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Universal Changerooms Project : Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms Blacklaws, Matt; Brozo, Quincy; Dayal, Jocelyn; Tam, Karen; Villanueva, Andrea 2019-04-02

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report          Universal Changerooms Project: Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms Matt Blacklaws, Quincy Brozo, Jocelyn Dayal, Karen Tam, Andrea Villanueva University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Buildings, Community April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.    KIN 464  Universal Changerooms Project: Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms Date submitted: April 2nd 2019 Submitted to: Instructor Negin Riazi Submitted by:  Matt Blacklaws  Quincy Brozo  Jocelyn Dayal  Karen Tam  Andrea Villanueva    	 		 1	EXECUTIVE	SUMMARY		 The purpose of this project was to explore and develop strategies to improve users’ experiences in the universal changeroom at the University of British Columbia’s new Aquatic Centre. Data was collected using a survey, which consisted of both qualitative and quantitative questions to find common inquiries and concerns of the space. The study’s survey also looked to collect individual characteristics of participants to examine if certain demographics experience the changerooms differently. Our focus population involved the patrons already visiting the Aquatic Centre. We conducted these surveys by approaching participants in the waiting areas outside the changerooms and through convenience sampling, by posting the surveys in various social media forums.   Many of the survey responses revealed that of those participants who did not use the universal changerooms, the space was not a deterring factor from continuing to visit the Aquatic Centre. Therefore, physical activity behaviours were not affected by the universal changerooms for most patrons. The small percentage who indicated that their participation was effected were part of the non-cis gendered community.   From these patron’s experiences and concerns, we derived perceived barriers to using the universal changeroom that fell into the general themes of safety, maintenance, accessibility, and circulation of appropriate information. In terms of concerns with safety, patron’s frequently mentioned policies, desire to change and shower openly, and visibility from the public. The limited maintenance of amenities and accessibility of the space was a primary issue for most participants. There was frequent commentary surrounding the inconsistency of the shower functions, malfunctioning of essential features, and cleanliness of the facility. In addition to issues with the physical aspects of the universal changeroom, many participants revealed confusions about the space. Issues involving these misconceptions may be caused by the methods through which patrons are receiving their information regarding the universal changerooms.   After analyzing our data and discussion, we recommended making improvements in safety protocols specific to the universal changerooms. Strategies for this area of improvement include signage defined conduct, and supervision procedures of users in the space. This can ensure that each patron using the universal changerooms understands the appropriate conduct, and can answer any doubts by newcomers. Additionally, we recommended increased monitoring of the maintenance for the universal changerooms. Development of detailed maintenance protocols can help sustain a welcoming, clean aesthetic for visiting patrons. We also recommend promoting the universal changeroom to target populations of marginalized populations.  The physical activity behaviours of the users of the University of British Columbia Aquatic Centre are seemingly habitual regardless of the availability of the universal changerooms. Future studies should be conducted with a more diverse population to attain further experiences of those whom the universal changerooms are designed for.       	 2	INTRODUCTION	AND	LITERATURE	REVIEW  	The University of British Columbia (UBC) recently built a new Aquatic Centre, which incorporates a universal changeroom into its design. Toronto’s architecture firm MJMA designed the universal changeroom at the UBC Aquatic Centre (UBC AC) to improve inclusivity while offering users total privacy and the ability for every patron to feel secure (Dick-Agnew, 2018). This is achieved by individual changing stalls, accessibility features, and a welcoming, transparent environment. However, it is frequently inquired about the availability of separate, gendered changerooms (Frequently Asked Questions, n.d.). This brings into question the reasons why patrons are hesitant to use this new changing space. Despite their purposeful design, meant to ensure patrons’ full comfort and safety, there is a current lack of data exploring whether the universal changeroom is thoroughly fulfilling users’ expectations. The objective of this study is to explore the knowledgeability and understanding of patrons to further improve user experience thereby promoting the UBC AC as a supportive environment for physical activity. According to HCMA Architecture and Design (2018), there are multiple strategies on how to design universal changerooms. It is important to accommodate for all demographics to incorporate and standardize diverse needs (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). For example, providing washing stations of different heights can support the needs for younger children or people in wheelchairs (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). Although areas such as washing stations and lockers are shared, it is also essential to create privacy and sense of safety where it is needed (Dick-Agnew, 2018). Having individual stalls and doors with full height enclosures for changing rooms, showers, and toilets will enhance privacy and provide comfort for users (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). To make clear that individuals must use the cubicles when changing, the interior of the changeroom is designed to be visible from the outside (Dick-Agnew, 2018). This increases the visibility of the changeroom, allows shared monitoring for safety, and encourages patrons to make use of the space. Patchett and Foster (2015) acknowledge that the lack of information surrounding the novel universal changerooms may generate skepticism among patrons. It is crucial to welcome everyone with coherent signage emphasizing the function, inclusivity, and accessibility of these spaces (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). These may include key messages on conduct, the use of gender neutral terminology, and articulation of the changeroom’s function (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). These designs of the universal changeroom strives to create a functional, user-friendly, space for the UBC AC to promote physical activity in a welcoming environment.  Universal changerooms provide an alternative changing space for individuals who want added privacy or do not identify with the binary-gender changerooms (Patchett & Foster, 2015). Plummer (2006) indicates that single-sex sports changerooms may become an uncomfortable or threatening environment for those who feel different from their peers. Data collected from interviews of 30 males ranging from different ages and sexual orientation showed that young males in particular can feel more self-conscious about their physical development and sexual orientation when required to undress around their peers (Plummer, 2006). Discomfort and fear of being looked at or unintentionally looking at someone else are highly likely to occur in changerooms (Plummer, 2006). These feelings, termed sport phobias, cause a significant decrease in the level of physical activity in young males (Plummer, 2006). Therefore, it is important to consider how the configuration of these universal changerooms may reduce discomfort while improving safety for patrons. Similarly, transgender participants of a study conducted by Jones, Arcelus, Bouman and Haycraft (2017) report constant discomfort primarily caused by the infrastructure of changing facilities. After conducting semi-structured interviews with 16 pool managers, researchers found that a facility’s inclusivity of the LGBTQ+ community is affected by a number of factors, such as facility operations and marketing (Anderson et al., 2018). Furthermore, Anderson et al. (2018) provided managerial strategies to improve these barriers of inclusion in aquatic recreation environments. 	 3	Providing gender-neutral changing areas, training facility staff regarding LGBTQ+ issues, and implenting LGBTQ+ specific marketing efforts are thought to effectively reduce facility-use constraints (Anderson et al., 2018). Improvement in this domain would likely also have a positive impact on users’ experience in these spaces.  Binary-gendered spaces in aquatic centres, the focus of many facility-user issues, are seen to be detrimental to inclusion of the LGBTQ+ community (Anderson, Knee, Ramos, & Quash, 2018). Another population that is often affected by similar facility issues are individuals with disabilities.  When compared to the general population, physical activity behaviours are significantly reduced in individuals with disabilities, due in part to the limited accessibility of facilities (Yoh, Mohr, and Gordon 2008). Further, Grana (2018) establishes the importance of expanding knowledge about physical disability inclusion in recreational facilities. It is crucial that amenities like changerooms are accessible to users with mobility issues, different gender attendants, or trans and non-binary users (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). By presenting flexible spaces serviceable to any demographic, universal changerooms enhance inclusivity for all users of the facility (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). The UBC AC’s universal changeroom aims to serve as a welcoming and safe environment to all patrons who visit the UBC AC.  It can be seen from the literature that changeroom design can significantly affect the physical activity behaviours of a facility’s users. Due to the sheer novelty of universal changerooms at UBC, there remains uncertainty of whether the effects of the space, if any, are beneficial for improving patron’s participation at the aquatic centre. Therefore, the purpose of this study aims to review and examine the implementation of the universal changeroom in the UBC AC. This study uses patron’s survey responses to help explore suggestions to improve the current experience in the UBC AC’s universal changeroom and also for future recreational facilities on the UBC campus.  METHODS	AND	PROCEDURE	 The following steps are the procedure used to collect and examine the data used to develop recommendations for improvement of the management and promotion of the universal changerooms. The first completed action was meeting with the assigned SEEDS partner contact to discuss the purpose and background of the project “Universal Changerooms: Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms”. Additionally, the contribution, design and deliverables, and special considerations were also disclosed. Academic and grey literature were then reviewed to explore practices of universal changerooms and washrooms in a variety of fitness facilities and to identify gaps in the literature. A mixed methods approach was implemented to gain statistical information as well as personal experiences from a diverse population of participants. The theoretical population of this study is defined as users of the universal changeroom in the UBC AC. This includes, but is not limited to, the LGBTQ+ community, families, people with disabilities, and users with different gendered attendants. A convenience sampling strategy was utilized by this study; researchers provided online surveys to patrons that were outside the universal changeroom at the UBC AC during the peak weekend hours. This strategy provided the optimal timeline to reach a larger population and reach a greater diversity of participant demographic.    Two methods of data collection were used. The first involved collection throughout the course of a weekend during the peak business hours of the UBC AC. Participants were approached after their swim in various public waiting areas around the UBC AC. If an individual was unavailable to complete the survey at that time, they were offered an information card with an option to complete the survey 	 4	online at their leisure. The second data collection method was convenience sampling through a survey link which was posted in UBC student groups online. The distributed survey was created through the Qualtrics software provided by UBC and administered on a tablet for added privacy. Participants were asked to read and sign the consent form (Figure 1.1, Appendix A), which was automatically provided upon visiting the link and required informed consent before authorized access to the survey. The consent form informed of the right to discontinue their participation at any time. Participants who discontinued their involvement were given the option to have previous information removed from the study. No compensation was provided for participating in this research. The survey consisted of questions that provide both quantitative and qualitative data. It included questions regarding patron demographic to determine any knowledge gaps between the different age-groups or genders/sexualities that utilize the changerooms. These questions will allow us to analyze the experiences of these demographics and the users’ knowledge of the concept of a universal changeroom. According to HCMA Architecture and Design (2018), the UBC AC was constructed with specific transparent enclosures to enhance the sense of privacy and comfort for its users. Therefore, the questions used in this study not only investigated patrons’ knowledge about the universal changeroom but also whether the structure provides them the intended level of amenity. To best understand user experiences, the survey posed open-ended questions to the participants regarding their understanding and involvement with the universal changerooms. All the survey questions can be found in Figure 1.2 (Appendix A). DATA	ANALYSIS	Once all data from the survey was transcribed, the data was analyzed using content and thematic analysis. Thematic analysis was used on qualitative data collected from open ended questions by searching for themes within the responses and identifying patterns in that content. Qualitative data also use content analysis by keeping count of frequent certain barriers were mentioned and identified. Content analysis was also used with quantitative data, where participants were asked to rate experience through a likert-scale which was then transcribed into graphs to quantify similar responses. Multiple questions on the survey asked participants to explain why they chose a certain response. These answers are then used to give context to themes that were identified as barriers in our study. The data collected from our analysis allowed us to contrast the difference between universal and gender assigned changerooms. It also compared the different needs and concerns of females, males, transgender, and non-conforming participants. Through this process we are able to identify issues and create recommendations for improvements.RESULTS	AND	FINDINGS: All results discussed can be found in Appendix A and raw data can be found in Appendix B. PARTICIPANT DEMOGRAPHIC While 52 participants were surveyed, only 45 valid and complete surveys were returned, which still exceeds the proposed objective of 40 participants. About 55% of participants identified as female, approximately 40% identified as male, and less than the remaining 5% identified as transgender or non-conforming (Figure 2.1, Appendix A). 