Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

Understanding the Perceived Cultural and Gender-Based Barriers and Facilitating Factors for Physical… Chan, Michelle; Im, Jin; Diego, Christian; Daowd, Kero; Rackham, Hilary 2018-12-03

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
18861-Chan_M_et_al_KIN_465_Understanding_cultural_gendered_barriers_physical_final_report.pdf [ 2.96MB ]
18861-Chan_M_et_al_KIN_465_Understanding_cultural_gendered_barriers_physical_final_presentation.pdf [ 652.15kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 18861-1.0387082.json
JSON-LD: 18861-1.0387082-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 18861-1.0387082-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 18861-1.0387082-rdf.json
Turtle: 18861-1.0387082-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 18861-1.0387082-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 18861-1.0387082-source.json
Full Text
18861-1.0387082-fulltext.txt
Citation
18861-1.0387082.ris

Full Text

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report Understanding the Perceived Cultural and Gender-Based Barriers and Facilitating Factors for Physical Activity that Students Self-Identifying as Female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or  Taiwanese Face at UBC  Michelle Chan, Jin Im, Christian Diego, Kero Daowd, Hilary Rackham University of British Columbia KIN 465 Themes: Wellbeing, Community, Health December 3, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   2   Executive Summary In this report ‘UBC SEEDS: Culture and Gender-Based Barriers,’ students at the University of British Columbia (UBC) who self-identify as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese were analyzed in order to better understand their perceived cultural and gender-based barriers and facilitating factors for physical activity. A recent UBC Undergraduate Experience Survey (UES) International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) had found that the people in this target demographic have the lowest self-reported levels of physical activity. Studying this issue is of great significance due to the fact that this demographic also collectively represents the largest subset of students enrolled at UBC. To accomplish this, a group of students in KIN465: Interculturalism, Health, and Physical Activity collaborated with their community partners from Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) to discuss objectives of the study and to learn how to conduct a focus group in a professional manner. A literature review was then conducted on cultural inclusivity in athletics and recreation in a post-secondary setting for underrepresented populations. The students then recruited participants for the focus group using an online format. A focus group was conducted with a small group of self-identifying female Chinese UBC students, during which cultural and gender-based barriers were identified and discussed, as well as facilitating factors to physical activity. Trends in responses identified perceived cultural barriers as limited exposure to athletics, cultural value of athletics, and cultural influence on gender expectations. Perceived gender-based barriers included sexual dichotomies of physical activities, intimidation and discomfort with male presence, and a preference for activities with a large female presence. Other barriers that were not gender or culture-based included time restraints, long commutes, price of activities, lack of experience, and characteristics of space. Participants found that reasonably-priced programs, women-specific programs, social networking, stress-relief, and facilities with gender-specific spaces were facilitating factors to physical activity. Based on the qualitative data collected, three primary recommendations were made to assist in breaking down perceived barriers and to incorporate factors that facilitate participation in physical activity. The first recommendation was to create gender-specific spaces and introductory recreation programs at UBC to boost comfortability and develop skills. Second, it was recommended that current programs in place at UBC increase the effectiveness of information delivery by promoting events in a way that caters to the target demographic. Finally, creating a partnership between UBC Alma Mater Society (AMS) and UBC Residence was recommended to facilitate collaboration with Asian student populations.  Introduction   A recent University of British Columbia (UBC) Undergraduate Experience Survey revealed that women from Asian ethnic groups had the lowest self-reported levels of physical activity (PA) (UBC SEEDS, 2018). These findings are significant because this demographic Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   3 makes up a large proportion of UBC’s population. Within UBC’s Vancouver campus, 54% of undergraduates self-identify as being female (UBC Alma Mater Society, 2018). Additionally, out of the 54% of self-identifying female undergraduates, 54% identify as Asian (UBC Alma Mater Society, 2018). Based on UBC’s enrollment report, approximately 35% of the international students coming from China, Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan (UBC, 2018). We have chosen to study Chinese female students because they make up a large portion of UBC’s population and have the lowest self-reported levels of PA. The purpose of this project is to “better understand the perceived cultural and gender-based barriers and facilitating factors for PA that students self-identifying as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese face at UBC” (UBC SEEDS, 2018, p. 1)  It is important to increase PA within this demographic because various studies have suggested its positive benefits, such as improved cognitive functioning, decreased levels of stress, and reduced rates of diabetes (Beauchamp et al., 2018; Humphreys et al., 2014; Warburton, 2006). In this context, a barrier is as a factor that can prevent and/or discourage participation in PA. Our study will focus on the cultural, gender, and social barriers that this demographic may face. One objective of the study was to conduct a focus group comprised of members of the target demographic in order to identify both barriers and facilitators to their PA engagement. Additionally, another objective was to provide recommendations to community partners in order to eliminate and reduce the identified barriers. These recommendations would be made using the data gathered from the focus group.  We carried out our research study with the help of the UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) program. One of our primary contacts was Lyz Gilgunn, who is a manager of physical activity at UBC. Lyz was instrumental in forming and approving the focus Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   4 group questions. Additionally, Lyz outlined the roles and responsibilities that were needed in order to run a successful focus group.  Also, Sally Lin, who is a SEEDS project coordinator was another primary contact. Sally was a key resource in focus group recruitment as she assisted us by sending out a recruitment email to potential subjects of the study.  Methodology  Several steps were taken in order to achieve the objectives of this research study. First, the student team had an initial meeting with the UBC SEEDS community partners, Sally Lin and Michelle Hebert respectively. Additionally, KIN 465 teaching assistant, Liv Yoon was present at this meeting to clarify any questions that the student team or community partners had. At the initial meeting, the community partners outlined what was expected of the student team as well as set deadlines for key milestones. A recruitment link email, a date for a focus group workshop, and a rough deadline for the actual focus group was discussed at the initial meeting. The community partners and student team agreed that running a focus group would be effective at uncovering the potential cultural, gender, and social barriers faced by self-identified female Chinese or Taiwanese students at UBC. A focus group consists of structured discussions among strangers in a formal setting (Morgan, 1996). Next, the student team attended a workshop on how to conduct a focus group, which was led by community partner, Michelle Hebert. At the workshop, the student team identified the responsibilities each individual would have when running the focus group. Additionally, the student team learned several benefits and cons of a focus group. A benefit of a focus group is that it is interactive which can allow for open and reflective dialogue. These types of responses are not typically seen within surveys. An important aspect of a focus group is the researcher’s Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   5 active role in creating group discussion (Morgan, 1996). Part of conducting a successful focus group involves having a skilled researcher, therefore, it was essential that we attended this focus group workshop as well as work with the community partners to refine our focus group knowledge.  