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Enhancing Communication and Awareness of UBC Recreational Programming in Commuter and Resident Students Wu, Teddy; Rackham, Hilary; Lam, Daniel; Stone-Kerr, Delaney; Cheung, Johnson 2019-04-02

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Enhancing Communication and Awareness of UBC Recreational Programming in Commuter and Resident Students Teddy Wu, Hilary Rackham, Daniel Lam, Delaney Stone-Kerr, Johnson Cheung University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Community, Wellbeing April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   Enhancing Communication and Awareness of UBC Recreational Programming in Commuter and Resident Students  Group 13   Teddy Wu , Hilary Rackham , Daniel Lam  Delaney Stone-Kerr , Johnson Cheung    University of British Columbia KIN 465 Negin Riazi   April 2, 2019               Executive Summary In this report ‘Recreation Gaps Pilot Program Evaluation,’ self-identified female students attending the University of British Columbia (UBC) who did not participate in “Move More, Learn More”, a physical activity promotion initiative, were analyzed in order to better understand their knowledge of the program, interest in participating, and suggested methods for communicating the program. Specifically, students in this demographic who commute to UBC campus were compared to those who reside there. The initiative was the outcome of a 2018 Equity Enhancement Fund by the UBC Equity & Inclusion Office that was granted to the UBC Department of Athletics and Recreation to establish an initiative to promote physical on the UBC campus in Vancouver. Due to the notion that female Chinese students represent the largest subset of students enrolled at UBC and also report the lowest levels of physical activity, the pilot program was focused on this demographic. However, all female students were able to attend. Launched by the Physical Activity Office in February 2019, the program took place two times a week for under an hour for six weeks in a group of 5-25 participants. To assess commuter and resident non-participants of the program, a group of students in KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity worked together with community partners from Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) to carryout objectives of the study. A literature review was conducted to examine physical activity trends in post-secondary commuter and resident students and the barriers to engaging in exercise that they face. To collect data, surveys were conducted through online recruitment using social media sites such as Facebook and alternative online social platforms such as Canvas. Survey questions inquired about commuter or residential status, history of engagement in previous UBC programs, and efficient communication methods of UBC events. Results revealed that both commuter and resident students were deterred from UBC programming due to time constraints, specifically academic obligations. Both groups reported that they would prefer an evening program that occurred frequently throughout the week so as to accommodate a wide range of schedules. Furthermore, Facebook was the primary recommended platform for advertisement, including a focus on sharing such events in a selection of academic and non-academic UBC-affiliated groups and clubs such as the UBC Asian Calligraphy club. Based on the quantitative and qualitative data collected, recommendations were made to SEEDS to increase awareness and participation in UBC physical activity programming, and to effectively communicate future programs to accomplish this. First, communication of the program can be enhanced by expanding social media posts to include tailored information for commuter students, posting in a wide range of UBC-affiliated groups, and creating social media groups for commuters specifically. Increasing awareness and participation may be accomplished by increasing the frequency in which a program is offered, using tailored prizes as incentives, and promoting team events where commuters and residents can compete against each other.       Introduction There is significant evidence that suggests physical activity (PA) is a crucial component of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. It reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer (Warburton et al., 2006). Furthermore, physical activity holds a variety of other benefits, including the formation of larger social networks, the ability to reduce stress and anxiety, enhance positive mood, and alleviate depressive symptoms (Chan et al., 2018). Physical inactivity can therefore be viewed as a modifiable risk factor, and the overwhelming prevalence of physical inactivity in Canada makes it the highest modifiable risk factor in the country (Warburton et al., 2006). Numerous factors influence one’s likelihood of engaging in exercise, particularly sociodemographic characteristics pertaining to sex and ethnicity. A survey conducted by the University of British Columbia (UBC) Undergraduate Experience found female UBC students who identify as having an Asian background are the least active demographic group on campus (UBC SEEDS, 2019). If one considers that 54% of UBC students are female and 54% of UBC students identify as Asian, boosting levels of PA within this group is of great importance (UBC SEEDS, 2019).          To facilitate exercise in this demographic, a 2018 Equity Enhancement Fund by the UBC Equity & Inclusion Office was granted to the UBC Department of Athletics and Recreation to establish an initiative to promote PA on the UBC campus in Vancouver. In February 2019, a pilot program focused on Chinese female students was launched by the Physical Activity Office, though all self-identified females were able to attend. The program took place two times a week for under an hour for six weeks in a group of 5-25 participants. Our study will compare non-participants who commute to UBC campus and non-participants who reside at UBC’s knowledge of the program, interest in participating, and suggested methods for communicating the program. To accomplish this, surveys were conducted within these groups in hopes to improve future health promotion programs and to determine communication methods which encourage participation in the program.  Literature Review The demographic of commuters vs. students that live on-campus is important to analyze. According to literature, students who commute to campus are less likely to use university recreation facilities. A study conducted by Milton and Patton (2011) on 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students across four universities found higher use of recreation facilities by students who lived on-campus compared to those who commuted. Additionally, male students were statistically more likely to participate in campus recreation compared to females, thus reiterating the importance of increasing participation of the female university student demographic (Milton & Patton, 2011). The high volume of males who participate in these programs may contribute to the factors that hinder women’s engagement in exercise. Radhika Sanghani (2015) provided insight as to why many female gym-goers do not feel comfortable exercising with men present, noting that nearly half of women who participated in an online survey did not want to lift weights because of the ‘type’ of people in the designated weight area. She added that 14% of these women are intimidated by the thought of men judging them in this environment (Sanghani, 2015). The social evaluation component of physical activity may therefore play a role in determining whether or not one exercises in a public place, particularly when the evaluator is of the opposite sex. It appears that time constraints significantly affect the commuter’s desire to engage in on-campus activities. According to a study by Forbus, Newbold & Mehta (2011), commuter students typically avoid staying on campus and show lower rates of participating in school activities and social events, thus, they are less involved in recreational activities, live a more sedentary life and create a stressful school environment. A survey in the same study revealed that approximately 70% of these students are employed as they progress towards their future careers at school, which reduces the little time available for exercise (Forbus, Newbold & Mehta, 2011).  The study also showed that most of the school’s support systems are catered towards residential students rather than commuter students, thus further reducing the likelihood of participation from commuter students (Forbus, Newbold & Mehta, 2011).          It is evident that students who are both female and an ethnic minority typically do not exercise as much as their Caucasian male counterparts. According to a study by Towne et al (2017), 89% of male respondents and 76% of female respondents reported involvement in the recommended amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each week. Also, with respect to race and ethnicity, the study showed that ethnic minority students did not engage in the recommended amount of 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per week as much as Caucasian students at the same university (Towne et al., 2017). There is likely a multitude of factors that influence these data. Yan and Cardinal (2013) explain that the determinants of physical activity in female minority university students are not well known but may include a cultural perception of physical activity, and beliefs about health that are unique to certain cultures. Further research conducted in the program “Campus Recreation Participation, Health and Quality of Life” (Ellis et al., 2002) suggests that frequent participation in recreational activities amongst a campus environment provided more positive repercussions that such activities could offer, particularly boosting positive health changes and overall higher quality of life. Moreover, the research specifically indicated a higher affect change for individuals that participated in activities that were designed to promote overall well-being and quality life when compared to activities that were simply recreational (Ellis et al, 2002). A study done across 38 American universities reported that 68% of surveyed students were influenced by campus recreation facilities in choosing a university, 62% were influenced by recreation programs, and 67% surveyed chose to continue to study at their university in part by the campus recreation programs (Forrester, 2014). Based on these findings, engaging in campus recreation and programs is valuable in post-secondary environment as it has facilitated improvements in both student’s physical and mental dimensions of health whilst attending university.      