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Commuter & Resident Student Non-Participants for Move UBC Parag, Akira; Parag, Nishtha; Parag, Harika; Okano, Hanae 2019-04-02

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Final Report: Commuter & Resident Student Non-Participants for Move UBC Akira Parag, Nishtha Parag, Harika Parag, Hanae Okano University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Wellbeing April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   P a g e  | 1    Final Report: Commuter & Resident Student Non-Participants for Move UBC Akira Parag  Nishtha Parag  Harika Parag  Hanae Okano   Health Promotion and Physical Activity (KIN 464) Negin Riazi School of Kinesiology University of British Columbia   Date Submitted: April 2, 2019 Submitted to: Thalia Otamendi  P a g e  | 2 Table of contents  Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction & Literature Review .................................................................................................................... 4 Methods ......................................................................................................................................................... 6 Participants ................................................................................................................................ 6 Surveys ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Recruitment ............................................................................................................................... 6 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................... 7 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 7 Challenges ................................................................................................................................. 8 Results ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 Discussion ................................................................................................................................................... 11 Responses ............................................................................................................................... 11 Commuters vs residents .......................................................................................................... 12 Limitations ............................................................................................................................... 12 Project Objectives .................................................................................................................... 13 Recommendations ....................................................................................................................................... 13 Significance ................................................................................................................................................. 14      P a g e  | 3 Executive Summary The Move UBC initiative to help students, staff, and faculty at the University of British Columbia (UBC) to become more active, has recently completed its third campaign. During the month of February, Move UBC hosts a variety of free and low-cost events on the UBC Vancouver and Okanagan campuses. In addition to increasing physical activity levels on campus, Move UBC aims to raise awareness about the health risks of a sedentary lifestyle, which include physical, mental, and emotional deficits (Allen, Walter, & Swann, 2019; Patterson et al., 2018; Zhai, Zhang, & Zhang, 2014). Considering the importance of the Move UBC initiative, it is necessary to examine the factors influencing lack of participation in Move UBC events.  This project, Commuter & Resident Student Non-Participants for Move UBC, aimed to determine the interests and barriers faced by non-participant undergraduate commuter and resident students on the UBC Vancouver campus. Directly following the conclusion of Move UBC, commuter and resident students were surveyed to determine their preferred mode of advertising, their interests in terms of events, as well as their reasons for not participating in Move UBC. Results indicated that commuters were drawn to Move UBC events to be more active whereas residents were interested to be more social and to have fun. Responses further showed that students preferred social media as a means of receiving information about Move UBC. Students demonstrated interest in the campaign and suggested a need for advanced and detailed promotion of events, as well as more varied events. Overall, students were favourable to the Move UBC initiative and willing to provide recommendations for how to improve participation.  Based on the results of this project, it is recommended that Move UBC begin advertising further in advance, providing more details on events and timings. Furthermore, Move UBC should increase its use of social media as a means of advertising and engaging students. Finally, students indicated a need for more varied events, suggesting that Move UBC diversify its event listings. Further evidence-based suggestions are provided within the report. These recommendations are provided in the hopes of increasing participation in the Move UBC campaign, an initiative that has significant positive health impacts on the university population.  P a g e  | 4 Introduction & Literature Review In accordance with the University of British Columbia (UBC) Wellbeing’s (2017) Action Framework to Increase Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior, Move UBC was introduced as an initiative to improve physical activity rates on campus during the month of February (Move UBC, 2019a). Building off the Okanagan Charter, UBC aims to incorporate health promotion into all areas of campus culture, as well as to become a leader in promoting health locally and globally (UBC Wellbeing, 2017). During February, events are listed for every weekday on the Move UBC website, with times varying from early morning to late evening across the UBC campuses in Vancouver and the Okanagan (Move UBC, 2019a). A variety of free and low-cost activities are offered, including fitness, sports, walking, yoga, and speaking events (Move UBC, 2019a). Events are organized for students, staff and faculty, and families (Move UBC, 2019a). Overall, Move UBC strives to “increase physical activity and reduce the time students, staff, faculty and the UBC community spend sitting” (Move UBC, 2019b).   Considering the sedentary nature of the university lifestyle, the importance of introducing opportunities for physical activity on campus is clear (Move UBC, 2019a). Move UBC is attempting to “decrease sedentary behavior and increase physical activity to achieve and maintain good health” (Move UBC, 2019b). Sedentary behaviour has been linked to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, depression, and anxiety (Allen et al., 2019; Patterson et al., 2018; Zhai et al., 2014). Participation in initiatives such as Move UBC can potentially improve the health and wellbeing of students across campus. This project, therefore, aimed to identify the barriers faced by commuter and resident undergraduate students that prevent them from participating in Move UBC on the UBC Vancouver campus. These findings may then inform campaign planners to better cater to the unique barriers faced by commuter and resident students.  In designing this project, Move UBC’s use of social media to promote the campaign was identified as a potential target to improve campus awareness. Research has shown that university students’ use of social media is positively correlated with engagement in campus co-curricular activities, especially for students who RSVP to events (Junco, 2012). Therefore, an online presence is necessary to enhance awareness and encourage students to participate in Move UBC events. The most successful social media strategies by universities involved high levels of interaction with students online (Rutter, Roper, & Lettice, 2016). Social media validation, such as “liking” and reposting student comments and posts, also resulted in increased engagement (Rutter et al., 2016). In terms of health promotion specifically, analysis of social media campaigns from wearable fitness  Move UBC strives to “increase physical activity and reduce the time students, staff, faculty and the UBC community spend sitting”  (Move UBC, 2019b).  P a g e  | 5 companies such as Fitbit and Garmin found Instagram to be the most engaging platform for health messaging, despite Facebook garnering more followers (Edney et al., 2018). In particular, inspirational imagery with a focus on self-improvement and healthy goals made the strongest impressions on social media users (Edney et al., 2018). Overall, research indicates that social media is a useful method to raise awareness about the Move UBC initiative and increase engagement in campus events. This project’s examination of non-participants considered current methods of social media communication with students, as well as student preferences for receiving event information through social media. A review of recent literature suggests that most university students perceive lack of time as the main barrier to lack of exercise (Arzu, Tuzun, & Eker, 2006). Students are concerned with academic success, and often balance their time between school and social commitments (Arzu et al., 2006). Many students also feel that they don’t have enough energy to engage in physical activity, while some simply are uninterested in exercising (Arzu et al., 2006).    Photo by Georgia de Lotz on Unsplash Furthermore, previous research has shown commuter and resident students each face different stressors and motivators that affect whether they are involved with physical activity on campus (Burlison, 2015; Newbold, 2015). Commuter students face more constraints on their time, including work hours, family responsibilities, and time lost in transit (Burlison, 2015; Newbold, 2015). The added inconvenience of traveling long distances is another source of stress that may tax a commuter student’s energy and finances (Newbold, 2015). However, the time pressure faced by commuter students necessitates the development of better time management skills than resident students, who rely more on social supports as a coping mechanism (Newbold, 2015). Since resident students are more involved with clubs, teams, and social organizations, they may naturally be more inclined to participate in on-campus events that promote physical activity, such as Move UBC (Newbold, 2015). Commuter students, on the other hand, must sacrifice social supports in order to meet academic, work, and family demands (Newbold, 2015). Their incapacity to turn to social events as part of their coping strategies may result in commuter students being a major non-participant group for Move UBC. Based on this research, the project aimed to examine the following: (1) non-participants’ awareness of the Move UBC campaign, (2) non-participants’ interests in participating in Move UBC, and (3) barriers that prevent non-participants from engaging in Move UBC events.    P a g e  | 6 Methods Participants Commuter and resident students of the UBC Vancouver campus were the participants in this study. Commuter students were defined as students who do not live in student residence on the UBC Vancouver campus, but live off-campus and take some form of transportation to campus, including bicycles, buses, trains, and personal car. Resident students were defined as students who are living on any student residence on the UBC Vancouver campus. Surveys Data was collected via online surveys, which were chosen rather than interviews in order to reduce the time commitment and thus improve participation (Biddix, 2015; Newbold, 2015). Surveys are also considered to be one of the main methodologies for assessing student needs (Biddix, 2015).  