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UBC Aquatic Centre Universal Change Rooms : Improving Patron Experience with Universal Change Rooms Barkowsky, Paige; Roberts, Mikaia; Stewart, Christie; Zelembaba, Ana 2019-04-02

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report          UBC Aquatic Centre Universal Change Rooms Paige Barkowsky, Mikaia Roberts, Christie Stewart, Ana Zelembaba University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Buildings, Community April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS       UBC AQUATIC CENTRE  UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS   Improving Patron Experience with Universal  Change Rooms    ____________________________________________________    A research project in conjunction with the School of Kinesiology,  University of British Columbia   _____________________________________________       April 2019     1 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Executive Summary  The purpose of the ​UBC Aquatic Centre Universal Change Rooms: Improving Patron            Experience with Universal Change Rooms study is to gain a better understanding of patrons              who use this facility in the Aquatic Centre at the University of British Columbia (UBC), and                how we can better them and make them more accessible for all patrons. Sixteen participants               were surveyed about their use and experiences in the universal change rooms. This study              focused on both statistical data and a descriptive thematic analysis to understand findings from              the 21-item in-person survey. The information gathered will be used by our SEEDs partners to               improve experiences in the universal change rooms. The findings of the study coincided with the average age and gender identification of              UBC (Smith, 2008; “Demographics Overview,” n.d.). An overview of participants’          demographics were displayed, including a majority of Caucasian participants, students, and           those who identified as single. Small trends were found from the open-ended questions and              optional suggestion questions such as the want for more private changing stalls and showers,              making lockers more accessible and easier to use, and overall better cleanliness of the facility.               Two larger themes arose from the data analysis: importance of privacy and feelings of safety. A                large majority of participants reported that the reason they used the universal change rooms,              was that they preferred the private changing stalls that they offered. This privacy allowed users               to feel more comfortable, and made them more likely to engage in physical activity. Many               participants also expressed that when they used the universal change rooms, they felt safer.              Specifically, members of the LGBTQ+ community felt that in these spaces, they were able to be                themselves and were more accepted. As this barrier of non-acceptance is a deterrent for              LGBTQ+ members to participate in physical activity, it is important to address to ensure they               are able to sustain a healthy lifestyle.  Based on the findings of the study, three main recommendations for moving forward             were created. First, to create signage depicting a code of conduct for appropriate behaviour in               the universal change rooms to promote and enhance security, comfort and privacy for users.              Second, to implement various modifications, including providing an increased quantity of           lockers, the number of private changing stalls and showers, as well as to reassess cleaning               procedures for the locker room. Finally, to install more universal change rooms in the future               across campus, and to renovate pre-existing facilities in order to increase the accessibility for              those who feel more comfortable using the universal change rooms.        2 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Introduction   UBC has implemented universal change rooms as part of an initiative to help make              campus safer, accessible and more welcoming for those who do not feel comfortable or safe               using male or female designated washrooms (“Inclusive Washrooms & Change Rooms,” n.d.).            This includes many trans, non-binary and gender-non-conforming individuals, who often report           washrooms as one of the places they feel least safe in, in addition to individuals with mobility                 issues or those who require personal support workers or service dogs (“Inclusive Washrooms &              Change Rooms,” n.d.). It is important to emphasize that the universal change rooms are              available for everyone to use, regardless of their gender identity or presentation (Inclusive             Washrooms & Change Rooms,” n.d.).  Despite best intentions to promote inclusivity through use of these change rooms, there             appears to be uncertainty among students regarding who exactly can use the facilities at UBC.               Due to the recent introduction of these change rooms, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding                the patronage and frequency of usage of the universal change rooms. Therefore, the purpose of               this report is to better understand patron knowledge, perceptions, and experiences with universal             change rooms at the UBC Aquatic Centre through distribution of surveys. The findings will be               used to develop recommendations for communication tools such as signage, and modifications            to this facility or future facilities. Literature Review Transgender individuals are those who identify with a gender that does not correspond             with their birth sex, while non-binary and gender-non-conforming individuals are those who do             not identify with the traditional gender binary classification of male or female (American             Psychological Association, 2015; Fiani & Han, 2018). Research suggests that compared to their             heterosexual counterparts, LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer etc.) adults          experience higher rates of chronic diseases and health concerns, such as diabetes, hypertension             and limited mobility (Herrick & Duncan, 2018). Many of these chronic diseases can be              prevented or mitigated through regular physical activity (Herrick & Duncan, 2018).           