Methods     Prior to data collection, participants were provided with a description of the study which included the purpose of the study as a class project, study procedures, project outcomes, potential benefits, confidentiality, and potential risks (Appendix A). Participants provided consent by answering “Yes” to the first question of the survey (Appendix A). Data was collected via survey consisting of 14 questions (Appendix A). The participants were gathered using different forms of media, as well as word-of-mouth. Requests for volunteers were posted on social media sites such as Facebook, which served as the main source of participant recruitment. The survey was also advertised as an announcement post on Canvas, distributed to students enrolled in an upper-level UBC psychology course. To avoid potential bias, it was requested that Kinesiology students not participate. Questions related to the program were designed to assess participants’ knowledge of the program and possible barriers to participation in the program. To better visualize data, quantitative questions were primarily used in addition to one qualitative question to obtain tailored, specific recommendations for the client. Quantitative results were tabulated and organized into a histogram-based chart with response to the respective frequencies of answers. Data was then analyzed to find the average response from all participants to draw a conclusion about survey results. The qualitative responses serve to provide direct suggestions for both program component and communication preferences. Results gathered are organized with sensitivity towards responses’ content.          Results Survey results revealed commuter and non-commuter female UBC student’s knowledge of the pilot program, interest in participating, and suggested methods for communicating the program. Of the 14 subjects who completed the survey, six commuted to UBC and eight were UBC residents (Appendix, Fig. 1). Only two participants were aware of the pilot program prior to taking the survey, and 78.57% of respondents had participated in a UBC physical activity program before (Appendix, Fig. 2, Fig. 9).  As the target population consisted of female UBC students who had not participated in the program, it was important to identify why they did not participate and what their relationship with UBC programming and communication of programs and events. Survey responses showed that judgement from peers and a lack of knowledge and skill were the main aspects of physical activity that produced discomfort, as well as the presence of the opposite sex (Appendix, Fig. 3). Though, 21.43% of respondents reported that nothing about physical activity made them feel uncomfortable (Appendix, Fig. 3).  Time constraints were also a significant barrier to engagement in UBC programs for 78.57% of participants, with 58.33% reporting they had too many academic obligations that took up the majority of their spare time (Appendix, Fig. 4). Other time constraints were produced by employment and being part of a sports team (Appendix, Fig. 4). When asked about their ideal time of day during the week that they could designate to engaging in physical activity, there were a variety of responses. The majority of respondents reported that they had the most free time between 4pm - 6pm and after 7pm (Appendix, Fig. 6). The second most popular response was in favor of exercising between 1pm - 3pm (Appendix, Fig. 6).  To better understand if the prospect of a UBC-affiliated recreational activity was a barrier in itself, we included a question inquiring about participant’s engagement with community-based facilities outside of UBC. The majority of respondents reported that they did not use facilities in the community for physical activity, with another 21.43% reporting that they do, and 28.57% reporting that they do, occasionally (Appendix, Fig. 7). Motivators to engage in UBC recreational programs included the notion of maintaining and improving health (50%), feeling like part of the UBC community (35.71%), socializing with peers (7.14%), and being in close proximity to classes and study areas (7.14%) (Appendix, Fig. 8).  Subjects who had previously engaged in other UBC physical activity programs had done so because they heard about the program through social media (14.29%), from a friend (14.29%), from a UBC representative (14.29%), or through an alternative medium (57.14%) (Appendix, Fig. 10). Those who had not participated in a UBC physical activity program before had not done so because they felt uncomfortable going alone (54.55%), they knew of the programs available to them but did not feel as though they had the resources needed to participate (18.18%), they had not heard of any programs offered at UBC (9.09%), or because the programs offered did not interest them (9.09%) (Appendix, Fig. 11). Of the 11 subjects who follow UBC social media accounts, 54.55% reported that they were only somewhat effective in providing knowledge of and encouraging participation in UBC physical activities, and that they knew about programs available, but not in detail (Appendix, Fig. 12, Fig. 13). Of the same group, 18.8% revealed that UBC social media had not been effective at all in promoting engagement in programs because the posts did not catch their attention (Appendix, Fig. 13). Another 18.8% reported that UBC social media posts had been very effective and the sole reason why they know of and participate in UBC programs (Appendix, Fig. 13).  Finally, when asked to briefly describe what an ideal physical activity program at UBC would look like, trends in responses were revealed. A significant theme seen across most responses was the appeal of a beginner-level class with an educational aspect that would allow for exercises to be done from home (Appendix, Fig. 14). One participant saw the appeal of a program that would “not [be] very competitive to encourage ones who aren’t good at sports to participate.” Other suggestions included team-events with a series of challenges to encourage a group of friends to join together, and weekly classes that featured new activities each session (Appendix, Fig. 14). In terms of timing, subjects requested short, frequent programs that could accommodate a wide range of availability, as well as evening classes. The majority of responses considered Facebook and other social media platforms to be the most effective methods of advertisement (Appendix, Fig. 14). One subject suggested creating a facebook event to be shared in a wider range of UBC-affiliated groups, such as the UBC Sciences Facebook page. Other ideas included placing flags or banners alongside walking paths throughout campus to catch the attention of students walking to and from class (Appendix, Fig. 14).   Discussion It is worth noting that the majority of the respondents (78.57%) had not previously participated in a UBC physical activity program before and had not heard of the pilot program prior to taking the survey. Barriers identified in survey responses and in literature suggest that sociological factors were at play in determining non-participants levels of interest in the program. Societal pressures from peers, fear of being judged, along with a lack of prior knowledge were the primary hurdles that hindered participation in UBC programs.  Furthermore, all responses to the survey are kept anonymous, thus it cannot be determined whether or not the PA barrier of time constraint applies equally to commuter students vs. non-commuter students. However, because it was the most common survey response it can be inferred that time constraints are a large factor in lack of UBC Recreation program attendance for both commuter and non-commuter female students. Although both commuters and residents experience time constraints, proximity to campus likely enhanced the extent to which students demonstrated interest in participating. We can speculate that individuals who lived within walking distances to the programs, i.e. residents, would be more likely to participate than those needing to travel as described in the study conducted by Milton and Patton (2011).  The reason for time constraints reducing recreation program participation could be explained by times of day these programs are offered. As observed in survey results, the ideal time of day to engage in physical activity varies slightly between participants, but demonstrated trends in preference for evening classes. There are roughly equal preferences for between 4pm & 6pm, and after 7pm (Appendix A, Fig. 6). If these students had been aware of the ‘Move More, Learn More’ program offered twice per week at 5:05pm, perhaps they would have attended. (Appendix A., Fig. 6; UBC SEEDS, 2019). This finding emphasizes the importance of efficient and effective communication. Exposure to UBC programming promotion and marketing plays as significant role in raising awareness and increasing interest in commuter and resident students. According to data, the majority of knowledge about UBC Recreation programs offered to students is derived from social media. However, because only 2 survey participants had previously heard about the Move More, Learn More program and 54.55% of responses indicated that UBC social media was not very effective at educating about programs available, it can be inferred that there is a lack of effectiveness of current advertising efforts. Based on our results, UBC social media outlets such as Facebook pages seem to be the best mode of program advertisement. Some respondents noted that this medium is the primary source of information for to UBC programs, however, they do not generate enough interest to facilitate follow-through in participating in recreational programs.  