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Interculturalism and Varsity Athletics : Evaluating Orientation Sessions Anderson, Zoe; Barnett, Lauren; Berlet, Callie; Bourchier-Willans, Abbie; Vadot, Emma; Tardif, Celine 2018-12-06

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report        Interculturalism and Varsity Athletics: Evaluating Orientation Sessions Zoe Anderson, Lauren Barnett, Callie Berlet, Abbie Bourchier-Willans, Emma Vadot, Celine Tardif University of British Columbia KIN 465 Themes: Community, Health, Wellbeing December 6, 2018         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. 2  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………….……...3-4  INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………….………....4-6 BACKGROUND INFORMATION.……………………………………………………………..6-7 LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………...7-9 METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………...9-11 PROJECT OUTCOME/FINDINGS/DISCUSSION…………………………………………..11-16 RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………………………...16-19 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………..19-20 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………...21-23 APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………………....24-38                    3  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Our CBEL project was the Interculturalism and Varsity Athletics: Evaluating Orientation Sessions. We worked with, and were supported by Rachael Sullivan from the Equity & Inclusion Office, as well as Jayne Blank from UBC Varsity Athletics. Additionally, we worked with UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) project coordinator Sally Lin. Through regular bi-weekly meetings with the community partners, we kept the collaboration constant and made sure we were all on the same page. We also exchanged emails in between meetings with updates on action items, such as finalized survey questions.  Our primary purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2018 UBC Varsity Athlete Orientation, including scenarios which were facilitated to provide hands-on experience to athletes regarding what they learned in the orientation. The main objectives were to identify key educational factors that promote interculturalism and community building practices within the varsity athletic community, as well as to explore what affects the orientation had on students, and what factors might need to be adjusted in order to make it more impactful.  In order to do this, a Qualtrics survey was created for UBC Varsity Athletes. As a basic outline when creating the survey, the Kirkpatrick Framework was used, which assesses four levels of educational programs including the reaction, learning, behavior and results (Bates, 2004). Using this framework as reference, questions were created relevant to various aspects of the orientation, asking about athletes’ demographics, whether they felt more prepared to interact with athletes of various cultural backgrounds, and  their overall thoughts on the orientation.  Our first finding was that most student-athletes felt neutral to extremely prepared when it came to working with athletes of different race, gender, age or values. The second finding looked 4 at how different scenarios during the orientation provided the student-athletes with a good understanding of building a positive community. The social circumstances scenario was least effective, and rookie party was most effective in providing this understanding. Our third finding was that most student-athletes felt neutral or somewhat agreed with the statement that scenarios gave them adequate resources to build a positive community within their teams.  Based on our findings, three general recommendations were made. The first one is to further investigate the role of the facilitator at the orientation, and how specific facilitators may be more impactful for some athletes than others. Our second recommendation is to further research the lack of multiculturalism in UBC varsity athletics, and how this could be a systemic issue for promoting interculturalism within the community. Thirdly, a different approach to the orientation may be more effective, such as having a week-long community building orientation, rather than having it all in one day.  INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2018 UBC Varsity Athlete Orientation. The UBC Varsity Athlete Orientation was designed to support athletes in their upcoming seasons by providing resources related to building a positive community within their teams. This included components on effective communication skills, creating a respectful environment and promoting relationships between all athletes. The goals of the orientation were to create a foundation for building a cohesive environment, explore important UBC Athletics’ values and understand respect in a team setting.  A survey was created which was used to evaluate whether the three goals of the orientation were met. This survey was then disseminated to UBC Varsity athletes, and explored 5 what aspects of the orientation students found impactful, and what could be improved for next year. More specifically, it examined the effectiveness of the orientation in preparing athletes to interact with individuals of various race, gender and cultures, as well as how their understanding of building a positive community was enhanced. Analyzing this data allowed us to determine specific components that could be helpful and that were missing from the current orientation, as well as provide recommendations to improve the orientations’ effectiveness for coming years. One of the main objectives of this project was to identify key educational factors that promote interculturalism and community building practices within the varsity athletic community. Another objective was to explore what affects the orientation had on students, and what factors might need to be adjusted in order to make it more impactful. The survey covered a variety of aspects of the orientation in order to determine what information students found most useful. Athletes’ demographics were also measured, allowing us to identify the multiculturalism of the athletic community. This project is only a starting point for the analysis of the UBC Varsity Athlete Orientation, which will be continued in order to fully evaluate the effectiveness of the orientation and ensure that the goals of the evaluation were met.   