Furthermore, many transgender individuals state that being physically active is important to            them and helps them cope with their anxiety and depression (Krane, 2018). Unfortunately,             LGBTQ+ adults experience significant barriers to physical activity participation, such as           discrimination and exclusion, which reduce physical activity levels and exacerbates existing           health disparities (Herrick & Duncan, 2018). Locker rooms in particular have been identified as the most traumatic space for             LGBTQ+ individuals (Herrick & Duncan, 2018; Krane, 2018; Wernick, Kulick & Chin, 2017).             Specifically, locker rooms in aquatic facilities are known to be particularly anxiety provoking             for transgender athletes, as they typically require one to use a gender-segregated locker room in               order to gain entry to the sport space (Herrick & Duncan, 2018; Krane, 2018). As a result,                 transgender individuals in the process of transitioning or those who feel they can not pass as                  3 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS their identified gender often stop doing the physical activities they enjoy; swimming is one such               activity that individuals often chose to opt out of (Krane, 2018).  Similarly, individuals with disabilities are more likely to be sedentary, have greater            health problems and have more physical activity barriers when compared to the general             population (Rimmer, Riley, Wang & Rauworth, 2005). Some of the barriers to physical activity              are inaccessible environments, such as facilities that have inaccessible access routes or too             narrow doorways for wheelchair access ( ​Rimmer, Riley, Wang, Rauworth & Jurkowski, ​2004).            The larger facility offered by UBC’s universal change rooms may increase the accessibility of              these facilities by enabling the use of mobility aids within the change rooms. Providing facilities for all, such as UBC’s universal change room, is essential in order to               begin to address the health disparities seen in both the LGBTQ+ community and the disabled               community (Herrick & Duncan, 2018; Wernick et al., 2017; Rimmer et al., 2005). It is               important to note that UBC is not the only university in Canada, or globally, to implement these                 facilities (Croteau, 2016; “Gender-inclusive signs coming to washrooms,” 2016; ​Lucas, 2018;           Rubinoff, 2016; Gretchen, 2018). The University of Waterloo (UW) in Waterloo, Ontario is             focusing on gender-free spaces and equipping washrooms with baby-change tables and safe            containers for needle disposal to increase accessibility (Latif, 2016). Additionally, the           introduction of universal change rooms and washrooms in community leisure centres are            becoming increasingly common, as seen at the Crystal Pool in Victoria, B.C., and the              Grandview Heights Aquatic Centre in Surrey, B.C. (Cleverley, 2017; “Grandview Heights           Aquatic Centre,” 2017). However, implementation of these universal facilities has sometimes           been met with opposition, with fears that unisex change areas could put women, particularly the               vulnerable and those with learning difficulties, at risk ​(“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018;            Sleigh, 2016).  Although there have only been a few past studies done, one similar in design was               conducted by Strathcona County in 2017, who conducted a survey to gain feedback on the               design of a universal change room after it was implemented (“Universal Change Room             Feedback,” 2017). This study will look at similar concepts, however will expand by gathering              more data on patron demographics. Further, the purpose of this report is to investigate the               perceptions of the universal change room patrons, in order to develop recommendations to             dispel any misunderstandings and encourage usage of the facilities to promote physical activity             for all.  Methods Study Population and Rationale   For this study, surveys were conducted at the UBC Aquatic Centre, located at ​6080              Student Union Blvd, Vancouver, BC​. The target audience were people aged 19 years and older               of all genders and ethnicities who use the universal change rooms. The reasoning behind this               was to obtain information from all types of users to ensure more diverse information was               attained, allowing for generalization of the findings to other universal change rooms. The             survey took place between 2:00 pm and 5:00 pm on Wednesday afternoon, as this was within                  4 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS the busiest time range as stated by the SEEDS partner Nathan Jesse (personal communication,              January 12, 2019). This time period also takes place after general school hours, when many               parents and children may be coming to the Aquatic Center and using the change rooms. A                public swim and a 25-meter length swim were also open during this time, which was theorized                to potentially bring in a higher number of people to survey (“Aquatics Drop-In,” 2019). Recruitment Process  16 participants present at the UBC Aquatic Centre during the aforementioned time were             surveyed in this study. A loose script was used to engage and explain the study to the                 participants (Willis & Artino, 2013). In order to collect data that produced an accurate              representation of the broader population, eligibility to participate in this study was open to all               demographics, with the only criterion being that they were users of the UBC Aquatic Centre               universal change room.  