A literature review was conducted in order to see if there was existing research regarding undergraduate Chinese students and physical activity rates. This literature was finished prior to meeting once more with the community partners. It helped guide the formation of our initial draft of the focus group questions.  The student team met once more with community partners. Lyz Gilgunn and Sally Lin were present and reviewed the student team’s focus group questions. Lyz Gilgunn also reviewed the roles of the student team for the focus group. Following this meeting, revised focus group questions were sent to Lyz Gilgunn via email and were approved.  Lastly, the student team lead a focus group session with participants who self-identify as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese. Participants were recruited via an email link that was sent out by Sally Lin. The focus group session took place at the Music, Art, and Architecture Library in the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre at UBC. Consent forms were provided and the participants were kept anonymous. The focus group session was recorded then transcribed. The participants’ responses were then analyzed and recommendations were made based on the qualitative data.  Literature Review Women have historically had a lower rate of physical activity than men (Eyler et al., 2002) and the reasons why are beyond the scope of this paper but likely include sociocultural Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   6 barriers that impede or even prevent women from having equitable access to physical activity than men. Rather, the more devastating reality is that minority women have an even lower rate of physical activity which suggests that they are below the rate of both men and nonminority women (Eyler et al., 2002). It is imperative to uncover the reasons that are causing this because of the known risks associated with a lack of physical activity. Asian females in North America have a higher prevalence rate of several high-mortality diseases, including: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and all-cause mortality (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003) when compared to Caucasian females. This alarming finding may be a result of the fact that Asian-American women have a significantly lower physical activity participation rate relative to the rest of the American population (Im et al., 2012).  Haskell et al. (2007) argue that a minimum of 2.5 hours of physical activity weekly is necessary to achieve noticeable health benefits. Unfortunately, however, a study by Yoh et al. (2008) found that female international Asian university students averaged only 1.3 hours per week. Evidently, there must be a factor, or more likely, a combination of factors that are influencing female Asians’ participation in physical activity. A study by Yan and Cardinal (2013) discovered that there was a considerable amount of ambiguity in the definition of physical activity and that this may contribute to the finding that the subjects’ physical activity levels were lower than recommended; the ambiguous meanings of the term were later attributed to differences in cultural definitions of physical activity. Common interpretations of the term “physical activity” were: a break from work, a time to be alone, and a feeling of accomplishment (Yan & Cardinal, 2013). However, there were no set expectations on energy expenditure, which generates challenges in distinguishing the Western belief of Haskell et al.’s (2007) Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   7 recommendation of 2.5 hours of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, from the Chinese cultural understanding of physical activity.  In terms of understanding barriers faced by these Chinese women in the study, Yan and Cardinal (2013) identified lack of time, lack of self-efficacy, lack of social support and cultural barriers to have the most profound effects. One of the most interesting findings was that the Chinese female respondents’ answers, despite fitting into the categories of barriers aforementioned, demonstrated a common theme of a lack of a central support for physical activity in their culture. Most participants reported wanting to exercise with a Chinese workout partner rather than a non-Chinese partner, which impacted their level of physical activity. In addition, Yan and Cardinal concluded that this may be attributed to their perception of not being as physically capable as their non-Chinese counterparts, which again, can be considered a result of cultural interpretation of the importance of physical activity for women specifically.  Participation in physical activity for Chinese women is undoubtedly hindered by several factors, most residing in cultural barriers or different cultural interpretations of the term “physical activity” and the associated expectations. As our world continues to evolve and multicultural societies begin to transition to intercultural societies, it is imperative to understand how levels of physical activity are impacted by culture and what societies can do to understand these cultural barriers with an intersectional, culturally sensitive lens.  Findings The focus group session revealed multiple barriers to physical activity, with a higher prevalence of cultural and gender-based barriers.  Lack of exposure to sports was one the key findings.  A focus group participant who grew up in China revealed that they had less exposure Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   8 to sports and recreation compared to another participant who grew up in Canada.  In general, there were not as many opportunities for females to meaningfully engage in physical education classes due to failure to modify activities to accommodate female students, and insufficient attention to low female activity levels.  On the other hand, Canadian youth, including young females, shared that there were more chances to participate in a culture that encouraged more participation in organized sport.  As discussed throughout the course, exposure to physical literacy at an early age is a large determinant of lifelong participation in sports and recreation.   The participants frequently spoke about how, especially for young females, sport was labelled as a “waste of time” that did not contribute to a successful career path in their culture.  There was further explanation on the clear division of academics and sport, where unless a girl showed potential to reach elite or professional level at a young age, they were taught that unconditional academic focus was the path to success in Chinese culture.  Academics and sport were not considered to be something that could co-exist within the life of an ordinary Chinese female student.   Gender-based barriers were the most commonly discussed barrier among the focus group.  Although many participants revealed their interests in being more physically active by attending the Bird Coop or the ARC on campus, many agreed that the gym spaces were often segregated by gender, with males dominating most of the gym facilities.  Participants shared that they were intimidated and felt uncomfortable with certain male presence and behaviour that reinforced the stereotype that beginners at the gym who lack knowledge are looked down upon, and not welcome to share the gym facilities with advanced individuals.  This was in line with the literature review that revealed Chinese students having low self-efficacy and feeling physically less capable than their non-Chinese counterparts who had more knowledge in the gym space Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   9 (Yan & Cardinal, 2013).  Furthermore, participants shared that they were much more comfortable participating in activities that were female-only and were less competitive.  Although co-ed sports leagues such as dodgeball and Ultimate Frisbee were enjoyable, the competitive nature led to participants feeling incompetent.  Many participants were willing to try out new sports, but lacked self-confidence and failed to find introductory level programs at UBC REC, apart from drop-ins or leagues.    