This project was written for the course, UBC Kinesiology 465, ‘Interculturalism, Health and Physical Activity’, taught by Bryna Kopelow and Jennifer Fenton, with teaching assistant Liv Yoon. Our primary staff client was Rachael Sullivan from the Equity & Inclusion Office and our secondary staff client was Jayne Blank from UBC Varsity Athletics. We were also able to work in collaboration with UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) project coordinator Sally.   BACKGROUND INFORMATION  6 A Community Building Education session was put in place specifically for UBC Varsity athletes. Orientation sessions such as these ones are an important part in the UBC Varsity Athletics department, as they ensure that students feel adequately prepared to interact with other members of their team and the varsity community. The goals of the UBC Varsity Athletics orientation were identified as followed:  “Develop a shared foundation of community building in varsity athletics at UBC. Open up opportunities to consider how the thunderbird legacy, personal and group values, and frames of reference shape team building. Build a shared definition of respect and identify how it’s communicated within and between teams.”                     (The CSIC & The EIO, 2018) The orientation consisted of a powerpoint that first included community builder activities that allowed athletes to form connections with each other. For  these activities the athletes were broken up into smaller groups to create a more comfortable sharing environment (The CSIC & The EIO, 2018). The presentation also included a community agreement which acknowledged the different backgrounds and experiences each individual has (The CSIC & The EIO, 2018). It then went on to discuss various community and individual values as well as the importance of respect between groups (The CSIC & The EIO, 2018). Moreover, it provided examples of scenarios for groups to experience interactions first hand. These scenarios included “Getting Psyched Out”, “Rookie Party” and “Social Circumstances”. The overarching goals of these scenarios was to give students a real life scenario that allowed them to apply the information they were taught in the orientation. With the data that were collected from the surveys, the Centre for Student Involvement and Careers and the Equity & Inclusion Office hope to assess the effectiveness of the educational 7 session, and receive feedback on how to improve the experience. Additionally, they want to determine whether or not the goals of the orientation are achieved.   LITERATURE REVIEW Interculturalism is “the view that we all benefit when we actively encourage connections between people from different cultures” (Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive, 2012, p. 1). It is an overarching theme that encompasses making connections, and respecting and understanding one another. It is a crucial aspect of this project as the orientation was based upon promoting intercultural relations within the Varsity Athletics community. Promoting intercultural relations is not only vital in creating a cohesive team environment, but also to promote a respectful community around varsity athletics as a whole (Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive, 2012). Positive intercultural relations ensure a sense of belonging and can help to eliminate the barriers that inhibit meaningful social connections to be formed between athletes and staff (Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive, 2012). One of the models identified in the literature regarding intercultural connections and the importance of respectful communication is the developmental model (King & Baxter, 2005). Intercultural maturity and competence has been shown to be important factors in providing individuals the knowledge on how to collaborate and communicate with other individuals of different race, culture, religion, ethnicity, etc (King & Baxter, 2005). This emphasizes the need for comprehensive and effective teaching strategies, as the impact has been shown to greatly influence athletes. In order to teach intercultural maturity, programs must emphasize knowledge across three domains: the cognitive, intrapersonal and interpersonal domains (King & Baxter, 2005). The cognitive domain assesses how individuals perceive diversity within communities and 8 how they are able to shift their own understandings within diverse situations (King & Baxter, 2005). The intrapersonal domain allows the exploration of one's own identity and how it relates to the diversity that each individual has experienced (King & Baxter, 2005). Lastly, the interpersonal domain looks at how individuals build relationships with one another through the acceptance and understanding of each others differences (King & Baxter, 2005).  For an orientation such as this one that is centered around creating a positive community building opportunity for student-athletes, the developmental model should be taken into consideration. Additionally, having a ‘proactive diversity culture’ plays a big role (Cunningham, 2012). Diversity training, which is defined as the “formal efforts to enable development of awareness, knowledge and skills to effectively work with, work for, and manage diverse others in various contexts” (Cunningham, 2012, p. 391), is necessary for all leaders to have. It was found that many intercollegiate athletic departments do not offer the adequate type of diversity training, but that the diversity in employees was positively correlated with having more diversity training (Cunningham, 2012). This top-down approach is also beneficial in an intercollegiate athletics setting, as it allows athletes to have someone to look up to, who can support them in developing and growing as individuals. Therefore, it is extremely important for the leaders to have a good understanding of what diversity and cultural sensitivity look like, and to be aware of the differences and how these may impact individuals’ everyday lives (Cunningham, 2012). This will enable all individuals to feel more welcomed and included in a space, rather than possibly being excluded due to one of their identifying factors, such as gender identity, ethnicity, age, etc.  