This study was largely limited in scope. Only 14 participants were recruited during the two-week data collection period. A fairly equal amount of female commuter and non-commuter students were recruited, however, with such a small sample size the results may not represent the larger female UBC student population. Additionally, due to sampling error the data collected cannot directly be used to represent UBC’s female student population.  A longer data collection period would help gather significantly more survey participants to better represent a larger population.  Due to a flaw in the survey design, responses were not separated by individual participant, thus, was no way to know which responses were from commuters and which were from residents. Because this investigation was interested in analyzing differences between female commuters and residents when it comes to UBC Recreation program participation, it would be useful to administer separate surveys: one for female students who commute to campus and one for female students who live on campus. In the future, similar surveys should be administered to a larger percentage of female students. This would help identify specific barriers to physical activity for each population separately while maintaining participant anonymity. Overall, the data collected allowed us to interpret findings that can be inferred regarding differences between each demographic, however it is evident that a larger population and increased comprehensiveness in data collection and gathering process would produce higher quality results.  Recommendations for Client Student engagement in UBC programming provides opportunities to achieve improved fitness and overall health. In order to increase awareness of the wide range of UBC programs offered, effective promotion techniques and program characteristics are essential, thus, we recommend the following:  1. Communicating the Program    According to our UBC Pilot Program Survey results, one respondent stated that “The best advertising medium now is social media, which is where I get a lot of information about non-academic activities happening at UBC” (Appendix, Fig. 14). To target both resident and commuter UBC students, social media may be utilized to post photos on Instagram or creating events on Facebook which clearly describe the name, purpose, location, day and time of the events. There is an expansive network of UBC-affiliated Facebook groups and Instagram pages that could potentially collaborate with each other to promote UBC physical activity programs. For instance, there are both Instagram and Facebook groups pertaining to individual UBC faculties, such as the faculty of arts. Additionally, advertisements on UBC-affiliated pages such as UBC sororities, fraternities, residencies, and clubs could potentially gain even more attention due to their non-academic demeanor. For example, the UBC Physical Activity Office may reach out to the UBC Asian Calligraphy club - a club focused on traditional Chinese calligraphy and brush painting -  to offer free participation in a physical activity program in exchange for advertising the program on their Instagram page. This may be effective in increasing interest and awareness in female Chinese students who, as previously mentioned, represent the largest subset of UBC students and report the lowest levels of physical activity, while reducing any financial barriers to engagement they may have.  By commenting, sharing, and contributing to the event page, students will gain more information and increase the likelihood of following-through with participating in the program (Norman, 2012). Furthermore, social media allows students to see if their friends are participating in the program, which can mitigate any concerns about attending a program alone. Another way to utilize UBC social media pages is by creating one for commuters, specifically. Perhaps a UBC Recreation student representative could create an Instagram and Facebook page for commuters where tailored physical activity events and programs could be advertised, and where online discussions could encourage participation while expanding social networks. Content could also include advice on commuting methods, essential items and strategies for commuting time-efficiently, and carpooling opportunities. To effectively communicate programs to commuter students, advertisements for each program could also feature certain bus routes and times, so that students may be able to add an event to their calendar with a more realistic time frame that includes time taken to commute. Furthermore, the program could offer incentives for students who commute to participate. For instance, commuters may be entered in a draw to be awarded merchandise such as rubber wristbands or water bottles, with prizes increasing in value the longer the commute or the more environmentally friendly the commute (i.e. cycled to campus vs. taking a bus). If these incentives were included in advertisements on social media and near bus routes, the commuter demographic may be more inclined to participate. 2.  Encouraging Interest and Participation in Commuters & Residents  According to Appendix A, Fig. 14, time constraints are a barrier for both commuters and residents. Notably, the majority of this group’s time constraints were derived from academic obligations, therefore, we recommend involving UBC professors and teaching assistants in encouraging student participation.  Professors could help accommodate engagement in UBC programming by offering bonus marks to those who show proof of participation in them, so as to positively impact their academic mark while also benefiting their health and wellbeing. Unfortunately, this method is limited in its ability to assist commuter students specifically, such as through offering more points for those who commute without being unfair to residents.  Increasing awareness in each demographic may be accomplished by offering programs more frequently so everyone can find the best time for them to participate in the program. With such variation in class schedules between all students, casual programs for all skill levels offered multiple times each day, five days a week may allow more students to fit the program into their schedule. This would also allow for potential gendered classes; by increasing program frequency, there is opportunity for half of the programs offered each day to be for women only, which was a beneficial component of the initial pilot program. Moreover, many respondents requested easy workout for beginners, as well as activities that can be done in teams. We recommend that UBC offer programs that integrate teams of commuters vs. residents as a way to facilitate friendly competition, as well as to develop and strengthen social networks through the shared experience of commuting to campus and being a resident, respectively. Incentives may be used that include one prize that could be won by either team, in addition to smaller prizes that are tailored to each demographic; for example, a prize tailored to the commuter team could consist of a free subscription to a music or podcast app, and residents could receive a t-shirt with the name of their respective residence on it.                                                 References      Chan, J.S., Liu, G., Liang, D., Deng, K., Wu, J., & Yan, J. H. (2018). Special issue- Therapeutic benefits of physical activity for mood: A systematic review on the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality. The Journal of Psychology, 1-24. doi:10.1080/00223980.2018.1470487  Ellis, G. D., Compton, D. M., Tyson, B., & Bohlig, M. (2002). Campus recreation participation, health, and quality of life. Recreational Sports Journal, 26(2), 51-60.  Forrester, S. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. Corvallis, OR: NIRSA. Retrieved from          https://nirsa.net/nirsa/wp-content/uploads/Benefits_Of_Campus_Recreation-Forrester_2014-Report.pdf  Forbus, P, Newbold, J, J., Mehta, S, S. (2011). Commuter students: Involvement and identification with an institution of higher learning. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. 11(15), 141-154.  Milton, P. R., & Patton, B. J. (2011). Who enters campus recreation facilities: A demographic analysis. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism, 7, 11-29.  Norman, C. D. (2012). Social media and health promotion. Sage journals, 19(4), 3-6. Retrieved            from https://doi.org/10.1177/1757975912464593  Sanghani, R. (2015, May 07). What men really think about women in the gym. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11587175/Womens-fitness-What-men-really-think-about-women-in-the-gym.html  Towne, S. D., Jr., Ory, M. G., Lee, M. S., Peres, S. C., Pickens, A. W., Mehta, R. K., & Benden, M. (2017). Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ ethnicity, technology use, and sleep. BMC Public Health, 17, 1-11. DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4757-y  UBC SEEDS. (2019). UBC SEEDS Sustainability program: Research project description form. [PDFDocument]. Retrieved from https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/20419/files3688449?module_item_id=994497  Warburton, D.E. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity. The evidence. Canadian Medical         Association Journal, 174(6), 801-809. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.051351  Yan, Z., & Cardinal, B. J. (2013). Perception of physical activity participation of Chinese female graduate students: A case study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84, 384-396.  Appendices  APPENDIX A - Survey Questions and Results   Figure 1. Survey question 1 data    Figure 2. Survey question 2 data    Figure 3. Survey question 3 data    Figure 4. Survey question 4 data    Figure 5. Survey question 5 data    Figure 6. Survey question 6 data    Figure 7. Survey question 7 data    Figure 8. Survey question 8 data    Figure 9. Survey question 9 data   Figure 10. Survey question 10 data    Figure 11. Survey question 11 data    Figure 12. Survey question 12 data   Figure 13. Survey question 13 data     Figure 15. Participant written consent via survey response.  