91% of survey responses were completed by patrons between the ages of 18 and 29 years, 4% were responded by patrons between the ages 30 and 39 years, while the remaining 5% was split between patrons falling in the age groups of 50 to 59 years or over 60 years (Figure 2.2, Appendix A). 	 5	PARTICIPANT EXPERIENCE AND USE OF CHANGEROOM When asked about the function of the universal changeroom, patrons frequently used words implying the changeroom as an inclusive environment and design to allow a diverse space (Figure A).        The breakdown of the typical changeroom patrons will use when participating at the UBC AC is as follows (Figure A).  Of those who typically use the universal changeroom, 62% are male, while 23% are female, and 15% are transgender or non-conforming.   Out of all the participants, 72% had previously used the universal changerooms. Of these participants, only 45% reported that they feel extremely comfortable while using the universal changerooms, while the remaining 55% reports ranged from feeling slightly uncomfortable to moderately comfortable (Figure 2.3, Appendix A). Users of the universal changeroom were asked to report the level that the space meets their overall needs. While only 28% declared their satisfaction as extremely well, 69% reported the changeroom to meet their needs at a level of moderately to very well, and a marginal 3% stating complete dissatisfaction (Figure 2.4, Appendix A). The 28% of participants who had not used the universal changerooms reported that they refrain from using this space due to a variety of reasons, such as comfort, privacy, size, and misunderstanding (Figure 2.5 Appendix A).   PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO USING THE UNIVERSAL CHANGEROOM The survey provided input on each participant’s knowledge, experience, and concerns in regard to the universal changerooms. Using a thematic analysis of responses by participants, we determined 3 perceived barriers to using the universal changeroom. These 3 themes included: (1) Safety, (2) Maintenance, and (3) Circulation of Appropriate Information (Figure C).  Figure	B Figure	A 	 6	Theme Characteristics Times Mentioned Safety Specific policies 2 Desire to change/shower openly  3 Visible to non-AC public  7 Maintenance  Cleanliness  3 Broken Amenities 4 Showers 4 Accessibility Space 7 Features for people with disabilities  1  Circulation of Appropriate Information Misunderstanding layout of changeroom 4 Non cis-gendered patrons 3  Safety 18 out of 25 female participants continue to use women’s changerooms instead of universal changerooms due to safety concerns. Many of their criticisms attributed their discomfort from being visible to the public outside of the UBC AC. Further commentary revealed that is a common preference to change and shower openly rather than in a cubicle.  “People	outside	can	see	you	a	bit	when	in	the	universal	room.	[It	is]	Easier	to	not	have	to	 find	an	empty	change	closet/	washroom	 in	 the	women’s	 [change]room,	can	 just	easily	change	right	there	(…)	in	comfort”	–	Participant		“Men’s	[changeroom]	has	no	cubicles	so	less	private	from	people	around	you	but	when	walking	back	 from	the	pool	 in	your	 swim	suit	people	 from	outside	can't	 see	you”	–	Participant		Figure	C 	 7	“You	can	strip	naked	anywhere	in	the	women's	and	nobody	will	give	you	a	second	look	which	is	nice”	–	Participant		Additionally, participants not only questioned the ambiguity of policies specific to the universal changeroom, but also claimed other patrons for not following policies.  “It	 is	 sometime	 uncomfortable	 because	 there	 are	men	 who	 will	 go	 and	 sit	 on	 the	benches	and	just	look	into	the	changeroom.”	–	Participant	“Because	you	have	to	go	into	stalls	to	change,	parents	won’t	always	have	an	eye	on	their	kids.”	–	Participant	 Maintenance The dissatisfaction of the cleanliness and maintenance of the universal changeroom was commonly mentioned in the survey responses. The primary comments were focused on the malfunctioning showers, a dirty appearance, and broken amenities.  “Should	 be	 cleaned	 more	 often,	 and	 broken	 showers	 fixed.	 The	 lockers	 are	 often	jammed	and	a	lot	keys	do	not	have	wristbands.”	–	Participant	“Can	we	get	warmer	showers?”	–	Participant	“The	 bathrooms	 are	 usually	 dirty,	 showers	 broken.	 Dryers	 inconveniently	 located	above	toilets.”	–	Participant		Participants highlighted design flaws that caused a decrease in accessibility and accommodation to the volume of people that use universal changerooms. Results determined that space in the universal changeroom during peak hours was a primary concern.  “It's	 really	 busy	 in	 both	 change	 rooms,	 but	 Women's	 has	 more	 locker	space.”	 –	Participant			“There	are	smaller	changing	cubicles	in	universal	and	not	women’s	or	men’s.	Not	many	benches	in	universal	outside	of	cubicles.”	–	Participant		A concern involving a person with disabilities criticized the infrastructure and maintenance, which interfered with the accessibility of the changeroom.  “My	friend	who	takes	her	grandma	in	a	wheelchair	says	that	the	doors	are	really	heavy	which	makes	it	difficult	for	her	to	get	in	and	out	of	stalls—sometimes	the	accessibility	buttons	don’t	work.”	–	Participant	  	 8	Circulation of Appropriate Information Those who claimed they did not know about the universal changeroom prior to their first visit to the UBC AC made up 30% of participants (Figure 2.6, Appendix A). 25% of those responses claimed that after learning about the space changed their participation in the UBC AC (Figure 2.7, Appendix A). Out of the 70% of participants who knew about the changerooms, there was an 8% who said their knowledge of this space would change their physical activity (Figure 2.8, Appendix A). This 8% included participants are part of the non-cis gendered community.  Data was collected on how patrons learned about the universal changeroom (Figure D).    Although 64% of information was learned through UBC audited means, the remaining 37% patrons gained their knowledge of the universal changerooms through word of mouth and observation.  Multiple survey responses included queries about the space’s structure and misjudgments surrounding who may be permitted into the changeroom.  “Why	is	it	so	large?	Why	is	it	glass?”	–	Participant		“I	question	whether	 the	space	 is	enclosed	enough	 to	make	people	 feel	 comfortable	changing	there.”	–	Participant		 DISCUSSION	 The focus of this study was to explore the needs of the UBC AC patrons to assess if the universal changeroom is fully serving the needs of its users.  A total of 45 participants answered our survey questions in regards to how they use the space, their knowledge about universal changerooms, and what can be improved to encourage the use of these changerooms. Our results determined many concerns during patrons’ experience in the UBC AC universal changerooms. Based on our findings, a primary barrier to user’s full satisfactory experience of the universal changeroom is patron’s perceived privacy and safety.  Although 30 of the participants answered that they have used the universal washroom before, their use of the space is not consistent and most still resort to using gender assigned changerooms. For example, out of the 25 females that answered our survey 18 of them still choose to use the women’s changeroom even though they have been in the universal changerooms before (Figure B). The most common reason cited by participants as to why they still use gender assigned changerooms is the privacy offered by the opaque walls. While the the universal changerooms were intended to reduce privacy concerns by allowing patrons to use individual stalls (Dick-Agnew, 2018), participants Figure	D 	 9	contrarily feel a lack of privacy due, in part, to another concern about the universal changerooms—a diminished feeling of safety A frequently shared experience among participants was that a lack of a feeling of safety created a general unease while using the universal changerooms. A significant portion of the participants, many female, felt that they were often being watched through the glass design of the changeroom. The deliberate transparency feature was intended to reduce theft and cut down on harassment (Dick-Agnew, 2018). However it appears that making it possible for the public to view you from the outside actually has the unintended effect of reducing feelings of safety and makes many users uncomfortable with the space. Male participants on the other hand like to use the universal changerooms because it is less crowded and more spacious. For many female participants, it seems they prefer changing and showering openly rather than in cubicles. Additionally, some of the female respondents feel uncomfortable sharing changerooms with males despite the private changing stalls.  A further concern for safety came from parents who did not feel comfortable letting their child alone in universal changerooms; this resonated with parents with daughters, in particular. Many participants mention the limited protocols specifically for the changeroom. Commentary frequently discussed how the lack of monitoring of user’s poor conduct while in the space discourages patrons to go to the universal changeroom. Another common barrier which people encountered while using universal changerooms was the maintenance and cleanliness of the space. The universal changerooms are expectedly a high traffic area - this is the first access point to the pool deck. However, a majority of the people who choose not to use the space expressed disappointment stating that universal changerooms are constantly dirty, making it uncomfortable to use. Further complaints include jammed lockers, nonfunctional showers, and full stalls during high traffic times. It then takes a long period of time for issues to be fixed which creates less space for locker use, longer wait time for shower stalls, and reduced changing options. overall making the space undesirable to use. Perhaps a more striking issue are those that affect the accessibility of the space for individuals with disabilities. One respondent included a comment about accessibility buttons which are often broken and private stall doors being too heavy. Some of these features were specifically included to improve not only the accessibility of the space, but also to assure the safety of the patrons (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018), but may actually be deterring individuals from entering the using the universal changeroom in the first place. Finally, the lack of use from the remaining 29% of the participants stem from not knowing it exists and misunderstanding who is allowed to use the changerooms. Some individuals who do not use the space think universal changerooms are reserved only for those who are non-cisgender patrons, or families. Out of all the participants, 70% previously knew about the universal changerooms, which mirrors the ratio of participants who have previously used the space. This indicates that a gap of patrons who do not use the universal changeroom may be due to a lack of promotion. Only 40% of participants learned about the universal changeroom through a UBC representative or website, which questions the validity of information the other 60% of participants are receiving. It is unclear if this information is due to misunderstanding or incorrect circulation of information.  From the qualitative data that has been collected from the surveys, the 92% of the participants did not think learning about the universal changeroom change will affect their participation in physical activities at the UBC AC. This reveals that providing another option for changing is not a factor that could affect the level of physical activities for the majority of users in the UBC AC. However, of these individuals who claimed to not have prior knowledge of the universal changerooms, 25% of identified as transgender. This participant also stated a change in participation at the UBC AC after learning more about the universal changeroom. This response was given by only one of two non-cis gendered 	 10	participants in the study. This characterizes the lack of participation from this community at the aquatic centre. The universal changeroom is designed for people who are more comfortable in non-gendered areas (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). The idea that this target community is not receiving information regarding these spaces displays a lack of appropriate education and circulation of knowledge.  The present study, however, has some limitations. After collecting our data, we encountered a lack of diversity among our participants. One of the main purposes of a universal changeroom is to create an inclusive space for all users (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). Unlike the expected outcome, there was lack of transgender and non-conforming participants in the study. Since our discussion analyzes data surrounding the experiences of primarily females and males (Figure 2.1), our recommendations may be limited to only benefit these two genders. Additionally, with the majority of the sample belonging to the age group of 18-29, this study’s sample does not accurately represent the population of UBC AC users. Since the data was collected from the patrons continuing to use the UBC AC, it excludes the concerns from the population who chose to not visit the UBC AC. This may counteract the purpose of improving a more inclusive environment. Future studies should aim to recruit a larger sample size with a wider diversity of the population in order to obtain a broader view from different people and to represent more accurate results. Stratified sampling could be an ideal selection process to achieve this result.  RECOMMENDATIONS	RECOMMENDATION #1: Improvement of safety protocols specific to universal changeroom.  We recommend that a code of conduct is made specifically for the universal changeroom. Although patrons understand the concept of the changeroom, it is unclear to some what the safety protocols are. Although there are codes of conduct and behaviour signage around the pool, it can be helpful for a list of rules for users to follow when specifically, in the universal changeroom. Confusion and unawareness of demeanor in the universal changeroom is expected, which is why it is important that signage and user education define the distinctive behaviours in the changeroom (HCMA Architecture & Design, 2018). If signage specifically for the universal changeroom was displayed for patrons before they enter into the changing area, then new users can not only discern the differences of conduct in each space, but also develop a greater understanding of the intentional design. This can be used as an opportunity to clearly outline where people should change, who is allowed in the universal changeroom, and ways to act in the space. The openness on either side of the universal changeroom was an issue that was brought up multiple times in our data. In order to help users in the changeroom feel more comfortable, we suggest moving the benches outside the windows of the changeroom so patrons who choose to sit and wait outside the changerooms are not able to look directly into the vulnerable space. Another solution may be to frost the glass facing outside the aquatic centre to allow some transparency, but also give patrons more sense of privacy. It is also recommended a protocol is implemented to ensure that there are no loiterers outside the universal changeroom that may cause an unsafe or uncomfortable environment for patrons inside the changeroom.   