The orientation was created to provide intercultural education in a sporting environment. This has been shown in many studies across university in Canada and the United States, in which the inclusion of minority groups such as LGBTQ, immigrant and black student-athletes is 9 examined. When looking at Division I and II athletes from Michigan, Scott Hirko (2008) found that athletes really valued interracial interactions with teammates, and that this actually had a positive impact on their own education. Athletics brings in a component of inclusivity and meaningful interactions, which many university students who are not part of an athletic team may not experience (Hirko, 2007). Moreover, these interactions can be even beneficial to “improve social cognitive growth, reduce prejudice, and produce greater interracial understanding” (Hirko, 2007, p. 26). Although athletics in a way can provide these meaningful interactions without the guidance of an evaluation, it may even be more beneficial for universities to enhance these interactions through guided opportunities such as the UBC Varsity Athletics orientation session.   METHODOLOGY The project began with a meeting with our community partners including of SEEDS, UBC Varsity Athletics and the Equity and Inclusion office. We began by reviewing the details of the orientation session including the powerpoint and scenarios that were presented to the athletes. We then discussed the primary goals for this project and identified a plan to achieve them. This included creating a Qualtrics survey for UBC varsity athletes that attended the August or September orientation sessions. Questions were designed to evaluate the overall success and impact of the orientation as well as identify how well the orientation prepared athletes for intercultural interactions in their upcoming season. The survey also asked for participants’ demographic information in addition to more general questions regarding organization of the orientation. Finally, we evaluated the quality of the content and how sessions might be improved upon for future orientations. The students created the survey questions, and with input and 10 feedback from all partners, a final copy was created and disseminated over a 2 week period to all athletes ranging across different teams with varying demographics.  To create the survey that evaluated the overall effectiveness of the orientation, we used the Kirkpatrick framework for educational evaluations as reference. The Kirkpatrick framework is used for “the evaluation of training and education” (Watkins et al., 1998, p. 90). This framework requires organizations to assess education programs using four levels: reaction, learning, behavior and results (Bates, 2004). The first level is based on evaluating participants reactions to the presented content; this information helps identify effectiveness of the program (Bates, 2004). Secondly, the evaluation of learning levels help to indicate what new knowledge the participants gained from the program presented (Bates, 2004). The third level assesses whether or not the program had an effect on participants behaviours (Bates, 2004). Finally the evaluation of results helps to identify whether or not program goals were met and what might need to be adjusted for future programs (Bates, 2004). In order to make this framework work from an intercultural perspective we would also need to evaluate “individual and contextual influences within the evaluation of training” (Bates, 2004, p. 342) Using this framework as reference, we created questions relevant to various aspects of the orientation. Athletes were asked about their demographic measures, whether they felt more prepared to interact with athletes of various cultural backgrounds, and their overall thoughts on the orientation.  Upon completion of the 2 week period, the survey was closed and the data were distributed to the our group to be analyzed. We used thematic analysis in order to evaluate the qualitative data and draw conclusions about the orientations effectiveness. Thematic analysis “allows clear identification of prominent themes” (p. 47) and can be used as “a means of integrating qualitative and quantitative evidence” (Dixon-Woods, 2005, p. 47). Using this 11 synthesizing method, we identified the primary themes of the data. To do this, we identified common themes that occurred throughout certain topics which were mentioned in the qualitative answers, while also evaluating the quantitative data through Likert-scaled answers. Through the evaluation of the orientation, we were able to create recommendations on how to go about doing community building practices as best as possible.  PROJECT OUTCOME/FINDINGS/DISCUSSION  During both the August and September Varsity Student-Athlete Orientation sessions, a portion of the orientation was dedicated to a scenario session. During this session, the athletes were placed in small groups and given one of three scenarios to read, discuss, and work as a group to suggest the appropriate actions that should be taken based on the situation. The first scenario was entitled, “Social Circumstances,” and addressed an uncomfortable event in which a male friend touched a female friend when she thought he was just dropping her off at home; however, after touching her inappropriately, the male friend proceeded to follow her into her place. Due to this situation, the female was uncomfortable attending a different social event, as she was nervous to see him. In the scenario, the girl has only just told her friend about the situation and is feeling very hurt. After the student-athletes discussed the appropriate actions to be taken once the victim told her friend about the conflict, the situation had a plot twist. The plot twist was that the male, instead of being a friend, was the trainer for her varsity team. The second scenario was called, “Getting Psyched Out,” and addresses players from the opposing team using racial slurs as a means to throw the other team off. The athletes were tasked with discussing this situation. They then were to discuss it again, but instead of the trash talking being initiated from the opposing team, they discussed the implications if it was initiated from their own team. The 12 final scenario was called, “Rookie Party.” In this situation the student-athletes discussed a rookie party where they were the veteran, which required them to facilitate hazing. The hazing consisted of having the rookies all wear pink lingerie and go by their nickname, but with “pussy” as their first name. After the athletes discussed what they would and should do in this scenario, they were then asked to re-discuss it as if they were a rookie and felt uncomfortable with the hazing.   