Figure 14. Survey question 14 open responses      APPENDIX B - Consent Form  KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity Participant Consent Form for Class-based Projects – Design 1 Principal Investigator: Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education) The purpose of the class project: To gather knowledge and expertise from community members on topics related to physical activity, recreation, and health promotion. Study Procedures: With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a survey. With the information gathered, students will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting activities or health promotion initiatives. Project outcomes: The information gathered from the surveys will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability- program/seeds-sustainability-library Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting activities or initiatives in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences. Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in a survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course.     Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, the person you are surveying is free to share what they would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed. Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604- 822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca . or call toll free 1-877-822-8598. Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Answering yes to the following survey question indicates you consent to participate in this study.        Appendix C - Raw Data  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you consent to participate in this survey? Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 100.00% 14 2 No 0.00% 0   Total 100% 14 Figure 1. Survey consent raw data.                  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Are you a self-identifying female who did NOT participate in "Move More, Learn More!" ? 1.00 2.00 1.14 0.35 0.12 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 85.71% 12 2 No 14.29% 2   Total 100% 14 Figure 2. Survey question demographics raw data                  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you commute to UBC or are you a UBC resident? 1.00 2.00 1.57 0.49 0.24 14    # Answer % Count 1 Commute 42.86% 6 2 Resident 57.14% 8   Total 100% 14 Figure 3. Survey question 1 raw data                     # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Prior to this survey, were you aware of the "Move More, Learn More!" initiative to promote physical activity? 1.00 2.00 1.86 0.35 0.12 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 14.29% 2 2 No 85.71% 12   Total 100% 14 Figure 4. Survey question 2 raw data                   # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 What makes you feel most uncomfortable about physical activity? 1.00 5.00 2.64 1.44 2.09 14    # Answer % Count 1 Judgement from peers 28.57% 4 2 Male Presence 21.43% 3 3 Lack of knowledge/skills to use equipment/participate 28.57% 4 4 Sweating/physical appearance 0.00% 0 5 Nothing makes me uncomfortable about physical activity 21.43% 3 6 Other 0.00% 0   Total 100% 14 Figure 5. Survey question 3 raw data  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Are time constraints a significant factor in why you don't participate in UBC programs? 1.00 2.00 1.21 0.41 0.17 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 78.57% 11 2 No 21.43% 3   Total 100% 14 Figure 6. Survey question 4 raw data                       # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'Yes' to question 4, is it because: 1.00 5.00 2.25 1.01 1.02 12    # Answer % Count 1 You have an after-school job 16.67% 2 2 You have too much school work and studying to do 58.33% 7 3 You are part of a sports team 16.67% 2 4 You need to spend time with friends and family 0.00% 0 5 Other 8.33% 1   Total 100% 12 Figure 7. Survey question 5 raw data            # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 What time during your average school day would be most ideal for engaging in physical activity? 1.00 5.00 3.50 1.35 1.82 14    # Answer % Count 1 Between 7am-9am 14.29% 2 2 Between 10am-12pm 7.14% 1 3 Between 1pm-3pm 21.43% 3 4 Between 4pm-6pm 28.57% 4 5 After 7pm 28.57% 4   Total 100% 14 Figure 8. Survey question 6 raw data        # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you engage in physical activity in community-based facilities that are not affiliated with UBC? 1.00 3.00 2.07 0.70 0.49 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 21.43% 3 2 No 50.00% 7 3 Sometimes 28.57% 4   Total 100% 14 Figure 9. Survey question 7 raw data                # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Which aspects of UBC physical activity programs are most appealing to you? 1.00 4.00 2.57 0.73 0.53 14    # Answer % Count 1 Socializing with my peers 7.14% 1 2 Feeling like part of the UBC community 35.71% 5 3 Maintaining and improving my health 50.00% 7 4 Proximity to my classes and study areas 7.14% 1 5 No aspects of UBC physical activity programs are appealing to me 0.00% 0 6 Other 0.00% 0   Total 100% 14 Figure 10. Survey question 8 raw data     # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Have you participated in a UBC physical activity program before? 1.00 2.00 1.79 0.41 0.17 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 21.43% 3 2 No 78.57% 11   Total 100% 14 Figure 11. Survey question 9 raw data                    # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'Yes' to question 9, how did you hear about the program? 1.00 6.00 4.57 1.84 3.39 7    # Answer % Count 1 Social media 14.29% 1 2 Flyers posted around campus 0.00% 0 3 From a friend 14.29% 1 4 From a UBC representative 14.29% 1 5 During class 0.00% 0 6 Other 57.14% 4   Total 100% 7 Figure 12. Survey question 10 raw data       # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'No' to question 9, is it because: 1.00 5.00 3.45 1.08 1.16 11    # Answer % Count 1 The programs offered by UBC do not interest me 9.09% 1 2 I haven't heard of any programs offered by UBC 9.09% 1 3 I knew of the programs available, but did not feel like I had the resources needed to participate 18.18% 2 4 I felt uncomfortable going alone 54.55% 6 5 Other 9.09% 1   Total 100% 11 Figure 13. Survey question 11 raw data           # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you follow any UBC social media? 1.00 2.00 1.21 0.41 0.17 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 78.57% 11 2 No 21.43% 3   Total 100% 14 Figure 14. Survey question 12 raw data                      # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'Yes' to question 12, how effective has this been in your knowledge of/participation in UBC physical activity programs? 1.00 4.00 2.27 0.96 0.93 11    # Answer % Count 1 Very effective, this is the sole reason why I know of/participate in UBC programs 18.18% 2 2 Sort of effective, I know about programs but not in detail 54.55% 6 3 Not very effective, I see UBC post in my social media feed but I don't pay attention to them 9.09% 1 4 Not effective at all, I don't even notice UBC posts in my social media feed because they do not catch my attention 18.18% 2   Total 100% 11 Figure 15. Survey question 13 raw data        In one or two sentences below, describe what your ideal physical activity program would be that UBC could offer, in terms of time of day, day of the week, activity, and how it could be advertised in a way that would encourage your participation. My ideal activity program would be one that takes place on Friday afternoons (1-3pm) which would feature different activities every week targeted for beginners. The best way to advertise this program to encourage my participation would be to place flags or banners along the sides of the walkways on campus or creating a Facebook event in various UBC pages/groups (UBC Science). A short, once a week group class I would enjoy a class where you are taught easy work outs that don't involve many machines and could even be done at home. I would also enjoy a space where I could go to workout that would not be crazy busy all the time (ie.the arc). It would be best in the evenings on weekdays other than Wednesday as I am part of a sorority and we have meetings every Wednesday night. I would love either a morning or midday program. I think something challenge-based would be fun, maybe something with a team to encourage me to go with friends. The best advertisement medium now is social media, which is where I get a lot of info about non-academic activities happening at UBC. since ppl have midterms at different times, can offer programs more frequently so everyone can find the time to go I would like to see a program for beginners? In terms of time of day, probably early evenings Tues and Thurs. It could be advertised on facebook if enough people share an event page or are interested in it friday evening, something not very competitive to encourage ones who arent good at sports to participate fun, happiness and fitness 5 on 5 intramural basketball (: Facebook event, 1-3 pm, weekday Include cosom hockey it's fun, Canadian and makes you run a lot Figure 16. Survey question 14 raw data open responses        UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Enhancing Communication and Awareness of UBC Recreational Programming in Commuter and Resident Students Teddy Wu, Hilary Rackham, Daniel Lam, Delaney Stone-Kerr, Johnson Cheung University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Community, Wellbeing April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   Enhancing Communication and Awareness of UBC Recreational Programming in Commuter and Resident Students  Group 13   Teddy Wu , Hilary Rackham , Daniel Lam  Delaney Stone-Kerr , Johnson Cheung    University of British Columbia KIN 465 Negin Riazi   April 2, 2019               Executive Summary In this report ‘Recreation Gaps Pilot Program Evaluation,’ self-identified female students attending the University of British Columbia (UBC) who did not participate in “Move More, Learn More”, a physical activity promotion initiative, were analyzed in order to better understand their knowledge of the program, interest in