Before beginning the survey, potential participants were asked if they had used the             universal change room during this visit, or on previous visits. If yes, participants were given a                verbal explanation of the research project and were asked to sign a consent form (see Appendix                B), before being asked to complete the survey (see Appendix A). Participants were given both               the consent form and survey on a clipboard, as well as a second consent form to take home with                   them if they wanted. The participants were given a chair and table they could complete the                survey at, or they were allowed to move to other areas of the Aquatic Centre lobby. The                 facilitators did not engage with the participants while they were completing the survey to reduce               any experimenter biases (Strickland & Suben, 2012). This recruitment process can be viewed as an ‘opt out’ method rather than an ‘opt in’                method, as it has been demonstrated that an ‘opt out’ method yields higher response rates (Hunt,                Shlomo, & Addington-Hall, 2013). As explained in a study done by Hunt et al. (2013), the ‘opt                 out’ method involves participants receiving the opportunity to participate in the study and             complete the survey questions within one session, while the ‘opt in’ method involves agreeing              to participate, and then completing the survey at a later date, for example, being sent home with                 a link to complete the survey online. By providing the facility users the simplest way to                complete the survey, it was hoped that this would easily attract participants. Data Collection   As mentioned previously, patrons experiences with the universal change rooms were           collected through surveys. The survey was created to gain an understanding of patrons’             knowledge, perceptions, and experiences with using the universal change rooms in addition to             the overall quality of their experience (Riazi, 2018).  The survey was composed of clear, concise questions, to minimize any biases that may              make the results less reliable. This was done by primarily using close-ended questions such as               multiple-choice and Likert-Scale questions. However, since open-ended questions are valuable            5 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS to gain greater insight in responses (Dolnicar, 2013), two questions where comments could be              made were included (see Appendix A). Data Analysis  After conducting the 21-item survey, all of the collected data was compiled into one              excel document to analyze and assess the results. The descriptive statistical data from the              quantitative questions were analyzed and displayed using statistical graphics such as pie charts             and information tables, (Beniger & Robyn, 1978; Spence, 2005). The open-ended question            responses were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach, in which the responses were             divided into themes that were identified by looking at patterns within the data (Braun & Clark,                2006; Ryan & Bernard, 2003). During the analysis, participant results were also examined and analyzed according to            age, ethnicity, gender, employment status, household composition and how often and how long             they had been using this facility. Challenges Several foreseeable challenges were recognized as having the potential to occur during            the data collection process. These challenges were mitigated through the development of sound             survey questions and in adopting behaviours for participant recruitment on the data collection             day. For instance, one challenge that arose during the development of the survey questions was               ensuring that questions were designed so that each respondent would interpret them in the same               way (Dolnicar, 2013). Actions taken to minimize this risk of misinterpretation of the questions              included using common everyday language, having shorter questions, and avoiding the use of             double negatives (Dolnicar, 2013). A few participants asked for clarification on some questions,             however for the most part the survey questions were clear and concise, and easy to understand                for most participants.  Another anticipated challenge was the recruitment of an adequate number of           participants. As the recruitment of participants occurred outside the change rooms, this            disrupted the daily routine of individuals by asking them to stop and complete the survey. This                proved to be a challenge. In addition, there were a limited number of individuals going in and                 out and using the universal change room, which limited the overall number of participants for               survey recruitment. A number of individuals approached the survey station willingly to provide             their feedback, however they were not users of the universal change room so they were unable                to participate. Due to this, this research study lacks information on non-users. As the universal               change room is located on a university campus, it was anticipated that the students and faculty                members who use the facility may have other obligatory commitments that could influence their              decision to participate. The survey was developed to take no more than ten minutes of the                respondents time in order to increase the likelihood of participation, however some individuals             still felt they were unable to participate due to the time commitment. In an attempt to overcome                 this challenge, individuals who did participate in the project were made to feel that their               contributions were necessary in order for the success of this study (Visser, Krosnick, &                6 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Lavrakas, n.d.). The aim was to make them feel as though they were the experts and that the                  study required their expertise as the main users of the universal change rooms.  