Of the athletes who attended the orientation and answered the survey, 8 responded that their group explored the “Getting Psyched” scenario, 14 explored the “Social Circumstances” scenario, and 16 explored the “Rookie Party” one. The survey sent out to the varsity athletes addressed this portion of the orientation by asking if the scenario they discussed was “ helpful for your understanding of building a positive community.” From the “Getting Psyched” scenario, 50% of the respondents either somewhat agreed or strongly agreed that their scenario was helpful in their understanding of building a positive community (Graph 9), compared to 42.85% of the respondents from the “Social Circumstances” scenario (Graph 10), and 81.25% of the respondents from the “Rookie Party” example (Graph 11). Based on the findings from this question, it is evident that the “Social Circumstances” scenario was the least effective, and the “Rookie Party” was the most effective in conveying how to build a positive community.   This question was of great relevance to this project because ensuring a positive environment incorporates the ability to create an intercultural community, which encompasses fostering a strong sense of community and belonging. In a lecture given to a KIN 465 class on September 13th, 2018, Bryna Kopelow and Jennifer Fenton provided a very strong analogy for creating an intercultural community. Kopelow and Fenton described an intercultural community as a recreational sports team, composed of individuals with many talents and strengths (Kopelow & Fenton, 2018). These individual abilities are used collectively to create strategies to win as a 13 team, which utilizes inclusivity. The analogy proposed relates to our findings, as it emphasizes the importance of viewing these scenarios as an opportunity for the student-athletes to use their unique tool kit to develop strategies collectively to handle a variety of situations. Through the collective efforts to resolve the situation, and the utilization of everyone’s strengths and opinions, an environment is created that supports cultural inclusivity, and by virtue, interculturalism.  The results of this question can inform the orientation development team that the “Rookie Party” scenario may be more applicable or relatable to the athletes, compared to the “Social Circumstances” scenario, since it was found to be less effective. It is important to understand which situations allow athletes to gain the greatest amount of knowledge, because it is this knowledge that will be carried with the athletes through their season, and lives both within and outside of the sporting community. As noted in the literature, according to King and Baxter Magolda (2005), it is important for athletes to gain a deeper understanding of interculturalism, which they describe as being best facilitated with guidance, justifying the need to ensure the guiding scenarios are as effective as possible. From this finding, it can be suggested that in the future the “Social Circumstances” scenario should either be eliminated, or revised to increase the sessions’ effectiveness.   During the orientation, segments of the  programming focused on expanding athletes’ understanding of cultural sensitivity. During the community agreement, the athletes were expected to acknowledge the fact that people come from diverse backgrounds and have had differing experiences. The importance of the community agreement was communicated to the athletes, and all of them agreed to follow it. Following this, there was a prompted group discussion regarding the values that each athlete possesses, and how the values are diverse in nature. Athletes were encouraged to think about their own values, and how they may also be 14 similar in nature to others’. The athletes came to the conclusion that a universal value they all shared was respect. This learning, accompanied with the aforementioned ‘Getting Psyched Out’ scenario was designed to help athletes develop a sense of respect for people who may be different than themselves. The programming was coupled with an intentional push to get athletes out of their pre-formed social groups. The orientation presenters grouped athletes apart from their individual sports teams. This meant that people also interacted in groups of mixed genders and ages. The programming and purposeful interaction amongst athletes prompted the survey question “As a result of the orientation, how prepared do you feel to work with athletes of different race, gender, age, or values?”.  Athletes were asked to rank themselves amongst five options ranging from ‘extremely unprepared’ to ‘extremely prepared’ to work with athletes of different race, gender, age, or values. The findings showed that a majority of athletes felt ‘neither prepared nor unprepared’ and ‘extremely prepared’ on all measures; however, there was a percentage in nearly every category who self-selected ‘moderately unprepared’ or ‘extremely unprepared’ in their responses.  In terms of race, 29.27% of individual respondents felt ‘extremely prepared’ to work with a diverse group, and 41.46% felt moderately prepared (Graph 6). Nearly a quarter, 21.95%, felt neutral about this ability. And still, 7.21% felt either ‘moderately’ or ‘extremely’ unprepared in this regard. The other indicators; gender, age, and values, shared comparable results (Graphs 5, 7, 8). However, the ‘values’ measure held the most uncertainty with athletes; 9.74% of individuals thought that they were unprepared to work with people of differing values following the orientation session (Graph 8). In addition, the largest sense of neutrality was seen in the ‘age’ descriptor; 26.1% of respondents self-selected ‘neither prepared nor unprepared’ as their ability to work with people of different ages post-orientation (Graph 7). 15 One respondent replied when asked “How the orientation could better have prepared [you] to work with people of different values,” that, “values is a vague term.”  This could be a reason that 9.74% of individuals felt either ‘moderately’ or ‘extremely’ unprepared to work with this descriptor. If the survey was circulated in future years, perhaps including a definition of the term ‘values’ would be beneficial to remind athletes of what was touched on in the orientation. In addition, there could be a need for further discussion around the idea of values in the orientation itself, should athlete’s respect of each others’ values continue to be a goal of UBC Varsity Athletics.   