RECOMMENDATION #2: Improve maintenance of changeroom  To help increase patron’s satisfaction in the universal changerooms we recommend the spaces are constantly monitored to be operational and to maintain cleanliness. Many concerns and 	 11	reasons raised by participants who do not use this space are largely focused on the functionality of the universal changeroom. According to Stanis et al. multiple attributes including cleanliness and safety in recreational settings are more inviting for patrons and help encourage physical activity. By ensuring the universal changeroom is continually operative and meets the needs of its users, it may encourage other patrons to use the space. These aspects of the facility – touchable items that are part of the service environment – are identified as tangible elements by Lentell (2000). As highlighted in our results, many dysfunctional features of the universal changerooms are deterring patrons from using the space. These common grievances revealed from our data, such as faulty showers and malfunctioning lockers, are basic amenities for recreational changing spaces. In order to effectively increase usage and patron satisfaction of any leisure service, Lentell (2000) suggests that the most important change to be made involves refining the tangible elements of the facility. If the goal is to attract a more diverse user population for the universal changerooms, the essential features should be the primary focus of maintenance. Additionally, a standout criticism reported in our results addressed a patron’s challenging experience with heavy doors and defective accessibility buttons. Yoh, Mohr, and Gordon (2008) consider that a key reason for low physical activity participation among students with disabilities are due to the circumstance that the facility’s accessibility fundamentals are frequently ignored. To further attract patrons with disabilities for which the universal changeroom is designed for, it is recommended to ensure the accessibility features of the space are operational. As suggested by Osmon, Cole, and Vessel (2006), the cleanliness and functionality of the facility’s amenities are vital for user’s satisfaction and a greater level of upkeep can result in a higher return of users in the future.  RECOMMENDATION #3: Target audience marketing of universal changeroom.  As highlighted in our data, there was limited participation from a number of marginalized groups; more specifically, transgender people and people with disabilities. To improve the physical activity behaviours of these marginalized groups we recommend using deliberate promotion strategies of the universal changeroom space as a means to attract these target populations to participate in the programs and initiatives held at the aquatic centre. These promotion strategies may include the “snowball technique” explored by Sadler, Lee, Lim and Fullerton (2010), in which individuals from a specific community use their network to recruit similar participants. Transgender people, in general, suffer negative experiences when engaging in physical activity caused by barriers which range further than the availability of adequate changing facilities (Jones, Arcelus, Bouman & Haycraft, 2017). Barriers range from body dissatisfaction to transphobia associated with participating in physical activity (Jones et al., 2017). Additionally, Yoh et al. (2008) reports the engagement in physical activity of people with disabilities is significantly lower than that in the general population. These reasons, similarly, are not limited to the environmental barriers, but are guided by the lack of integration of these students in collegiate environments (Yoh et al., 2008). A benefit for this particular “snowball technique” is the great deal of trust it engenders among the possible participants since information is circulated by their peers. (Sadler et al., 2010). By using this targeted marketing approach – or what is known as “narrowcasting” (Sadler et al., 2010) – UBC can successfully disseminate positive messages of the universal changerooms to these narrowly defined audiences, which may encourage increased physical activity behaviour at the UBC AC.  As discussed by Anderson et al. (2018), a comfortable changeroom experience precedes a more pleasurable user experience when in the swimming pool environment. A comfortable environment will not only foster improved physical activity behaviours, but also physical and mental health (Patchett & Foster, 2015). Not only do the patrons of the UBC Aquatic Centre benefit from further research, but also the patrons of facilities that are currently using or designing universal changerooms. 	 12	REFERENCES	Anderson, A. R., Knee, E., Ramos, W. D., & Quash, T. M. (2018). "We just treat everyone the same":   LGBTQ aquatic management strategies, barriers and implementation. International Journal   of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(1), 2. Beemyn, B. G., Domingue, A., Pettitt, J., & Smith, T. (2005). Suggested steps to make campuses   more trans-inclusive. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 3(1), 89-94. DOI:    10.1300/J367v03n01_09 Dick-Agnew, D. (2018). How MJMA designed the UBC aquatic centre’s universal changerooms.   Retrieved from https://www.azuremagazine.com/article/mjma-ubc-aquatic-centre-universal- change-room Frequently Asked Questions. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://recreationaquatics.sites.olt.ubc.ca/frequently-asked-questions. HCMA Architecture & Design. (2018). Strategies for universal washrooms and changerooms.    Designing For Inclusivity. Retrieved from         https://hcma.ca/wpcontent/uploads/2018/01/Designing_For_Inclusivity.pdf Jones, B. A., Arcelus, J., Bouman, W. P., & Haycraft, E. (2017). Barriers and facilitators of physical   activity and sport participation among young transgender adults who are medically    transitioning. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(2), 227-238. Lentell, R. (2000). Untangling the tangibles:'physical evidence'and customer satisfaction in local   authority leisure centres. Managing Leisure, 5(1), 1-16. Osman, R. W., Cole, S. T., & Vessell, C. R. (2006). Examining the role of perceived service quality in  predicting user satisfaction and behavioral intentions in a campus recreation setting. Recreational Sports Journal, 30(1), 20-29. Patchett, E., & Foster, J. (2015). Inclusive recreation: the state of campus policies, facilities,  trainings, and programs for transgender participants. Recreational Sports Journal, 39(2), 83- 91. Plummer, D. (2006). Sportophobia: why do some men avoid sport? Journal of Sport and Social   Issues, 30(2), 122–137. DOI: 10.1177/0193723505285817 Sadler, G. R., Lee, H. C., Lim, R. S. H., & Fullerton, J. (2010). Recruitment of hard-to-reach population   subgroups via adaptations of the snowball sampling strategy. Nursing & health    sciences, 12(3), 369-374. Stanis, W., Sonja, A., Schneider, I. E., Shinew, K. J., Chavez, D. J., & Vogel, M. C. (2009). Physical   Activity and the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: Differences in Important Site Attributes   and Perceived Constraints. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 27(4). Yoh, T., Mohr, M., & Gordon, B. (2008). Assessing satisfaction with campus recreation facilities   among college students with physical disabilities. Recreational Sports Journal, 32(2), 106- 113.   	 13	APPENDIX	A	Figure	1.1			2019-04-02, 11)56 AMQualtrics Survey SoftwarePage 1 of 6https://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreviewUBC-AC Universal Change Room SurveyBlock 1Hello and welcome to our survey. With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a confidential survey. With the information gathered, students will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage with the universal change rooms at the UBC Aquatic Centre. Principal Investigator:Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education) The purpose of the class project:To gather knowledge and expertise from community members on topics related to physical activity, recreation, and health promotion. Project outcomes:The information gathered from survey questions will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library:https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library Potential benefits of class project:There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting activities or initiatives in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences. Confidentiality:Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants who participate in the survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. responses) and signed consent forms will be kept in a 	 14			 		 15	Figure	1.2		 16		 17		 18		Figure	2.1			 19	Figure	2.2		Figure	2.3		 20	Figure	2.4		Figure	2.5				 21	Figure	2.6	Figure	2.7		 22	Figure	2.8			APPENDIX	B		Default	Report	UBC	AC	universal	change	room	April	2nd	2019,	10:19	am	MDT		New	Custom	Page			 		 23	Q23	-	Hello	and	welcome	to	our	survey.	With	your	permission,	we	are	asking	you	to	participate	in	a	confidential	survey.	With	the	information	gathered,	students	will	critically	examine	how	different	individuals	understand	or	engage	with	the	universal	change	rooms	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre.					Principal	Investigator:		Negin	Riazi	(PhD	Candidate,	School	of	Kinesiology,	Faculty	of	Education)					The	purpose	of	the	class	project:		To	gather	knowledge	and	expertise	from	community	members	on	topics	related	to	physical	activity,	recreation,	and	health	promotion.					Project	outcomes:		The	information	gathered	from	survey	questions	will	be	part	of	a	written	report	for	the	class	project.	The	written	report	will	be	shared	with	the	community	partners	involved	with	the	project.	Summaries	of	findings	will	also	be	posted	on	the	following	websites.	No	personal	information/information	that	could	identify	participants	will	be	included	in	these	reports.					UBC	SEEDS	Program	Library:		https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library					Potential	benefits	of	class	project:		There	are	no	explicit	benefits	to	you	by	taking	part	in	this	class	project.	However,	the	survey	will	provide	you	with	the	opportunity	to	voice	your	opinion	on	your	experiences	with	health	promoting	activities	or	initiatives	in	a	broad	sense	and	will	provide	the	students	with	an	opportunity	to	learn	from	your	experiences.					Confidentiality:		Maintaining	the	confidentiality	of	the	participants	who	participate	in	the	survey	is	paramount,	and	no	names	will	be	asked	for.					At	the	completion	of	the	course,	all	data	(i.e.	responses)	and	signed	consent	forms	will	be	kept	in	a	locked	filing	cabinet	in	Negin	Riazi’s	office	in	the	Population	Physical	Activity	Lab	(2259	Lower	Mall)	at	the	University	of	British	Columbia.	All	data	and	consent	forms	will	be	destroyed	1	year	after	completion	of	the	course.					Risks:		The	risks	associated	with	participating	in	this	research	are	minimal.	There	are	no	known	physical,	economic,	or	social	risks	associated	with	participation	in	this	study.	Although	there	is	a	schedule	of	questions,	you	are	free	to	refuse	to	answer	specific	questions.	You	should	know	that	your	participation	is	completely	voluntary	and	you	are	free	to	withdraw	from	the	interview	and	there	will	not	be	negative	impacts	related	to	your	withdrawal.	If	you	withdraw	from	the	study,	all	of	the	information	you	have	shared	up	until	that	point	will	be	destroyed.					Contact	for	information	about	the	study:		If	you		 24	have	any	questions	about	this	class	project,	you	can	contact	Negin	Riazi	by	phone	at	604-822-5288	or	by	email	at	negin.riazi@ubc.ca					Research	ethics	complaints:		If	you	have	any	concerns	or	complaints	about	your	rights	as	a	research	participant	and/or	your	experiences	while	participating	in	this	study,	contact	the	Research	Participant	Complaint	Line	in	the	UBC	Office	of	Research	Ethics	at	604-822-8598	or	e-mail	RSIL@ors.ubc.ca	.	or	call	toll	free	1-877-822-8598.								Consent:		Your	participation	in	this	survey	is	entirely	voluntary	and	you	may	refuse	to	participate	or	withdraw	from	the	survey	at	any	time.					Your	completion	indicates	that	you	consent	to	participate	in	this	study.			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Hello	and	welcome	to	our	survey.	With	your	permission,	we	are	asking	you	to	participate	in	a	confidential	survey.	With	the	information	gathered,	students	will	critically	examine	how	different	individuals	understand	or	engage	with	the	universal	change	rooms	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre.					Principal	Investigator:		Negin	Riazi	(PhD	Candidate,	School	of	Kinesiology,	Faculty	of	Education)					The	purpose	of	the	1.00	 1.00	 1.00	 0.00	 0.00	 49		 25	class	project:		To	gather	knowledge	and	expertise	from	community	members	on	topics	related	to	physical	activity,	recreation,	and	health	promotion.					Project	outcomes:		The	information	gathered	from	survey	questions	will	be	part	of	a	written	report	for	the	class	project.	The	written	report	will	be	shared	with	the	community	partners	involved	with	the	project.	Summaries	of	findings	will	also	be	posted	on	the	following	websites.	No	personal	information/information	that	could	identify	participants	will	be	included	in	these	reports.					UBC	SEEDS	Program	Library:		https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library					Potential	benefits	of	class	project:		There	are	no	explicit	benefits	to	you	by	taking	part	in	this	class	project.	However,	the	survey	will	provide	you	with	the	opportunity	to	voice	your	opinion	on	your	experiences	with	health	promoting	activities	or	initiatives	in	a	broad	sense	and	will	provide	the	students	with	an	opportunity	to	learn	from	your	experiences.					Confidentiality:		Maintaining	the	confidentiality	of	the	participants	who	participate	in	the	survey	is	paramount,	and	no	names	will	be	asked	for.					At	the	completion	of	the	course,	all	data	(i.e.	responses)	and	signed	consent	forms	will	be	kept	in	a	locked	filing	cabinet	in	Negin	Riazi’s	office	in	the	Population	Physical	Activity	Lab	(2259	Lower	Mall)	at	the	University	of	British	Columbia.	All	data	and	consent	forms	will	be	destroyed	1	year		 26	after	completion	of	the	course.					Risks:		The	risks	associated	with	participating	...				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Yes,	I	consent	to	participate.	 100.00%	 49		 Total	 100%	 49	Q1	-	What	age	group	do	you	belong	to?				 27	#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 What	age	group	do	you	belong	to?	 1.00	 5.00	 1.20	 0.74	 0.55	 46				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 18-29	 91.30%	 42	2	 30-39	 4.35%	 2	3	 40-49	 0.00%	 0	4	 50-59	 2.17%	 1	5	 60+	 2.17%	 1		 Total	 100%	 46	Q2	-	To	which	gender	identity	do	you	identify?				 28	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Male	 40.43%	 19	2	 Female	 55.32%	 26	3	 Transgender	 2.13%	 1	4	 Gender	variant/non-conforming	 2.13%	 1	5	 Not	listed	(please	specify)	 0.00%	 0	6	 Prefer	not	to	answer	 0.00%	 0		 Total	 100%	 47			Q16	-	How	often	do	you	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 How	often	do	you	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	 1.00	 4.00	 2.55	 1.03	 1.06	 47				 29		#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 This	is	my	first	time	 12.77%	 6	2	 1-3	times	a	week	 46.81%	 22	3	 3-5	times	a	week	 12.77%	 6	4	 5+	times	a	week	 27.66%	 13		 Total	 100%	 47	Q3	-	When	do	you	usually	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	Choose	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Weekdays	 28.30%	 30	2	 Weekends	 21.70%	 23	3	 Morning	 15.09%	 16	4	 Afternoon	 17.92%	 19	5	 Evening	 16.98%	 18		 30		 Total	 100%	 106	Q6	-	Who	do	you	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre	with?	