Procedural bias, defined as “an unfair amount of pressure that is applied to the subjects,               forcing them to complete their response quickly” (Shuttleworth, 2009), was another foreseeable            challenge with the potential to arise and skew the data. This type of bias can also result in                  participants not providing adequate answers to the questions or skipping them completely, as             well as being unable to provide their honest opinion and not being fully engaged in the content                 of the survey (Shuttleworth, 2009). In order to avoid this, participants were given the option to                sit down and make themselves comfortable while also being informed that they can take their               time to complete the survey. It was noticed that quite a few participants chose to fill out the                  survey away from the survey table where other individuals were around. This allowed the              participants to be in their own space without the distraction of the researchers, as well as                enabled them to fill out the questions to the best of their abilities without any added pressure.                 This could have made them feel more comfortable knowing that no one was watching them or                the answers they were providing, allowing them to be more honest and open.  Finally, inclusion bias was another anticipated challenge, which is “often a result of             convenience where, for example, volunteers are the only group available, and they tend to fit a                narrow demographic range” (Shuttleworth, 2009). As the survey was conducted on campus,            43.8% of the participants identified as students, which is almost half of the data. Having a large                 number of students and young adults participate makes the final results less generalizable to the               broader population, as opinions of varying demographic groups may differ greatly. This was             mitigated by attempting to recruit a variety of demographics to complete the survey, however as               previously mentioned, this attempt was limited due to the individuals using the universal change              room and those who qualified for participation.  Results/Findings  Sixteen participants completed the survey, ten of which identified as female and six as              male (see Figure 1). Half of the participants fell into the 19-30 years of age category, which                 coincides with the average age of 20 years across UBC’s undergraduate students (Coutts, 2012).              Meanwhile 37.5% were aged 31-65 years, and the remaining 12.5% were aged 65 years and               older (see Figure 2). 62.5% of the participants were of Caucasian ethnicity, 31.3% represented              the combined Asian Heritages and the remaining 6.3% identified as Hispanic or Latino. As              suspected, due to the venue being located on the university campus, a large portion of               participants were students (43.8%), followed by those employed full-time (25.0%), and those            retired (12.5%). The remaining participants identified equally as employed part-time, unable to            work/on disability, and other, the explanation being maternity leave; each of these sectors made              up 6.3% of the sample (see Figure 3). Of the participants, 68.8% had attained a Bachelor’s                degree or higher for education, while 31.3% had some college credit, but no degree; this would                include those whose degree was still in progress (see Figure 4). Half of the sample reported as                 using this facility for 1 to 2 years, while the other half was split equally between 6 months to 1                    year, and 3 to 6 months. Half of the participants identified as single (never married), followed                by 25.0% who identified as being married or in a domestic partnership, 18.8% married with                 7 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS kids, and 6.3% divorced. The number of days per week that survey participants reported using               this facility were as follows: one day (43.8%), two days (12.5%), three days (18.8%), four days                (6.3%), five days (6.3%), six days (0%), seven days (6.3%), and zero days (6.3%). Over half                (56.3%) of the participants said that they had seen universal change rooms at other facilities               before this one, most of which were other community or aquatic centers in British Columbia.    Figure 1. ​Identified genders of survey participants.   Figure 2. ​ Ages of survey participants.          8 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  Figure 3. ​Employment status of survey participants.    Figure 4. ​Completed education levels of survey participants.   For the 5-point Likert Scale questions of the survey, descriptive statistics were used for              analysis. The mean and standard deviation of each question are displayed in Table 1.  Table 1. Descriptive statistics for 5-point Likert Scale survey questions.   