The demographic information  produced in the the survey showed several thought-provoking trends. First, a total of 78% of respondents identified themselves as white (Graph 2). In addition, only one survey respondent self-identified as First Nations. These statistics are not in alignment with the mosaic of diversity present on the University’s campus at large. According to the Centre for Teaching, Learning, and Technology only 37% of UBC’s student body identifies as caucasian (Coutts, 2012). A similar percentage of the student body identifies as Chinese. However, in our survey results, only 5.56% of respondents indicated that they were of, even partial, Chinese original. These results made our group question why there was such a large discrepancy between the racial identification of the general student body and that of UBC Varsity Athletics. From our literature review, it was found that athletes can find value in interracial interactions with teammates, and that this interaction can have a positive impact on their learning (Hirko, 2007). Intercultural interactions within teams can promote “social cognitive growth, reduce prejudice, and produce greater interracial understanding” (Hirko, 2007, p. 26). With 78% of UBC’s Varsity Athletic respondents identifying as white, it is unclear to what extent intercultural interactions are possible within sports teams at UBC.  16  RECOMMENDATIONS The findings from the survey, as well as the research in our literature review, raise the question of who the best facilitator for the orientation is. The responses to the survey revealed a recurring opinion that a professor should not be facilitating the orientation, but rather someone of more cultural relevance to the athletes. A notable comment from an athlete was that they find it hard to take advice from people who have never been in their situation as there is little relatability and relevance in what they iterate. Perhaps a more relatable source to facilitate the orientation would be a coach, manager, or senior athlete. In a study performed by Dashper & Fletcher (2013), it was found that coaches and those in managerial positions played a crucial role in fostering interculturalism; this supports the idea of having a coach lead the athletic orientation. Although management and coaching staff in sport have a tendency towards homogeneity - dominated by western, white, middle-aged, able-bodied men; the mere knowledge of interculturalism and cultural sensitivity is found to be beneficial in fostering interculturalism within sport (Dashper & Fletcher, 2013). As well, by having a coach provide the information regarding interculturalism, it ensures that the leadership and athletes are all on the same page. Additionally, cultural relatedness is generally felt within people of the same culture. By having senior athletes of several different cultural backgrounds lead some aspects of the orientation session, and talk to their positive and negative experiences within sport, it could be beneficial to athletes from minority groups. A study done by Pickett & Cunningham (2017) examined the creation of inclusive physical activity spaces and found that authentic leadership, in the form of sharing honest experiences, was pertinent in providing inclusive physical activity. By having authentic shared experiences, athletes will sense more cultural relevance and be more engaged in the orientation. 17 Responses to the survey revealed that athletes generally thought that the orientation was lacking information in certain categories. These categories included mental health, sport psychology, social media, academic support, and gender equality. The students also felt that the session was too long and suggested making the orientation “more time efficient”. Due to the immense amount of information the athletes encounter as new students coming to university and pursuing a varsity athletic career, perhaps an orientation approach similar to that of UBC’s JumpStart program would be valuable. A study done by Schinke, Yukelson, Bartolacci, Battochio, & Johnstone (2011) highlighted that immigrated athletes encounter many transition and adjustment issues linked to their relocation. This not only applied to immigrated athletes but also to students transitioning to university life. The authors found that adaptation pathways in regards to understanding, belonging, trusting, controlling and self-enhancement should be employed to start the adaptation process. These pathways align with the learning outcomes of UBC’s JumpStart which include: learning of supports and resources, building networks and relationships, constructing peer collaborations, identifying your place in the academy, and establishing academic and personal integrity (The University of British Columbia, 2017). Lastly, it is recommended to investigate if a lack of multiculturalism is a systemic issue in UBC Varsity Athletics and how this could be an issue for promoting interculturalism within the community. From the demographic results of our survey, it was found that approximately 78% of respondents identify as white (Graph 2). Based on these findings it is evident that varsity athletics could have a more multicultural landscape. The implications of a homogeneous athletic community could degrade the exposure athletes have to develop intercultural awareness. In a study by Hirko (2007), athletes were surveyed to measure the perceptions of racial diversity within athletic teams and at the University of Michigan. The results showed that racial diversity 18 within intercollegiate athletics is an important part of student-athlete education. The diversity is useful in providing opportunities for interracial interaction, as it helps athletes to learn about interculturalism and working in a diverse community (Hirko, 2007). Furthermore, a study done by Singer & Cunningham (2012) found that the perspectives of coaches in the athletic department of a University have a significant impact on the intercultural environment within the University as a whole. Should the coaching staff value diversity, this significantly impacts the athletic department's commitment to interculturalism. The values of the athletic department, and its athletes, can easily dissipate into the general university population. This in turn precipitates a positive student environment across the entire student-body. By determining a more encompassing representation of the cultural and demographic landscape of the whole UBC Varsity Athletics population, one may be able to better assess whether there is a systemic lack of diversity within varsity sports. This information could then inform whether it is a lack of diversity, or a lack of education, that is affecting athletes’ feelings of preparedness to work with people of different backgrounds.   