Recommendations 1. Create Gender-Specific Spaces and Introductory Recreation Programs  a. The first recommendation is to create gender-specific spaces and more introductory recreation programs to create a safe and welcoming environment for individuals who are new to the activity and who seek gender-specific space. One participant from the focus group identified their experience starting at a women’s only gym section and slowly building confidence to join the co-ed section of the gym. Gayra Ostgaard’s thesis on female-only gyms provides insight as to how these spaces for women the opportunity to feel comfortable at gyms (2006). Identically to our focus group responses, women reported feeling uncomfortable and intimidated at co-ed weight rooms which were dominated by men. And there was expressed discomfort at using weights in fear of a lack of knowledge on how to properly use those weights and machines. First-time participation in a new sport or activity can also be very daunting if participants have no previous experience and are only learning to develop the skills required for the specific sport or activity. This may be a deterring factor in continuing participation in fear of embarrassment. Introductory recreation programs Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   10 may be an inviting option for individuals who are interested in activities but have little to no experience. 2. Increase the Effectiveness of Information Delivery a. Our second recommendation is to increase the effectiveness of information delivery to students. This recommendation is backed by a study conducted by Yan & Cardinal which analyzed Chinese female international students and their participation in physical activity (2013). One of their many findings highlights the barrier of limited “how-to” information. “When we asked the participants about their suggestions to the university and community in terms of [physical] activity promotion, most expected the university and community to have a better way to deliver physical activity-related information to them… Most expressed frustration that they did not have enough information about how to take advantage of the physical activity opportunities that were available on campus” (Yan & Cardinal, 2013). Our suggestion is to further research the ways university students are best reached, and in what formats students best respond. Perhaps UBC Recreation needs to increase the number of posters around campus with more instructions and information, or better promote their social media platform with added information on how individuals may get started.  b. Promote the programs already in place at UBC Rec i. The complaints received from Yan and Cardinal’s study was that students did not know where and how to start participating in school recreation. The students were aware of what activities were being offered, but were simply frustrated and the lack of information regarding how to sign up.  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   11 c. A study of promotional marketing methods of contact and college-choice preferences among freshman community college students (Quatroche, 2004) i. More research should be done towards student preferences of promotional activity in order for UBC Recreation and other physical activity platforms may reach them. One study conducted by Quatroche examined the promotional marketing methods of contact among freshman community college students. Their study concluded that the freshmen gained more knowledge about the college by listening to radio promotions and brochures. UBC could benefit from a similar study conducted on campus to determine how students are best reached and informed. The study’s findings have the potential to be an effective tool to better reach university students with the information they need in order to participate in physical activity.  3. Partner with AMS and UBC Residence a. An analysis of recreation communication effectiveness among English-second-language students in their first year at UBC (Chan et al., 2018). i. Participants of the focus group both agreed in the idea of promoting a “Ladies Night” and other female-centered events as ways to increase participation amongst self-identified female Chinese students. Our recommendation is for UBC Rec to partner with AMS student clubs with Asian student populations and UBC residences to promote such events. Though this, communication can increase and knowledge about the physical activities offered by UBC can be promoted.  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   12 ii. A study conducted by Chan et al. (2018) analyzed the barriers which ESL International students at UBC face when it comes to participating in physical activity. From their study, the researchers are suggesting that communication to first year ESL students needs to be altered to reach more students. This is in line with our recommendations to increase communication outlets as well as hold events catered to the needs of our target group. AMS clubs involved with physical activity and sports may gain from this collaboration by gaining more student participants.  iii. Ideally, the more events and opportunities for this cohort are promoted, the more participated will occur. By working with clubs which are already established, these female-centered events may tap into the social motivators identified by Yan & Cardinal. Their research identifies a lack of social support to be a barrier to participation; participants from their study voiced their opinion that if they had a friend who was willing to participate with them, they would be more active (2013).   Conclusion Self-identifying female Chinese students at UBC encounter significant cultural and gender-based barriers to engagement in physical activity. To eliminate these barriers and improve accessibility to recreation for this demographic, it has been recommended that the university introduce gender-specific recreation spaces in existing facilities on campus, as well as beginner-level recreation programs. Bringing these ideas to fruition would increase comfort levels and allow for the development of new skills. The chosen demographic may also gain barrier-free access to physical activity if the effectiveness of information delivery of current Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   13 programs was increased. Lastly, if the AMS and UBC Residence created a partnership, they may be able to collaborate with Asian student populations to deliver recreation program tailored to the specific needs and interests of Chinese female students.                 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   14 References   Beauchamp, M. R., Puterman, E., & Lubans, D. R. (2018). Physical inactivity and mental health in late adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(6), 543. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0385 Chan, Lopes, Quon, & Sen. (2018). An Analysis of Recreation Communication Effectiveness Among English Second Language Students in Their First Year at UBC. [PDF Document]. Retrieved from:https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/KIN_464_Group_21_FinalReport_0.pdf. Eyler, A. E., Wilcox, S., Matson-Koffman, D., Evenson, K. R., Sanderson, B., Thompson, J., … & Rohm-Young, D. (2002). Correlates of physical activity among women from diverse racial/ethnic groups. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 11(3), 239-247. Haskell, W. L., Lee, I., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., . . . Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health. Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116, 1081 – 1093.  Humphreys, B. R., McLeod, L., & Ruseski, J. E. (2014). Physical activity and health outcomes: Evidence from Canada. Health Economics, 23(1), 33-54. doi:10.1002/hec.2900 Im, E., Ko, Y., Hwang, H., Chee, W., Stuifbergen, A., Lee, H., & Chee, E. (2012). Asian American midlife women’s attitudes toward physical activity. The Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, 41, 650-653. Lovell, G. P., El Ansari, W., & Parker, J. K. (2010). Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(3), 784-98. Retrieved from Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   15 http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/227359489?accountid=14656 Morgan, D. L. (1996). Focus groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(1), 129-152. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.129 Ostgaard, Gayra. (2006). For “Women Only”: Understanding the Cultural Space of a Women’s Gym Through Feminist Geography. [PDF Document]. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/bgsu1155218461/inline Quatroche, T. J., Jr. (2004). A Study of Promotional Marketing Methods of Contact and College-Choice Preferences Among Freshman Community College Students. [PDF Document]. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/305076809/fulltextPDF/C5D9931AF7424741PQ/1?accountid=14656 UBC Alma Mater Society. (2018). Academic Experience Survey. Retrieved from https://www.dropbox.com/s/a8vu7budsmef74s/AES%20Report%202018.pdf?dl=0 (not sure if this is right? Can any APA masters check?) UBC SEEDS. (2018). UBC SEEDS sustainability program: Research project description form  [PDF Document]. Retrieved from  https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/14434/files/2571996/download?wrap=1 University of British Columbia. (2018). University of British Columbia 2016/17 Annual Report on Enrolment. Retrieved from Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   16 https://senate.ubc.ca/sites/senate.ubc.ca/files/downloads/UBC%20Enrolment%20Report%202016-17_Final%20-%209%20Jan%202017.pdf  Warburton, D. E. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. Canadian Medical  Association Journal, 174(6), 801-809. doi:10.1503/cmaj.051351   Yan, Z., & Cardinal, B. J. (2013). Perception of physical activity participation of Chinese female graduate students: A case study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84, 384-396. Yoh, T., Yang, H., & Gordon, B. (2008). Status of participation in physical activity among international students attending colleges and universities in the United States. College Student Journal,42, 1110–1117.                Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   17 Appendix A Work Plan   Name of Project:  Cultural and gender-based barriers and Facilitators of physical activity amongst female UBC Students self-identifying as Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”):   To better understand the perceived cultural and gender-based barriers and facilitating factors for physical activity that students self-identifying as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese face at UBC.    Deliverables (“what are we going to create?”): Analysis of qualitative data collected on barriers to physical activity as experienced by self-identifying female Chinese students at UBC.   Well founded recommendations on how to overcome barriers opposing physical activity amongst this population.  Methods (“how are we going to do this?”):  • Focus group  • Literature review     • Critical thinking                                                                        Project Members Skills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability     Kero MoveU Crew Member / Intramurals Staff / Senior Collegia Advisor  Communicate with Physical Activity Office. Conduct Literature Reviews.  M: 8-12PM; 4-7PM  T: 12:30-2PM  W: 9-2PM  Th: 12:30-2PM  F: N/A  S: N/A  S: N/A      Hilary Chaperone for women recieving IME’s Note-taker in focus groups  M: Before 5pm T: 11-2pm Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   18 Administrative Assistant at medical/legal consultations company Transcribe focus group recordings    W:1-5pm Th: 11-2pm F: Before 5  Michelle 2017 UBC Soccer Women’s Athletic Trainer. 2018 Laser Therapist  Focus Group Leader. Finalize research questions M: available except 3-4pm  T: 11-12pm W: 1pm-3pm. 4pm-5pm Th: 11am-3pm F: before 3pm Sat: NA Sun: NA  Christian Special Olympics British Columbia Coach, Cardiac Rehabilitation Volunteer Google form for recruitment. Literature review. M: Not available Tu: 12:30pm-5pm W: 2pm-6pm Th: 12:30pm-5pm F: 2pm-6pm Sat: Not available Sun: Not available  Jin  Former UBC Active Kids Coach  Document Holder  Creating focus group questions  M: Not available  T: After 11AM W: Before 5pm T: After 11AM F: Available if needed      Project Component Specific Task What do you need in order to get this done? Who is responsible? When is this due? Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   19 Conducting Focus Group and Project Requirements Recruitment of Participants   Consensus of format and communication with project partners to deliver  To communicate - Jin   October 11th   Focus Group Questions Draft   Understanding of what information is pertinent to project  Whole group, finalization of order and format by Michelle   October 12th  Focus Group Preparation   Pre planning and organization of materials   Jin - consent forms Name tents and seating - Hilary  Gift Cards - Kero  2 days before focus group is conducted   Transcribing Focus Group Recordings Fully charged equipment, recording of meeting  Hilary   To be decided  Literature Review with previous research  Review previous research and current topics which relate to culture and gender pertaining to physical activity participation  All group members   October 12th Class Requirements Work Plan  Complete work plan  All group members October 11th   Mid-term Progress Report   Update work plan   All group members October 30th   Report Collection of all edited materials and collaboration of writing between all group members All group members   December 6th  Presentation Finalized project report and presentable information All group members November 22nd Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   20  Peer Evaluation Reflect on group member’s contribution to the project   All group members December 6th  Report Writing  Report Write-up    All group members December 6th    Formatting  Formatting the report document to look presentable   Hilary December 6th  Introduction/Conclusion Introduce project and conclude findings  Hilary December 6th  Literature Review Review literature  Kero December 6th  Critique Critically analyze project from year prior Kero December 6th  Methodology Explain how data was collected  Christian December 6th  Interview Review  Summarize qualitative findings regarding barriers to PA Jin December 6th  Research Summarize research done  Michelle December 6th  Recommendations Come up with practical and valid proposals  Michelle December 6th  Limitations Critical review of research methods used  Hilary  December 6th   References  Properly formatted list of citations as well as in-text citations  Christian  December 6th  Final meeting with Contact Persons  Prepare project presentation   Print report and prepare oral presentation  All group members  To be decided Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   21   Meet with project partners to get feedback on final project   Schedule meeting   All group members  To be decided  Give final project to project partner Adjust current project using feedback   All group members To be decided  Final Edits  Edit report  Thorough read-through of project by entire group, changed made where needed  All group members  December 1st  Edit presentation Run-through of presentation and find lacking information and conflicting topics  All group members November 15th                 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   22  Appendix B Focus Group Questions Introduction:  - Thank everyone for coming to participate 
  - We are here to conduct a focus group to better understand how culture and gender-based barriers may 
 effect self-identified Chinese females in participating in physical activity. 
  - Our goal is to get information and to come up with the best ways to break down some of these barriers. 
  - Participation is completely voluntary, you can decline any question, or chose to leave at any time. 
  - In this group, we have Hilary sitting in as the note-taker. We’d also like to ask if everyone is comfortable being recorded. All records will be destroyed after the research has been completed and none of your identities will be listed. 
  - If at any time you feel distraught or have to leave, we have a resource list for the external resources available for you, such as the UBC Student Health Service and UBC Counselling Services. However, this research poses minimal or no risk. 
  - Let’s start off by introducing ourselves: 
  - Names, where are you from, how long have you been in Canada  Research Questions:  - Your answers and opinions on what you think about and how you participate in physical activity will 
 help us tremendously. 
  - Physical activity is something that isn’t just with sports, but is anything that gets your body moving 
 and heart going. Things like walking, gardening, cycling, or swimming. 
  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   23 - If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask. 
  - Again, our mission is to figure out how we on campus can support you and your choices for physical 
 activity. 
  - Whatever you say here is valid, there won’t be any judgement, and you don’t have to answer 