9 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  Question: Mean: Standard Deviation: 1. I am satisfied with UBC’s Universal Change Room facilities  4.50 0.52 2. I would recommend the universal change rooms to friends & family 4.81 0.40 3. It is clear who is able to use the universal change rooms 4.56 0.73 4. The facility would benefit from signage making clear who the universal change rooms are to be used by 3.63 1.31 5. It is important to me to have private changing stalls 4.06 1.24 6. I felt there are a sufficient number of private changing stalls 3.81 0.98 7. UBC should install more universal change room facilities throughout campus 4.00 0.89 8. I prefer using the universal change room rather than the traditional male/female ones 3.88 0.96  Based on participant responses and input in the open-ended suggestion and comment            questions, two significant themes arose. The first theme was the importance of privacy; a large               majority, 81.25% of the participants indicated that they used the universal change rooms             because they prefer using the private stalls, which the single-sex change rooms do not offer. The                second theme was the feeling of safety; it was reported that those who do not identify with the                  dichromatic sex of the single-sex change rooms felt safer and more accepted in the universal               change room. Additionally, smaller themes arose such as the want for more private changing              stalls and showers, making lockers more accessible and easier to use, and improving the overall               cleanliness of the facilities.  Discussion  As mentioned, three broad themes emerged during analysis of the data: (1) Importance of privacy; (2) feelings of safety and (3) trends in the demographics of the sample. An in-depth analysis of each of these themes will be discussed below.   1. Importance of Privacy   10 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  Privacy was an integral reason for using the universal change room, as 81.25% of              participants stated that the private stalls were a main reason they preferred using the universal               change rooms over the single-sex change rooms. Several studies have demonstrated that athletes             can feel uncomfortable in gendered spaces if they do not identify with the gender they were                assigned at birth and feel uncomfortable changing in front of others (Krane 2018; Herrick &               Duncan, 2018; Porta, Gower, Mehus, Yu, Saewyc & Eisenberg, 2017). They may also feel that               others may be uncomfortable in their presence; the privacy of the private stalls eliminates this               fear for athletes (Krane, 2018). Universal change rooms can play a large part in what facilities                LGBTQ+ people choose to use. In one study it was stated that some LGBTQ+ users would                travel farther to use the universal washrooms and the private, individual stalls as they were more                comfortable (Herrick & Duncan, 2018). Universal change rooms can eliminate worries about            changing in front of others, which can make it difficult for LGBTQ+ individuals to fully               participate in activities such as swimming or other sports (Porta et al., 2017).  Additionally, the LGBTQ+ community is not the only population that can benefit from             the privacy of universal change rooms, as people who struggle with their body image or               self-esteem may prefer more privacy than others in order to feel comfortable and confident              while changing (Noles, Cash & Winstead, 1985). Therefore, the absence of private stalls may              prohibit this population from engaging in physical activity. Consequently, personal privacy is an             important feature of whether or not people use the universal change room, and an integral part                of whether or not they engage in physical activity, subsequently impacting their health and              wellbeing.  Lastly, one issue that was brought up during discussion with participants and staff was              concern over the lack of clothing in the universal change room and inappropriate sexual              behaviour (personal communication, March 13, 2019). This could contribute to individuals           feeling uncomfortable sharing the universal change rooms with a member of the opposite sex              ( ​“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018). 2. Feelings of Safety  Another important theme that arose came from a participant who stated that they felt              safer and more accepted using the universal change rooms. They had shared that, “sometimes              [they] get ‘looks’ for [their] gender expression. The universal change rooms avoids [this],             making things easier for me,” (personal communication, March 13, 2019) This supports the             literature around barriers many in the LGBTQ+ community face, as transgender individuals            often stop participating in the physical activities they enjoy due to the anxiety they experience               from being forced to use a gender-segregated locker room (Krane, 2018). Part of this anxiety               can come from individuals feeling as though they cannot pass as their identified gender (Krane,               2018). Furthermore, locker rooms in aquatic centres are known to be particularly anxiety             provoking, which could be due to the revealing nature of the sports uniform (Krane, 2018).               Therefore, providing spaces where individuals feel comfortable is essential in order to            encourage those in the LGBTQ+ community to become more physically active and keep doing                11 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS the activities they enjoy, and to begin to address the health disparities present (Herrick &               Duncan, 2018).   None of the participants who completed the survey had any visible disabilities. While             there is a lack of literature regarding feelings of safety when using change rooms for this                population, one of the most frequently mentioned barriers to participation is the inaccessibility             of the built environment (Rimmer et al., 2004). UBC’s universal change rooms were created to               address these commonly encountered barriers by providing automatic doors and enough space            to accommodate mobility devices (“Inclusive Washrooms & Change Rooms,” n.d.).          