CONCLUSION From our survey, we were able to gather insightful feedback from athletes regarding the 2018 UBC Varsity Athletic Orientation. We assessed the effectiveness of the educational components of the orientation and how well they worked to teach interculturalism and community building practices to the varsity community. We also examined how impactful the orientation was on the athletes involved. A Qualtrics survey was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the orientations’ ability to prepare athletes for interacting with individuals of different races, genders, 19 ages and cultures. The results of the survey also helped inform how the orientation could be augmented in future years to increase its success and further athletes’ understanding. The findings and results of this survey allowed us to provide three recommendations to improve upon gaps that were recognized within the landscape of the orientation. Our first recommendation was to provide a facilitator of relevance to athletes. Next, we recommended adding educational components pertaining to mental health, sport psychology, social media use, academic support and gender equality. Lastly, we recommended researching whether systemic lack of diversity is an issue within varsity athletics at UBC.   This project was developed as an initial tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the UBC varsity orientation and to assess whether the initial goals of the orientation were met. The recommendations we have provided, and results of our research, may serve as areas of consideration for UBC Varsity Athletics, UBC Equity and Inclusion Office, and UBC SEEDS.    20 References Bates, R. (2004). A critical analysis of evaluation practice: The kirkpatrick model and the principle of beneficence. Evaluation and Program Planning, 27(3), 341-347. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2004.04.011 Coutts, L. (2012, August). Who are our Students? Implications for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from https://ctlt.ubc.ca/2012/08/15/who-are-our-students-implications-for-teaching-and-learning/ Cunningham, G. B. (2012). Diversity training in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Management, 26(5), 403;391;-403. doi:10.1123/jsm.26.5.391 Dashper, K., & Fletcher, T. (2013). Introduction: Diversity, equity and inclusion in sport and leisure. Sport in Society, 16(10), 1227-1232. doi:10.1080/17430437.2013.821259. Dixon-Woods, M., Agarwal, S., Jones, D., Young, B., & Sutton, A. (2005). Synthesising qualitative and quantitative evidence: A review of possible methods. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, 10(1), 45-53. doi:10.1258/1355819052801804 Hirko, S. (2007). Do College Athletes Learn from Racial Diversity in Intercollegiate Athletics? A Study of the Perceptions of College Athletes from the State of Michigan. Online Submission. King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2005). A developmental model of intercultural maturity.Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 571-592. doi:10.1353/csd.2005.0060 21 Kopelow, B. & Fenton, J. (2018). Intro to ‘interculturalism’ [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/14434/pages/week-2-sep-11-13-cbel-orientation-and-introduction-to-interculturalism?module_item_id=796857 Pickett, A. C., & Cunningham, G. B. (2017). Creating inclusive physical activity spaces: The case of body-positive yoga. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(3), 329-338. doi:10.1080/02701367.2017.1335851 Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive (2012). Interculturalism 101. [PDF file]. p. 1-2 Retrieved from http://blogs.ubc.ca/kcureton/files/2014/09/interculturalism101.-Renfrew-Collingwood-INTERactive.pdf Schinke, R. J., Yukelson, D., Bartolacci, G., Battochio, R. C., & Johnstone, K. (2011). The challenges encountered by immigrated elite athletes. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2(1), 10-20. Singer, J. N., & Cunningham, G. B. (2012). A case study of the diversity culture of an American university athletic department: Perceptions of senior level administrators. Sport, Education and Society, 17(5), 647-669. The Centre for Student Involvement and Careers & The Equity & Inclusion Office. (2018). Community Building Education Workshop. [PowerPoint slides]. Retreived from https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/19H5bZrUOEoVTfGUVo1Ak_p1FtxMX9tWaGAz9efBA0QM/edit#slide=id.p1 The University of British Columbia. (2017). Jump start. Retrieved from https://facultystaff.students.ubc.ca/student-development-services/centre-student-involvement-careers/jump-start. 22 Watkins, R., Leigh, D., Foshay, R., & Kaufman, R. (1998). Kirkpatrick plus: Evaluation and continuous improvement with a community focus. Educational Technology Research and Development, 46(4), 90-96. doi:10.1007/BF02299676   23 Appendix  SURVEY QUESTIONS…………………………………………………………….………... 25-29 WORK PLAN………………………………………………………………………………....30-32 GRAPHS…………………………………………………………………………………...….33-38   24 SURVEY QUESTIONS   Preamble:   As a valued member of the Varsity Student Athlete Community and recent participant in this year’s orientation session, we would like to invite you to complete the following survey. Through this survey will provide valuable information about your experiences and practical use of the information and session activities you participated in during this year’s orientation to UBC Varsity Athletics Department. The survey has been developed in partnership with UBC Varsity Athlete Performance and Team Services, Equity & Inclusion Office, and prepared by students in KIN 465 for a SEEDs project. Completing the survey is voluntary. All responses will be confidential and remain anonymous in any resulting reports. The survey should take about 10 minutes to complete. Upon completion of the survey each participant has an opportunity to enter a draw for a $25 gift card for the UBC Bookstore. For additional information or to share concerns please contact Rachael Sullivan (email hyperlink) at the Equity & Inclusion Office.       