Survey questions and potential responses were formulated based on evidence from research (see Appendix A). For instance, the responses for how students have heard about Move UBC includes the two major social media platforms used by universities found by Bélanger, Bali, and Longden (2014), namely Facebook and Twitter. Additionally, students who were asked about the reason that they have not attended Move UBC events were presented with evidence-based options from studies that examined student participation in on-campus events, such as lack of time and other priorities (Arzu et. al., 2006). A free form response option was also provided in order to gain a richer understanding of student-specific barriers that may be unique to the commuter or resident student experience at UBC (Biddix, 2015).  The survey for this study was created using a UBC survey software which is provided through Qualtrics (UBC Information Technology, 2019). This survey tool features a large variety of question types and includes the ability to branch the survey depending on responses (UBC IT, 2019). Most importantly, the survey tool we use is compliant with BC privacy laws because its servers are located in Canada (UBC IT, 2019). Recruitment Since the project’s methods were not approved until later February, data collection occurred between March 3 and March 20, after the Move UBC event had finished. This afforded the opportunity to collect data on the success of the campaign.    Photo by NEW DATA SERVICES on Unsplash  Students were approached in the common area of Woodward IRC, a building that was chosen for convenience as data collection occurred during class time. Furthermore, Woodward IRC contains large study spaces which are used by students from a variety of faculties. Students were approached and asked if they would like to participate in a five-minute survey for a class project on improving UBC promotional efforts. In order to prevent self-selection, participants were not given information P a g e  | 7 about Move UBC. Those who agreed to participate received the consent form assuring that their responses were anonymous and there would be no chance that their data will be linked back to them (Appendix B).   Students completed the survey on the researcher’s tablet, though an offline survey was also available in case of internet difficulties. Participants were also asked whether they would be willing to forward the survey link to others, without providing additional information about Move UBC. In this way, snowball sampling was achieved to increase the participant sample size. Data Collection The survey was branched in nature, allowing for data collection on various student experiences (Figure 1). Students were initially asked whether they had heard of Move UBC, thus providing the opportunity to learn about student awareness of the campaign. Those students who had heard of the campaign were asked how they had learned about Move UBC. These questions were designed to determine the methods of advertising that were effective for the campaign.  Students were next asked whether they had attended a Move UBC event. Since this project focuses on non-participants, the survey then ended for those who had participated in Move UBC. Non-participants were further asked why they had not attended an event and what would make them more likely to attend Move UBC. This provided insight into the barriers faced by commuter and resident students.  Students who indicated that they had not heard of Move UBC were provided with the Move UBC calendar and information about the campaign. They were then asked whether they would be interested in attending an event. Those who indicated interest were asked why, in order to learn more about non-participant interests. Those who indicated lack of interest were asked what might make them more likely to attend a Move UBC event. Both branches of this section of the survey included a question about students’ preferred method of advertising to further gain insight into raising awareness of the campaign. Data Analysis Survey responses were downloaded from the UBC survey website as a Microsoft Excel file on March 22 for data analysis. Data cleaning strategies included deleting unnecessary responses. Incomplete responses and responses taken by research assistants were deleted upon downloading the data. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel.  Demographics of participants were analysed using frequency counts and percentages in order to show the distribution of participants’ year and program of study, and whether they take transportation to attend school. Quantitative analysis included frequency counts and percentages. The following variables were analysed quantitatively: “Heard of Move UBC”, “Month of Move UBC”, “How have they heard of Move UBC”, “Attended a Move UBC event”, “Interested in attending”, “Why is it of interest to attend”, “Advertising preferences”, and “Reason for not attending a Move UBC event”. Qualitative analysis included thematic analysis of open-ended responses whereby half of the researchers discovered themes simultaneously and the other half corroborated results independently. The following questions were analysed qualitatively: “Why heard but haven’t attended any Move UBC events”, “More likely to attend if heard”, and “More likely to attend if haven’t heard and not interested”.  P a g e  | 8 Challenges There were a number of challenges that occurred during data collection. The most significant challenge that impacted data collection was that the methods for this project were not approved until late February. In addition to that, the majority of students, both commuter and resident students, were not on campus for a week at the end of February due to UBC’s Reading Week at the end of February. As both of these challenges were due to external factors that could not be manipulated, we were unable to start data collection until the beginning of March, which was after Move UBC ended.  Another challenge that occurred during data collection was ensuring that there was an equal number of commuter students and resident students that participated in our study. The majority of the first half of the participants were commuter students. Therefore, at some points during data collection, we had to focus on recruiting participants that were resident students in order to balance out the large number of commuter students. Challenges that occurred during data analysis included not having a big enough sample to compare differences across groups. Furthermore, the lack of sample size prevented a comprehensive understanding of each group, as the branched nature of the survey restricted participants to seeing only a small subset of questions. To overcome these challenges, future researchers may want to increase the sample size and include a variety of sampling techniques in order to collect data from a more representative sample.  Results Fourteen participants completed the branched survey. Demographics for participants can be found in Table 1 below. Nine commuters and five residents took the survey, the majority of whom were upper level Kinesiology students (Table 1). Figure 1 provides an illustration of the branched nature of the survey and it also shows the number of participants that responded to specific questions.   Table 1. Demographics of participants collected (N=14). Participants were identified as either a commuter or resident student, and they listed their year and program of study.  P a g e  | 9  Figure 1. Illustration of the study survey with its associated branches.  Quantitative analysis yielded several interesting frequency counts and percentages, which can be found in Table 2. Just over half of participants had heard of Move UBC (57%) mostly via posters and floor signage (75%), but only one of eight had attended an event (Table 2). People who had heard of Move UBC cited “Other priorities” and “No interest” as the top two reasons they had not attended an event (Table 2). The majority of participants who had not heard of Move UBC were interested in participating in an event (83%) citing “It looks fun” and “I need to be more active” as the top two reasons (Table 2). All of the participants who had not heard of Move UBC cited “Social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.)” as the method of advertising that would have been most effective to reach their attention (Table 2).    P a g e  | 10 Table 2. Frequency count of quantitative questions. Fourteen participants took the branched survey. * = percentage of students who took the branch of the survey asking this question. An illustration of all survey questions can be seen in Figure 1 and Appendix A.   Qualitative analysis revealed three major themes which can be found in Table 3. Specifically, people would be more likely to attend a Move UBC event if (1) “More information about times and locations were provided in promotional efforts”, (2) “Move UBC was promoted earlier and more often”, and (3) “There was more variety of events during the month of Move UBC”.  Table 3. Thematic analysis of qualitative questions. There were three opportunities for participants to respond about Move UBC's promotional efforts in an open-ended way. First, if people had heard of Move UBC but had not attended events and chose "Other" for Q8b. Second, if people had not heard of Move UBC and were not interested in participating in an event, they could explain what would make them more likely to attend (Q7). Finally, participants who had heard of Move UBC but had not attended could discuss what would make them more likely to attend an event (Q9).  P a g e  | 11 Discussion Responses The sample size obtained through recruitment and snowball sampling exceeded expectations and allowed for a saturated data set. Additionally, completion of the open-ended survey questions was fairly thorough, allowing for more rich, detailed information about students’ perspectives. However, it is important to note that our sample size is not large enough to generalize our findings to the entire UBC population. That being said, our study provides valuable input from commuter and resident students on the promotional efforts of Move UBC. According to the project’s data, 57% of students were aware of Move UBC (Table 2). This may be associated with the disproportionate representation of Kinesiology students in the sample, who by nature of their area of study, are more inclined to hear about physical activity efforts on campus. Interestingly, of the 8 respondents who had heard of Move UBC, only 4 were able to accurately state the month in which the campaign ran (Table 2). This implies that the campaign has not reached a large portion of the student population and that it has not been effective enough for those it has reached.  Half the respondents who had heard of Move UBC did so through posters, indicating that this method of advertising was more effective than floor signage and in-class announcements (Table 2). It is worth noting that there were no students who had heard of Move UBC through social media. However, of the respondents who had not heard of Move UBC, 100% indicated that they would prefer to receive information on the campaign through social media (Table 2). These findings align with research on university student participation and engagement with physical activity campaigns on campus (Junco, 2012; Rutter et al., 2016). This indicates that social media is a potential area for Move UBC to improve awareness of events on campus.  