participating, and suggested methods for communicating the program. Specifically, students in this demographic who commute to UBC campus were compared to those who reside there. The initiative was the outcome of a 2018 Equity Enhancement Fund by the UBC Equity & Inclusion Office that was granted to the UBC Department of Athletics and Recreation to establish an initiative to promote physical on the UBC campus in Vancouver. Due to the notion that female Chinese students represent the largest subset of students enrolled at UBC and also report the lowest levels of physical activity, the pilot program was focused on this demographic. However, all female students were able to attend. Launched by the Physical Activity Office in February 2019, the program took place two times a week for under an hour for six weeks in a group of 5-25 participants. To assess commuter and resident non-participants of the program, a group of students in KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity worked together with community partners from Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) to carryout objectives of the study. A literature review was conducted to examine physical activity trends in post-secondary commuter and resident students and the barriers to engaging in exercise that they face. To collect data, surveys were conducted through online recruitment using social media sites such as Facebook and alternative online social platforms such as Canvas. Survey questions inquired about commuter or residential status, history of engagement in previous UBC programs, and efficient communication methods of UBC events. Results revealed that both commuter and resident students were deterred from UBC programming due to time constraints, specifically academic obligations. Both groups reported that they would prefer an evening program that occurred frequently throughout the week so as to accommodate a wide range of schedules. Furthermore, Facebook was the primary recommended platform for advertisement, including a focus on sharing such events in a selection of academic and non-academic UBC-affiliated groups and clubs such as the UBC Asian Calligraphy club. Based on the quantitative and qualitative data collected, recommendations were made to SEEDS to increase awareness and participation in UBC physical activity programming, and to effectively communicate future programs to accomplish this. First, communication of the program can be enhanced by expanding social media posts to include tailored information for commuter students, posting in a wide range of UBC-affiliated groups, and creating social media groups for commuters specifically. Increasing awareness and participation may be accomplished by increasing the frequency in which a program is offered, using tailored prizes as incentives, and promoting team events where commuters and residents can compete against each other.       Introduction There is significant evidence that suggests physical activity (PA) is a crucial component of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. It reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer (Warburton et al., 2006). Furthermore, physical activity holds a variety of other benefits, including the formation of larger social networks, the ability to reduce stress and anxiety, enhance positive mood, and alleviate depressive symptoms (Chan et al., 2018). Physical inactivity can therefore be viewed as a modifiable risk factor, and the overwhelming prevalence of physical inactivity in Canada makes it the highest modifiable risk factor in the country (Warburton et al., 2006). Numerous factors influence one’s likelihood of engaging in exercise, particularly sociodemographic characteristics pertaining to sex and ethnicity. A survey conducted by the University of British Columbia (UBC) Undergraduate Experience found female UBC students who identify as having an Asian background are the least active demographic group on campus (UBC SEEDS, 2019). If one considers that 54% of UBC students are female and 54% of UBC students identify as Asian, boosting levels of PA within this group is of great importance (UBC SEEDS, 2019).          To facilitate exercise in this demographic, a 2018 Equity Enhancement Fund by the UBC Equity & Inclusion Office was granted to the UBC Department of Athletics and Recreation to establish an initiative to promote PA on the UBC campus in Vancouver. In February 2019, a pilot program focused on Chinese female students was launched by the Physical Activity Office, though all self-identified females were able to attend. The program took place two times a week for under an hour for six weeks in a group of 5-25 participants. Our study will compare non-participants who commute to UBC campus and non-participants who reside at UBC’s knowledge of the program, interest in participating, and suggested methods for communicating the program. To accomplish this, surveys were conducted within these groups in hopes to improve future health promotion programs and to determine communication methods which encourage participation in the program.  Literature Review The demographic of commuters vs. students that live on-campus is important to analyze. According to literature, students who commute to campus are less likely to use university recreation facilities. A study conducted by Milton and Patton (2011) on 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students across four universities found higher use of recreation facilities by students who lived on-campus compared to those who commuted. Additionally, male students were statistically more likely to participate in campus recreation compared to females, thus reiterating the importance of increasing participation of the female university student demographic (Milton & Patton, 2011). The high volume of males who participate in these programs may contribute to the factors that hinder women’s engagement in exercise. Radhika Sanghani (2015) provided insight as to why many female gym-goers do not feel comfortable exercising with men present, noting that nearly half of women who participated in an online survey did not want to lift weights because of the ‘type’ of people in the designated weight area. She added that 14% of these women are intimidated by the thought of men judging them in this environment (Sanghani, 2015). The social evaluation component of physical activity may therefore play a role in determining whether or not one exercises in a public place, particularly when the evaluator is of the opposite sex. It appears that time constraints significantly affect the commuter’s desire to engage in on-campus activities. According to a study by Forbus, Newbold & Mehta (2011), commuter students typically avoid staying on campus and show lower rates of participating in school activities and social events, thus, they are less involved in recreational activities, live a more sedentary life and create a stressful school environment. A survey in the same study revealed that approximately 70% of these students are employed as they progress towards their future careers at school, which reduces the little time available for exercise (Forbus, Newbold & Mehta, 2011).  The study also showed that most of the school’s support systems are catered towards residential students rather than commuter students, thus further reducing the likelihood of participation from commuter students (Forbus, Newbold & Mehta, 2011).          It is evident that students who are both female and an ethnic minority typically do not exercise as much as their Caucasian male counterparts. According to a study by Towne et al (2017), 89% of male respondents and 76% of female respondents reported involvement in the recommended amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each week. Also, with respect to race and ethnicity, the study showed that ethnic minority students did not engage in the recommended amount of 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per week as much as Caucasian students at the same university (Towne et al., 2017). There is likely a multitude of factors that influence these data. Yan and Cardinal (2013) explain that the determinants of physical activity in female minority university students are not well known but may include a cultural perception of physical activity, and beliefs about health that are unique to certain cultures. Further research conducted in the program “Campus Recreation Participation, Health and Quality of Life” (Ellis et al., 2002) suggests that frequent participation in recreational activities amongst a campus environment provided more positive repercussions that such activities could offer, particularly boosting positive health changes and overall higher quality of life. Moreover, the research specifically indicated a higher affect change for individuals that participated in activities that were designed to promote overall well-being and quality life when compared to activities that were simply recreational (Ellis et al, 2002). A study done across 38 American universities reported that 68% of surveyed students were influenced by campus recreation facilities in choosing a university, 62% were influenced by recreation programs, and 67% surveyed chose to continue to study at their university in part by the campus recreation programs (Forrester, 2014). Based on these findings, engaging in campus recreation and programs is valuable in post-secondary environment as it has facilitated improvements in both student’s physical and mental dimensions of health whilst attending university.      