Demographics:  1. What is your age? a. 15-19 b. 20-24 c. 25-29 d. 30-34 2. What is your ethnicity? Select all that apply.  a. Aboriginal peoples of Canada b. Indigenous (outside of Canada) - optional specify: c. Arab - optional specify: d. Black - optional specify: e. Chinese  (including Hong Kong and Macau) f. Filipino g. Japanese  h. Korean i. Latin, Central, or South American (e.g. Brazilian, Chilean, Columbian, Mexican) - optional specify: j. South Asian (e.g. Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan,  etc.) - optional specify:  k. Southeast Asian  (e.g. Cambodian, Indonesian, Laotian Vietnamese, etc) - optional specify: l. Taiwanese m. West Asian (e.g. Afghan, Iranian, Syrian, etc) - optional specify: n. White - optional specify:  o. If none of the above, please specify:    3. If Aboriginal peoples of Canada Is Selected. Which Canadian Aboriginal group do you identify with the most?  a. First Nations b.  Métis c.  Inuit 25 d.  Prefer not to answer 4. What is your gender identity?  a. Woman b. Man c. Transgender or Non-binary d. Other (allow text response) e. Prefer not to answer 5. What faculty are you in? a. Faculty of Applied Science b. Faculty of Arts c. Sauder School of Business d. Faculty of Forestry e. School of Kinesiology f. Faculty of Land and Food Systems g. School of Music h. School of Nursing i. Faculty of Science j. Other (allow text response) 6. What varsity athletic team are you part of? (optional)a. Baseball b. Basketball-men's c. Basketball-women's d. Cross-country Running- men's e. Cross-country Running- women's f. Field Hockey- men's g. Field Hockey- Women's h. Football i. Golf- men's j. Golf- women's k. Ice Hockey- men's l. Ice Hockey- women's m. Rowing- men's n. Rowing- women's o. Rugby- men's p. Rugby- women's q. Soccer- men's r. Soccer- women's s. Softball t. Swimming- men's u. Swimming- women's v. Track & Field- men's w. Track & Field- women's x. Volleyball- men's y. Volleyball- women's7. What year of eligibility are you in? a. 1 26 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 8. Did you attend the session in August or September? a. August b. September   Likert Scale Questions: 9. Rate your overall experience with the varsity athlete’s orientation (excellent to poor) 10. How impactful was the information at the orientation (extremely to not at all) 11. Rate the communication leading up to the event (excellent to poor) 12. Rate your experience with the on-site arrival and food ticket distribution process at the large group session (excellent to poor) 13. Rate your experience with the transition from large group session to smaller facilitator led groups (excellent to poor) 14. Rate the quality of the food (high to low)  Preamble: Interculturalism is “the view that we all benefit when we actively encourage connections between people from different cultures” (Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive, 2012). In the orientation, you participated in community building activities, and had the opportunity to work with and learn from athletes of different backgrounds. The following questions will gauge the impact of the session on your intercultural understanding.  15. As a result of the orientation, how prepared do you feel to work with athletes of different: (for each, rate from very prepared to not prepared at all) a. Race b. Gender c. Age d. Was there justification for omitting culture?   You have identified that you felt (Slightly unprepared OR Moderately unprepared OR extremely unprepared) to work with athletes of different “category”. Why might this be? How could the orientation have better prepared you? (ALLOW TEXT RESPONSE); This prompt will appear for each category in which the respondent answered less than “Neither prepared nor unprepared”   Scenario based questions:  Preamble: After learning more about the Thunderbird context and history, and the importance of values and respect, athletes were split up into smaller groups, in order to put their learning into practice, through scenarios pertaining being an active bystander.  16. During the session, which of the following scenarios did your group explore?  a. "Getting Psyched Out" (trash talking) b.  "Social Circumstances" (A friend is uncomfortable attending a team social due to an uncomfortable interaction with the team trainer) c.  "Rookie Party" (hazing) d. I do not recall  27 IF “I do not recall” SKIP BLOCK “Getting Psyched Out”: The scenario “Getting Psyched Out” included the following description: You are on the field/court/ice with your team in heated game against the conference rivals. During the play you hear one of your teammates trash talk/chirp at a player from the opposing team using an offensive racial slur. At a glance you see the other player reel from the slur.   “Social Circumstance”: The scenario “Social Circumstance” included the following description: You are speaking with a friend, when you ask if she is coming to the varsity social tomorrow.  Usually, your friend is excited to go, but she seems uncomfortable when you ask – she says she doesn’t feel like going. Sensing something is off you ask her what’s going on. Eventually she tells you that she doesn’t want to go because Jerry Kramer is going to be there. She explains, “He was leaving the bar at the same time as me and asked if I wanted to share a cab and I said sure, ‘cause I know him and so I thought it would be fine. I got out and he ended up following me from the cab and I thought he was just walking me to my door so I was surprised when he put his hands on me...I didn't know how to tell him to leave or say no when he tried to come inside so I let him. She feels pretty confused, stressed, sad, and hurt about it but hasn’t talked to anyone else about it other than you.   “Rookie Party”: the scenario “Rookie Party” included the following description: It’s the beginning of the season and you are meeting with some of your teammates. You’re finally considered a veteran on the team and you get to help plan the rookie party. One teammate suggests that this year, to initiate all the rookies, they should have to wear pink lingerie and go by their nickname, but with ‘pussy’ as their first name.    17. The small group discussions of your scenario “___” increased your understanding and knowledge of the information presented. (Strongly disagree - strongly agree) 18. The Your scenario “___”s were was helpful for your understanding of building a positive community. (Strongly disagree - Strongly agree) 19. The Your scenario “___”s helped you understand how to be an active bystander. (Strongly disagree - Strongly agree) Slide 14 20. You were given adequate resources to build a positive community within your team. (Strongly disagree - Strongly agree)  Open-Ended Questions: In the section below please reflect on your overall experience with the Varsity Athletes Orientation Session.   