Improving awareness of Move UBC is important, since five of the six respondents who did not participate in events indicated that they would be interested in doing so after seeing the calendar of events (Table 2). Activities were perceived by most respondents as fun and many expressed an awareness that it would help them become more active (Table 2). These findings are encouraging as they suggest that students are receptive to the goals and messaging of Move UBC. Reasons for why respondents did not or would not attend a Move UBC event were largely due to other priorities, which corresponds to research on lack of physical activity among university students (Table 2; Arzu et al., 2006). Students further expressed a desire to have  Q: What would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event? A: If there were other times, and more choices in the events. – Commuter, Y4  P a g e  | 12 more varied events and event times, suggesting that Move UBC may need to adjust the scheduling and organization of its events (Table 3).  Additionally, respondents felt that more effective advertising that was conducted earlier in advance of the campaign may have improved the possibility of them participating in Move UBC (Table 3). Respondents also expressed confusion about event locations, further emphasizing the need for effective advertising. These student recommendations provide key areas for Move UBC to address before next February’s campaign. Commuters vs residents Comparing and contrasting residents and commuters reveal many similarities and a few differences. Similarities included overall student interest in participating in a Move UBC event, although the one person who expressed no interest was a commuter student. Furthermore, both commuters and residents had heard of Move UBC via similar channels (posters, and floor signage), though some commuters cited word of mouth and in class announcements as their main informants. The differences between the responses of commuters and residents were mainly in reasons they found events interesting. All commuter students who expressed interest to attend cited personal reasons whereas residents expressed social reasons. Specifically, commuters were interested in events that would help them be more active whereas residents were interested because they looked fun and it provided an opportunity to socialize. These results corroborate previous literature in that students who commute to school typically engage in exercise to be more active whereas residents engage in physical activities to socialize (Burlison, 2015; Newbold, 2015). Limitations Though the data obtained was robust and corresponded to other research conducted on similar campaigns, this project was unable to conduct data collection during Move UBC’s campaign itself. Therefore, data on student awareness during the height of campaign promotion was not obtained. Additionally, UBC Vancouver’s Reading Week coinciding with Move UBC likely contributed to student non-participation in the events. Lack of awareness about Move UBC, therefore, may have been confounded by the fact that commuter students, in particular, were not exposed to the posters as often as resident students. Future studies of Move UBC non-participants, therefore, should have data collection during the campaign itself. Initial planning for this project included data collection at student residences and commuter student hubs on the UBC Vancouver campus. However, due to time limitations, data collection was restricted to a single building. Though a variety of participants were sampled, the data may not have been as representative of students who frequent residences and commuter hubs. More time should be allotted to data collection and more varied locations on campus should be sampled in future studies. This would  Q: Why have you not attended any Move UBC events? A: I didn’t know where they were… If I knew the time and location, I would be more likely to attend. – Resident, Y4  P a g e  | 13 also allow for larger sample sizes and different types of participants, thus producing more generalizable results for the UBC population. Project Objectives  The main objectives of the project were to identify commuter and resident student non-participant (1) awareness, (2) interests, and (3) barriers to participating in Move UBC events. Overall, this project determined that just over half of respondents were aware of Move UBC, but all of those who had not heard of the campaign preferred doing so through social media. The majority of respondents were interested in Move UBC, commuters to be more physically active and residents to socialize with others. Finally, the main barrier to participating in Move UBC was other priorities, which literature indicates are academic in nature (Arzu et al., 2006). Since the project researchers are also students at UBC Vancouver, it can be inferred that students were preoccupied with midterm and paper deadlines, which are largely grouped within the month of February. Recommendations Based on the project’s data, there are 4 main recommendations that may help improve participation in Move UBC events: (1) more effective advertising, (2) the use of social media, (3) more varied events, and (4) an emphasis on small, daily physical activities to improve health.  First, the results of this project found that students would like to receive more information about Move UBC events and would appreciate more long-term promotion by the campaign (Table 3). In order to address these concerns, we recommend that partners include information on times and locations in promotional materials. For example, posting calendars detailing events on campus, or even providing the events week by week on televisions in popular buildings would increase awareness and meet students’ needs. These should be provided earlier than in previous campaigns.    Photo by Geert Pieters on Unsplash   Furthermore, the lack of awareness about the Move UBC campaign coupled with the overwhelming preference for advertising through social media indicates that Move UBC should conduct an analysis of its social media use and effectiveness as a means of advertising. Research supports the notion that the use of social media increases the likelihood of university students participating in campus events (Junco, 2012). If Move UBC uses social media, high levels of engagement and interaction with students online would increase social media validation (Rutter et al., 2016). This validation will increase engagement between undergraduates and the Move UBC campaign, thereby increasing the number of students participating in events (Rutter et al., 2016). Additionally, Move UBC should consider using Instagram, the social media platform that has the highest level of engagement with undergraduates compared to platforms such as Facebook or Twitter (Edney et al., 2018). Using a platform that primarily uses P a g e  | 14 photos, images, and other visual features would most likely be more effective in encouraging students to participate in healthy activities than other platforms, particularly when the images are inspirational in nature (Edney et al., 2018). Additionally, though students already indicated an interest in existing activities, respondents suggested a preference for more varied events and event times (Table 3). An examination of 38 American colleges and universities found that students most enjoy engaging in cardiovascular and weight training, as well as open recreation events such as playing volleyball or basketball (Forrester, 2014). These events should be considered for future Move UBC organizers.   The final recommendation was not part of this project’s initial objectives, but was gleaned during data analysis. This area includes providing more of an emphasis on small, daily physical activities that improve health, rather than going to a physical activity event. During the frequency analysis of the multiple choice question asking why students would want to participate in the events, one-third of respondents said they wanted to be more active (Table 2). While Move UBC promotes engaging in physical activities during the month of February, if their eventual goal is for students to view small acts of movement as a part of their daily routine, the organizers should consider further promoting their tips on being active throughout the day. Research shows that students generally view vigorous physical activity as exercise, but don’t hold this same view for other, less vigorous forms of movement, such as walking (Rebar, Maher, Doerksen, Elavsky, & Conroy, 2016). They further deduced that students do not realize the health benefits that simpler forms of exercise can provide, thus increasing the need to educate students on the health benefits of engaging in more movement throughout the day, as well as promoting Move UBC’s website for tips on how to do so, preferably on social media (Rebar et al., 2016). Therefore, the Move UBC organizers should prioritize their Move U Crews, which provide in-class health behaviour tips for moving throughout the day. Significance  This project was successfully able to meet its objectives. In addition, it provided important insight into the needs and beliefs of commuter and resident students on the UBC Vancouver campus. The data and recommendations generated in this project will hopefully improve participation in Move UBC’s fourth annual event in 2020. Greater participation in Move UBC benefits the health of the entire UBC campus, meeting the goal of the Okanagan Charter to improve wellbeing across university campuses.    P a g e  | 15 References  Allen, M. S., Walter, E. E., & Swann, C. (2019). Sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 242, 5-13. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.081 Arzu, D., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 5(4), 615-620. Bélanger, C. H., Bali, S., & Longden, B. (2014). How Canadian universities use social media to brand themselves. Tertiary Education and Management, 20(1), 14-29. Biddix, J. P. (2015). Strategies for assessing commuter students. New Directions for Student Services, 2015(150), 97-107. doi:10.1002/ss.20131 Burlison, M. B. (2015). Nonacademic commitments affecting commuter student involvement and engagement. New Directions for Student Services, 2015(150), 27-34. doi:10.1002/ss.20124 Edney, S., Bogomolova, S., Ryan, J., Olds, T., Sanders, I., & Maher, C. (2018). Creating engaging health promotion campaigns on social media: Observations and lessons from Fitbit and Garmin. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(12), e10911. doi:10.2196/10911 Forrester, S. A. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. Corvallis, OR: NIRSA. https://nirsa.net/nirsa/wp-content/uploads/Benefits_Of_Campus_Recreation-Forrester_2014-Report.pdf  P a g e  | 16 Junco, R. (2012). The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement. Computers & Education, 58(1), 162-171. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.004 Move UBC, University of British Columbia. (2019a). Move UBC. Retrieved from https://move.ubc.ca Move UBC, University of British Columbia. (2019b).  The sitting epidemic. Retrieved from https://move.ubc.ca/the-sitting-epidemic/ Newbold, J. J. (2015). Lifestyle challenges for commuter students. New Directions for Student Services, 2015(150), 79-86. doi:10.1002/ss.20129 Patterson, R., McNamara, E., Tainio, M. K., de Sá, T. H., Smith, A. D., Sharp, S. J., . . . Wijndaele, K. L. (2018). Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and dose response meta-analysis. European Journal of Epidemiology, 33(9), 811-829. doi:10.17863/CAM.24261 Rebar, A. L., Maher, J. P., Doerksen, S. E., Elavsky, S., & Conroy, D. E. (2016). Intention–behavior gap is wider for walking and moderate physical activity than for vigorous physical activity in university students. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(2), 130-134. Rutter, R., Roper, S., & Lettice, F. (2016). Social media interaction, the university brand and recruitment performance. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 3096-3104. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.025 UBC Information Technology. (2019). Survey tool. Retrieved from https://it.ubc.ca/services/teaching-learning-tools/survey-tool P a g e  | 17 UBC Wellbeing. (2017). UBC action framework to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. Retrieved from http://wellbeing.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2016/10/PA_Action_Framework_2017-2.pdf Zhai, L., Zhang, Y., & Zhang, D. (2015). Sedentary behaviour and the risk of depression: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(11), 705-709. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093613  3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 1/6Participant ConsentKIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity Participant Consent Form for Class Project  Principal Investigator:Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education) The purpose of the class project:To gain an understanding of the University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver’s outreach efforts in terms of physical activity, recreational, and health event promotion. Study Procedures:We ask for your permission to ask you questions using a very brief survey. The survey should take less than five minutes to complete. Survey questions consist of multiple choice and free form written answers. The information collected will be examined as part of the class project, to see how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting events at UBC. Project outcomes:Information from the survey will be examined in a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library:https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library Potential benefits of class project:There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting events in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences. Confidentiality:Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in a survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course. 3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 2/6Risks:The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, you are free to share what you would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed. Contact for information about the study:If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca Research ethics complaints:If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.  Consent:Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Your choice below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. Have you received a copy of this consent form?By progressing to the next page of this survey, you indicate that you consent to participate in this study.Introduction BlockPlease pick the option that best describes you:What program are you in?What year of study are you in?YesNoCommuter studentResident student (live on campus)13/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 3/6Have you heard of Move UBC?Heard of Move UBCWhen does Move UBC typically run?How have you heard about Move UBC?234Other (please explain) YesNoJanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilMayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecemberFacebookTwitterOther social media (e.g. Instagram, Snapchat, etc.)PostersFloor signageIn class announcementsWord of mouthOther (please explain) 3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 4/6Have you attended a Move UBC event?Have not heard of Move UBCMove UBC happens in the month of February and aims to get students, staff, and faculty to move more and sit less.  Take a look at the calendar for this month below:Would you be interested in participating in an event?What makes this activity of interest to you?YesNo YesNo3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 5/6Private Policy Terms of UsePowered by QualtricsWhat would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?What method of advertising do you think would have been more effective to reach your attention?Have heard of Move UBC - Not attendedWhy have you not attended any Move UBC events?What would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?The time slot works for meIt looks funAn opportunity to socializeI need to be more activeOther (please explain) Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)PostersFloor signageIn class announcementsOther (please explain) Inconvenient timeInconvenient locationOther prioritiesNo interestOther (please explain) P a g e  | 18 Appendix B  KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity   Participant Consent Form for Class Project     Principal Investigator: Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education)   The purpose of the class project: To gain an understanding of the University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver’s outreach efforts in terms of physical activity, recreational, and health event promotion.   Study Procedures: We ask for your permission to ask you questions using a very brief survey. The survey should take less than five minutes to complete. Survey questions consist of multiple choice and free form written answers. The information collected will be examined as part of the class project, to see how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting events at UBC.   Project outcomes: Information from the survey will be examined in a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports.   UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library   Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting events in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences.   Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in a survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for.   P a g e  | 19 At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course.   Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, you are free to share what you would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed.   Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca   Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.     Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time.   Your choice below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. By progressing to the next page of this survey, you indicate that you consent to participate in this study.  StartDate EndDateDuration (in seconds)Finished Consent Comm_ResStart Date End DateDuration (in seconds)FinishedHave you received a copy of this consent form?Please pick the option that best describes you:2019-03-07 10:39 2019-03-07 10:40 66 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-07 16:41 2019-03-07 16:43 160 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-08 20:16 2019-03-08 20:17 69 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-12 10:36 2019-03-12 10:36 52 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-12 11:12 2019-03-12 11:17 264 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-12 13:51 2019-03-12 13:52 58 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-12 14:30 2019-03-12 14:32 132 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-14 10:46 2019-03-14 10:48 104 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-14 10:58 2019-03-14 11:04 345 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-14 11:04 2019-03-14 11:07 142 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-14 11:07 2019-03-14 11:12 301 TRUE No Commuter student2019-03-14 18:58 2019-03-14 19:00 100 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-16 10:32 2019-03-16 10:33 63 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-20 13:13 2019-03-20 13:15 132 TRUE Yes Commuter studentProgram Year Year_5_TEXT Move UBCWhat program are you in?What year of study are you in? - Selected ChoiceWhat year of study are you in? - Other (please explain) - TextHave you heard of Move UBC?KIN 4 YesBA Psychology 3 YesCogntive Systems 4 YesKinesiology 4 YesKinesiology 4 YesKinesiology 4 YesBComm Business & Computer Science 3 YesApplied Science 2 NoFilm Production 4 NoKinesiology Other (please explain) 3/4 Year Second Degree StudentNoCAPS (Physiology) 3 YesCounselling Psychology 2 NoKinesiology 4 NoKinesiology 4 NoYes_Typically RunYes_How HeardYes_How Heard_6_TEXTYes_Attended No_InterestWhen does Move UBC typically run?How have you heard about Move UBC? - Selected ChoiceHow have you heard about Move UBC? - Other (please explain) - TextHave you attended a Move UBC event?Would you be interested in participating in an event?February Floor signage NoFebruary Posters NoOctober Posters NoMarch Posters NoFebruary Word of mouth NoJanuary In class announcements YesFebruary Floor signage NoYesYesYesJanuary Posters NoYesYesNoNo_IntentionNo_Intention_5_TEXTQ20What makes this activity of interest to you? - Selected ChoiceWhat makes this activity of interest to you? - Other (please explain) - TextWhat would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?It looks funIt looks funI need to be more activeAn opportunity to socializeI need to be more activeOther time options, more choices in activitiesNo_Outreach No_Outreach_5_TEXT Not attended_WhyWhat method of advertising do you think would have been more effective to reach your attention? - Selected ChoiceWhat method of advertising do you think would have been more effective to reach your attention? - Other (please explain) - TextWhy have you not attended any Move UBC events? - Selected ChoiceInconvenient timeNo interestOther (please explain)No interestOther prioritiesOther prioritiesSocial media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Other prioritiesSocial media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Not attended_Why_4_TEXT Not attended_LikelyWhy have you not attended any Move UBC events? - Other (please explain) - TextWhat would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?if there was more events announcedMore info on eventsdidn't know where they were if i knew time and locationNAIncreased promotion and posters around campus Schedule of events released at least a month ahead of time UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Final Report: Commuter & Resident Student Non-Participants for Move UBC Akira Parag, Nishtha Parag, Harika Parag, Hanae Okano University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Wellbeing April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   P a g e  | 1    Final Report: Commuter & Resident Student Non-Participants for Move UBC Akira Parag  Nishtha Parag  Harika Parag  Hanae Okano   Health Promotion and Physical Activity (KIN 464) Negin Riazi School of Kinesiology University of British Columbia   Date Submitted: April 2, 2019 Submitted to: Thalia Otamendi  P a g e  | 2 Table of contents  Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction & Literature Review .................................................................................................................... 4 Methods ......................................................................................................................................................... 6 Participants ................................................................................................................................ 6 Surveys ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Recruitment ............................................................................................................................... 6 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................... 7 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 7 Challenges ................................................................................................................................. 