Nevertheless, future research is needed in order to better understand the disabled communities             experiences with using UBC’s universal change rooms in order to understand how to better              serve this community. Several participants also mentioned that the cleanliness of the change             rooms could be improved, and one participant complained of bed bugs found in the locker               room. The importance of maintaining a clean facility is very important not only for aesthetics               but also to ensure safety, as a common safety hazard is slippery floors (Rimmer et al., 2004).   3. Trends in the Sample Demographics  Through the data analysis there were multiple small themes that emerged regarding            tendencies seen in sex, age, occupation, and education level. Of the 16 participants, 62.5%              identified as female. This is consistent with research findings that women are generally more              likely to participate in surveys (Smith, 2008). This sex bias could also be due to the fact that a                   majority of UBC’s student population is female (“Demographics Overview,” n.d.). Large           portions of the participants identified as between the ages of 19-30 years, and as a student. This                 was a demographic theme that was anticipated due to the fact that the facility at which the                 survey took place was located on UBC’s campus. This adheres to the average ages of students                at UBC, as the average ages for undergraduate and master students are 21 and 30 years                respectively (“Demographics Overview,” n.d.). A great majority of the participants (68.8%) had            completed an education of a bachelor degree or higher. This theme was found to be surprising                as it was expected most of the participants, especially considering the generally young age              group, would be in progress of completing their bachelor degree. It is however not surprising               that the results support the idea that people who are more educated are more likely to participate                 in physical activity and a healthy lifestyle (Shaw & Spokane, 2008).  Recommendations   After conducting the survey on patron experience with using the universal change room             at the UBC Aquatic Centre, three main recommendations for moving forward with this facility              and future facilities have been made.  1. Implementation of a Code of Conduct   The survey results revealed participants felt relatively neutral about the change rooms            benefiting from signage designating who can use the space, with a mean of 3.63 out of 5 on the                     12 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Likert Scale. Furthermore, participants strongly agreed that it is clear who can use the universal               change rooms, with a mean of 4.56 out of 5. However, there appears to be some concerns                 regarding appropriate usage of the universal space, as participants brought up concerns that             other users of the change room were inappropriately using the space by walking around              undressed (personal communication, March 13, 2019). Additionally, there have been reports to            the staff regarding inappropriate sexual behaviour occurring within the change rooms (personal            communication, March 13, 2019).   As personal privacy has been found to be an important facilitator for using the universal               change rooms, the facility could benefit from signage displaying a code of conduct for              behaviours appropriate within the change rooms. HCMA Architecture + Design support using            signage to clarify and reinforce the appropriate use of shared spaces ( ​“Designing for             Inclusivity,” 2018). Some of their suggestions include ​implementing signs indicating that           clothing is required in locker areas and to remind everyone to be mindful of the amount of time                  they spend occupying the stalls and showers ( ​“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018). ​Establishing a             code of conduct may also help address some of the fears that universal change rooms could                place women and children at risk ​(Sleigh, 2016; “Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018).   Additionally, some individuals have expressed that sharing change rooms with members           of the opposite sex is uncomfortable or strange (“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018). A code of               conduct could help to address these concerns by establishing a code of behaviour meant to               encourage appropriate usage of the facilities and to ​enhance patrons security, comfort and             privacy. ​Having staff conduct hourly check ins may also help reduce the reported incidences of               inappropriate sexual activity.  2. Future Facility Modifications  a. Bigger and more lockers available   Participants voiced enjoying having larger lockers to store their belongings while using            the facility, with one participant stating that they use the universal change room purely because               the lockers are larger than the ones in the men’s change room. Having additional lockers               available for patrons to use and store their belongings would also help address shortages as the                facility can get quite busy during times when there are various activities and programs being               conducted. Therefore, this facility would benefit from having a larger quantity of lockers that              are bigger in size compared to regular sized lockers that are typically found in men’s and                women’s change rooms. Individuals would be able to store their belongings with an increased              level of confidence and security, and would not have to worry about whether or not they will                 have to store their valued belongings somewhere else while using the amenities that the UBC               Aquatic Centre has to offer.   