Choose	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 No	one,	I	swim	alone.	 26.79%	 15	2	 My	child/children	 3.57%	 2	3	 My	friend(s)	 44.64%	 25	4	 My	significant	other	 10.71%	 6	5	 Other	(please	specify)	 14.29%	 8		 Total	 100%	 56			Q6_5_TEXT	-	Other	(please	specify)		 31	Other	(please	specify)	-	Text	Swim	club	Swim	club	My	swim	team	teammates	Synchro	team	Ubc	swim	club	team	Q7	-	What	change	room	do	you	choose	to	use	when	visiting	the	pool?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	What	change	room	do	you	choose	to	use	when	visiting	the	pool?	1.00	 3.00	 1.88	 0.87	 0.75	 43					 32	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Women's	change	room	 44.19%	 19	2	 Men's	change	room	 23.26%	 10	3	 Universal	change	room	 32.56%	 14		 Total	 100%	 43	Q8	-	What	do	you	believe	the	purpose	of	the	universal	change	room	is?	Briefly	explain.	Word	groupings	of	patron's	explanation	of	their	understanding	of	the	universal	changeroom.	What	do	you	believe	the	purpose	of	the	universal	change	room	is?	Briefly	explain.	For	people	who	are	not	comfortable	in	a	same	sex	change	room,	or	for	families	with	kids	(ex.	dad	at	the	pool	with	daughters)	There	are	a	lot	of	people	who	do	not	identify	as	either	male	or	female	or	are	uncomfortable	by	using	gendered	washrooms	so	it	creates	a	space	where	can	change	comfortably.	Its	also	used	by	families	so	they	do	not	have	to	solit	up	when	changing.	I	have	used	it	with	my	boyfriend	so	we	don’t	have	to	pay	for	two	separate	lockers	and	he	can	help	me	tie	my	swimsuit.	Family	change	room	and	anyone	else	that	wants	to	use.	For	people	to	change	before	their	swim	An	inclusive	space	for	everyone	to	change	To	change	To	be	all	inclusive!	Transgender	individuals,	families,	if	you	want	to	change	with	your	friends	of	the	opposite	gender	To	provide	and	inclusive	space	for	change	that	is	great	for	families	and	for	gender-non-conforming	folks	to	avoid	any	uncomfort.	Also	great	for	everyone	else!	To	create	a	new	change	room	space	that	one	can	choose	if	they	feel	most	comfortable	there	So	that	we	are	inclusive	to	all	genders/	sexual	orientations.		It	also	provides	an	area	for	families	to	enter	together.	Everybody	can	find	their	way	to	use	it		 33	Efficient	use	of	space	and	sexual	orientation	neutral	Everyone	is	welcome.	Privacy	is	increased.	Family	members	can	use	together	To	give	all	genders	a	place	to	change	Convenience	for	families	Able	to	be	used	by	anyone	regardless	of	gender	identity	for	anyone	to	change	in	cubicles	No	need	to	ask	questions,	accepts	everyone,	good	for	families	To	allow	families	to	change	comfortably	together,	while	also	allowing	non-gender	conforming	individuals	to	feel	they	have	a	safe	space	to	change.	I	feel	like	it	is	mostly	to	make	it	an	"inclusive	space".	I	think	UBC	tries	to	stress	their	image	of	being	progressive,	so	these	change	rooms	are	a	reflection	of	that	An	inclusive	space	for	everyone,	no	matter	age,	gender,	orientation,	individuals	or	families.	To	be	inclusive	to	those	who	don’t	identify	as	either	male	or	female	To	have	a	locker	room	where	all	people	are	comfortable	changing.	For	those	who	dont	identify	with	the	binary	gender	labels	but	also	could	be	useful	for	families	So	everyone	has	somewhere	to	change	To	provide	a	inclusive	changeroom	for	anyone	who	feels	comfortable	using	it	Place	to	keep	my	items	and	valuables	while	I	swim	The	purpose	of	a	universal	change	room	is	to	provide	a	place	for	everyone,	regardless	of	identity	or	ability,	to	change	in	an	area	that	makes	them	feel	comfortable.	To	provide	a	space	for	people	who	don't	want	to	change	in	the	gender	binary	change	rooms.	Give	a	place	for	families	to	change	together.	Families	with	kids,	people	who	don’t	identify	by	the	male	or	female	or	cisgender.	Make	people	feel	comfortable	To	provide	a	place	where	people	who	don't	identify	as	male	or	female	can	change	To	allow	families	to	change	together	and	for	people	who	don’t	feel	comfortable	using	men’s	or	women’s	changeroom.	No	idea		 34	Provide	a	safe	space	for	those	who	choose	not	to	use	gendered	changerooms	because	of	their	identity,	family,	or	privacy	concerns.						 		 35	Q10	-	Who	do	you	think	is	allowed	in	the	universal	change	room?	Briefly	explain.		Who	do	you	think	is	allowed	in	the	universal	change	room?	Briefly	explain.	Everyone	Everyone	Anyone.	Everyone,	but	more	specifically	catered	to	families,	people	with	disabilities,	and	those	who	don't	feel	comfortable	going	into	a	gendered	space.	Anyone	who	wants	to	Everyone.	Anyone	Anyone	Everyone	(who	is	being	respectful	and	responsible	in	the	area).	Those	who	identify	as	neither	man	or	woman	or	just	feel	most	free	in	that	environment	I	think	everyone	and	anyone	is	allowed	in	this	change	room.	Everyone	Everybody	All	genders.	Anyone	Everyone	normal	items...clothes,	swim	gear,	towel	Anyone	I	think	anyone	is	allowed	in	the	universal	change	room,	that’s	why	it	is	universal.	literally	anybody	Everyone		 36	Anyone	Anyone	who	prefers	it	to	the	gendered	change	rooms.	Anyone	Everyone	because	that’s	who	it’s	meant	for	Anyone	Anyone	who	desires	People	who	identify	outside	of	the	binary	or	those	with	mobility	issues	or	children	Everyone	Everyone	cuz	it’s	universal......	Anyone.	Males	or	females	Everyone	All	patrons	of	the	pool,	except	varsity	swimmers	who	have	lockers	in	the	men’s	or	women’s	changerooms.	Everyone	Everyone.	However,	by	having	the	universal	changerooms	and	the	gendered	changerooms,	it	implies	that	the	universal	should	almost	be	reserved	for	people	who	need	it	over	those	who	feel	comfortable	using	either.				 37			 		 38	Q11	-	Have	you	used	the	universal	change	room?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 Have	you	used	the	universal	change	room?	 1.00	 2.00	 1.28	 0.45	 0.20	 43				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Yes	 72.09%	 31	2	 No	 27.91%	 12		 Total	 100%	 43		 		 39	Q12	-	How	comfortable	are	you	when	using	the	change	room?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 How	comfortable	are	you	when	using	the	change	room?	 1.00	 5.00	 1.90	 1.12	 1.27	 29				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Extremely	comfortable	 44.83%	 13		 40	2	 Moderately	comfortable	 37.93%	 11	3	 Slightly	comfortable	 6.90%	 2	4	 Neither	comfortable	nor	uncomfortable	 3.45%	 1	5	 Slightly	uncomfortable	 6.90%	 2	6	 Moderately	uncomfortable	 0.00%	 0	7	 Extremely	uncomfortable	 0.00%	 0		 Total	 100%	 29		 		 41	Q13	-	Why	do	you	choose	to	not	use	the	universal	change	room?		Please	select	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Comfort	 23.53%	 4	2	 Privacy	 35.29%	 6	3	 Change	room	space	 17.65%	 3	4	 Other	 23.53%	 4	5	 I	prefer	not	to	answer	 0.00%	 0		 Total	 100%	 17		 42			Q13_4_TEXT	-	Other	Other	-	Text	No	reason	in	particular	I	identify	as	female	and	went	swimming	with	all	females	Locker	in	women’s	changeroom	I	feel	like	it	isn't	my	place	to	use	it,	as	it	was	designed	for	those	who	don't	feel	comfortable	using	gendered	changerooms.		 		 43	Q20	-	How	well	does	the	structure	of	the	universal	change	room	meet	your	needs?	(i.e.	change	room	space,	privacy,	accessibility	etc.)			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Extremely	well	 27.59%	 8	2	 Very	well	 41.38%	 12	3	 Moderately	well	(why)	 27.59%	 8	4	 Slightly	well	(why)	 0.00%	 0	5	 Not	well	at	all	(please	list	why)	 3.45%	 1		 Total	 100%	 29		 44				#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	How	well	does	the	structure	of	the	universal	change	room	meet	your	needs?	(i.e.	change	room	space,	privacy,	accessibility	etc.)	-	Selected	Choice	1.00	 5.00	 2.10	 0.92	 0.85	 29		 		 45	Q21	-	Please	explain	the	differences	(if	any)	in	experience	of	using	the	Men's/Women's	change	room	compared	to	the	universal	change	room.		Please	explain	the	differences	(if	any)	in	experience	of	using	the	Men's/Women's	change	room	compared	to	the	universal	change	room.	Universal	has	individual	changing	space,	women’s	change	room	has	more	of	a	communal	changing	space	and	showers,	so	basically	everyone	sees	you	naked/changing	It's	really	busy	in	both	change	rooms,	but	Women's	has	more	locker	space	Don’t	openly	change	in	the	universal	change	room	You	can	strip	naked	anywhere	in	the	women's	and	nobody	will	give	you	a	second	look	which	is	nice	People	outside	can	see	you	a	bit	when	in	the	universal	room		Easier	to	not	have	to	find	an	empty	change	closet/	washroom	in	the	women’s	room,	can	just	easily	change	right	there	at	the	lockers	in	comfort	It	is	smaller,	and	more	compact.	Can’t	compare	because	I	only	used	the	universal	change	room	Men’s	room	crowded	and	cramped	I	am	not	comfortable	taking	my	daughters	(both	less	than	5yrs)	to	the	men’s	change	room.	Universal	is	more	convenient	Mens	has	no	cubicles	so	less	private	from	people	around	you	but	when	walking	back	from	the	pool	in	your	swim	suit	people	from	outside	can't	see	you	i	have	only	used	the	universal	one	The	universal	change	room	has	more	space	to	change	than	the	women’s	change	room	which	has	very	little	bench	space.	It	is	also	usually	less	busy.	I	feel	like	they	are	both	really	cramped.	I	am	comfortable	in	either	Universal	change	room	is	more	accessible	and	also	has	individual	changing	stalls,	whereas	the	women's	change	room	does	not	Universal	has	stalls	It's	out	in	the	open	except	for	when	you're	changing	so	its	easily	accessible	to	the	pool	and	the	lifeguards.	If	anything	bad	happens	in	the	universal	change	room	it's	easy	for	people	to	hear	it	so	it	also	decreases	the	chance	of	anything	bad	happening		 46	Full	stall	bathrooms	When	using	men’s	or	women’s	changerooms	there’s	more	privacy	from	the	patrons	in	the	pool	area.	In	the	universal,	any	patron	can	see	you	from	the	pool	area.	There	are	smaller	changing	cubicles	in	universal	and	not	women’s	or	men’s.	Not	many	benches	in	universal	outside	of	cubicles.	The	experience	is	slightly	jilted	as	you	have	to	find	either	a	washroom	or	a	changing	stall	to	use.		 		 47	Q14	-	Were	you	aware	of	the	universal	change	room	before	your	first	visit	to	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Were	you	aware	of	the	universal	change	room	before	your	first	visit	to	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	1.00	 2.00	 1.29	 0.45	 0.21	 41				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Yes	 70.73%	 29		 48	2	 No	 29.27%	 12		 Total	 100%	 41		 		 49	Q15	-	How	did	you	learn	about	the	universal	change	room	before	visiting	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?		Please	select	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 UBC	recreation	website	 18.52%	 5	2	 Social	Media	 25.93%	 7	3	 UBC	recreation	representative	 18.52%	 5	4	 Other	(please	specify)	 37.04%	 10		 Total	 100%	 27		 50			Q15_4_TEXT	-	Other	(please	specify)	Other	(please	specify)	-	Text	Don’t	remember	I	didn’t	Friend	told	me	Friend	told	me	Friends	Used	to	be	on	the	swim	team	Walked	past	it	and	saw	Pool	Tour	video	I	work	there	Jocelyn	I	just	visited	the	aquatic	centre	and	saw	it					 		 51	Q18	-	Will	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Will	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	1.00	 5.00	 3.75	 1.30	 1.69	 12					 52	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Definitely	yes	 8.33%	 1	2	 Probably	yes	 16.67%	 2	3	 I	do	not	know	 0.00%	 0	4	 Probably	not	 41.67%	 5	5	 Definitely	not	 33.33%	 4		 Total	 100%	 12		 		 53	Q24	-	Did	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Did	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	1.00	 5.00	 4.23	 1.09	 1.18	 26					 54	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Definitely	yes	 3.85%	 1	2	 Probably	yes	 3.85%	 1	3	 I	do	not	know	 15.38%	 4	4	 Probably	not	 19.23%	 5	5	 Definitely	not	 57.69%	 15		 Total	 100%	 26		 		 55	Q22	-	What	questions	or	concerns	do	you	have	about	the	universal	change	room	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?		What	questions	or	concerns	do	you	have	about	the	universal	change	room	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	Including	it	made	the	other	changing	rooms	smaller	(they’re	way	too	small!!)		Since	there’s	no	way	to	change	in	a	isolated	stall	in	the	women’s	change	room	people	change	in	the	bathroom	stalls	and	then	if	you	actually	have	to	use	the	bathroom	you	have	to	wait	a	long	time	It's	sometimes	uncomfortable	because	there's	men	who	will	go	and	sit	on	the	benches	in	and	just	look	into	the	change	room	None	Everything	is	fine	Showers	people	from	outside	can	look	in	none	it	is	fine	and	allows	you	to	store	your	clothing	with	friends	of	other	genders	Why	is	it	so	large.		Why	is	it	glass	n/a	I	question	whether	the	space	is	enclosed	enough	to	make	people	feel	comfortable	changing	there.	It	is	quite	open.	It	is	also	quite	large	and	can	look	very	dirty	from	the	outside	After	learning	about	the	change	room	i	come	more	often	because	i	don't	feel	like	i	have	to	choose	between	male	or	female.	My	only	concern	is	that	because	you	have	to	go	into	stalls	to	change,	parents	won't	always	have	an	eye	on	their	kids.			My	friend	who	takes	her	grandma	in	a	wheelchair	says	that	the	doors	are	really	heavy	which	makes	it	difficult	for	her	to	get	in	and	out	of	the	stalls-sometimes	the	accessibility	buttons	don't	work	Can	we	get	warmer	showers?	None	Should	be	cleaned	more	often,	and	broken	showers	fixed.	The	lockers	are	often	jammed	and	a	lot	of	keys	do	not	have	wristbands.		 		 56	Q6_5_TEXT	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 6		 Total	 100%	 6		 		 57	Q8	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 36		 Total	 100%	 36		 		 58	Q10	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 35		 Total	 100%	 35		 		 59	Q22	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 14		 Total	 100%	 14		 		 60	Q21	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 20		 Total	 100%	 20		 		 61	Q15_4_TEXT	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 10		 Total	 100%	 10			 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report          Universal Changerooms Project: Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms Matt Blacklaws, Quincy Brozo, Jocelyn Dayal, Karen Tam, Andrea Villanueva University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Buildings, Community April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.    KIN 464  Universal Changerooms Project: Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms Date submitted: April 2nd 2019 Submitted to: Instructor Negin Riazi Submitted by:  Matt Blacklaws  Quincy Brozo  Jocelyn Dayal  Karen Tam  Andrea Villanueva    	 		 1	EXECUTIVE	SUMMARY		 The purpose of this project was to explore and develop strategies to improve users’ experiences in the universal changeroom at the University of British Columbia’s new Aquatic Centre. Data was collected using a survey, which consisted of both qualitative and quantitative questions to find common inquiries and concerns of the space. The study’s survey also looked to collect individual characteristics of participants to examine if certain demographics experience the changerooms differently. Our focus population involved the patrons already visiting the Aquatic Centre. We conducted these surveys by approaching participants in the waiting areas outside the changerooms and through convenience sampling, by posting the surveys in various social media forums.   Many of the survey responses revealed that of those participants who did not use the universal changerooms, the space was not a deterring factor from continuing to visit the Aquatic Centre. Therefore, physical activity behaviours were not affected by the universal changerooms for most patrons. The small percentage who indicated that their participation was effected were part of the non-cis gendered community.   