8 Results ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 Discussion ................................................................................................................................................... 11 Responses ............................................................................................................................... 11 Commuters vs residents .......................................................................................................... 12 Limitations ............................................................................................................................... 12 Project Objectives .................................................................................................................... 13 Recommendations ....................................................................................................................................... 13 Significance ................................................................................................................................................. 14      P a g e  | 3 Executive Summary The Move UBC initiative to help students, staff, and faculty at the University of British Columbia (UBC) to become more active, has recently completed its third campaign. During the month of February, Move UBC hosts a variety of free and low-cost events on the UBC Vancouver and Okanagan campuses. In addition to increasing physical activity levels on campus, Move UBC aims to raise awareness about the health risks of a sedentary lifestyle, which include physical, mental, and emotional deficits (Allen, Walter, & Swann, 2019; Patterson et al., 2018; Zhai, Zhang, & Zhang, 2014). Considering the importance of the Move UBC initiative, it is necessary to examine the factors influencing lack of participation in Move UBC events.  This project, Commuter & Resident Student Non-Participants for Move UBC, aimed to determine the interests and barriers faced by non-participant undergraduate commuter and resident students on the UBC Vancouver campus. Directly following the conclusion of Move UBC, commuter and resident students were surveyed to determine their preferred mode of advertising, their interests in terms of events, as well as their reasons for not participating in Move UBC. Results indicated that commuters were drawn to Move UBC events to be more active whereas residents were interested to be more social and to have fun. Responses further showed that students preferred social media as a means of receiving information about Move UBC. Students demonstrated interest in the campaign and suggested a need for advanced and detailed promotion of events, as well as more varied events. Overall, students were favourable to the Move UBC initiative and willing to provide recommendations for how to improve participation.  Based on the results of this project, it is recommended that Move UBC begin advertising further in advance, providing more details on events and timings. Furthermore, Move UBC should increase its use of social media as a means of advertising and engaging students. Finally, students indicated a need for more varied events, suggesting that Move UBC diversify its event listings. Further evidence-based suggestions are provided within the report. These recommendations are provided in the hopes of increasing participation in the Move UBC campaign, an initiative that has significant positive health impacts on the university population.  P a g e  | 4 Introduction & Literature Review In accordance with the University of British Columbia (UBC) Wellbeing’s (2017) Action Framework to Increase Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior, Move UBC was introduced as an initiative to improve physical activity rates on campus during the month of February (Move UBC, 2019a). Building off the Okanagan Charter, UBC aims to incorporate health promotion into all areas of campus culture, as well as to become a leader in promoting health locally and globally (UBC Wellbeing, 2017). During February, events are listed for every weekday on the Move UBC website, with times varying from early morning to late evening across the UBC campuses in Vancouver and the Okanagan (Move UBC, 2019a). A variety of free and low-cost activities are offered, including fitness, sports, walking, yoga, and speaking events (Move UBC, 2019a). Events are organized for students, staff and faculty, and families (Move UBC, 2019a). Overall, Move UBC strives to “increase physical activity and reduce the time students, staff, faculty and the UBC community spend sitting” (Move UBC, 2019b).   Considering the sedentary nature of the university lifestyle, the importance of introducing opportunities for physical activity on campus is clear (Move UBC, 2019a). Move UBC is attempting to “decrease sedentary behavior and increase physical activity to achieve and maintain good health” (Move UBC, 2019b). Sedentary behaviour has been linked to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, depression, and anxiety (Allen et al., 2019; Patterson et al., 2018; Zhai et al., 2014). Participation in initiatives such as Move UBC can potentially improve the health and wellbeing of students across campus. This project, therefore, aimed to identify the barriers faced by commuter and resident undergraduate students that prevent them from participating in Move UBC on the UBC Vancouver campus. These findings may then inform campaign planners to better cater to the unique barriers faced by commuter and resident students.  In designing this project, Move UBC’s use of social media to promote the campaign was identified as a potential target to improve campus awareness. Research has shown that university students’ use of social media is positively correlated with engagement in campus co-curricular activities, especially for students who RSVP to events (Junco, 2012). Therefore, an online presence is necessary to enhance awareness and encourage students to participate in Move UBC events. The most successful social media strategies by universities involved high levels of interaction with students online (Rutter, Roper, & Lettice, 2016). Social media validation, such as “liking” and reposting student comments and posts, also resulted in increased engagement (Rutter et al., 2016). In terms of health promotion specifically, analysis of social media campaigns from wearable fitness  Move UBC strives to “increase physical activity and reduce the time students, staff, faculty and the UBC community spend sitting”  (Move UBC, 2019b).  P a g e  | 5 companies such as Fitbit and Garmin found Instagram to be the most engaging platform for health messaging, despite Facebook garnering more followers (Edney et al., 2018). In particular, inspirational imagery with a focus on self-improvement and healthy goals made the strongest impressions on social media users (Edney et al., 2018). Overall, research indicates that social media is a useful method to raise awareness about the Move UBC initiative and increase engagement in campus events. This project’s examination of non-participants considered current methods of social media communication with students, as well as student preferences for receiving event information through social media. A review of recent literature suggests that most university students perceive lack of time as the main barrier to lack of exercise (Arzu, Tuzun, & Eker, 2006). Students are concerned with academic success, and often balance their time between school and social commitments (Arzu et al., 2006). Many students also feel that they don’t have enough energy to engage in physical activity, while some simply are uninterested in exercising (Arzu et al., 2006).    Photo by Georgia de Lotz on Unsplash Furthermore, previous research has shown commuter and resident students each face different stressors and motivators that affect whether they are involved with physical activity on campus (Burlison, 2015; Newbold, 2015). Commuter students face more constraints on their time, including work hours, family responsibilities, and time lost in transit (Burlison, 2015; Newbold, 2015). The added inconvenience of traveling long distances is another source of stress that may tax a commuter student’s energy and finances (Newbold, 2015). However, the time pressure faced by commuter students necessitates the development of better time management skills than resident students, who rely more on social supports as a coping mechanism (Newbold, 2015). Since resident students are more involved with clubs, teams, and social organizations, they may naturally be more inclined to participate in on-campus events that promote physical activity, such as Move UBC (Newbold, 2015). Commuter students, on the other hand, must sacrifice social supports in order to meet academic, work, and family demands (Newbold, 2015). Their incapacity to turn to social events as part of their coping strategies may result in commuter students being a major non-participant group for Move UBC. Based on this research, the project aimed to examine the following: (1) non-participants’ awareness of the Move UBC campaign, (2) non-participants’ interests in participating in Move UBC, and (3) barriers that prevent non-participants from engaging in Move UBC events.    P a g e  | 6 Methods Participants Commuter and resident students of the UBC Vancouver campus were the participants in this study. Commuter students were defined as students who do not live in student residence on the UBC Vancouver campus, but live off-campus and take some form of transportation to campus, including bicycles, buses, trains, and personal car. Resident students were defined as students who are living on any student residence on the UBC Vancouver campus. Surveys Data was collected via online surveys, which were chosen rather than interviews in order to reduce the time commitment and thus improve participation (Biddix, 2015; Newbold, 2015). Surveys are also considered to be one of the main methodologies for assessing student needs (Biddix, 2015).  Survey questions and potential responses were formulated based on evidence from research (see Appendix A). For instance, the responses for how students have heard about Move UBC includes the two major social media platforms used by universities found by Bélanger, Bali, and Longden (2014), namely Facebook and Twitter. Additionally, students who were asked about the reason that they have not attended Move UBC events were presented with evidence-based options from studies that examined student participation in on-campus events, such as lack of time and other priorities (Arzu et. al., 2006). A free form response option was also provided in order to gain a richer understanding of student-specific barriers that may be unique to the commuter or resident student experience at UBC (Biddix, 2015).  The survey for this study was created using a UBC survey software which is provided through Qualtrics (UBC Information Technology, 2019). This survey tool features a large variety of question types and includes the ability to branch the survey depending on responses (UBC IT, 2019). Most importantly, the survey tool we use is compliant with BC privacy laws because its servers are located in Canada (UBC IT, 2019). Recruitment Since the project’s methods were not approved until later February, data collection occurred between March 3 and March 20, after the Move UBC event had finished. This afforded the opportunity to collect data on the success of the campaign.    