b. More private changing stalls/more showers    13 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS With over 80% of participants saying that they use the universal change rooms solely              because they like the private stalls (see Appendix C), having more of them would improve the                experience of patrons while utilizing the facility, by making them feel more comfortable.             Individuals tend to prefer a private changing room compared to an open communal changing              space, which is the layout in the men’s and women’s change rooms. Additionally, having more               showers available to use would positively benefit the facility and the needs of the patrons as                they may use the facility on more of a regular basis knowing that showering is available to                 them. For example, individuals going for a drop-in swim prior to going to work or school may                 be more inclined to go if they are assured that they can have a shower once they are done with                    their swim. If it is not guaranteed that a shower would be available for them to use, this may                   impact their decision on whether they will use the facility or not.   c. Cleanliness   A number of participants commented that the cleanliness of the facility could be             improved overall. As suggested by Rimmer et al. (2004), neglected cleanliness of facilities,             such as slippery floors, can pose a safety hazard to users, especially for those with disabilities.                One participant in particular elaborated on her concern of the cleanliness, as she shared that she                had found bed bugs within the lockers. As a result, she said that she stores her change of                  clothing in a plastic bag when using the lockers. This could indicate an investigation into the                cleaning protocol of the lockers is needed in order to assess these concerns. Implementing              additional protocols for staff to monitor the cleanliness more frequently would be beneficial for              all users.   3. Additional Facilities   When asked during the survey whether participants think UBC should install more            universal change rooms around campus, the average answer was 4.0 out of 5.0 on the Likert                Scale. This signified that participants think more facilities should be built around campus. This              is something to consider when building new facilities on campus or renovating pre-existing             facilities. Having more facilities would increase accessibility for those who need, or feel more              comfortable using the universal change rooms. Literature has shown that people will go out of               their way to use facilities that contain a universal change room (Herrick & Duncan, 2018);               providing more facilities would allow for easier access for these populations.   Conclusion  In conclusion, this research project surveyed users of the universal change rooms at the              UBC Aquatic Centre, in attempt to understand the patron usage and experiences. The results              from the surveys showed the general demographic of users, which consisted largely of females,              young adults, those of Caucasian ethnicity, and students. The more in-depth answers portrayed               14 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS that privacy and safety were the two main themes among participants. The information             gathered will be used to further improve patron experiences through further research, facility             modifications, and additional facilities built on campus. It is important to note, however, that the               ability to generalize these findings to the broader population is limited due to the demographic               that was surveyed. For future research on this topic, more options in the multiple choice survey questions              should be included. For example, in this study participants either had to select employed or               student, but could not select both, which would have best reflected a larger number of               participants. Additionally, more options for family status could have been offered, such as             single with kids. Most importantly, future research about the universal change rooms should             include surveying non-users, in addition to the users. Including non-users’ experiences and            opinions would be beneficial in helping researchers and facility staff to better understand why              some people choose not to use the universal change rooms. With this information, the UBC               universal change rooms could be better made to provide for all, subsequently encouraging             physical activity and healthy lifestyles.                          15 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS References:  American Psychological Association. (2015). Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people. ​American Psychologist ​, ​70 ​(9), 832-864.  Aquatic Drop-In. (n.d.). ​University of British Columbia; Recreation. ​ Retrieved from https://recreation.ubc.ca/aquatics/aquatics-drop-in/.  Beniger, J. R., & Robyn, D. L. (1978). Quantitative graphics in statistics: A brief history. ​The American Statistician ​, ​32​(1), 1-11.  Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. ​Qualitative research psychology​, ​3​(2), 77-101. Cleverley, B. (2017). Universal change room approved. ​Times - Colonist. ​ Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1864939780?accountid=14656&pq-origsite=summon.  Coutts, L. (2012). Who are our students? Implications for teaching and learning. ​University of British Columbia; Centre for Teaching, Leaning and Technology. ​ Retrieved from https://ctlt.ubc.ca/2012/08/15/who-are-our-students-implications-for-teaching-and-learning/. Croteau, J. (2016, June 30). Calgary YMCA’s universal locker-room open to all genders. Global News. ​ Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/2797587/calgary-ymcas-universal-locker-room-open-to-all-genders/​.  