Methods     Prior to data collection, participants were provided with a description of the study which included the purpose of the study as a class project, study procedures, project outcomes, potential benefits, confidentiality, and potential risks (Appendix A). Participants provided consent by answering “Yes” to the first question of the survey (Appendix A). Data was collected via survey consisting of 14 questions (Appendix A). The participants were gathered using different forms of media, as well as word-of-mouth. Requests for volunteers were posted on social media sites such as Facebook, which served as the main source of participant recruitment. The survey was also advertised as an announcement post on Canvas, distributed to students enrolled in an upper-level UBC psychology course. To avoid potential bias, it was requested that Kinesiology students not participate. Questions related to the program were designed to assess participants’ knowledge of the program and possible barriers to participation in the program. To better visualize data, quantitative questions were primarily used in addition to one qualitative question to obtain tailored, specific recommendations for the client. Quantitative results were tabulated and organized into a histogram-based chart with response to the respective frequencies of answers. Data was then analyzed to find the average response from all participants to draw a conclusion about survey results. The qualitative responses serve to provide direct suggestions for both program component and communication preferences. Results gathered are organized with sensitivity towards responses’ content.          Results Survey results revealed commuter and non-commuter female UBC student’s knowledge of the pilot program, interest in participating, and suggested methods for communicating the program. Of the 14 subjects who completed the survey, six commuted to UBC and eight were UBC residents (Appendix, Fig. 1). Only two participants were aware of the pilot program prior to taking the survey, and 78.57% of respondents had participated in a UBC physical activity program before (Appendix, Fig. 2, Fig. 9).  As the target population consisted of female UBC students who had not participated in the program, it was important to identify why they did not participate and what their relationship with UBC programming and communication of programs and events. Survey responses showed that judgement from peers and a lack of knowledge and skill were the main aspects of physical activity that produced discomfort, as well as the presence of the opposite sex (Appendix, Fig. 3). Though, 21.43% of respondents reported that nothing about physical activity made them feel uncomfortable (Appendix, Fig. 3).  Time constraints were also a significant barrier to engagement in UBC programs for 78.57% of participants, with 58.33% reporting they had too many academic obligations that took up the majority of their spare time (Appendix, Fig. 4). Other time constraints were produced by employment and being part of a sports team (Appendix, Fig. 4). When asked about their ideal time of day during the week that they could designate to engaging in physical activity, there were a variety of responses. The majority of respondents reported that they had the most free time between 4pm - 6pm and after 7pm (Appendix, Fig. 6). The second most popular response was in favor of exercising between 1pm - 3pm (Appendix, Fig. 6).  To better understand if the prospect of a UBC-affiliated recreational activity was a barrier in itself, we included a question inquiring about participant’s engagement with community-based facilities outside of UBC. The majority of respondents reported that they did not use facilities in the community for physical activity, with another 21.43% reporting that they do, and 28.57% reporting that they do, occasionally (Appendix, Fig. 7). Motivators to engage in UBC recreational programs included the notion of maintaining and improving health (50%), feeling like part of the UBC community (35.71%), socializing with peers (7.14%), and being in close proximity to classes and study areas (7.14%) (Appendix, Fig. 8).  Subjects who had previously engaged in other UBC physical activity programs had done so because they heard about the program through social media (14.29%), from a friend (14.29%), from a UBC representative (14.29%), or through an alternative medium (57.14%) (Appendix, Fig. 10). Those who had not participated in a UBC physical activity program before had not done so because they felt uncomfortable going alone (54.55%), they knew of the programs available to them but did not feel as though they had the resources needed to participate (18.18%), they had not heard of any programs offered at UBC (9.09%), or because the programs offered did not interest them (9.09%) (Appendix, Fig. 11). Of the 11 subjects who follow UBC social media accounts, 54.55% reported that they were only somewhat effective in providing knowledge of and encouraging participation in UBC physical activities, and that they knew about programs available, but not in detail (Appendix, Fig. 12, Fig. 13). Of the same group, 18.8% revealed that UBC social media had not been effective at all in promoting engagement in programs because the posts did not catch their attention (Appendix, Fig. 13). Another 18.8% reported that UBC social media posts had been very effective and the sole reason why they know of and participate in UBC programs (Appendix, Fig. 13).  Finally, when asked to briefly describe what an ideal physical activity program at UBC would look like, trends in responses were revealed. A significant theme seen across most responses was the appeal of a beginner-level class with an educational aspect that would allow for exercises to be done from home (Appendix, Fig. 14). One participant saw the appeal of a program that would “not [be] very competitive to encourage ones who aren’t good at sports to participate.” Other suggestions included team-events with a series of challenges to encourage a group of friends to join together, and weekly classes that featured new activities each session (Appendix, Fig. 14). In terms of timing, subjects requested short, frequent programs that could accommodate a wide range of availability, as well as evening classes. The majority of responses considered Facebook and other social media platforms to be the most effective methods of advertisement (Appendix, Fig. 14). One subject suggested creating a facebook event to be shared in a wider range of UBC-affiliated groups, such as the UBC Sciences Facebook page. Other ideas included placing flags or banners alongside walking paths throughout campus to catch the attention of students walking to and from class (Appendix, Fig. 14).   Discussion It is worth noting that the majority of the respondents (78.57%) had not previously participated in a UBC physical activity program before and had not heard of the pilot program prior to taking the survey. Barriers identified in survey responses and in literature suggest that sociological factors were at play in determining non-participants levels of interest in the program. Societal pressures from peers, fear of being judged, along with a lack of prior knowledge were the primary hurdles that hindered participation in UBC programs.  Furthermore, all responses to the survey are kept anonymous, thus it cannot be determined whether or not the PA barrier of time constraint applies equally to commuter students vs. non-commuter students. However, because it was the most common survey response it can be inferred that time constraints are a large factor in lack of UBC Recreation program attendance for both commuter and non-commuter female students. Although both commuters and residents experience time constraints, proximity to campus likely enhanced the extent to which students demonstrated interest in participating. We can speculate that individuals who lived within walking distances to the programs, i.e. residents, would be more likely to participate than those needing to travel as described in the study conducted by Milton and Patton (2011).  The reason for time constraints reducing recreation program participation could be explained by times of day these programs are offered. As observed in survey results, the ideal time of day to engage in physical activity varies slightly between participants, but demonstrated trends in preference for evening classes. There are roughly equal preferences for between 4pm & 6pm, and after 7pm (Appendix A, Fig. 6). If these students had been aware of the ‘Move More, Learn More’ program offered twice per week at 5:05pm, perhaps they would have attended. (Appendix A., Fig. 6; UBC SEEDS, 2019). This finding emphasizes the importance of efficient and effective communication. Exposure to UBC programming promotion and marketing plays as significant role in raising awareness and increasing interest in commuter and resident students. According to data, the majority of knowledge about UBC Recreation programs offered to students is derived from social media. However, because only 2 survey participants had previously heard about the Move More, Learn More program and 54.55% of responses indicated that UBC social media was not very effective at educating about programs available, it can be inferred that there is a lack of effectiveness of current advertising efforts. Based on our results, UBC social media outlets such as Facebook pages seem to be the best mode of program advertisement. Some respondents noted that this medium is the primary source of information for to UBC programs, however, they do not generate enough interest to facilitate follow-through in participating in recreational programs.  This study was largely limited in scope. Only 14 participants were recruited during the two-week data collection period. A fairly equal amount of female commuter and non-commuter students were recruited, however, with such a small sample size the results may not represent the larger female UBC student population. Additionally, due to sampling error the data collected cannot directly be used to represent UBC’s female student population.  A longer data collection period would help gather significantly more survey participants to better represent a larger population.  Due to a flaw in the survey design, responses were not separated by individual participant, thus, was no way to know which responses were from commuters and which were from residents. Because this investigation was interested in analyzing differences between female commuters and residents when it comes to UBC Recreation program participation, it would be useful to administer separate surveys: one for female students who commute to campus and one for female students who live on campus. In the future, similar surveys should be administered to a larger percentage of female students. This would help identify specific barriers to physical activity for each population separately while maintaining participant anonymity. Overall, the data collected allowed us to interpret findings that can be inferred regarding differences between each demographic, however it is evident that a larger population and increased comprehensiveness in data collection and gathering process would produce higher quality results.  