c. Cardio activities (biking, running, etc.) d. Dance/dance fitness e. Martial Arts f. Yoga/pilates g. Group fitness classes h. Other ______ 7. Do you currently/have you ever attended UBC Recreation’s Women’s Only Fitness Hours? a. Yes b. No *If “No” is selected, the survey would skip to question 10 8. Why do you participate in Women’s Only Fitness? (Select all that apply) a. Sense of community b. Privacy/security reasons c. More comfortable environment  d. Less crowded e. Religious reasons  f. Other ______ 9. How would you rate the practicality of the space (1 = Not practical at all, 10 = Very Practical)? a. Size (the space itself)  b. Amount of equipment c. Type of equipment d. Assistance available  e. Cleanliness of space and equipment  f. Process if signing in  g. Time program is offered h. Location  10. Why do you not attend UBC Recreation’s Women’s Only Fitness Hours? (Select all that apply) 21a. I did not know they existed b. The time slots don’t work with my schedule c. I don’t feel inclined to attend Women’s Only FItness hours d. I don’t feel knowledgeable about using the equipment e. The available equipment doesn’t suit my needs f. Other ______ *Only asked this question if responded “No” in question 7 11. How can we make Women’s Only Fitness Hours more accessible or of interest to you?  _______________________________________________________________________ 12. Is this a safe and respectful space for women to workout in? a. Yes b. No c. N/A (I have never been to Women’s Only Fitness Hours)  13. What barriers might prevent you from accessing Women’s Only Fitness Hours? (finances, time, nerves, religious reasons, etc.) _______________________________________________________________________ 14. Are the current Women’s Only Fitness Hours (Tuesday 7:30-10:30am, Wednesday 3-5pm, Friday 3-6pm) provided at a convenient time for you? a. Yes b. No 15. What times would be more convenient? (Select all that apply) a. Weekday early mornings b. Weekday mornings c. Weekday afternoons d. Weekday evenings e. Weekend mornings f. Weekend afternoons  16. Please state any additional comments you would like us to be aware of: _______________________________________________________________________ 17. If you would like to be considered for the prize draw, please include your name and email below: _______________________________________________________________________  22Appendix B: Poster  23Appendix C: Survey Results  !  Figure 1: Question 1; How do you Identify? !  Figure 2: Question 2; What is your age range? !  Figure 3: Question 3; Are you a Student, Staff, Faculty or Other? 24!  Figure 4: Question 4; How many times do you engage in a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity a week? !  Figure 5: Question 5; What is your motivation for engaging in fitness activities? !  Figure 6: Question 6; What types of fitness activities do you engage in? “Other” responses: fun (3), desire to be strong (3), sports team, competition (2), moving to feel better (1), enjoyment (1). 25!  Figure 7: Question 7; Do you currently/have you ever attended UBC Recreation’s Women’s Only Fitness Hours? !  Figure 8: Question 8; Why do you participate in Women’s Only Fitness Hours? !  Figure 9: Question 10; Why do you not attend UBC Recreation’s Women’s Only Fitness Hours? 26“Other” responses: far from home, liking group classes, unsure where they are, no males, living off campus, attending other gym. !  Figure 10: Question 12; Is this a safe and respectful space for women to workout in? !  Figure 11: Question 14; Are the current Women’s Only Fitness Hours (Tuesday 7:30-10:30am, Wednesday 3-5pm, Friday 3-6pm) provided at a convenient time for you? !  Figure 12: Question 15; What times would be more convenient? 27Table 1: Question 9; How would you rate the practicality of the space? (1 = Not practical at all, 10 = Very Practical) Table 2: Question 11; How can we make Women’s Only Fitness Hours more accessible or of interest to you?   Minimum Maximum MeanSize (the space itself) 4 10 8.56Amount of equipment 3 10 7.28Type of equipment 4 10 7.56Assistance available 3 10 8.12Cleanliness of space and equipment5 10 9.08Process of signing in 2 10 7.68Time program is offered 2 10 6.2Location 5 10 9Response FrequencyIncreased and varied time offered 22Increase publicity 34Make sign in requirements clearer 1Have it at all/more fitness studios on campus 2Better/more varied equipment 5More inclusive environment 1 Hold information sessions/workshops 6Offer child care support 128Table 3: Question 13; What barriers might prevent you from accessing Women’s Only Fitness Hours? (finances, time, nerves, religious reasons, etc.) Comments 1: Question 16; Please state any additional comments you would like us to be aware of: ● “Please try to make sure your messaging doesn't exclusively name things like weight loss and "toning" as motivations for working out. That's been a proven red flag for me in the past, indicating that a gym or class or program will focus on the harmful parts of diet and fitness culture ("starve yourself! Lose that belly fat!"), rather than helping folks be strong and healthy and happy.” ● “PLEASE HAVE MORE SQUAT RACKS (AND RUBBER MATS) ONE IS NOT ENOUGH PLEASE AND THANK YOU” ● “I really enjoy having this amenity and how it is much less crowded than the ARC” ● “Men do dominate the gym and it can be very frustrating especially when a lot of them get annoyed as if they don’t think you as a women should be there or using that equipment. I’m concerned that women’s only hours would get online hate from men if they were increased. I would hate for fellow women to see those comments on reddit or Ubc Confessions and feel bad going as I do believe that this program would benefit women’s health immensely” ● “Those times are popular times for labs from 2-5pm” Have staff on hand to help 2Highlight available equipment 1Have the gym available for hours (not just the studio) 1Response Frequency Time 43Promotion 2Finances 5Lack of knowledge on working out 5Nerves 5Homework 2Distance from home/location 5Lack of motivation 129● “It would almost be better to just have a small room thats women only all the time but I guess that would be difficult to enforce” ● “Time is always a constraint. But for me as a plus size Black woman, there are issues of visibility that I face walking down main mall, let alone at a gym. I think the general consensus among women/fat people/non athletes is that the gym is a stadium as opposed to a training ground. I have a goal weight I want to reach before I even step foot in a gym because of the publicity and the perception. There also feels like an existing foundation of knowledge is required to enter a gym and use it efficiently. And that knowledge feels inaccessible”  30Appendix D: Work Plan and Project Timeline Work Plan Name of Project: Assessing UBC Recreation’s Women’s Only Fitness Times - Programming Purpose(s) of Project: 1. To understand the communications and outreach effectiveness of UBC Recreation’s new Women’s Only Fitness Times.  