  1.  What kinds of physical activity do you participate in? 
  2.  What kind of movements and exercises do you enjoy doing? 
  3.  Tell me about the barriers that prevent you from participating in physical activity 
  4. Examples of barriers  5. Thinking about background and culture, do these facilitate or hinder your participation? 
  6.  Does your gender and culture predetermine what activities you can or should participate in? 
  7.  How does the environment at UBC encourage or discourage you from participating in physical activity? 
  8.  How can we on campus support or facilitate you and your decisions to be physically active? 
       Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   24      Appendix C Consent FormRunning Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   25 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   26 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   27  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   28           UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report Understanding the Perceived Cultural and Gender-Based Barriers and Facilitating Factors for Physical Activity that Students Self-Identifying as Female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or  Taiwanese Face at UBC  Michelle Chan, Jin Im, Christian Diego, Kero Daowd, Hilary Rackham University of British Columbia KIN 465 Themes: Wellbeing, Community, Health December 3, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   2   Executive Summary In this report ‘UBC SEEDS: Culture and Gender-Based Barriers,’ students at the University of British Columbia (UBC) who self-identify as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese were analyzed in order to better understand their perceived cultural and gender-based barriers and facilitating factors for physical activity. A recent UBC Undergraduate Experience Survey (UES) International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) had found that the people in this target demographic have the lowest self-reported levels of physical activity. Studying this issue is of great significance due to the fact that this demographic also collectively represents the largest subset of students enrolled at UBC. To accomplish this, a group of students in KIN465: Interculturalism, Health, and Physical Activity collaborated with their community partners from Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) to discuss objectives of the study and to learn how to conduct a focus group in a professional manner. A literature review was then conducted on cultural inclusivity in athletics and recreation in a post-secondary setting for underrepresented populations. The students then recruited participants for the focus group using an online format. A focus group was conducted with a small group of self-identifying female Chinese UBC students, during which cultural and gender-based barriers were identified and discussed, as well as facilitating factors to physical activity. Trends in responses identified perceived cultural barriers as limited exposure to athletics, cultural value of athletics, and cultural influence on gender expectations. Perceived gender-based barriers included sexual dichotomies of physical activities, intimidation and discomfort with male presence, and a preference for activities with a large female presence. Other barriers that were not gender or culture-based included time restraints, long commutes, price of activities, lack of experience, and characteristics of space. Participants found that reasonably-priced programs, women-specific programs, social networking, stress-relief, and facilities with gender-specific spaces were facilitating factors to physical activity. Based on the qualitative data collected, three primary recommendations were made to assist in breaking down perceived barriers and to incorporate factors that facilitate participation in physical activity. The first recommendation was to create gender-specific spaces and introductory recreation programs at UBC to boost comfortability and develop skills. Second, it was recommended that current programs in place at UBC increase the effectiveness of information delivery by promoting events in a way that caters to the target demographic. Finally, creating a partnership between UBC Alma Mater Society (AMS) and UBC Residence was recommended to facilitate collaboration with Asian student populations.  Introduction   A recent University of British Columbia (UBC) Undergraduate Experience Survey revealed that women from Asian ethnic groups had the lowest self-reported levels of physical activity (PA) (UBC SEEDS, 2018). These findings are significant because this demographic Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   3 makes up a large proportion of UBC’s population. Within UBC’s Vancouver campus, 54% of undergraduates self-identify as being female (UBC Alma Mater Society, 2018). Additionally, out of the 54% of self-identifying female undergraduates, 54% identify as Asian (UBC Alma Mater Society, 2018). Based on UBC’s enrollment report, approximately 35% of the international students coming from China, Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan (UBC, 2018). We have chosen to study Chinese female students because they make up a large portion of UBC’s population and have the lowest self-reported levels of PA. The purpose of this project is to “better understand the perceived cultural and gender-based barriers and facilitating factors for PA that students self-identifying as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese face at UBC” (UBC SEEDS, 2018, p. 1)  It is important to increase PA within this demographic because various studies have suggested its positive benefits, such as improved cognitive functioning, decreased levels of stress, and reduced rates of diabetes (Beauchamp et al., 2018; Humphreys et al., 2014; Warburton, 2006). In this context, a barrier is as a factor that can prevent and/or discourage participation in PA. Our study will focus on the cultural, gender, and social barriers that this demographic may face. One objective of the study was to conduct a focus group comprised of members of the target demographic in order to identify both barriers and facilitators to their PA engagement. Additionally, another objective was to provide recommendations to community partners in order to eliminate and reduce the identified barriers. These recommendations would be made using the data gathered from the focus group.  We carried out our research study with the help of the UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) program. One of our primary contacts was Lyz Gilgunn, who is a manager of physical activity at UBC. Lyz was instrumental in forming and approving the focus Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   4 group questions. Additionally, Lyz outlined the roles and responsibilities that were needed in order to run a successful focus group.  Also, Sally Lin, who is a SEEDS project coordinator was another primary contact. Sally was a key resource in focus group recruitment as she assisted us by sending out a recruitment email to potential subjects of the study.  Methodology  Several steps were taken in order to achieve the objectives of this research study. First, the student team had an initial meeting with the UBC SEEDS community partners, Sally Lin and Michelle Hebert respectively. Additionally, KIN 465 teaching assistant, Liv Yoon was present at this meeting to clarify any questions that the student team or community partners had. At the initial meeting, the community partners outlined what was expected of the student team as well as set deadlines for key milestones. A recruitment link email, a date for a focus group workshop, and a rough deadline for the actual focus group was discussed at the initial meeting. The community partners and student team agreed that running a focus group would be effective at uncovering the potential cultural, gender, and social barriers faced by self-identified female Chinese or Taiwanese students at UBC. A focus group consists of structured discussions among strangers in a formal setting (Morgan, 1996). Next, the student team attended a workshop on how to conduct a focus group, which was led by community partner, Michelle Hebert. At the workshop, the student team identified the responsibilities each individual would have when running the focus group. Additionally, the student team learned several benefits and cons of a focus group. A benefit of a focus group is that it is interactive which can allow for open and reflective dialogue. These types of responses are not typically seen within surveys. An important aspect of a focus group is the researcher’s Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   5 active role in creating group discussion (Morgan, 1996). Part of conducting a successful focus group involves having a skilled researcher, therefore, it was essential that we attended this focus group workshop as well as work with the community partners to refine our focus group knowledge.  A literature review was conducted in order to see if there was existing research regarding undergraduate Chinese students and physical activity rates. This literature was finished prior to meeting once more with the community partners. It helped guide the formation of our initial draft of the focus group questions.  The student team met once more with community partners. Lyz Gilgunn and Sally Lin were present and reviewed the student team’s focus group questions. Lyz Gilgunn also reviewed the roles of the student team for the focus group. Following this meeting, revised focus group questions were sent to Lyz Gilgunn via email and were approved.  