Recommendations for Client Student engagement in UBC programming provides opportunities to achieve improved fitness and overall health. In order to increase awareness of the wide range of UBC programs offered, effective promotion techniques and program characteristics are essential, thus, we recommend the following:  1. Communicating the Program    According to our UBC Pilot Program Survey results, one respondent stated that “The best advertising medium now is social media, which is where I get a lot of information about non-academic activities happening at UBC” (Appendix, Fig. 14). To target both resident and commuter UBC students, social media may be utilized to post photos on Instagram or creating events on Facebook which clearly describe the name, purpose, location, day and time of the events. There is an expansive network of UBC-affiliated Facebook groups and Instagram pages that could potentially collaborate with each other to promote UBC physical activity programs. For instance, there are both Instagram and Facebook groups pertaining to individual UBC faculties, such as the faculty of arts. Additionally, advertisements on UBC-affiliated pages such as UBC sororities, fraternities, residencies, and clubs could potentially gain even more attention due to their non-academic demeanor. For example, the UBC Physical Activity Office may reach out to the UBC Asian Calligraphy club - a club focused on traditional Chinese calligraphy and brush painting -  to offer free participation in a physical activity program in exchange for advertising the program on their Instagram page. This may be effective in increasing interest and awareness in female Chinese students who, as previously mentioned, represent the largest subset of UBC students and report the lowest levels of physical activity, while reducing any financial barriers to engagement they may have.  By commenting, sharing, and contributing to the event page, students will gain more information and increase the likelihood of following-through with participating in the program (Norman, 2012). Furthermore, social media allows students to see if their friends are participating in the program, which can mitigate any concerns about attending a program alone. Another way to utilize UBC social media pages is by creating one for commuters, specifically. Perhaps a UBC Recreation student representative could create an Instagram and Facebook page for commuters where tailored physical activity events and programs could be advertised, and where online discussions could encourage participation while expanding social networks. Content could also include advice on commuting methods, essential items and strategies for commuting time-efficiently, and carpooling opportunities. To effectively communicate programs to commuter students, advertisements for each program could also feature certain bus routes and times, so that students may be able to add an event to their calendar with a more realistic time frame that includes time taken to commute. Furthermore, the program could offer incentives for students who commute to participate. For instance, commuters may be entered in a draw to be awarded merchandise such as rubber wristbands or water bottles, with prizes increasing in value the longer the commute or the more environmentally friendly the commute (i.e. cycled to campus vs. taking a bus). If these incentives were included in advertisements on social media and near bus routes, the commuter demographic may be more inclined to participate. 2.  Encouraging Interest and Participation in Commuters & Residents  According to Appendix A, Fig. 14, time constraints are a barrier for both commuters and residents. Notably, the majority of this group’s time constraints were derived from academic obligations, therefore, we recommend involving UBC professors and teaching assistants in encouraging student participation.  Professors could help accommodate engagement in UBC programming by offering bonus marks to those who show proof of participation in them, so as to positively impact their academic mark while also benefiting their health and wellbeing. Unfortunately, this method is limited in its ability to assist commuter students specifically, such as through offering more points for those who commute without being unfair to residents.  Increasing awareness in each demographic may be accomplished by offering programs more frequently so everyone can find the best time for them to participate in the program. With such variation in class schedules between all students, casual programs for all skill levels offered multiple times each day, five days a week may allow more students to fit the program into their schedule. This would also allow for potential gendered classes; by increasing program frequency, there is opportunity for half of the programs offered each day to be for women only, which was a beneficial component of the initial pilot program. Moreover, many respondents requested easy workout for beginners, as well as activities that can be done in teams. We recommend that UBC offer programs that integrate teams of commuters vs. residents as a way to facilitate friendly competition, as well as to develop and strengthen social networks through the shared experience of commuting to campus and being a resident, respectively. Incentives may be used that include one prize that could be won by either team, in addition to smaller prizes that are tailored to each demographic; for example, a prize tailored to the commuter team could consist of a free subscription to a music or podcast app, and residents could receive a t-shirt with the name of their respective residence on it.                                                 References      Chan, J.S., Liu, G., Liang, D., Deng, K., Wu, J., & Yan, J. H. (2018). Special issue- Therapeutic benefits of physical activity for mood: A systematic review on the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality. The Journal of Psychology, 1-24. doi:10.1080/00223980.2018.1470487  Ellis, G. D., Compton, D. M., Tyson, B., & Bohlig, M. (2002). Campus recreation participation, health, and quality of life. Recreational Sports Journal, 26(2), 51-60.  Forrester, S. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. Corvallis, OR: NIRSA. Retrieved from          https://nirsa.net/nirsa/wp-content/uploads/Benefits_Of_Campus_Recreation-Forrester_2014-Report.pdf  Forbus, P, Newbold, J, J., Mehta, S, S. (2011). Commuter students: Involvement and identification with an institution of higher learning. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. 11(15), 141-154.  Milton, P. R., & Patton, B. J. (2011). Who enters campus recreation facilities: A demographic analysis. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism, 7, 11-29.  Norman, C. D. (2012). Social media and health promotion. Sage journals, 19(4), 3-6. Retrieved            from https://doi.org/10.1177/1757975912464593  Sanghani, R. (2015, May 07). What men really think about women in the gym. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11587175/Womens-fitness-What-men-really-think-about-women-in-the-gym.html  Towne, S. D., Jr., Ory, M. G., Lee, M. S., Peres, S. C., Pickens, A. W., Mehta, R. K., & Benden, M. (2017). Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ ethnicity, technology use, and sleep. BMC Public Health, 17, 1-11. DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4757-y  UBC SEEDS. (2019). UBC SEEDS Sustainability program: Research project description form. [PDFDocument]. Retrieved from https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/20419/files3688449?module_item_id=994497  Warburton, D.E. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity. The evidence. Canadian Medical         Association Journal, 174(6), 801-809. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.051351  Yan, Z., & Cardinal, B. J. (2013). Perception of physical activity participation of Chinese female graduate students: A case study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84, 384-396.  Appendices  APPENDIX A - Survey Questions and Results   Figure 1. Survey question 1 data    Figure 2. Survey question 2 data    Figure 3. Survey question 3 data    Figure 4. Survey question 4 data    Figure 5. Survey question 5 data    Figure 6. Survey question 6 data    Figure 7. Survey question 7 data    Figure 8. Survey question 8 data    Figure 9. Survey question 9 data   Figure 10. Survey question 10 data    Figure 11. Survey question 11 data    Figure 12. Survey question 12 data   Figure 13. Survey question 13 data     Figure 15. Participant written consent via survey response.  Figure 14. Survey question 14 open responses      APPENDIX B - Consent Form  KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity Participant Consent Form for Class-based Projects – Design 1 Principal Investigator: Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education) The purpose of the class project: To gather knowledge and expertise from community members on topics related to physical activity, recreation, and health promotion. Study Procedures: With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a survey. With the information gathered, students will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting activities or health promotion initiatives. Project outcomes: The information gathered from the surveys will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability- program/seeds-sustainability-library Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting activities or initiatives in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences. Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in a survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course.     Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, the person you are surveying is free to share what they would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed. Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604- 822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca . or call toll free 1-877-822-8598. Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Answering yes to the following survey question indicates you consent to participate in this study.        Appendix C - Raw Data  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you consent to participate in this survey? Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 100.00% 14 2 No 0.00% 0   Total 100% 14 Figure 1. Survey consent raw data.                  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Are you a self-identifying female who did NOT participate in "Move More, Learn More!" ? 1.00 2.00 1.14 0.35 0.12 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 85.71% 12 2 No 14.29% 2   Total 100% 14 Figure 2. Survey question demographics raw data                  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you commute to UBC or are you a UBC resident? 1.00 2.00 1.57 0.49 0.24 14    # Answer % Count 1 Commute 42.86% 6 2 Resident 57.14% 8   Total 100% 14 Figure 3. Survey question 1 raw data                     # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Prior to this survey, were you aware of the "Move More, Learn More!" initiative to promote physical activity? 1.00 2.00 1.86 0.35 0.12 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 14.29% 2 2 No 85.71% 12   Total 100% 14 Figure 4. Survey question 2 raw data                   # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 What makes you feel most uncomfortable about physical activity? 1.00 5.00 2.64 1.44 2.09 14    # Answer % Count 1 Judgement from peers 28.57% 4 2 Male Presence 21.43% 3 3 Lack of knowledge/skills to use equipment/participate 28.57% 4 4 Sweating/physical appearance 0.00% 0 5 Nothing makes me uncomfortable about physical activity 21.43% 3 6 Other 0.00% 0   Total 100% 14 Figure 5. Survey question 3 raw data  # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Are time constraints a significant factor in why you don't participate in UBC programs? 1.00 2.00 1.21 0.41 0.17 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 78.57% 11 2 No 21.43% 3   Total 100% 14 Figure 6. Survey question 4 raw data                       # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'Yes' to question 4, is it because: 1.00 5.00 2.25 1.01 1.02 12    # Answer % Count 1 You have an after-school job 16.67% 2 2 You have too much school work and studying to do 58.33% 7 3 You are part of a sports team 16.67% 2 4 You need to spend time with friends and family 0.00% 0 5 Other 8.33% 1   Total 100% 12 Figure 7. Survey question 5 raw data            # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 What time during your average school day would be most ideal for engaging in physical activity? 1.00 5.00 3.50 1.35 1.82 14    # Answer % Count 1 Between 7am-9am 14.29% 2 2 Between 10am-12pm 7.14% 1 3 Between 1pm-3pm 21.43% 3 4 Between 4pm-6pm 28.57% 4 5 After 7pm 28.57% 4   Total 100% 14 Figure 8. Survey question 6 raw data        # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you engage in physical activity in community-based facilities that are not affiliated with UBC? 1.00 3.00 2.07 0.70 0.49 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 21.43% 3 2 No 50.00% 7 3 Sometimes 28.57% 4   Total 100% 14 Figure 9. Survey question 7 raw data                # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Which aspects of UBC physical activity programs are most appealing to you? 1.00 4.00 2.57 0.73 0.53 14    # Answer % Count 1 Socializing with my peers 7.14% 1 2 Feeling like part of the UBC community 35.71% 5 3 Maintaining and improving my health 50.00% 7 4 Proximity to my classes and study areas 7.14% 1 5 No aspects of UBC physical activity programs are appealing to me 0.00% 0 6 Other 0.00% 0   Total 100% 14 Figure 10. Survey question 8 raw data     # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Have you participated in a UBC physical activity program before? 1.00 2.00 1.79 0.41 0.17 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 21.43% 3 2 No 78.57% 11   Total 100% 14 Figure 11. Survey question 9 raw data                    # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'Yes' to question 9, how did you hear about the program? 1.00 6.00 4.57 1.84 3.39 7    # Answer % Count 1 Social media 14.29% 1 2 Flyers posted around campus 0.00% 0 3 From a friend 14.29% 1 4 From a UBC representative 14.29% 1 5 During class 0.00% 0 6 Other 57.14% 4   Total 100% 7 Figure 12. Survey question 10 raw data       # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'No' to question 9, is it because: 1.00 5.00 3.45 1.08 1.16 11    # Answer % Count 1 The programs offered by UBC do not interest me 9.09% 1 2 I haven't heard of any programs offered by UBC 9.09% 1 3 I knew of the programs available, but did not feel like I had the resources needed to participate 18.18% 2 4 I felt uncomfortable going alone 54.55% 6 5 Other 9.09% 1   Total 100% 11 Figure 13. Survey question 11 raw data           # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 Do you follow any UBC social media? 1.00 2.00 1.21 0.41 0.17 14    # Answer % Count 1 Yes 78.57% 11 2 No 21.43% 3   Total 100% 14 Figure 14. Survey question 12 raw data                      # Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count 1 If you answered 'Yes' to question 12, how effective has this been in your knowledge of/participation in UBC physical activity programs? 1.00 4.00 2.27 0.96 0.93 11    # Answer % Count 1 Very effective, this is the sole reason why I know of/participate in UBC programs 18.18% 2 2 Sort of effective, I know about programs but not in detail 54.55% 6 3 Not very effective, I see UBC post in my social media feed but I don't pay attention to them 9.09% 1 4 Not effective at all, I don't even notice UBC posts in my social media feed because they do not catch my attention 18.18% 2   Total 100% 11 Figure 15. Survey question 13 raw data        In one or two sentences below, describe what your ideal physical activity program would be that UBC could offer, in terms of time of day, day of the week, activity, and how it could be advertised in a way that would encourage your participation. My ideal activity program would be one that takes place on Friday afternoons (1-3pm) which would feature different activities every week targeted for beginners. The best way to advertise this program to encourage my participation would be to place flags or banners along the sides of the walkways on campus or creating a Facebook event in various UBC pages/groups (UBC Science). A short, once a week group class I would enjoy a class where you are taught easy work outs that don't involve many machines and could even be done at home. I would also enjoy a space where I could go to workout that would not be crazy busy all the time (ie.the arc). It would be best in the evenings on weekdays other than Wednesday as I am part of a sorority and we have meetings every Wednesday night. I would love either a morning or midday program. I think something challenge-based would be fun, maybe something with a team to encourage me to go with friends. The best advertisement medium now is social media, which is where I get a lot of info about non-academic activities happening at UBC. since ppl have midterms at different times, can offer programs more frequently so everyone can find the time to go I would like to see a program for beginners? In terms of time of day, probably early evenings Tues and Thurs. It could be advertised on facebook if enough people share an event page or are interested in it friday evening, something not very competitive to encourage ones who arent good at sports to participate fun, happiness and fitness 5 on 5 intramural basketball (: Facebook event, 1-3 pm, weekday Include cosom hockey it's fun, Canadian and makes you run a lot Figure 16. Survey question 14 raw data open responses        Enhancing Communication and Awareness of UBC Recreational Programming in Commuter and Resident StudentsNames of Presenters, Associates and CollaboratorsBackgroundEngaging	in	UBC	recreational	programs	is	one	of	the	most	impactful	ways	of	enhancing	and	maintaining	health	for	UBC	students.We	analyzed	interest	in	and	awareness	of	a	recent	pilot	program	tailored	to	female	UBC	students	in	commuters	and	residents	who	did	not	participate,	in	hopes	of	identifying	effective	methods	of	communicating	future	UBC	programs.	MethodsHow?	Online	SurveyWhere?	Facebook	&	CanvasWho?	UBC	female	non-participantsWhat?	Physical	activity	preferences	&	barriers,	social	media	behavior,	effectiveness	of	current	promotional	effortsResults	&	RecommendationsReluctance	to	Participate:Time	constraints	and	Academic	obligations	were	the	biggest	factors	for	both	commuters	and	non-commuters.Recommendation:	Professors	encourage	students	to	participate	in	programs	through	use	of	incentives	àBonus	marks,	due	date	extensions,	etc.Schedule	Variability:	High	variance	among	commuter	and	resident	class	schedules	reflected	by	preferred	time	of	day	.Recommendation:	Increase	frequency	of	program	sessions.Effective	Communication:	A	significant	portion	of	the	student	population	get	their	program	information	through	social	media	event	pages.	Recommendation:	Collaboration	between	academic	and	non-academic	UBC-affiliated	social	media	groups	in	promoting	UBC	programs.Tailored	to	Needs:	The	programs	themselves	can	be	tailored	to	heightened	time	constraints	faced	by	commuters.	Recommendation:	Provision	of	bus	routes	and	schedules,	resident	vs.	commuter	competitions,	and	prizes	tailored	to	resident	and	commuters	respectively.	Hilary	Rackham,	Delaney	Stone-Kerr,	Teddy	Wu,	Johnson	Cheung,	Daniel	LamIncorporate Staff“The	best	advertisement	medium	now	is	social	media,	which	is	where	I	get	a	lot	of	info	about	non-academic	activities	happening	at	UBC.”	–Survey	Respondent	Tailored IncentivesCollaborationIncreaseFrequencyFriendly CompetitionOur	QuestionsHow	can	awareness	and	interest	in	UBC	recreational	programs	be	increased	for	residents	and	commuters?Which	methods	of	communication	are	most	effective?Tailored Incentives

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