21. What was the most memorable part from the Varsity Athletes Orientation session?  22. What did you find as the least useful part of the Varsity Athletes Orientation?  23.  How could the overall Varsity Athletes Orientation be  improved for future Varsity Athletes?  24. What other topics would you recommend for future sessions? 25. Do you have any overall comments, you would like to share?   END SURVEY:  28 26. Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. Would you like to be entered into a raffle for a $25 UBC Bookstore gift card for your participation? (Yes/No) If “yes” please enter your email below.  29 WORK PLAN  Name of Project: Interculturalism and Varsity Athletics: Evaluating Orientation Sessions Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”): We are evaluating the effectiveness of the Varsity Athletic Orientation Sessions, looking at what went well, what can be improved and what could be done differently in the future. Deliverables (“what are we going to create?”): We are going to write a literature review, create a survey for varsity athletes to take, create an analysis of the data collected from the surveys and come up with recommendations based on the data that we collect. Along with this report, we will also write an executive summary, and prepare a presentation of the report. Methods (“how are we going to do this?”): For the literature review, we will find articles related to intercultural education in the sporting environment, educational assessments and community building practices. We will then use this research to create a survey with demographic questions, Likert scale questions and open-ended questions. We will disseminate the surveys to varsity athletes; the survey will be kept open for about 3 weeks, with reminders sent out to athletes every 4-5 days. We will then analyze the data from the surveys, and create recommendations based on this. Throughout this process, we need to be communicating and meeting with our project team.  The rough draft for the final project should be done by ~November 20th, as our project managers want to see it before the presentation on November 22nd, 2018.    Project Members Skills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability Emma Experience writing reports, and working with SEEDS project Writing literature review and methods section, coming up with survey questions, executive summary M: 12pm – 3pm, 4pm onwards Tu: 11am – 5pm W: 9am – 3pm, 4pm – 5pm Th: 11am – 4pm F: 9am – 3pm Abbie Experience with seeds projects and writing literature reviews Writing literature review and methods, creating survey question, executive summary M: 12pm – 2pm Tu: 11am – 4pm W: 9am – 2pm, 4pm – 5pm Th: 11am – 4pm F: 9am – 3pm 30 Lauren Presentations, positive attitude and morale Contact Person Liaison, findings/discussion, prepare presentation, executive summary T: 11am – 1pm, 4pm – 7pm W: 8am – 9am, 11pm – 2pm Th: 11am – 1:30pm F: 4pm – 5pm Zoe Presentation skills   Writing findings/discussion, prepare presentation, executive summary M: 8:30am – 2pm, 3pm –  5pm Tu: 8:30am – 9:30am, 4:30pm – 5pm W: 3pm – 5pm Th: 8:30am – 9: 30am F: 12:30pm – 4pm Celine Varsity Ice Hockey Recommendations, conclusion, executive summary M: 8am – 10:30am, 2pm – 9pm Tu: 8am – 9:30am, 2pm – 9pm W: 8am – 10am, 1:30pm – 5pm Th: 8am – 9:30am, 2pm – 4pm F: 9:30am – 10:30am, 1pm – 2:30pm Callie UBC Varsity Athletic Trainer (WRUG) Recommendations, conclusion, executive summary M: 8:30am – 12pm, 1 – 3pm Tu: 11am – 2:30pm W: 8:30am – 12pm, 1pm – 3pm, 4pm – 5pm Th: 11am – 1pm F: 8am – 2:30pm  Project Component Specific Task What do you need in order to get this done? Who is responsible? When is this due? Research Articles Find, review, summarize First meeting with project team Everyone Oct. 8 Literature Review Write it Articles are needed Abbie and Emma Nov. 20 Survey Write it Articles are needed for more information Everyone Oct. 8 31 Survey Disseminate it Survey has to be written  Everyone Revise by Oct. 15 Finalize by Oct. 19 Methods Section Write it Know how we are analyzing the data Abbie and Emma Nov. 20 Data Collection Have all data collected Survey closes Everyone Nov. 9 Data Analysis Create graphs/charts Completed surveys are needed (by Nov. 6-9) Callie and Celine Nov. 20 Data Analysis Write results section Completed surveys/graphs are needed Callie and Celine Nov. 20 Discussion/Recommendations Write it Data analysis needs to be done Zoe and Lauren Nov. 20 Executive Summary Write it Lit review, survey, data analysis, recommendations Everyone Nov. 30 Final Report Draft Draft written Everything should be drafted in one document and sent over to Project Managers Everyone Nov. 20 Presentation Prepare it Lit review, survey, data analysis, recommendations Lauren and Zoe Nov. 22 Final Report Finalize it Everything Everyone Dec. 6                 32        GRAPHS  Graph 1: Age Range   33 Graph 2: Ethnic/Race Group Graph 3: Gender Identity34 Graph 4: Faculty       Graph 5: Feeling Prepared to Work with Athletes of Different Gender    35 Graph 6: Feeling Prepared to Work with Athletes of Different Race          Graph 7: Feeling Prepared to Work with Athletes of Different Age   Graph 8: Feeling Prepared to Work with Athletes of Different Values 36           Graph 9: the “Getting Psyched Out” scenario was helpful in your understanding of building a positive community.  Graph 10: the “Social Circumstances” scenario was helpful in your understanding of building a positive community. 37  Graph 11: the “Rookie Party” scenario was helpful in your understanding of building a positive community.   Graph 12: Through the “Getting Psyched Out” scenario, you were given adequate resources to build a positive community within your team  Graph 13: Through the “Social Circumstances” scenario, you were given adequate resources to build a positive community within your team 38  Graph 14: Through the “Rookie Party” scenario, you were given adequate resources to build a positive community within your team   

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