From these patron’s experiences and concerns, we derived perceived barriers to using the universal changeroom that fell into the general themes of safety, maintenance, accessibility, and circulation of appropriate information. In terms of concerns with safety, patron’s frequently mentioned policies, desire to change and shower openly, and visibility from the public. The limited maintenance of amenities and accessibility of the space was a primary issue for most participants. There was frequent commentary surrounding the inconsistency of the shower functions, malfunctioning of essential features, and cleanliness of the facility. In addition to issues with the physical aspects of the universal changeroom, many participants revealed confusions about the space. Issues involving these misconceptions may be caused by the methods through which patrons are receiving their information regarding the universal changerooms.   After analyzing our data and discussion, we recommended making improvements in safety protocols specific to the universal changerooms. Strategies for this area of improvement include signage defined conduct, and supervision procedures of users in the space. This can ensure that each patron using the universal changerooms understands the appropriate conduct, and can answer any doubts by newcomers. Additionally, we recommended increased monitoring of the maintenance for the universal changerooms. Development of detailed maintenance protocols can help sustain a welcoming, clean aesthetic for visiting patrons. We also recommend promoting the universal changeroom to target populations of marginalized populations.  The physical activity behaviours of the users of the University of British Columbia Aquatic Centre are seemingly habitual regardless of the availability of the universal changerooms. Future studies should be conducted with a more diverse population to attain further experiences of those whom the universal changerooms are designed for.       	 2	INTRODUCTION	AND	LITERATURE	REVIEW  	The University of British Columbia (UBC) recently built a new Aquatic Centre, which incorporates a universal changeroom into its design. Toronto’s architecture firm MJMA designed the universal changeroom at the UBC Aquatic Centre (UBC AC) to improve inclusivity while offering users total privacy and the ability for every patron to feel secure (Dick-Agnew, 2018). This is achieved by individual changing stalls, accessibility features, and a welcoming, transparent environment. However, it is frequently inquired about the availability of separate, gendered changerooms (Frequently Asked Questions, n.d.). This brings into question the reasons why patrons are hesitant to use this new changing space. Despite their purposeful design, meant to ensure patrons’ full comfort and safety, there is a current lack of data exploring whether the universal changeroom is thoroughly fulfilling users’ expectations. The objective of this study is to explore the knowledgeability and understanding of patrons to further improve user experience thereby promoting the UBC AC as a supportive environment for physical activity. According to HCMA Architecture and Design (2018), there are multiple strategies on how to design universal changerooms. It is important to accommodate for all demographics to incorporate and standardize diverse needs (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). For example, providing washing stations of different heights can support the needs for younger children or people in wheelchairs (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). Although areas such as washing stations and lockers are shared, it is also essential to create privacy and sense of safety where it is needed (Dick-Agnew, 2018). Having individual stalls and doors with full height enclosures for changing rooms, showers, and toilets will enhance privacy and provide comfort for users (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). To make clear that individuals must use the cubicles when changing, the interior of the changeroom is designed to be visible from the outside (Dick-Agnew, 2018). This increases the visibility of the changeroom, allows shared monitoring for safety, and encourages patrons to make use of the space. Patchett and Foster (2015) acknowledge that the lack of information surrounding the novel universal changerooms may generate skepticism among patrons. It is crucial to welcome everyone with coherent signage emphasizing the function, inclusivity, and accessibility of these spaces (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). These may include key messages on conduct, the use of gender neutral terminology, and articulation of the changeroom’s function (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). These designs of the universal changeroom strives to create a functional, user-friendly, space for the UBC AC to promote physical activity in a welcoming environment.  Universal changerooms provide an alternative changing space for individuals who want added privacy or do not identify with the binary-gender changerooms (Patchett & Foster, 2015). Plummer (2006) indicates that single-sex sports changerooms may become an uncomfortable or threatening environment for those who feel different from their peers. Data collected from interviews of 30 males ranging from different ages and sexual orientation showed that young males in particular can feel more self-conscious about their physical development and sexual orientation when required to undress around their peers (Plummer, 2006). Discomfort and fear of being looked at or unintentionally looking at someone else are highly likely to occur in changerooms (Plummer, 2006). These feelings, termed sport phobias, cause a significant decrease in the level of physical activity in young males (Plummer, 2006). Therefore, it is important to consider how the configuration of these universal changerooms may reduce discomfort while improving safety for patrons. Similarly, transgender participants of a study conducted by Jones, Arcelus, Bouman and Haycraft (2017) report constant discomfort primarily caused by the infrastructure of changing facilities. After conducting semi-structured interviews with 16 pool managers, researchers found that a facility’s inclusivity of the LGBTQ+ community is affected by a number of factors, such as facility operations and marketing (Anderson et al., 2018). Furthermore, Anderson et al. (2018) provided managerial strategies to improve these barriers of inclusion in aquatic recreation environments. 	 3	Providing gender-neutral changing areas, training facility staff regarding LGBTQ+ issues, and implenting LGBTQ+ specific marketing efforts are thought to effectively reduce facility-use constraints (Anderson et al., 2018). Improvement in this domain would likely also have a positive impact on users’ experience in these spaces.  Binary-gendered spaces in aquatic centres, the focus of many facility-user issues, are seen to be detrimental to inclusion of the LGBTQ+ community (Anderson, Knee, Ramos, & Quash, 2018). Another population that is often affected by similar facility issues are individuals with disabilities.  When compared to the general population, physical activity behaviours are significantly reduced in individuals with disabilities, due in part to the limited accessibility of facilities (Yoh, Mohr, and Gordon 2008). Further, Grana (2018) establishes the importance of expanding knowledge about physical disability inclusion in recreational facilities. It is crucial that amenities like changerooms are accessible to users with mobility issues, different gender attendants, or trans and non-binary users (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). By presenting flexible spaces serviceable to any demographic, universal changerooms enhance inclusivity for all users of the facility (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). The UBC AC’s universal changeroom aims to serve as a welcoming and safe environment to all patrons who visit the UBC AC.  It can be seen from the literature that changeroom design can significantly affect the physical activity behaviours of a facility’s users. Due to the sheer novelty of universal changerooms at UBC, there remains uncertainty of whether the effects of the space, if any, are beneficial for improving patron’s participation at the aquatic centre. Therefore, the purpose of this study aims to review and examine the implementation of the universal changeroom in the UBC AC. This study uses patron’s survey responses to help explore suggestions to improve the current experience in the UBC AC’s universal changeroom and also for future recreational facilities on the UBC campus.  METHODS	AND	PROCEDURE	 The following steps are the procedure used to collect and examine the data used to develop recommendations for improvement of the management and promotion of the universal changerooms. The first completed action was meeting with the assigned SEEDS partner contact to discuss the purpose and background of the project “Universal Changerooms: Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms”. Additionally, the contribution, design and deliverables, and special considerations were also disclosed. Academic and grey literature were then reviewed to explore practices of universal changerooms and washrooms in a variety of fitness facilities and to identify gaps in the literature. A mixed methods approach was implemented to gain statistical information as well as personal experiences from a diverse population of participants. The theoretical population of this study is defined as users of the universal changeroom in the UBC AC. This includes, but is not limited to, the LGBTQ+ community, families, people with disabilities, and users with different gendered attendants. A convenience sampling strategy was utilized by this study; researchers provided online surveys to patrons that were outside the universal changeroom at the UBC AC during the peak weekend hours. This strategy provided the optimal timeline to reach a larger population and reach a greater diversity of participant demographic.    Two methods of data collection were used. The first involved collection throughout the course of a weekend during the peak business hours of the UBC AC. Participants were approached after their swim in various public waiting areas around the UBC AC. If an individual was unavailable to complete the survey at that time, they were offered an information card with an option to complete the survey 	 4	online at their leisure. The second data collection method was convenience sampling through a survey link which was posted in UBC student groups online. The distributed survey was created through the Qualtrics software provided by UBC and administered on a tablet for added privacy. Participants were asked to read and sign the consent form (Figure 1.1, Appendix A), which was automatically provided upon visiting the link and required informed consent before authorized access to the survey. The consent form informed of the right to discontinue their participation at any time. Participants who discontinued their involvement were given the option to have previous information removed from the study. No compensation was provided for participating in this research. The survey consisted of questions that provide both quantitative and qualitative data. It included questions regarding patron demographic to determine any knowledge gaps between the different age-groups or genders/sexualities that utilize the changerooms. These questions will allow us to analyze the experiences of these demographics and the users’ knowledge of the concept of a universal changeroom. According to HCMA Architecture and Design (2018), the UBC AC was constructed with specific transparent enclosures to enhance the sense of privacy and comfort for its users. Therefore, the questions used in this study not only investigated patrons’ knowledge about the universal changeroom but also whether the structure provides them the intended level of amenity. To best understand user experiences, the survey posed open-ended questions to the participants regarding their understanding and involvement with the universal changerooms. All the survey questions can be found in Figure 1.2 (Appendix A). DATA	ANALYSIS	Once all data from the survey was transcribed, the data was analyzed using content and thematic analysis. Thematic analysis was used on qualitative data collected from open ended questions by searching for themes within the responses and identifying patterns in that content. Qualitative data also use content analysis by keeping count of frequent certain barriers were mentioned and identified. Content analysis was also used with quantitative data, where participants were asked to rate experience through a likert-scale which was then transcribed into graphs to quantify similar responses. Multiple questions on the survey asked participants to explain why they chose a certain response. These answers are then used to give context to themes that were identified as barriers in our study. The data collected from our analysis allowed us to contrast the difference between universal and gender assigned changerooms. It also compared the different needs and concerns of females, males, transgender, and non-conforming participants. Through this process we are able to identify issues and create recommendations for improvements.RESULTS	AND	FINDINGS: All results discussed can be found in Appendix A and raw data can be found in Appendix B. PARTICIPANT DEMOGRAPHIC While 52 participants were surveyed, only 45 valid and complete surveys were returned, which still exceeds the proposed objective of 40 participants. About 55% of participants identified as female, approximately 40% identified as male, and less than the remaining 5% identified as transgender or non-conforming (Figure 2.1, Appendix A). 91% of survey responses were completed by patrons between the ages of 18 and 29 years, 4% were responded by patrons between the ages 30 and 39 years, while the remaining 5% was split between patrons falling in the age groups of 50 to 59 years or over 60 years (Figure 2.2, Appendix A). 	 5	PARTICIPANT EXPERIENCE AND USE OF CHANGEROOM When asked about the function of the universal changeroom, patrons frequently used words implying the changeroom as an inclusive environment and design to allow a diverse space (Figure A).        The breakdown of the typical changeroom patrons will use when participating at the UBC AC is as follows (Figure A).  Of those who typically use the universal changeroom, 62% are male, while 23% are female, and 15% are transgender or non-conforming.   Out of all the participants, 72% had previously used the universal changerooms. Of these participants, only 45% reported that they feel extremely comfortable while using the universal changerooms, while the remaining 55% reports ranged from feeling slightly uncomfortable to moderately comfortable (Figure 2.3, Appendix A). Users of the universal changeroom were asked to report the level that the space meets their overall needs. While only 28% declared their satisfaction as extremely well, 69% reported the changeroom to meet their needs at a level of moderately to very well, and a marginal 3% stating complete dissatisfaction (Figure 2.4, Appendix A). The 28% of participants who had not used the universal changerooms reported that they refrain from using this space due to a variety of reasons, such as comfort, privacy, size, and misunderstanding (Figure 2.5 Appendix A).   PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO USING THE UNIVERSAL CHANGEROOM The survey provided input on each participant’s knowledge, experience, and concerns in regard to the universal changerooms. Using a thematic analysis of responses by participants, we determined 3 perceived barriers to using the universal changeroom. These 3 themes included: (1) Safety, (2) Maintenance, and (3) Circulation of Appropriate Information (Figure C).  Figure	B Figure	A 	 6	Theme Characteristics Times Mentioned Safety Specific policies 2 Desire to change/shower openly  3 Visible to non-AC public  7 Maintenance  Cleanliness  3 Broken Amenities 4 Showers 4 Accessibility Space 7 Features for people with disabilities  1  Circulation of Appropriate Information Misunderstanding layout of changeroom 4 Non cis-gendered patrons 3  Safety 18 out of 25 female participants continue to use women’s changerooms instead of universal changerooms due to safety concerns. Many of their criticisms attributed their discomfort from being visible to the public outside of the UBC AC. Further commentary revealed that is a common preference to change and shower openly rather than in a cubicle.  “People	outside	can	see	you	a	bit	when	in	the	universal	room.	[It	is]	Easier	to	not	have	to	 find	an	empty	change	closet/	washroom	 in	 the	women’s	 [change]room,	can	 just	easily	change	right	there	(…)	in	comfort”	–	Participant		“Men’s	[changeroom]	has	no	cubicles	so	less	private	from	people	around	you	but	when	walking	back	 from	the	pool	 in	your	 swim	suit	people	 from	outside	can't	 see	you”	–	Participant		Figure	C 	 7	“You	can	strip	naked	anywhere	in	the	women's	and	nobody	will	give	you	a	second	look	which	is	nice”	–	Participant		Additionally, participants not only questioned the ambiguity of policies specific to the universal changeroom, but also claimed other patrons for not following policies.  “It	 is	 sometime	 uncomfortable	 because	 there	 are	men	 who	 will	 go	 and	 sit	 on	 the	benches	and	just	look	into	the	changeroom.”	–	Participant	“Because	you	have	to	go	into	stalls	to	change,	parents	won’t	always	have	an	eye	on	their	kids.”	–	Participant	 Maintenance The dissatisfaction of the cleanliness and maintenance of the universal changeroom was commonly mentioned in the survey responses. The primary comments were focused on the malfunctioning showers, a dirty appearance, and broken amenities.  “Should	 be	 cleaned	 more	 often,	 and	 broken	 showers	 fixed.	 The	 lockers	 are	 often	jammed	and	a	lot	keys	do	not	have	wristbands.”	–	Participant	“Can	we	get	warmer	showers?”	–	Participant	“The	 bathrooms	 are	 usually	 dirty,	 showers	 broken.	 Dryers	 inconveniently	 located	above	toilets.”	–	Participant		Participants highlighted design flaws that caused a decrease in accessibility and accommodation to the volume of people that use universal changerooms. Results determined that space in the universal changeroom during peak hours was a primary concern.  “It's	 really	 busy	 in	 both	 change	 rooms,	 but	 Women's	 has	 more	 locker	space.”	 –	Participant			“There	are	smaller	changing	cubicles	in	universal	and	not	women’s	or	men’s.	Not	many	benches	in	universal	outside	of	cubicles.”	–	Participant		A concern involving a person with disabilities criticized the infrastructure and maintenance, which interfered with the accessibility of the changeroom.  “My	friend	who	takes	her	grandma	in	a	wheelchair	says	that	the	doors	are	really	heavy	which	makes	it	difficult	for	her	to	get	in	and	out	of	stalls—sometimes	the	accessibility	buttons	don’t	work.”	–	Participant	  	 8	Circulation of Appropriate Information Those who claimed they did not know about the universal changeroom prior to their first visit to the UBC AC made up 30% of participants (Figure 2.6, Appendix A). 25% of those responses claimed that after learning about the space changed their participation in the UBC AC (Figure 2.7, Appendix A). Out of the 70% of participants who knew about the changerooms, there was an 8% who said their knowledge of this space would change their physical activity (Figure 2.8, Appendix A). This 8% included participants are part of the non-cis gendered community.  Data was collected on how patrons learned about the universal changeroom (Figure D).    Although 64% of information was learned through UBC audited means, the remaining 37% patrons gained their knowledge of the universal changerooms through word of mouth and observation.  Multiple survey responses included queries about the space’s structure and misjudgments surrounding who may be permitted into the changeroom.  “Why	is	it	so	large?	Why	is	it	glass?”	–	Participant		“I	question	whether	 the	space	 is	enclosed	enough	 to	make	people	 feel	 comfortable	changing	there.”	–	Participant		 DISCUSSION	 The focus of this study was to explore the needs of the UBC AC patrons to assess if the universal changeroom is fully serving the needs of its users.  A total of 45 participants answered our survey questions in regards to how they use the space, their knowledge about universal changerooms, and what can be improved to encourage the use of these changerooms. Our results determined many concerns during patrons’ experience in the UBC AC universal changerooms. Based on our findings, a primary barrier to user’s full satisfactory experience of the universal changeroom is patron’s perceived privacy and safety.  Although 30 of the participants answered that they have used the universal washroom before, their use of the space is not consistent and most still resort to using gender assigned changerooms. For example, out of the 25 females that answered our survey 18 of them still choose to use the women’s changeroom even though they have been in the universal changerooms before (Figure B). The most common reason cited by participants as to why they still use gender assigned changerooms is the privacy offered by the opaque walls. While the the universal changerooms were intended to reduce privacy concerns by allowing patrons to use individual stalls (Dick-Agnew, 2018), participants Figure	D 	 9	contrarily feel a lack of privacy due, in part, to another concern about the universal changerooms—a diminished feeling of safety A frequently shared experience among participants was that a lack of a feeling of safety created a general unease while using the universal changerooms. A significant portion of the participants, many female, felt that they were often being watched through the glass design of the changeroom. The deliberate transparency feature was intended to reduce theft and cut down on harassment (Dick-Agnew, 2018). However it appears that making it possible for the public to view you from the outside actually has the unintended effect of reducing feelings of safety and makes many users uncomfortable with the space. Male participants on the other hand like to use the universal changerooms because it is less crowded and more spacious. For many female participants, it seems they prefer changing and showering openly rather than in cubicles. Additionally, some of the female respondents feel uncomfortable sharing changerooms with males despite the private changing stalls.  A further concern for safety came from parents who did not feel comfortable letting their child alone in universal changerooms; this resonated with parents with daughters, in particular. Many participants mention the limited protocols specifically for the changeroom. Commentary frequently discussed how the lack of monitoring of user’s poor conduct while in the space discourages patrons to go to the universal changeroom. Another common barrier which people encountered while using universal changerooms was the maintenance and cleanliness of the space. The universal changerooms are expectedly a high traffic area - this is the first access point to the pool deck. However, a majority of the people who choose not to use the space expressed disappointment stating that universal changerooms are constantly dirty, making it uncomfortable to use. Further complaints include jammed lockers, nonfunctional showers, and full stalls during high traffic times. It then takes a long period of time for issues to be fixed which creates less space for locker use, longer wait time for shower stalls, and reduced changing options. overall making the space undesirable to use. Perhaps a more striking issue are those that affect the accessibility of the space for individuals with disabilities. One respondent included a comment about accessibility buttons which are often broken and private stall doors being too heavy. Some of these features were specifically included to improve not only the accessibility of the space, but also to assure the safety of the patrons (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018), but may actually be deterring individuals from entering the using the universal changeroom in the first place. Finally, the lack of use from the remaining 29% of the participants stem from not knowing it exists and misunderstanding who is allowed to use the changerooms. Some individuals who do not use the space think universal changerooms are reserved only for those who are non-cisgender patrons, or families. Out of all the participants, 70% previously knew about the universal changerooms, which mirrors the ratio of participants who have previously used the space. This indicates that a gap of patrons who do not use the universal changeroom may be due to a lack of promotion. Only 40% of participants learned about the universal changeroom through a UBC representative or website, which questions the validity of information the other 60% of participants are receiving. It is unclear if this information is due to misunderstanding or incorrect circulation of information.  From the qualitative data that has been collected from the surveys, the 92% of the participants did not think learning about the universal changeroom change will affect their participation in physical activities at the UBC AC. This reveals that providing another option for changing is not a factor that could affect the level of physical activities for the majority of users in the UBC AC. However, of these individuals who claimed to not have prior knowledge of the universal changerooms, 25% of identified as transgender. This participant also stated a change in participation at the UBC AC after learning more about the universal changeroom. This response was given by only one of two non-cis gendered 	 10	participants in the study. This characterizes the lack of participation from this community at the aquatic centre. The universal changeroom is designed for people who are more comfortable in non-gendered areas (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). The idea that this target community is not receiving information regarding these spaces displays a lack of appropriate education and circulation of knowledge.  The present study, however, has some limitations. After collecting our data, we encountered a lack of diversity among our participants. One of the main purposes of a universal changeroom is to create an inclusive space for all users (HCMA Architecture and Design, 2018). Unlike the expected outcome, there was lack of transgender and non-conforming participants in the study. Since our discussion analyzes data surrounding the experiences of primarily females and males (Figure 2.1), our recommendations may be limited to only benefit these two genders. Additionally, with the majority of the sample belonging to the age group of 18-29, this study’s sample does not accurately represent the population of UBC AC users. Since the data was collected from the patrons continuing to use the UBC AC, it excludes the concerns from the population who chose to not visit the UBC AC. This may counteract the purpose of improving a more inclusive environment. Future studies should aim to recruit a larger sample size with a wider diversity of the population in order to obtain a broader view from different people and to represent more accurate results. Stratified sampling could be an ideal selection process to achieve this result.  RECOMMENDATIONS	RECOMMENDATION #1: Improvement of safety protocols specific to universal changeroom.  We recommend that a code of conduct is made specifically for the universal changeroom. Although patrons understand the concept of the changeroom, it is unclear to some what the safety protocols are. Although there are codes of conduct and behaviour signage around the pool, it can be helpful for a list of rules for users to follow when specifically, in the universal changeroom. Confusion and unawareness of demeanor in the universal changeroom is expected, which is why it is important that signage and user education define the distinctive behaviours in the changeroom (HCMA Architecture & Design, 2018). If signage specifically for the universal changeroom was displayed for patrons before they enter into the changing area, then new users can not only discern the differences of conduct in each space, but also develop a greater understanding of the intentional design. This can be used as an opportunity to clearly outline where people should change, who is allowed in the universal changeroom, and ways to act in the space. The openness on either side of the universal changeroom was an issue that was brought up multiple times in our data. In order to help users in the changeroom feel more comfortable, we suggest moving the benches outside the windows of the changeroom so patrons who choose to sit and wait outside the changerooms are not able to look directly into the vulnerable space. Another solution may be to frost the glass facing outside the aquatic centre to allow some transparency, but also give patrons more sense of privacy. It is also recommended a protocol is implemented to ensure that there are no loiterers outside the universal changeroom that may cause an unsafe or uncomfortable environment for patrons inside the changeroom.   RECOMMENDATION #2: Improve maintenance of changeroom  To help increase patron’s satisfaction in the universal changerooms we recommend the spaces are constantly monitored to be operational and to maintain cleanliness. Many concerns and 	 11	reasons raised by participants who do not use this space are largely focused on the functionality of the universal changeroom. According to Stanis et al. multiple attributes including cleanliness and safety in recreational settings are more inviting for patrons and help encourage physical activity. By ensuring the universal changeroom is continually operative and meets the needs of its users, it may encourage other patrons to use the space. These aspects of the facility – touchable items that are part of the service environment – are identified as tangible elements by Lentell (2000). As highlighted in our results, many dysfunctional features of the universal changerooms are deterring patrons from using the space. These common grievances revealed from our data, such as faulty showers and malfunctioning lockers, are basic amenities for recreational changing spaces. In order to effectively increase usage and patron satisfaction of any leisure service, Lentell (2000) suggests that the most important change to be made involves refining the tangible elements of the facility. If the goal is to attract a more diverse user population for the universal changerooms, the essential features should be the primary focus of maintenance. Additionally, a standout criticism reported in our results addressed a patron’s challenging experience with heavy doors and defective accessibility buttons. Yoh, Mohr, and Gordon (2008) consider that a key reason for low physical activity participation among students with disabilities are due to the circumstance that the facility’s accessibility fundamentals are frequently ignored. To further attract patrons with disabilities for which the universal changeroom is designed for, it is recommended to ensure the accessibility features of the space are operational. As suggested by Osmon, Cole, and Vessel (2006), the cleanliness and functionality of the facility’s amenities are vital for user’s satisfaction and a greater level of upkeep can result in a higher return of users in the future.  