Lastly, the student team lead a focus group session with participants who self-identify as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese. Participants were recruited via an email link that was sent out by Sally Lin. The focus group session took place at the Music, Art, and Architecture Library in the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre at UBC. Consent forms were provided and the participants were kept anonymous. The focus group session was recorded then transcribed. The participants’ responses were then analyzed and recommendations were made based on the qualitative data.  Literature Review Women have historically had a lower rate of physical activity than men (Eyler et al., 2002) and the reasons why are beyond the scope of this paper but likely include sociocultural Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   6 barriers that impede or even prevent women from having equitable access to physical activity than men. Rather, the more devastating reality is that minority women have an even lower rate of physical activity which suggests that they are below the rate of both men and nonminority women (Eyler et al., 2002). It is imperative to uncover the reasons that are causing this because of the known risks associated with a lack of physical activity. Asian females in North America have a higher prevalence rate of several high-mortality diseases, including: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and all-cause mortality (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003) when compared to Caucasian females. This alarming finding may be a result of the fact that Asian-American women have a significantly lower physical activity participation rate relative to the rest of the American population (Im et al., 2012).  Haskell et al. (2007) argue that a minimum of 2.5 hours of physical activity weekly is necessary to achieve noticeable health benefits. Unfortunately, however, a study by Yoh et al. (2008) found that female international Asian university students averaged only 1.3 hours per week. Evidently, there must be a factor, or more likely, a combination of factors that are influencing female Asians’ participation in physical activity. A study by Yan and Cardinal (2013) discovered that there was a considerable amount of ambiguity in the definition of physical activity and that this may contribute to the finding that the subjects’ physical activity levels were lower than recommended; the ambiguous meanings of the term were later attributed to differences in cultural definitions of physical activity. Common interpretations of the term “physical activity” were: a break from work, a time to be alone, and a feeling of accomplishment (Yan & Cardinal, 2013). However, there were no set expectations on energy expenditure, which generates challenges in distinguishing the Western belief of Haskell et al.’s (2007) Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   7 recommendation of 2.5 hours of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, from the Chinese cultural understanding of physical activity.  In terms of understanding barriers faced by these Chinese women in the study, Yan and Cardinal (2013) identified lack of time, lack of self-efficacy, lack of social support and cultural barriers to have the most profound effects. One of the most interesting findings was that the Chinese female respondents’ answers, despite fitting into the categories of barriers aforementioned, demonstrated a common theme of a lack of a central support for physical activity in their culture. Most participants reported wanting to exercise with a Chinese workout partner rather than a non-Chinese partner, which impacted their level of physical activity. In addition, Yan and Cardinal concluded that this may be attributed to their perception of not being as physically capable as their non-Chinese counterparts, which again, can be considered a result of cultural interpretation of the importance of physical activity for women specifically.  Participation in physical activity for Chinese women is undoubtedly hindered by several factors, most residing in cultural barriers or different cultural interpretations of the term “physical activity” and the associated expectations. As our world continues to evolve and multicultural societies begin to transition to intercultural societies, it is imperative to understand how levels of physical activity are impacted by culture and what societies can do to understand these cultural barriers with an intersectional, culturally sensitive lens.  Findings The focus group session revealed multiple barriers to physical activity, with a higher prevalence of cultural and gender-based barriers.  Lack of exposure to sports was one the key findings.  A focus group participant who grew up in China revealed that they had less exposure Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   8 to sports and recreation compared to another participant who grew up in Canada.  In general, there were not as many opportunities for females to meaningfully engage in physical education classes due to failure to modify activities to accommodate female students, and insufficient attention to low female activity levels.  On the other hand, Canadian youth, including young females, shared that there were more chances to participate in a culture that encouraged more participation in organized sport.  As discussed throughout the course, exposure to physical literacy at an early age is a large determinant of lifelong participation in sports and recreation.   The participants frequently spoke about how, especially for young females, sport was labelled as a “waste of time” that did not contribute to a successful career path in their culture.  There was further explanation on the clear division of academics and sport, where unless a girl showed potential to reach elite or professional level at a young age, they were taught that unconditional academic focus was the path to success in Chinese culture.  Academics and sport were not considered to be something that could co-exist within the life of an ordinary Chinese female student.   Gender-based barriers were the most commonly discussed barrier among the focus group.  Although many participants revealed their interests in being more physically active by attending the Bird Coop or the ARC on campus, many agreed that the gym spaces were often segregated by gender, with males dominating most of the gym facilities.  Participants shared that they were intimidated and felt uncomfortable with certain male presence and behaviour that reinforced the stereotype that beginners at the gym who lack knowledge are looked down upon, and not welcome to share the gym facilities with advanced individuals.  This was in line with the literature review that revealed Chinese students having low self-efficacy and feeling physically less capable than their non-Chinese counterparts who had more knowledge in the gym space Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   9 (Yan & Cardinal, 2013).  Furthermore, participants shared that they were much more comfortable participating in activities that were female-only and were less competitive.  Although co-ed sports leagues such as dodgeball and Ultimate Frisbee were enjoyable, the competitive nature led to participants feeling incompetent.  Many participants were willing to try out new sports, but lacked self-confidence and failed to find introductory level programs at UBC REC, apart from drop-ins or leagues.    Recommendations 1. Create Gender-Specific Spaces and Introductory Recreation Programs  a. The first recommendation is to create gender-specific spaces and more introductory recreation programs to create a safe and welcoming environment for individuals who are new to the activity and who seek gender-specific space. One participant from the focus group identified their experience starting at a women’s only gym section and slowly building confidence to join the co-ed section of the gym. Gayra Ostgaard’s thesis on female-only gyms provides insight as to how these spaces for women the opportunity to feel comfortable at gyms (2006). Identically to our focus group responses, women reported feeling uncomfortable and intimidated at co-ed weight rooms which were dominated by men. And there was expressed discomfort at using weights in fear of a lack of knowledge on how to properly use those weights and machines. First-time participation in a new sport or activity can also be very daunting if participants have no previous experience and are only learning to develop the skills required for the specific sport or activity. This may be a deterring factor in continuing participation in fear of embarrassment. Introductory recreation programs Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   10 may be an inviting option for individuals who are interested in activities but have little to no experience. 2. Increase the Effectiveness of Information Delivery a. Our second recommendation is to increase the effectiveness of information delivery to students. This recommendation is backed by a study conducted by Yan & Cardinal which analyzed Chinese female international students and their participation in physical activity (2013). One of their many findings highlights the barrier of limited “how-to” information. “When we asked the participants about their suggestions to the university and community in terms of [physical] activity promotion, most expected the university and community to have a better way to deliver physical activity-related information to them… Most expressed frustration that they did not have enough information about how to take advantage of the physical activity opportunities that were available on campus” (Yan & Cardinal, 2013). Our suggestion is to further research the ways university students are best reached, and in what formats students best respond. Perhaps UBC Recreation needs to increase the number of posters around campus with more instructions and information, or better promote their social media platform with added information on how individuals may get started.  