Photo by NEW DATA SERVICES on Unsplash  Students were approached in the common area of Woodward IRC, a building that was chosen for convenience as data collection occurred during class time. Furthermore, Woodward IRC contains large study spaces which are used by students from a variety of faculties. Students were approached and asked if they would like to participate in a five-minute survey for a class project on improving UBC promotional efforts. In order to prevent self-selection, participants were not given information P a g e  | 7 about Move UBC. Those who agreed to participate received the consent form assuring that their responses were anonymous and there would be no chance that their data will be linked back to them (Appendix B).   Students completed the survey on the researcher’s tablet, though an offline survey was also available in case of internet difficulties. Participants were also asked whether they would be willing to forward the survey link to others, without providing additional information about Move UBC. In this way, snowball sampling was achieved to increase the participant sample size. Data Collection The survey was branched in nature, allowing for data collection on various student experiences (Figure 1). Students were initially asked whether they had heard of Move UBC, thus providing the opportunity to learn about student awareness of the campaign. Those students who had heard of the campaign were asked how they had learned about Move UBC. These questions were designed to determine the methods of advertising that were effective for the campaign.  Students were next asked whether they had attended a Move UBC event. Since this project focuses on non-participants, the survey then ended for those who had participated in Move UBC. Non-participants were further asked why they had not attended an event and what would make them more likely to attend Move UBC. This provided insight into the barriers faced by commuter and resident students.  Students who indicated that they had not heard of Move UBC were provided with the Move UBC calendar and information about the campaign. They were then asked whether they would be interested in attending an event. Those who indicated interest were asked why, in order to learn more about non-participant interests. Those who indicated lack of interest were asked what might make them more likely to attend a Move UBC event. Both branches of this section of the survey included a question about students’ preferred method of advertising to further gain insight into raising awareness of the campaign. Data Analysis Survey responses were downloaded from the UBC survey website as a Microsoft Excel file on March 22 for data analysis. Data cleaning strategies included deleting unnecessary responses. Incomplete responses and responses taken by research assistants were deleted upon downloading the data. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel.  Demographics of participants were analysed using frequency counts and percentages in order to show the distribution of participants’ year and program of study, and whether they take transportation to attend school. Quantitative analysis included frequency counts and percentages. The following variables were analysed quantitatively: “Heard of Move UBC”, “Month of Move UBC”, “How have they heard of Move UBC”, “Attended a Move UBC event”, “Interested in attending”, “Why is it of interest to attend”, “Advertising preferences”, and “Reason for not attending a Move UBC event”. Qualitative analysis included thematic analysis of open-ended responses whereby half of the researchers discovered themes simultaneously and the other half corroborated results independently. The following questions were analysed qualitatively: “Why heard but haven’t attended any Move UBC events”, “More likely to attend if heard”, and “More likely to attend if haven’t heard and not interested”.  P a g e  | 8 Challenges There were a number of challenges that occurred during data collection. The most significant challenge that impacted data collection was that the methods for this project were not approved until late February. In addition to that, the majority of students, both commuter and resident students, were not on campus for a week at the end of February due to UBC’s Reading Week at the end of February. As both of these challenges were due to external factors that could not be manipulated, we were unable to start data collection until the beginning of March, which was after Move UBC ended.  Another challenge that occurred during data collection was ensuring that there was an equal number of commuter students and resident students that participated in our study. The majority of the first half of the participants were commuter students. Therefore, at some points during data collection, we had to focus on recruiting participants that were resident students in order to balance out the large number of commuter students. Challenges that occurred during data analysis included not having a big enough sample to compare differences across groups. Furthermore, the lack of sample size prevented a comprehensive understanding of each group, as the branched nature of the survey restricted participants to seeing only a small subset of questions. To overcome these challenges, future researchers may want to increase the sample size and include a variety of sampling techniques in order to collect data from a more representative sample.  Results Fourteen participants completed the branched survey. Demographics for participants can be found in Table 1 below. Nine commuters and five residents took the survey, the majority of whom were upper level Kinesiology students (Table 1). Figure 1 provides an illustration of the branched nature of the survey and it also shows the number of participants that responded to specific questions.   Table 1. Demographics of participants collected (N=14). Participants were identified as either a commuter or resident student, and they listed their year and program of study.  P a g e  | 9  Figure 1. Illustration of the study survey with its associated branches.  Quantitative analysis yielded several interesting frequency counts and percentages, which can be found in Table 2. Just over half of participants had heard of Move UBC (57%) mostly via posters and floor signage (75%), but only one of eight had attended an event (Table 2). People who had heard of Move UBC cited “Other priorities” and “No interest” as the top two reasons they had not attended an event (Table 2). The majority of participants who had not heard of Move UBC were interested in participating in an event (83%) citing “It looks fun” and “I need to be more active” as the top two reasons (Table 2). All of the participants who had not heard of Move UBC cited “Social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.)” as the method of advertising that would have been most effective to reach their attention (Table 2).    P a g e  | 10 Table 2. Frequency count of quantitative questions. Fourteen participants took the branched survey. * = percentage of students who took the branch of the survey asking this question. An illustration of all survey questions can be seen in Figure 1 and Appendix A.   Qualitative analysis revealed three major themes which can be found in Table 3. Specifically, people would be more likely to attend a Move UBC event if (1) “More information about times and locations were provided in promotional efforts”, (2) “Move UBC was promoted earlier and more often”, and (3) “There was more variety of events during the month of Move UBC”.  Table 3. Thematic analysis of qualitative questions. There were three opportunities for participants to respond about Move UBC's promotional efforts in an open-ended way. First, if people had heard of Move UBC but had not attended events and chose "Other" for Q8b. Second, if people had not heard of Move UBC and were not interested in participating in an event, they could explain what would make them more likely to attend (Q7). Finally, participants who had heard of Move UBC but had not attended could discuss what would make them more likely to attend an event (Q9).  P a g e  | 11 Discussion Responses The sample size obtained through recruitment and snowball sampling exceeded expectations and allowed for a saturated data set. Additionally, completion of the open-ended survey questions was fairly thorough, allowing for more rich, detailed information about students’ perspectives. However, it is important to note that our sample size is not large enough to generalize our findings to the entire UBC population. That being said, our study provides valuable input from commuter and resident students on the promotional efforts of Move UBC. According to the project’s data, 57% of students were aware of Move UBC (Table 2). This may be associated with the disproportionate representation of Kinesiology students in the sample, who by nature of their area of study, are more inclined to hear about physical activity efforts on campus. Interestingly, of the 8 respondents who had heard of Move UBC, only 4 were able to accurately state the month in which the campaign ran (Table 2). This implies that the campaign has not reached a large portion of the student population and that it has not been effective enough for those it has reached.  Half the respondents who had heard of Move UBC did so through posters, indicating that this method of advertising was more effective than floor signage and in-class announcements (Table 2). It is worth noting that there were no students who had heard of Move UBC through social media. However, of the respondents who had not heard of Move UBC, 100% indicated that they would prefer to receive information on the campaign through social media (Table 2). These findings align with research on university student participation and engagement with physical activity campaigns on campus (Junco, 2012; Rutter et al., 2016). This indicates that social media is a potential area for Move UBC to improve awareness of events on campus.  Improving awareness of Move UBC is important, since five of the six respondents who did not participate in events indicated that they would be interested in doing so after seeing the calendar of events (Table 2). Activities were perceived by most respondents as fun and many expressed an awareness that it would help them become more active (Table 2). These findings are encouraging as they suggest that students are receptive to the goals and messaging of Move UBC. Reasons for why respondents did not or would not attend a Move UBC event were largely due to other priorities, which corresponds to research on lack of physical activity among university students (Table 2; Arzu et al., 2006). Students further expressed a desire to have  Q: What would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event? A: If there were other times, and more choices in the events. – Commuter, Y4  P a g e  | 12 more varied events and event times, suggesting that Move UBC may need to adjust the scheduling and organization of its events (Table 3).  