2. Findings from this project will help the Recreation Department create a better and more inclusive Women’s Only Fitness Times program. Deliverables: 1. Get input/feedback about what women want and what barriers limit their participation using a survey (e.g. quality of experience, equipment, space/esthetic, training sessions, reasons for attending, interculturalism/inclusion, ideal hours) → 5 min max - Interactive survey on tablet or paper - Online surveys (via email lists) - Surveying specific groups/clubs (e.g. student residences, SISU group) - Survey link/code on posters - Provide incentive for women to fill out survey by offering a chance to win a giftcard  2. A final report outlining suggestions to improve the space. - Includes: literature review, methods, data collected, and recommendations for programmingMethods: - Make an annotated bibliography to get ideas from existing literature and attend fitness hours in person to examine the space - Make survey based on literature and observations  - Collect data for 2-3 weeks then follow up analysis and interpretation of the data  - Compose literature review, methods, findings, and provide recommendations based on the data  Project MembersSkills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability 31 Mika Fogelman- Dance fitness instructor at UBC REC and Formation Studio - Running & weight trainingContact person liaison: responsible to make initial contact, set up meetings and maintain contact, and gather feedback on deliverables. Help with data analysis.Monday/Friday afternoons Tuesday 12:30 - 4:30pmMargaret Pham- Varsity field hockey - Field hockey coaching, strength and conditioning training Meeting and timeline manager: keep track of meeting notes, project organization, and due dates. Contribute to the final report.Monday/Wed/Friday afternoons Tuesday/Thursday 1-3pm Anika Cheng- Employed by UBC REC at the ARC/BirdCoop - Have taught Women’s only fitness classes - Competitive dragon boatAttend WOFT and help administration of the survey (e.g. email clubs). Contribute to the final report by discussing recommendations.Tuesday 1-4pm  Thursday 1-3pm Arielle Sadaka- Varsity track and field  - Weight training - Track and field coaching (ages 8-16) Survey designer: make survey and analyze data. Contribute to final report. Tuesday after 2pm Friday 12-3pm Bianca Magdangal- Works in the fitness industry for ~ 3 years, in the gym setting where Women’s Fitness Times are a relevant Oversee literature review: review existing literature, search for gaps in research, and synthesize ideas for survey. Contribute to final report.Mondays before 4pm Tuesday/Thursday 2-4pm Faye Abella - Women’s rugby trainer - Interest in fitness & weight training - Assisted marginalized individuals (children with special needs) with physical activities and exercisesAttend WOFT and help research strengths and weaknesses of the program. Contribute to final report by discussing recommendations. Monday/Wed/Friday before 2pm32Project ComponentSpecific Task What do you need in order to get this done?Who is responsible?When is this due?First meeting with Contact PersonEmail contact person to introduce your group and ask for a meetingLearn people’s availabilityMika Sept 17-27Meet with the contact person and discuss project goals and details- See instructions on CANVAS - Begin filling out work planAll group members Sept 19-30Class requirementsWorkplans due via email to Danni, Bryna and Jennifer and community partner- Complete work plan with detailed timeline and organization of workAll group members By Oct 8  (11:59pm)Midterm Progress report due via email to Danni and community partner - Create a peer evaluation form that we all agree with - Update our work planAll group membersOct 22 (end of day)Presentation - See instructions on CANVASAll group membersNov 26Peer Evaluation - Reflect on your group members’ contribution to the projectAll group membersDec 5 Final meeting with Contact PersonPrepare project to present to contact personAll group membersMeet with Contact Person and get their feedback on final project- Schedule meeting (sent over email and received feedback)Mika Nov 19Final Edits Edit report All group members33Project Timeline October 8th: Work plan due; all contribute one article to annotated bibliography October 8-14th:  - Continue working on annotated bibliography, compile data and create draft survey - Plan time to meet as a group to work on survey - Decide on how we are going to administer the survey - Discuss methodology  October 15th: Send survey draft for review from community partner and SEEDS  October 18th: Meeting with SEEDS finalize survey details October 22nd: Midterm progress report due - Revisit the work plan and update it; make sure we are on track October 27th - November 13th: Administer survey for approx. 2 weeks  November 4th - 13th: Analyze and compile data; work on presentation and final report - Work on final report (introduction, literature review, methodology, data analysis) - Work on presentation November 13th: Survey closes - Review analyzed data - Work on final report (project outcomes/findings/discussions, conclusions/recommendations, appendix and references) - Work on presentation November 26th: Group presentation in class November 27th - Dec 4th: Finish and edit final report  - Work on executive summary  - Work on peer evaluations  December 5th: Final report and peer evaluations dueEdit presentation All group membersNov 19-Nov 25Final Report and Peer Evaluation Due via email to Danni ZhangAll group membersDec 534


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