RECOMMENDATION #3: Target audience marketing of universal changeroom.  As highlighted in our data, there was limited participation from a number of marginalized groups; more specifically, transgender people and people with disabilities. To improve the physical activity behaviours of these marginalized groups we recommend using deliberate promotion strategies of the universal changeroom space as a means to attract these target populations to participate in the programs and initiatives held at the aquatic centre. These promotion strategies may include the “snowball technique” explored by Sadler, Lee, Lim and Fullerton (2010), in which individuals from a specific community use their network to recruit similar participants. Transgender people, in general, suffer negative experiences when engaging in physical activity caused by barriers which range further than the availability of adequate changing facilities (Jones, Arcelus, Bouman & Haycraft, 2017). Barriers range from body dissatisfaction to transphobia associated with participating in physical activity (Jones et al., 2017). Additionally, Yoh et al. (2008) reports the engagement in physical activity of people with disabilities is significantly lower than that in the general population. These reasons, similarly, are not limited to the environmental barriers, but are guided by the lack of integration of these students in collegiate environments (Yoh et al., 2008). A benefit for this particular “snowball technique” is the great deal of trust it engenders among the possible participants since information is circulated by their peers. (Sadler et al., 2010). By using this targeted marketing approach – or what is known as “narrowcasting” (Sadler et al., 2010) – UBC can successfully disseminate positive messages of the universal changerooms to these narrowly defined audiences, which may encourage increased physical activity behaviour at the UBC AC.  As discussed by Anderson et al. (2018), a comfortable changeroom experience precedes a more pleasurable user experience when in the swimming pool environment. A comfortable environment will not only foster improved physical activity behaviours, but also physical and mental health (Patchett & Foster, 2015). Not only do the patrons of the UBC Aquatic Centre benefit from further research, but also the patrons of facilities that are currently using or designing universal changerooms. 	 12	REFERENCES	Anderson, A. R., Knee, E., Ramos, W. D., & Quash, T. M. (2018). "We just treat everyone the same":   LGBTQ aquatic management strategies, barriers and implementation. International Journal   of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(1), 2. Beemyn, B. G., Domingue, A., Pettitt, J., & Smith, T. (2005). Suggested steps to make campuses   more trans-inclusive. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 3(1), 89-94. DOI:    10.1300/J367v03n01_09 Dick-Agnew, D. (2018). How MJMA designed the UBC aquatic centre’s universal changerooms.   Retrieved from https://www.azuremagazine.com/article/mjma-ubc-aquatic-centre-universal- change-room Frequently Asked Questions. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://recreationaquatics.sites.olt.ubc.ca/frequently-asked-questions. HCMA Architecture & Design. (2018). Strategies for universal washrooms and changerooms.    Designing For Inclusivity. Retrieved from         https://hcma.ca/wpcontent/uploads/2018/01/Designing_For_Inclusivity.pdf Jones, B. A., Arcelus, J., Bouman, W. P., & Haycraft, E. (2017). Barriers and facilitators of physical   activity and sport participation among young transgender adults who are medically    transitioning. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(2), 227-238. Lentell, R. (2000). Untangling the tangibles:'physical evidence'and customer satisfaction in local   authority leisure centres. Managing Leisure, 5(1), 1-16. Osman, R. W., Cole, S. T., & Vessell, C. R. (2006). Examining the role of perceived service quality in  predicting user satisfaction and behavioral intentions in a campus recreation setting. Recreational Sports Journal, 30(1), 20-29. Patchett, E., & Foster, J. (2015). Inclusive recreation: the state of campus policies, facilities,  trainings, and programs for transgender participants. Recreational Sports Journal, 39(2), 83- 91. Plummer, D. (2006). Sportophobia: why do some men avoid sport? Journal of Sport and Social   Issues, 30(2), 122–137. DOI: 10.1177/0193723505285817 Sadler, G. R., Lee, H. C., Lim, R. S. H., & Fullerton, J. (2010). Recruitment of hard-to-reach population   subgroups via adaptations of the snowball sampling strategy. Nursing & health    sciences, 12(3), 369-374. Stanis, W., Sonja, A., Schneider, I. E., Shinew, K. J., Chavez, D. J., & Vogel, M. C. (2009). Physical   Activity and the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: Differences in Important Site Attributes   and Perceived Constraints. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 27(4). Yoh, T., Mohr, M., & Gordon, B. (2008). Assessing satisfaction with campus recreation facilities   among college students with physical disabilities. Recreational Sports Journal, 32(2), 106- 113.   	 13	APPENDIX	A	Figure	1.1			2019-04-02, 11)56 AMQualtrics Survey SoftwarePage 1 of 6https://ubc.ca1.qualtrics.com/WRQualtricsControlPanel/Ajax.php?action=GetSurveyPrintPreviewUBC-AC Universal Change Room SurveyBlock 1Hello and welcome to our survey. With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a confidential survey. With the information gathered, students will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage with the universal change rooms at the UBC Aquatic Centre. Principal Investigator:Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education) The purpose of the class project:To gather knowledge and expertise from community members on topics related to physical activity, recreation, and health promotion. Project outcomes:The information gathered from survey questions will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library:https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library Potential benefits of class project:There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting activities or initiatives in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences. Confidentiality:Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants who participate in the survey is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. responses) and signed consent forms will be kept in a 	 14			 		 15	Figure	1.2		 16		 17		 18		Figure	2.1			 19	Figure	2.2		Figure	2.3		 20	Figure	2.4		Figure	2.5				 21	Figure	2.6	Figure	2.7		 22	Figure	2.8			APPENDIX	B		Default	Report	UBC	AC	universal	change	room	April	2nd	2019,	10:19	am	MDT		New	Custom	Page			 		 23	Q23	-	Hello	and	welcome	to	our	survey.	With	your	permission,	we	are	asking	you	to	participate	in	a	confidential	survey.	With	the	information	gathered,	students	will	critically	examine	how	different	individuals	understand	or	engage	with	the	universal	change	rooms	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre.					Principal	Investigator:		Negin	Riazi	(PhD	Candidate,	School	of	Kinesiology,	Faculty	of	Education)					The	purpose	of	the	class	project:		To	gather	knowledge	and	expertise	from	community	members	on	topics	related	to	physical	activity,	recreation,	and	health	promotion.					Project	outcomes:		The	information	gathered	from	survey	questions	will	be	part	of	a	written	report	for	the	class	project.	The	written	report	will	be	shared	with	the	community	partners	involved	with	the	project.	Summaries	of	findings	will	also	be	posted	on	the	following	websites.	No	personal	information/information	that	could	identify	participants	will	be	included	in	these	reports.					UBC	SEEDS	Program	Library:		https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library					Potential	benefits	of	class	project:		There	are	no	explicit	benefits	to	you	by	taking	part	in	this	class	project.	However,	the	survey	will	provide	you	with	the	opportunity	to	voice	your	opinion	on	your	experiences	with	health	promoting	activities	or	initiatives	in	a	broad	sense	and	will	provide	the	students	with	an	opportunity	to	learn	from	your	experiences.					Confidentiality:		Maintaining	the	confidentiality	of	the	participants	who	participate	in	the	survey	is	paramount,	and	no	names	will	be	asked	for.					At	the	completion	of	the	course,	all	data	(i.e.	responses)	and	signed	consent	forms	will	be	kept	in	a	locked	filing	cabinet	in	Negin	Riazi’s	office	in	the	Population	Physical	Activity	Lab	(2259	Lower	Mall)	at	the	University	of	British	Columbia.	All	data	and	consent	forms	will	be	destroyed	1	year	after	completion	of	the	course.					Risks:		The	risks	associated	with	participating	in	this	research	are	minimal.	There	are	no	known	physical,	economic,	or	social	risks	associated	with	participation	in	this	study.	Although	there	is	a	schedule	of	questions,	you	are	free	to	refuse	to	answer	specific	questions.	You	should	know	that	your	participation	is	completely	voluntary	and	you	are	free	to	withdraw	from	the	interview	and	there	will	not	be	negative	impacts	related	to	your	withdrawal.	If	you	withdraw	from	the	study,	all	of	the	information	you	have	shared	up	until	that	point	will	be	destroyed.					Contact	for	information	about	the	study:		If	you		 24	have	any	questions	about	this	class	project,	you	can	contact	Negin	Riazi	by	phone	at	604-822-5288	or	by	email	at	negin.riazi@ubc.ca					Research	ethics	complaints:		If	you	have	any	concerns	or	complaints	about	your	rights	as	a	research	participant	and/or	your	experiences	while	participating	in	this	study,	contact	the	Research	Participant	Complaint	Line	in	the	UBC	Office	of	Research	Ethics	at	604-822-8598	or	e-mail	RSIL@ors.ubc.ca	.	or	call	toll	free	1-877-822-8598.								Consent:		Your	participation	in	this	survey	is	entirely	voluntary	and	you	may	refuse	to	participate	or	withdraw	from	the	survey	at	any	time.					Your	completion	indicates	that	you	consent	to	participate	in	this	study.			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Hello	and	welcome	to	our	survey.	With	your	permission,	we	are	asking	you	to	participate	in	a	confidential	survey.	With	the	information	gathered,	students	will	critically	examine	how	different	individuals	understand	or	engage	with	the	universal	change	rooms	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre.					Principal	Investigator:		Negin	Riazi	(PhD	Candidate,	School	of	Kinesiology,	Faculty	of	Education)					The	purpose	of	the	1.00	 1.00	 1.00	 0.00	 0.00	 49		 25	class	project:		To	gather	knowledge	and	expertise	from	community	members	on	topics	related	to	physical	activity,	recreation,	and	health	promotion.					Project	outcomes:		The	information	gathered	from	survey	questions	will	be	part	of	a	written	report	for	the	class	project.	The	written	report	will	be	shared	with	the	community	partners	involved	with	the	project.	Summaries	of	findings	will	also	be	posted	on	the	following	websites.	No	personal	information/information	that	could	identify	participants	will	be	included	in	these	reports.					UBC	SEEDS	Program	Library:		https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library					Potential	benefits	of	class	project:		There	are	no	explicit	benefits	to	you	by	taking	part	in	this	class	project.	However,	the	survey	will	provide	you	with	the	opportunity	to	voice	your	opinion	on	your	experiences	with	health	promoting	activities	or	initiatives	in	a	broad	sense	and	will	provide	the	students	with	an	opportunity	to	learn	from	your	experiences.					Confidentiality:		Maintaining	the	confidentiality	of	the	participants	who	participate	in	the	survey	is	paramount,	and	no	names	will	be	asked	for.					At	the	completion	of	the	course,	all	data	(i.e.	responses)	and	signed	consent	forms	will	be	kept	in	a	locked	filing	cabinet	in	Negin	Riazi’s	office	in	the	Population	Physical	Activity	Lab	(2259	Lower	Mall)	at	the	University	of	British	Columbia.	All	data	and	consent	forms	will	be	destroyed	1	year		 26	after	completion	of	the	course.					Risks:		The	risks	associated	with	participating	...				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Yes,	I	consent	to	participate.	 100.00%	 49		 Total	 100%	 49	Q1	-	What	age	group	do	you	belong	to?				 27	#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 What	age	group	do	you	belong	to?	 1.00	 5.00	 1.20	 0.74	 0.55	 46				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 18-29	 91.30%	 42	2	 30-39	 4.35%	 2	3	 40-49	 0.00%	 0	4	 50-59	 2.17%	 1	5	 60+	 2.17%	 1		 Total	 100%	 46	Q2	-	To	which	gender	identity	do	you	identify?				 28	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Male	 40.43%	 19	2	 Female	 55.32%	 26	3	 Transgender	 2.13%	 1	4	 Gender	variant/non-conforming	 2.13%	 1	5	 Not	listed	(please	specify)	 0.00%	 0	6	 Prefer	not	to	answer	 0.00%	 0		 Total	 100%	 47			Q16	-	How	often	do	you	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 How	often	do	you	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	 1.00	 4.00	 2.55	 1.03	 1.06	 47				 29		#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 This	is	my	first	time	 12.77%	 6	2	 1-3	times	a	week	 46.81%	 22	3	 3-5	times	a	week	 12.77%	 6	4	 5+	times	a	week	 27.66%	 13		 Total	 100%	 47	Q3	-	When	do	you	usually	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	Choose	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Weekdays	 28.30%	 30	2	 Weekends	 21.70%	 23	3	 Morning	 15.09%	 16	4	 Afternoon	 17.92%	 19	5	 Evening	 16.98%	 18		 30		 Total	 100%	 106	Q6	-	Who	do	you	visit	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre	with?	Choose	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 No	one,	I	swim	alone.	 26.79%	 15	2	 My	child/children	 3.57%	 2	3	 My	friend(s)	 44.64%	 25	4	 My	significant	other	 10.71%	 6	5	 Other	(please	specify)	 14.29%	 8		 Total	 100%	 56			Q6_5_TEXT	-	Other	(please	specify)		 31	Other	(please	specify)	-	Text	Swim	club	Swim	club	My	swim	team	teammates	Synchro	team	Ubc	swim	club	team	Q7	-	What	change	room	do	you	choose	to	use	when	visiting	the	pool?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	What	change	room	do	you	choose	to	use	when	visiting	the	pool?	1.00	 3.00	 1.88	 0.87	 0.75	 43					 32	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Women's	change	room	 44.19%	 19	2	 Men's	change	room	 23.26%	 10	3	 Universal	change	room	 32.56%	 14		 Total	 100%	 43	Q8	-	What	do	you	believe	the	purpose	of	the	universal	change	room	is?	Briefly	explain.	Word	groupings	of	patron's	explanation	of	their	understanding	of	the	universal	changeroom.	What	do	you	believe	the	purpose	of	the	universal	change	room	is?	Briefly	explain.	For	people	who	are	not	comfortable	in	a	same	sex	change	room,	or	for	families	with	kids	(ex.	dad	at	the	pool	with	daughters)	There	are	a	lot	of	people	who	do	not	identify	as	either	male	or	female	or	are	uncomfortable	by	using	gendered	washrooms	so	it	creates	a	space	where	can	change	comfortably.	Its	also	used	by	families	so	they	do	not	have	to	solit	up	when	changing.	I	have	used	it	with	my	boyfriend	so	we	don’t	have	to	pay	for	two	separate	lockers	and	he	can	help	me	tie	my	swimsuit.	Family	change	room	and	anyone	else	that	wants	to	use.	For	people	to	change	before	their	swim	An	inclusive	space	for	everyone	to	change	To	change	To	be	all	inclusive!	Transgender	individuals,	families,	if	you	want	to	change	with	your	friends	of	the	opposite	gender	To	provide	and	inclusive	space	for	change	that	is	great	for	families	and	for	gender-non-conforming	folks	to	avoid	any	uncomfort.	