Additionally, respondents felt that more effective advertising that was conducted earlier in advance of the campaign may have improved the possibility of them participating in Move UBC (Table 3). Respondents also expressed confusion about event locations, further emphasizing the need for effective advertising. These student recommendations provide key areas for Move UBC to address before next February’s campaign. Commuters vs residents Comparing and contrasting residents and commuters reveal many similarities and a few differences. Similarities included overall student interest in participating in a Move UBC event, although the one person who expressed no interest was a commuter student. Furthermore, both commuters and residents had heard of Move UBC via similar channels (posters, and floor signage), though some commuters cited word of mouth and in class announcements as their main informants. The differences between the responses of commuters and residents were mainly in reasons they found events interesting. All commuter students who expressed interest to attend cited personal reasons whereas residents expressed social reasons. Specifically, commuters were interested in events that would help them be more active whereas residents were interested because they looked fun and it provided an opportunity to socialize. These results corroborate previous literature in that students who commute to school typically engage in exercise to be more active whereas residents engage in physical activities to socialize (Burlison, 2015; Newbold, 2015). Limitations Though the data obtained was robust and corresponded to other research conducted on similar campaigns, this project was unable to conduct data collection during Move UBC’s campaign itself. Therefore, data on student awareness during the height of campaign promotion was not obtained. Additionally, UBC Vancouver’s Reading Week coinciding with Move UBC likely contributed to student non-participation in the events. Lack of awareness about Move UBC, therefore, may have been confounded by the fact that commuter students, in particular, were not exposed to the posters as often as resident students. Future studies of Move UBC non-participants, therefore, should have data collection during the campaign itself. Initial planning for this project included data collection at student residences and commuter student hubs on the UBC Vancouver campus. However, due to time limitations, data collection was restricted to a single building. Though a variety of participants were sampled, the data may not have been as representative of students who frequent residences and commuter hubs. More time should be allotted to data collection and more varied locations on campus should be sampled in future studies. This would  Q: Why have you not attended any Move UBC events? A: I didn’t know where they were… If I knew the time and location, I would be more likely to attend. – Resident, Y4  P a g e  | 13 also allow for larger sample sizes and different types of participants, thus producing more generalizable results for the UBC population. Project Objectives  The main objectives of the project were to identify commuter and resident student non-participant (1) awareness, (2) interests, and (3) barriers to participating in Move UBC events. Overall, this project determined that just over half of respondents were aware of Move UBC, but all of those who had not heard of the campaign preferred doing so through social media. The majority of respondents were interested in Move UBC, commuters to be more physically active and residents to socialize with others. Finally, the main barrier to participating in Move UBC was other priorities, which literature indicates are academic in nature (Arzu et al., 2006). Since the project researchers are also students at UBC Vancouver, it can be inferred that students were preoccupied with midterm and paper deadlines, which are largely grouped within the month of February. Recommendations Based on the project’s data, there are 4 main recommendations that may help improve participation in Move UBC events: (1) more effective advertising, (2) the use of social media, (3) more varied events, and (4) an emphasis on small, daily physical activities to improve health.  First, the results of this project found that students would like to receive more information about Move UBC events and would appreciate more long-term promotion by the campaign (Table 3). In order to address these concerns, we recommend that partners include information on times and locations in promotional materials. For example, posting calendars detailing events on campus, or even providing the events week by week on televisions in popular buildings would increase awareness and meet students’ needs. These should be provided earlier than in previous campaigns.    Photo by Geert Pieters on Unsplash   Furthermore, the lack of awareness about the Move UBC campaign coupled with the overwhelming preference for advertising through social media indicates that Move UBC should conduct an analysis of its social media use and effectiveness as a means of advertising. Research supports the notion that the use of social media increases the likelihood of university students participating in campus events (Junco, 2012). If Move UBC uses social media, high levels of engagement and interaction with students online would increase social media validation (Rutter et al., 2016). This validation will increase engagement between undergraduates and the Move UBC campaign, thereby increasing the number of students participating in events (Rutter et al., 2016). Additionally, Move UBC should consider using Instagram, the social media platform that has the highest level of engagement with undergraduates compared to platforms such as Facebook or Twitter (Edney et al., 2018). Using a platform that primarily uses P a g e  | 14 photos, images, and other visual features would most likely be more effective in encouraging students to participate in healthy activities than other platforms, particularly when the images are inspirational in nature (Edney et al., 2018). Additionally, though students already indicated an interest in existing activities, respondents suggested a preference for more varied events and event times (Table 3). An examination of 38 American colleges and universities found that students most enjoy engaging in cardiovascular and weight training, as well as open recreation events such as playing volleyball or basketball (Forrester, 2014). These events should be considered for future Move UBC organizers.   The final recommendation was not part of this project’s initial objectives, but was gleaned during data analysis. This area includes providing more of an emphasis on small, daily physical activities that improve health, rather than going to a physical activity event. During the frequency analysis of the multiple choice question asking why students would want to participate in the events, one-third of respondents said they wanted to be more active (Table 2). While Move UBC promotes engaging in physical activities during the month of February, if their eventual goal is for students to view small acts of movement as a part of their daily routine, the organizers should consider further promoting their tips on being active throughout the day. Research shows that students generally view vigorous physical activity as exercise, but don’t hold this same view for other, less vigorous forms of movement, such as walking (Rebar, Maher, Doerksen, Elavsky, & Conroy, 2016). They further deduced that students do not realize the health benefits that simpler forms of exercise can provide, thus increasing the need to educate students on the health benefits of engaging in more movement throughout the day, as well as promoting Move UBC’s website for tips on how to do so, preferably on social media (Rebar et al., 2016). Therefore, the Move UBC organizers should prioritize their Move U Crews, which provide in-class health behaviour tips for moving throughout the day. Significance  This project was successfully able to meet its objectives. In addition, it provided important insight into the needs and beliefs of commuter and resident students on the UBC Vancouver campus. The data and recommendations generated in this project will hopefully improve participation in Move UBC’s fourth annual event in 2020. Greater participation in Move UBC benefits the health of the entire UBC campus, meeting the goal of the Okanagan Charter to improve wellbeing across university campuses.    P a g e  | 15 References  Allen, M. S., Walter, E. E., & Swann, C. (2019). Sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 242, 5-13. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.081 Arzu, D., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 5(4), 615-620. Bélanger, C. H., Bali, S., & Longden, B. (2014). How Canadian universities use social media to brand themselves. Tertiary Education and Management, 20(1), 14-29. Biddix, J. P. (2015). Strategies for assessing commuter students. New Directions for Student Services, 2015(150), 97-107. doi:10.1002/ss.20131 Burlison, M. B. (2015). Nonacademic commitments affecting commuter student involvement and engagement. New Directions for Student Services, 2015(150), 27-34. doi:10.1002/ss.20124 Edney, S., Bogomolova, S., Ryan, J., Olds, T., Sanders, I., & Maher, C. (2018). Creating engaging health promotion campaigns on social media: Observations and lessons from Fitbit and Garmin. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(12), e10911. doi:10.2196/10911 Forrester, S. A. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. Corvallis, OR: NIRSA. https://nirsa.net/nirsa/wp-content/uploads/Benefits_Of_Campus_Recreation-Forrester_2014-Report.pdf  P a g e  | 16 Junco, R. (2012). The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement. Computers & Education, 58(1), 162-171. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.004 Move UBC, University of British Columbia. (2019a). Move UBC. Retrieved from https://move.ubc.ca Move UBC, University of British Columbia. (2019b).  The sitting epidemic. Retrieved from https://move.ubc.ca/the-sitting-epidemic/ Newbold, J. J. (2015). Lifestyle challenges for commuter students. New Directions for Student Services, 2015(150), 79-86. doi:10.1002/ss.20129 Patterson, R., McNamara, E., Tainio, M. K., de Sá, T. H., Smith, A. D., Sharp, S. J., . . . Wijndaele, K. L. (2018). Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and dose response meta-analysis. European Journal of Epidemiology, 33(9), 811-829. doi:10.17863/CAM.24261 Rebar, A. L., Maher, J. P., Doerksen, S. E., Elavsky, S., & Conroy, D. E. (2016). Intention–behavior gap is wider for walking and moderate physical activity than for vigorous physical activity in university students. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(2), 130-134. Rutter, R., Roper, S., & Lettice, F. (2016). Social media interaction, the university brand and recruitment performance. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 3096-3104. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.025 UBC Information Technology. (2019). Survey tool. Retrieved from https://it.ubc.ca/services/teaching-learning-tools/survey-tool P a g e  | 17 UBC Wellbeing. (2017). UBC action framework to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. Retrieved from http://wellbeing.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2016/10/PA_Action_Framework_2017-2.pdf Zhai, L., Zhang, Y., & Zhang, D. (2015). Sedentary behaviour and the risk of depression: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(11), 705-709. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093613  3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 1/6Participant ConsentKIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity Participant Consent Form for Class Project  Principal Investigator:Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education) The purpose of the class project:To gain an understanding of the University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver’s outreach efforts in terms of physical activity, recreational, and health event promotion. Study Procedures:We ask for your permission to ask you questions using a very brief survey. The survey should take less than five minutes to complete. Survey questions consist of multiple choice and free form written answers. The information collected will be examined as part of the class project, to see how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting events at UBC. Project outcomes:Information from the survey will be examined in a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library:https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library Potential benefits of class project:There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting events in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences. Confidentiality:Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in a survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course. 