b. Promote the programs already in place at UBC Rec i. The complaints received from Yan and Cardinal’s study was that students did not know where and how to start participating in school recreation. The students were aware of what activities were being offered, but were simply frustrated and the lack of information regarding how to sign up.  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   11 c. A study of promotional marketing methods of contact and college-choice preferences among freshman community college students (Quatroche, 2004) i. More research should be done towards student preferences of promotional activity in order for UBC Recreation and other physical activity platforms may reach them. One study conducted by Quatroche examined the promotional marketing methods of contact among freshman community college students. Their study concluded that the freshmen gained more knowledge about the college by listening to radio promotions and brochures. UBC could benefit from a similar study conducted on campus to determine how students are best reached and informed. The study’s findings have the potential to be an effective tool to better reach university students with the information they need in order to participate in physical activity.  3. Partner with AMS and UBC Residence a. An analysis of recreation communication effectiveness among English-second-language students in their first year at UBC (Chan et al., 2018). i. Participants of the focus group both agreed in the idea of promoting a “Ladies Night” and other female-centered events as ways to increase participation amongst self-identified female Chinese students. Our recommendation is for UBC Rec to partner with AMS student clubs with Asian student populations and UBC residences to promote such events. Though this, communication can increase and knowledge about the physical activities offered by UBC can be promoted.  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   12 ii. A study conducted by Chan et al. (2018) analyzed the barriers which ESL International students at UBC face when it comes to participating in physical activity. From their study, the researchers are suggesting that communication to first year ESL students needs to be altered to reach more students. This is in line with our recommendations to increase communication outlets as well as hold events catered to the needs of our target group. AMS clubs involved with physical activity and sports may gain from this collaboration by gaining more student participants.  iii. Ideally, the more events and opportunities for this cohort are promoted, the more participated will occur. By working with clubs which are already established, these female-centered events may tap into the social motivators identified by Yan & Cardinal. Their research identifies a lack of social support to be a barrier to participation; participants from their study voiced their opinion that if they had a friend who was willing to participate with them, they would be more active (2013).   Conclusion Self-identifying female Chinese students at UBC encounter significant cultural and gender-based barriers to engagement in physical activity. To eliminate these barriers and improve accessibility to recreation for this demographic, it has been recommended that the university introduce gender-specific recreation spaces in existing facilities on campus, as well as beginner-level recreation programs. Bringing these ideas to fruition would increase comfort levels and allow for the development of new skills. The chosen demographic may also gain barrier-free access to physical activity if the effectiveness of information delivery of current Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   13 programs was increased. Lastly, if the AMS and UBC Residence created a partnership, they may be able to collaborate with Asian student populations to deliver recreation program tailored to the specific needs and interests of Chinese female students.                 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   14 References   Beauchamp, M. R., Puterman, E., & Lubans, D. R. (2018). Physical inactivity and mental health in late adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(6), 543. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0385 Chan, Lopes, Quon, & Sen. (2018). An Analysis of Recreation Communication Effectiveness Among English Second Language Students in Their First Year at UBC. [PDF Document]. Retrieved from:https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/KIN_464_Group_21_FinalReport_0.pdf. Eyler, A. E., Wilcox, S., Matson-Koffman, D., Evenson, K. R., Sanderson, B., Thompson, J., … & Rohm-Young, D. (2002). Correlates of physical activity among women from diverse racial/ethnic groups. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 11(3), 239-247. Haskell, W. L., Lee, I., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., . . . Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health. Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116, 1081 – 1093.  Humphreys, B. R., McLeod, L., & Ruseski, J. E. (2014). Physical activity and health outcomes: Evidence from Canada. Health Economics, 23(1), 33-54. doi:10.1002/hec.2900 Im, E., Ko, Y., Hwang, H., Chee, W., Stuifbergen, A., Lee, H., & Chee, E. (2012). Asian American midlife women’s attitudes toward physical activity. The Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, 41, 650-653. Lovell, G. P., El Ansari, W., & Parker, J. K. (2010). Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(3), 784-98. Retrieved from Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   15 http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/227359489?accountid=14656 Morgan, D. L. (1996). Focus groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(1), 129-152. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.129 Ostgaard, Gayra. (2006). For “Women Only”: Understanding the Cultural Space of a Women’s Gym Through Feminist Geography. [PDF Document]. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/bgsu1155218461/inline Quatroche, T. J., Jr. (2004). A Study of Promotional Marketing Methods of Contact and College-Choice Preferences Among Freshman Community College Students. [PDF Document]. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/305076809/fulltextPDF/C5D9931AF7424741PQ/1?accountid=14656 UBC Alma Mater Society. (2018). Academic Experience Survey. Retrieved from https://www.dropbox.com/s/a8vu7budsmef74s/AES%20Report%202018.pdf?dl=0 (not sure if this is right? Can any APA masters check?) UBC SEEDS. (2018). UBC SEEDS sustainability program: Research project description form  [PDF Document]. Retrieved from  https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/14434/files/2571996/download?wrap=1 University of British Columbia. (2018). University of British Columbia 2016/17 Annual Report on Enrolment. Retrieved from Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   16 https://senate.ubc.ca/sites/senate.ubc.ca/files/downloads/UBC%20Enrolment%20Report%202016-17_Final%20-%209%20Jan%202017.pdf  Warburton, D. E. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. Canadian Medical  Association Journal, 174(6), 801-809. doi:10.1503/cmaj.051351   Yan, Z., & Cardinal, B. J. (2013). Perception of physical activity participation of Chinese female graduate students: A case study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84, 384-396. Yoh, T., Yang, H., & Gordon, B. (2008). Status of participation in physical activity among international students attending colleges and universities in the United States. College Student Journal,42, 1110–1117.                Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   17 Appendix A Work Plan   Name of Project:  Cultural and gender-based barriers and Facilitators of physical activity amongst female UBC Students self-identifying as Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”):   To better understand the perceived cultural and gender-based barriers and facilitating factors for physical activity that students self-identifying as female and Chinese (including Hong Kong and Macao) or Taiwanese face at UBC.    Deliverables (“what are we going to create?”): Analysis of qualitative data collected on barriers to physical activity as experienced by self-identifying female Chinese students at UBC.   Well founded recommendations on how to overcome barriers opposing physical activity amongst this population.  Methods (“how are we going to do this?”):  • Focus group  • Literature review     • Critical thinking                                                                        Project Members Skills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability     Kero MoveU Crew Member / Intramurals Staff / Senior Collegia Advisor  Communicate with Physical Activity Office. Conduct Literature Reviews.  