Also	great	for	everyone	else!	To	create	a	new	change	room	space	that	one	can	choose	if	they	feel	most	comfortable	there	So	that	we	are	inclusive	to	all	genders/	sexual	orientations.		It	also	provides	an	area	for	families	to	enter	together.	Everybody	can	find	their	way	to	use	it		 33	Efficient	use	of	space	and	sexual	orientation	neutral	Everyone	is	welcome.	Privacy	is	increased.	Family	members	can	use	together	To	give	all	genders	a	place	to	change	Convenience	for	families	Able	to	be	used	by	anyone	regardless	of	gender	identity	for	anyone	to	change	in	cubicles	No	need	to	ask	questions,	accepts	everyone,	good	for	families	To	allow	families	to	change	comfortably	together,	while	also	allowing	non-gender	conforming	individuals	to	feel	they	have	a	safe	space	to	change.	I	feel	like	it	is	mostly	to	make	it	an	"inclusive	space".	I	think	UBC	tries	to	stress	their	image	of	being	progressive,	so	these	change	rooms	are	a	reflection	of	that	An	inclusive	space	for	everyone,	no	matter	age,	gender,	orientation,	individuals	or	families.	To	be	inclusive	to	those	who	don’t	identify	as	either	male	or	female	To	have	a	locker	room	where	all	people	are	comfortable	changing.	For	those	who	dont	identify	with	the	binary	gender	labels	but	also	could	be	useful	for	families	So	everyone	has	somewhere	to	change	To	provide	a	inclusive	changeroom	for	anyone	who	feels	comfortable	using	it	Place	to	keep	my	items	and	valuables	while	I	swim	The	purpose	of	a	universal	change	room	is	to	provide	a	place	for	everyone,	regardless	of	identity	or	ability,	to	change	in	an	area	that	makes	them	feel	comfortable.	To	provide	a	space	for	people	who	don't	want	to	change	in	the	gender	binary	change	rooms.	Give	a	place	for	families	to	change	together.	Families	with	kids,	people	who	don’t	identify	by	the	male	or	female	or	cisgender.	Make	people	feel	comfortable	To	provide	a	place	where	people	who	don't	identify	as	male	or	female	can	change	To	allow	families	to	change	together	and	for	people	who	don’t	feel	comfortable	using	men’s	or	women’s	changeroom.	No	idea		 34	Provide	a	safe	space	for	those	who	choose	not	to	use	gendered	changerooms	because	of	their	identity,	family,	or	privacy	concerns.						 		 35	Q10	-	Who	do	you	think	is	allowed	in	the	universal	change	room?	Briefly	explain.		Who	do	you	think	is	allowed	in	the	universal	change	room?	Briefly	explain.	Everyone	Everyone	Anyone.	Everyone,	but	more	specifically	catered	to	families,	people	with	disabilities,	and	those	who	don't	feel	comfortable	going	into	a	gendered	space.	Anyone	who	wants	to	Everyone.	Anyone	Anyone	Everyone	(who	is	being	respectful	and	responsible	in	the	area).	Those	who	identify	as	neither	man	or	woman	or	just	feel	most	free	in	that	environment	I	think	everyone	and	anyone	is	allowed	in	this	change	room.	Everyone	Everybody	All	genders.	Anyone	Everyone	normal	items...clothes,	swim	gear,	towel	Anyone	I	think	anyone	is	allowed	in	the	universal	change	room,	that’s	why	it	is	universal.	literally	anybody	Everyone		 36	Anyone	Anyone	who	prefers	it	to	the	gendered	change	rooms.	Anyone	Everyone	because	that’s	who	it’s	meant	for	Anyone	Anyone	who	desires	People	who	identify	outside	of	the	binary	or	those	with	mobility	issues	or	children	Everyone	Everyone	cuz	it’s	universal......	Anyone.	Males	or	females	Everyone	All	patrons	of	the	pool,	except	varsity	swimmers	who	have	lockers	in	the	men’s	or	women’s	changerooms.	Everyone	Everyone.	However,	by	having	the	universal	changerooms	and	the	gendered	changerooms,	it	implies	that	the	universal	should	almost	be	reserved	for	people	who	need	it	over	those	who	feel	comfortable	using	either.				 37			 		 38	Q11	-	Have	you	used	the	universal	change	room?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 Have	you	used	the	universal	change	room?	 1.00	 2.00	 1.28	 0.45	 0.20	 43				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Yes	 72.09%	 31	2	 No	 27.91%	 12		 Total	 100%	 43		 		 39	Q12	-	How	comfortable	are	you	when	using	the	change	room?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	 How	comfortable	are	you	when	using	the	change	room?	 1.00	 5.00	 1.90	 1.12	 1.27	 29				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Extremely	comfortable	 44.83%	 13		 40	2	 Moderately	comfortable	 37.93%	 11	3	 Slightly	comfortable	 6.90%	 2	4	 Neither	comfortable	nor	uncomfortable	 3.45%	 1	5	 Slightly	uncomfortable	 6.90%	 2	6	 Moderately	uncomfortable	 0.00%	 0	7	 Extremely	uncomfortable	 0.00%	 0		 Total	 100%	 29		 		 41	Q13	-	Why	do	you	choose	to	not	use	the	universal	change	room?		Please	select	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Comfort	 23.53%	 4	2	 Privacy	 35.29%	 6	3	 Change	room	space	 17.65%	 3	4	 Other	 23.53%	 4	5	 I	prefer	not	to	answer	 0.00%	 0		 Total	 100%	 17		 42			Q13_4_TEXT	-	Other	Other	-	Text	No	reason	in	particular	I	identify	as	female	and	went	swimming	with	all	females	Locker	in	women’s	changeroom	I	feel	like	it	isn't	my	place	to	use	it,	as	it	was	designed	for	those	who	don't	feel	comfortable	using	gendered	changerooms.		 		 43	Q20	-	How	well	does	the	structure	of	the	universal	change	room	meet	your	needs?	(i.e.	change	room	space,	privacy,	accessibility	etc.)			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Extremely	well	 27.59%	 8	2	 Very	well	 41.38%	 12	3	 Moderately	well	(why)	 27.59%	 8	4	 Slightly	well	(why)	 0.00%	 0	5	 Not	well	at	all	(please	list	why)	 3.45%	 1		 Total	 100%	 29		 44				#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	How	well	does	the	structure	of	the	universal	change	room	meet	your	needs?	(i.e.	change	room	space,	privacy,	accessibility	etc.)	-	Selected	Choice	1.00	 5.00	 2.10	 0.92	 0.85	 29		 		 45	Q21	-	Please	explain	the	differences	(if	any)	in	experience	of	using	the	Men's/Women's	change	room	compared	to	the	universal	change	room.		Please	explain	the	differences	(if	any)	in	experience	of	using	the	Men's/Women's	change	room	compared	to	the	universal	change	room.	Universal	has	individual	changing	space,	women’s	change	room	has	more	of	a	communal	changing	space	and	showers,	so	basically	everyone	sees	you	naked/changing	It's	really	busy	in	both	change	rooms,	but	Women's	has	more	locker	space	Don’t	openly	change	in	the	universal	change	room	You	can	strip	naked	anywhere	in	the	women's	and	nobody	will	give	you	a	second	look	which	is	nice	People	outside	can	see	you	a	bit	when	in	the	universal	room		Easier	to	not	have	to	find	an	empty	change	closet/	washroom	in	the	women’s	room,	can	just	easily	change	right	there	at	the	lockers	in	comfort	It	is	smaller,	and	more	compact.	Can’t	compare	because	I	only	used	the	universal	change	room	Men’s	room	crowded	and	cramped	I	am	not	comfortable	taking	my	daughters	(both	less	than	5yrs)	to	the	men’s	change	room.	Universal	is	more	convenient	Mens	has	no	cubicles	so	less	private	from	people	around	you	but	when	walking	back	from	the	pool	in	your	swim	suit	people	from	outside	can't	see	you	i	have	only	used	the	universal	one	The	universal	change	room	has	more	space	to	change	than	the	women’s	change	room	which	has	very	little	bench	space.	It	is	also	usually	less	busy.	I	feel	like	they	are	both	really	cramped.	I	am	comfortable	in	either	Universal	change	room	is	more	accessible	and	also	has	individual	changing	stalls,	whereas	the	women's	change	room	does	not	Universal	has	stalls	It's	out	in	the	open	except	for	when	you're	changing	so	its	easily	accessible	to	the	pool	and	the	lifeguards.	If	anything	bad	happens	in	the	universal	change	room	it's	easy	for	people	to	hear	it	so	it	also	decreases	the	chance	of	anything	bad	happening		 46	Full	stall	bathrooms	When	using	men’s	or	women’s	changerooms	there’s	more	privacy	from	the	patrons	in	the	pool	area.	In	the	universal,	any	patron	can	see	you	from	the	pool	area.	There	are	smaller	changing	cubicles	in	universal	and	not	women’s	or	men’s.	Not	many	benches	in	universal	outside	of	cubicles.	The	experience	is	slightly	jilted	as	you	have	to	find	either	a	washroom	or	a	changing	stall	to	use.		 		 47	Q14	-	Were	you	aware	of	the	universal	change	room	before	your	first	visit	to	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Were	you	aware	of	the	universal	change	room	before	your	first	visit	to	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	1.00	 2.00	 1.29	 0.45	 0.21	 41				#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Yes	 70.73%	 29		 48	2	 No	 29.27%	 12		 Total	 100%	 41		 		 49	Q15	-	How	did	you	learn	about	the	universal	change	room	before	visiting	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?		Please	select	all	that	apply.			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 UBC	recreation	website	 18.52%	 5	2	 Social	Media	 25.93%	 7	3	 UBC	recreation	representative	 18.52%	 5	4	 Other	(please	specify)	 37.04%	 10		 Total	 100%	 27		 50			Q15_4_TEXT	-	Other	(please	specify)	Other	(please	specify)	-	Text	Don’t	remember	I	didn’t	Friend	told	me	Friend	told	me	Friends	Used	to	be	on	the	swim	team	Walked	past	it	and	saw	Pool	Tour	video	I	work	there	Jocelyn	I	just	visited	the	aquatic	centre	and	saw	it					 		 51	Q18	-	Will	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Will	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	1.00	 5.00	 3.75	 1.30	 1.69	 12					 52	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Definitely	yes	 8.33%	 1	2	 Probably	yes	 16.67%	 2	3	 I	do	not	know	 0.00%	 0	4	 Probably	not	 41.67%	 5	5	 Definitely	not	 33.33%	 4		 Total	 100%	 12		 		 53	Q24	-	Did	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?			#	 Field	 Minimum	 Maximum	 Mean	 Std	Deviation	 Variance	 Count	1	Did	learning	about	a	universal	change	room	affect	your	participation	in	activities	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	1.00	 5.00	 4.23	 1.09	 1.18	 26					 54	#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Definitely	yes	 3.85%	 1	2	 Probably	yes	 3.85%	 1	3	 I	do	not	know	 15.38%	 4	4	 Probably	not	 19.23%	 5	5	 Definitely	not	 57.69%	 15		 Total	 100%	 26		 		 55	Q22	-	What	questions	or	concerns	do	you	have	about	the	universal	change	room	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?		What	questions	or	concerns	do	you	have	about	the	universal	change	room	at	the	UBC	Aquatic	Centre?	Including	it	made	the	other	changing	rooms	smaller	(they’re	way	too	small!!)		Since	there’s	no	way	to	change	in	a	isolated	stall	in	the	women’s	change	room	people	change	in	the	bathroom	stalls	and	then	if	you	actually	have	to	use	the	bathroom	you	have	to	wait	a	long	time	It's	sometimes	uncomfortable	because	there's	men	who	will	go	and	sit	on	the	benches	in	and	just	look	into	the	change	room	None	Everything	is	fine	Showers	people	from	outside	can	look	in	none	it	is	fine	and	allows	you	to	store	your	clothing	with	friends	of	other	genders	Why	is	it	so	large.		Why	is	it	glass	n/a	I	question	whether	the	space	is	enclosed	enough	to	make	people	feel	comfortable	changing	there.	It	is	quite	open.	It	is	also	quite	large	and	can	look	very	dirty	from	the	outside	After	learning	about	the	change	room	i	come	more	often	because	i	don't	feel	like	i	have	to	choose	between	male	or	female.	My	only	concern	is	that	because	you	have	to	go	into	stalls	to	change,	parents	won't	always	have	an	eye	on	their	kids.			My	friend	who	takes	her	grandma	in	a	wheelchair	says	that	the	doors	are	really	heavy	which	makes	it	difficult	for	her	to	get	in	and	out	of	the	stalls-sometimes	the	accessibility	buttons	don't	work	Can	we	get	warmer	showers?	None	Should	be	cleaned	more	often,	and	broken	showers	fixed.	The	lockers	are	often	jammed	and	a	lot	of	keys	do	not	have	wristbands.		 		 56	Q6_5_TEXT	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 6		 Total	 100%	 6		 		 57	Q8	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 36		 Total	 100%	 36		 		 58	Q10	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 35		 Total	 100%	 35		 		 59	Q22	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 14		 Total	 100%	 14		 		 60	Q21	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 20		 Total	 100%	 20		 		 61	Q15_4_TEXT	-	Topics			#	 Answer	 %	 Count	1	 Unknown	 100.00%	 10		 Total	 100%	 10			 KIN 464: Physical Activity and Health Promotion, University of British ColumbiaUniversal Changerooms:Improving Patron Experience with Universal Changerooms at the UBC Aquatic CentreMatt Blacklaws, Quincy Brozo, Jocelyn Dayal, Karen Tam, Andrea VillanuevaPURPOSEThe purpose of this study is to review and examine the implementation of a universal changeroom. The facility in focus was the University of British Columbia (UBC) Aquatic Centre. By using data collected from users, we intend to identify 3 main areas of improvement and then develop strategies and provide suggestions to improve user experience and furthermore promote the use of the pool for physical activity.WHAT IS A UNIVERSAL CHANGEROOM? Universal change rooms provide an alternative changing space for many individuals who may want added privacy or do not identify with the binary gender change rooms.METHODS Sample:Data was collected from a sample population of 45 UBC Aquatic Centre users.Recruitment:Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method. The exclusion criteria was that they must be of legal age and a user of the UBC Aquatic CentreData Collection & Analysis:Once informed consent was given by each participant, data was collected through a survey that would provide both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using a thematic approach.3 AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT30 of the participants in the survey answered ‘yes’ when asked if they had used the universal changerooms before. Collectively they identified 3 areas for improvement:1. Safety• General concern arising from femaleswho made up over half of the participants• Parents feeling uncomfortable letting children use the universal changeroomalone (specifically daughters).2. Maintenance & Accessibility• Participants expressed that the changeroom was constantly dirty causing it to be a discomfort to use• Accessibility buttons are often broken and lockers out of order3. Lack of Participation from    Marginalized GroupsRECOMMENDATIONS1. Improvement of Safety Protocols• Develop a code of conduct that is specific to the universal changeroom• Move benches outside the windows of changeroom so patrons who choose to sit aren’t able to look directly into space• Implement a protocol to ensure there are no loiterers outside the changeroom2. Continuous Upkeep of the Facility• Spaces should be constantly monitored• Patrons may be encouraged to use space if it is continually operative• Ensure accessibility features are operational• A greater level of upkeep may result in a higher return rate to the facility for users3. Target Audience Marketingof the Universal Changeroom• Use deliberate promotion strategies to target specific populations• Enact the ‘snowball technique’ where individuals from a specific community use their network to recruit similar participantsPartnersLIMITATIONSA major limitation of this study was the lack of diversity among participants. There was an absence of transgender and non-conforming participants in the study. Therefore we cannot conclude how inclusive the universal changeroom is for patrons with different backgrounds and needs. An additional limitation was that the majority of the sample belonged to the age group of 18-29 years old. The results displayed contained bias because the sample size was not big enough to represent the population of users of the UBC Aquatic Centre. Future research should aim to recruit a larger sample size with a wider diversity of the population in order to represent more accurate results.• Participants claimed that knowledge of universal changerooms would affect their physical activity• Many of these participants are part of the non-cis gendered community 

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