3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 2/6Risks:The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, you are free to share what you would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed. Contact for information about the study:If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca Research ethics complaints:If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.  Consent:Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Your choice below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. Have you received a copy of this consent form?By progressing to the next page of this survey, you indicate that you consent to participate in this study.Introduction BlockPlease pick the option that best describes you:What program are you in?What year of study are you in?YesNoCommuter studentResident student (live on campus)13/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 3/6Have you heard of Move UBC?Heard of Move UBCWhen does Move UBC typically run?How have you heard about Move UBC?234Other (please explain) YesNoJanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilMayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecemberFacebookTwitterOther social media (e.g. Instagram, Snapchat, etc.)PostersFloor signageIn class announcementsWord of mouthOther (please explain) 3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 4/6Have you attended a Move UBC event?Have not heard of Move UBCMove UBC happens in the month of February and aims to get students, staff, and faculty to move more and sit less.  Take a look at the calendar for this month below:Would you be interested in participating in an event?What makes this activity of interest to you?YesNo YesNo3/29/2019 Qualtrics Survey Softwarehttps://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreview 5/6Private Policy Terms of UsePowered by QualtricsWhat would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?What method of advertising do you think would have been more effective to reach your attention?Have heard of Move UBC - Not attendedWhy have you not attended any Move UBC events?What would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?The time slot works for meIt looks funAn opportunity to socializeI need to be more activeOther (please explain) Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)PostersFloor signageIn class announcementsOther (please explain) Inconvenient timeInconvenient locationOther prioritiesNo interestOther (please explain) P a g e  | 18 Appendix B  KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity   Participant Consent Form for Class Project     Principal Investigator: Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education)   The purpose of the class project: To gain an understanding of the University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver’s outreach efforts in terms of physical activity, recreational, and health event promotion.   Study Procedures: We ask for your permission to ask you questions using a very brief survey. The survey should take less than five minutes to complete. Survey questions consist of multiple choice and free form written answers. The information collected will be examined as part of the class project, to see how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting events at UBC.   Project outcomes: Information from the survey will be examined in a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports.   UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library   Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting events in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences.   Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in a survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for.   P a g e  | 19 At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course.   Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, you are free to share what you would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed.   Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca   Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca. or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.     Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time.   Your choice below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. By progressing to the next page of this survey, you indicate that you consent to participate in this study.  StartDate EndDateDuration (in seconds)Finished Consent Comm_ResStart Date End DateDuration (in seconds)FinishedHave you received a copy of this consent form?Please pick the option that best describes you:2019-03-07 10:39 2019-03-07 10:40 66 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-07 16:41 2019-03-07 16:43 160 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-08 20:16 2019-03-08 20:17 69 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-12 10:36 2019-03-12 10:36 52 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-12 11:12 2019-03-12 11:17 264 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-12 13:51 2019-03-12 13:52 58 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-12 14:30 2019-03-12 14:32 132 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-14 10:46 2019-03-14 10:48 104 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-14 10:58 2019-03-14 11:04 345 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-14 11:04 2019-03-14 11:07 142 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-14 11:07 2019-03-14 11:12 301 TRUE No Commuter student2019-03-14 18:58 2019-03-14 19:00 100 TRUE YesResident student (live on campus)2019-03-16 10:32 2019-03-16 10:33 63 TRUE Yes Commuter student2019-03-20 13:13 2019-03-20 13:15 132 TRUE Yes Commuter studentProgram Year Year_5_TEXT Move UBCWhat program are you in?What year of study are you in? - Selected ChoiceWhat year of study are you in? - Other (please explain) - TextHave you heard of Move UBC?KIN 4 YesBA Psychology 3 YesCogntive Systems 4 YesKinesiology 4 YesKinesiology 4 YesKinesiology 4 YesBComm Business & Computer Science 3 YesApplied Science 2 NoFilm Production 4 NoKinesiology Other (please explain) 3/4 Year Second Degree StudentNoCAPS (Physiology) 3 YesCounselling Psychology 2 NoKinesiology 4 NoKinesiology 4 NoYes_Typically RunYes_How HeardYes_How Heard_6_TEXTYes_Attended No_InterestWhen does Move UBC typically run?How have you heard about Move UBC? - Selected ChoiceHow have you heard about Move UBC? - Other (please explain) - TextHave you attended a Move UBC event?Would you be interested in participating in an event?February Floor signage NoFebruary Posters NoOctober Posters NoMarch Posters NoFebruary Word of mouth NoJanuary In class announcements YesFebruary Floor signage NoYesYesYesJanuary Posters NoYesYesNoNo_IntentionNo_Intention_5_TEXTQ20What makes this activity of interest to you? - Selected ChoiceWhat makes this activity of interest to you? - Other (please explain) - TextWhat would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?It looks funIt looks funI need to be more activeAn opportunity to socializeI need to be more activeOther time options, more choices in activitiesNo_Outreach No_Outreach_5_TEXT Not attended_WhyWhat method of advertising do you think would have been more effective to reach your attention? - Selected ChoiceWhat method of advertising do you think would have been more effective to reach your attention? - Other (please explain) - TextWhy have you not attended any Move UBC events? - Selected ChoiceInconvenient timeNo interestOther (please explain)No interestOther prioritiesOther prioritiesSocial media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Other prioritiesSocial media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Social media (Facebook, Twittter, Instagram, etc.)Not attended_Why_4_TEXT Not attended_LikelyWhy have you not attended any Move UBC events? - Other (please explain) - TextWhat would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?if there was more events announcedMore info on eventsdidn't know where they were if i knew time and locationNAIncreased promotion and posters around campus Schedule of events released at least a month ahead of time Move UBCKIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical ActivityProfessor: Negin RiaziTeam 9:   Harika Parag, Nishtha Parag, Akira Parag, Hanae OkanoAnnual university-wide event to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time of students, staff, and faculty at UBC.Get a Move On CampusMove UBC Non-Participants: Commuter & Resident StudentsResultsReferences1. Junco, R. (2012). The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement. Computers & Education, 58(1), 162-171. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.0042. Forrester, S. A. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. Corvallis, OR: NIRSA. https://nirsa.net/nirsa/wp-content/uploads/Benefits_Of_Campus_Recreation-Forrester_2014-Report.pdf 3. Rebar, A. L., Maher, J. P., Doerksen, S. E., Elavsky, S., & Conroy, D. E. (2016). Intention–behavior gap is wider for walking and moderate physical activity than for vigorous physical activity in university students. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(2), 130-134.PurposeTo discover commuter and resident non-participants’ (1) awareness, (2) interests, and (3) barriers to participating in Move UBC events on the UBC Vancouver campus.MethodsParticipantsStudents on the UBC Vancouver campus who identified as being either a commuter or resident student participated in this study.Data collectionStudents were approached at Woodward IRC and asked to take an online, 5-minute survey. Fourteen students (9 commuters, 5 residents) were recruited, and were asked to share the survey link with their friends (snowball sampling).Data analysisData was analyzed quantitatively by determining frequency counts and percentages of participant demographics and survey responses. Open-ended responses were analyzed qualitatively through thematic analysis.RecommendationsAdvertising: Students wanted more details about events provided further in advance of February. Social Media: 100% of students (n = 6)  chose social media as their preferred mode of advertising. Research shows that engagement and validation on social media is an effective way of increasing participation in university events1.Events: Students were interested in attending Move UBC, though they indicated a need for more varied events. Studies suggest that students prefer cardio, weight training, and open recreation events such as volleyball or basketball2.Daily Physical Activity: Emphasize that small, daily physical activity counts. Research shows that most students view vigorous physical activity as beneficial exercise, but not less intense activities such as walking3.FEB1-28Move UBC EventsPublic  Hosted by UBCSurvey“Increased promotion and posters around campus.” -Commuter, Year 4What would make you more likely to attend a Move UBC event?“If I knew [the] time and location.” -Resident, Year 4UBC created a poll.April 4, 2019Have you heard of Move UBC?UBC created a poll.April 4, 2019What makes this activity of interest to you?GallerySignificanceThe Move UBC campaign to increase physical activity at UBC has the potential to improve overall student health. The results of this project provide several key ways to reduce barriers and improve awareness of this important mission.

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