M: 8-12PM; 4-7PM  T: 12:30-2PM  W: 9-2PM  Th: 12:30-2PM  F: N/A  S: N/A  S: N/A      Hilary Chaperone for women recieving IME’s Note-taker in focus groups  M: Before 5pm T: 11-2pm Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   18 Administrative Assistant at medical/legal consultations company Transcribe focus group recordings    W:1-5pm Th: 11-2pm F: Before 5  Michelle 2017 UBC Soccer Women’s Athletic Trainer. 2018 Laser Therapist  Focus Group Leader. Finalize research questions M: available except 3-4pm  T: 11-12pm W: 1pm-3pm. 4pm-5pm Th: 11am-3pm F: before 3pm Sat: NA Sun: NA  Christian Special Olympics British Columbia Coach, Cardiac Rehabilitation Volunteer Google form for recruitment. Literature review. M: Not available Tu: 12:30pm-5pm W: 2pm-6pm Th: 12:30pm-5pm F: 2pm-6pm Sat: Not available Sun: Not available  Jin  Former UBC Active Kids Coach  Document Holder  Creating focus group questions  M: Not available  T: After 11AM W: Before 5pm T: After 11AM F: Available if needed      Project Component Specific Task What do you need in order to get this done? Who is responsible? When is this due? Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   19 Conducting Focus Group and Project Requirements Recruitment of Participants   Consensus of format and communication with project partners to deliver  To communicate - Jin   October 11th   Focus Group Questions Draft   Understanding of what information is pertinent to project  Whole group, finalization of order and format by Michelle   October 12th  Focus Group Preparation   Pre planning and organization of materials   Jin - consent forms Name tents and seating - Hilary  Gift Cards - Kero  2 days before focus group is conducted   Transcribing Focus Group Recordings Fully charged equipment, recording of meeting  Hilary   To be decided  Literature Review with previous research  Review previous research and current topics which relate to culture and gender pertaining to physical activity participation  All group members   October 12th Class Requirements Work Plan  Complete work plan  All group members October 11th   Mid-term Progress Report   Update work plan   All group members October 30th   Report Collection of all edited materials and collaboration of writing between all group members All group members   December 6th  Presentation Finalized project report and presentable information All group members November 22nd Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   20  Peer Evaluation Reflect on group member’s contribution to the project   All group members December 6th  Report Writing  Report Write-up    All group members December 6th    Formatting  Formatting the report document to look presentable   Hilary December 6th  Introduction/Conclusion Introduce project and conclude findings  Hilary December 6th  Literature Review Review literature  Kero December 6th  Critique Critically analyze project from year prior Kero December 6th  Methodology Explain how data was collected  Christian December 6th  Interview Review  Summarize qualitative findings regarding barriers to PA Jin December 6th  Research Summarize research done  Michelle December 6th  Recommendations Come up with practical and valid proposals  Michelle December 6th  Limitations Critical review of research methods used  Hilary  December 6th   References  Properly formatted list of citations as well as in-text citations  Christian  December 6th  Final meeting with Contact Persons  Prepare project presentation   Print report and prepare oral presentation  All group members  To be decided Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   21   Meet with project partners to get feedback on final project   Schedule meeting   All group members  To be decided  Give final project to project partner Adjust current project using feedback   All group members To be decided  Final Edits  Edit report  Thorough read-through of project by entire group, changed made where needed  All group members  December 1st  Edit presentation Run-through of presentation and find lacking information and conflicting topics  All group members November 15th                 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   22  Appendix B Focus Group Questions Introduction:  - Thank everyone for coming to participate 
  - We are here to conduct a focus group to better understand how culture and gender-based barriers may 
 effect self-identified Chinese females in participating in physical activity. 
  - Our goal is to get information and to come up with the best ways to break down some of these barriers. 
  - Participation is completely voluntary, you can decline any question, or chose to leave at any time. 
  - In this group, we have Hilary sitting in as the note-taker. We’d also like to ask if everyone is comfortable being recorded. All records will be destroyed after the research has been completed and none of your identities will be listed. 
  - If at any time you feel distraught or have to leave, we have a resource list for the external resources available for you, such as the UBC Student Health Service and UBC Counselling Services. However, this research poses minimal or no risk. 
  - Let’s start off by introducing ourselves: 
  - Names, where are you from, how long have you been in Canada  Research Questions:  - Your answers and opinions on what you think about and how you participate in physical activity will 
 help us tremendously. 
  - Physical activity is something that isn’t just with sports, but is anything that gets your body moving 
 and heart going. Things like walking, gardening, cycling, or swimming. 
  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   23 - If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask. 
  - Again, our mission is to figure out how we on campus can support you and your choices for physical 
 activity. 
  - Whatever you say here is valid, there won’t be any judgement, and you don’t have to answer 
  1.  What kinds of physical activity do you participate in? 
  2.  What kind of movements and exercises do you enjoy doing? 
  3.  Tell me about the barriers that prevent you from participating in physical activity 
  4. Examples of barriers  5. Thinking about background and culture, do these facilitate or hinder your participation? 
  6.  Does your gender and culture predetermine what activities you can or should participate in? 
  7.  How does the environment at UBC encourage or discourage you from participating in physical activity? 
  8.  How can we on campus support or facilitate you and your decisions to be physically active? 
       Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   24      Appendix C Consent FormRunning Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   25 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   26 Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   27  Running Head: CULTURAL AND GENDER-BASED BARRIERS   28           UBC SEEDS:Cultural and Gender-Based BarriersHilary, Jin, Kero, Christian, & MichelleOverview OBJECTIVES:﹡ MEET WITH MEMBERS OF TARGET DEMOGRAPHIC﹡ IDENTIFY BOTH BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ENGAGEMENT AND FACILITATORS TO ENGAGEMENT﹡ PROVIDE RECOMMENDATIONS TO ELIMINATE BARRIERS PURPOSE“To better understand the perceived cultural and gender-based barriers and facilitating factors for physical activity that students self-identifying as female and Chinese [including Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan] face at UBC” (UBC Seeds, 2018).23Initial Meeting with Community PartnersFocus Group Guidance Literature ReviewFocus Group Preparation & RefinementConduct Focus GroupSequence of Methodology4Perceived Cultural Barriers∗ Exposure to athletics ∗ Value of athletics ∗ Culture-influenced gender expectationsPerceived Gender-Based Barriers5∗ Dichotomy of sport ∗ Intimidation & discomfort with male presence ∗ Preference for activities with large female presence 6Other Barriers ∗ Time Constraints∗ Experience∗ Space7Facilitating Factors∗ Reasonably-priced access∗ Women-specific events/programs∗ Social aspect ∗ Stress-relief∗ Facilities with gendered areas 1. Create gender-specific spaces and introductory recreation programs ﹡ Female only gym spaces (Craig & Liberty, 2007)﹡ Beginner-oriented skill development programs (Hall, 2006) ﹡ Hiring instructors that students can connect with (Kopelow & Fenton, 2018) Recommendations8“...it was really a accepting environment in that they actually have a women’s section... there was a co-ed compartment and once I got more comfortable at that gym I slowly moved to the co–ed section.”2. Increase the effectiveness of information delivery﹡ Many students not aware of what is already being delivered (Yan & Cardinal, 2013) ﹡ Promote the programs already in place at UBC REC﹡ Selection of activities is crucial in determining participation (Polman, Peter, Bercades & Ntoumanis, 2004) Recommendations9“...UBC [recreation] has really good programs...they had a beginner drop in soccer [program], and I was able to make it so I signed up...I would show up to the field, there were two coaches and me. You can’t exactly learn soccer when there’s only three of you, so that was a bit of a struggle.”3. Partnership with AMS and UBC Residence ﹡ Collaboration with AMS student clubs with Asian student populations﹡ Free “girls’ nights” and female-catered events  ﹡ Social media and promotional events ﹡ Different motivators between sport and exercise (Kilpatrik Herbert, Bartholomew, 2010)Recommendations10“I think they could do a ladies night maybe.”“I think that would be really great to just, you know, remove that little bit of…You feel less self-conscious.”11ReflectionsChallenges Recruiting Participants  Bringing New Ideas Unexpected Results Questions ?12

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0387082/manifest

Comment

Related Items