Demographics Overview. (n.d.). ​University of British Columbia; The Planning and Institutional Research Office. ​ Retrieved from ​http://pair.ubc.ca/student-demographics/demographics/ ​.  Designing for Inclusivity; Strategies for Universal Washrooms and Change rooms in Community and Recreation Facilities. (2018). ​HCMA ​[PDF file]. Retrieved from https://hcma.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/HCMA_Designing-for-Inclusivity_V1-1.pdf Dolnicar, S. (2013). Asking good survey questions. ​Journal of Travel Research ​, ​52​(5), 551-574. Fiani, C. N., & Han, H. J. (2018). Navigating identity: Experiences of binary and non-binary transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) adults. ​International Journal of Transgenderism ​, 1-14. Gender-inclusive signs coming to washrooms. (2016, September 2). ​ UVic News. ​ Retrieved from https://www.uvic.ca/news/topics/2016+gender-neutral-washrooms+ring ​. Grandview Heights Aquatic Centre wins distinction for accessibility. (2017, November 16). HCMA Architecture + Design. ​ Retrieved from   16 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS https://hcma.ca/surreys-grandview-heights-aquatic-centre-wins-iociaks-distinction-accessibility/​.  Gretchen, K. (2018, September 25). A first in California: Berkeley opens large-scale universal locker room. ​Berkeley News. ​ Retrieved from https://news.berkeley.edu/2018/09/25/a-first-in-california-berkeley-opens-large-scale-universal-locker-room/ ​.  Herrick, S. S., & Duncan, L. R. (2018). A Qualitative Exploration of LGBTQ+ and Intersecting Identities Within Physical Activity Contexts. ​Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology​, ​40​(6), 325-335. Hunt, K.J., Shlomo, N., & Addington-Hall, J. (2013). Participant recruitment in sensitive surveys: a comparative trial of ‘opt in’ versus ‘opt out’ approaches. ​BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13 ​(3), 1-8, ​https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-3. Inclusive Washrooms & Change Rooms. (n.d.). ​Equity & Inclusion Office ​. Retrieved from https://equity.ubc.ca/resources/gender-diversity/inclusive-washrooms-changerooms/ ​.  Krane, V. (Ed.). (2018). ​Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in Sport: Queer Inquiries ​. Routledge. Latif, A. (2016). UW launches new universal washrooms: Updates on signs and tweaks for those with needs such as insulin injection needle disposal. ​Waterloo Region Record Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1831174530?accountid=14656 ​. Lucas, T. (2018, July 20). SFU’s New Universal Washrooms. ​Department of Gender, Sexuality, and Women’s Studies: Community Engagement. ​ Retrieved from https://www.sfu.ca/gsws/community-outreach/Blog/SFUs_New_Universal_Washroom.html​.  Noles, S. W., Cash, T. F., & Winstead, B. A. (1985). Body image, physical attractiveness, and depression. ​Journal of consulting and clinical psychology ​, ​53​(1), 88. Porta, C. M., Gower, A. L., Mehus, C. J., Yu, X., Saewyc, E. M., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2017). “Kicked out”: LGBTQ youths' bathroom experiences and preferences. ​Journal of Adolescence ​, ​56​, 107-112. Riazi, N. (2018). KIN 464: Research Project Description Form - Universal Changeroom. [Class Handout]. Retrieved from ​https://www.canvas.ubc.ca ​. Rimmer, J. H., Riley, B., Wang, E., & Rauworth, A. (2005). Accessibility of health clubs for people with mobility disabilities and visual impairments. ​American journal of public health ​, ​95​(11), 2022-2028.   17 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Rimmer, J. H., Riley, B., Wang, E., Rauworth, A., & Jurkowski, J. (2004). Physical activity participation among persons with disabilities: barriers and facilitators. ​American journal of preventive medicine ​, ​26​(5), 419-425. Rubinoff, J. (2016, October 17). Universal change room at U of Guelph like glimpse into land of Oz. ​Waterloo Region Record. ​ Retrieved from https://www.therecord.com/whatson-story/6915705-universal-change-room-at-u-of-guelph-like-glimpse-into-land-of-oz/ ​. Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. ​Field methods ​, ​15​(1), 85-109. Shaw, B. A., & Spokane, L. S. (2008). Examining the association between education level and physical activity changes during early old age. ​ Journal of Aging and Health, 20 ​(7), 767-787. doi:10.1177/0898264308321081.  Shuttleworth, M. (2009). Research bias. ​Explorable. ​ ​Retrieved on February 7th, 2019, from https://explorable.com/research-bias?fbclid=IwAR3hiHQ_d00qgHtXT498lPn4ncm926HA2VlGqrR25NOFszCKO3qFebOEsTk​. Sleigh, S. (2016, October 19). Anger over plans to create unisex changing rooms at Chelsea swimming pool. ​The Evening Standard. ​Retrieved from https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/anger-over-plans-to-create-unisex-changing-rooms-at-chelsea-swimming-pool-a3372896.html ​.  Smith, W.G. (2008). Does gender influence online survey participation? A record-linkage analysis of university faculty online survey response behavior. ​Eric: Institute of Education Sciences. ​ Retrieved from ​https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED501717.pdf ​.  Spence, I. (2005). No humble pie: The origins and usage of a statistical chart. ​Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics ​, ​30​(4), 353-368. Strickland, B., & Suben, A. (2012). Experimenter Philosophy: The Problem of Experimenter Bias in Experimental Philosophy. ​Review of Philosophy and Psychology,3 ​(3), 457-467. doi:10.1007/s13164-012-0100-9 Universal Change Room Feedback. (2017). ​Strathcona County​ [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.strathcona.ca/files/files/universal-change-room-survey-report-2017.pdf Visser, P. S., Krosnick J. A., & Lavrakas P. J. “Survey Research.” (n.d.) ​Stanford ​ [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/dept/communication/faculty/krosnick/Survey_Research.pdf Wernick, L.J., Kulick, A., & Chin, M. (2017). Gender Identity Disparities in Bathroom Safety and Wellbeing Among High School Students. ​J Youth Adolescence, 46 ​, 917-930. Retrieved from:   18 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS https://search.proquest.com/docview/1886584313?accountid=14656&pq-origsite=summon​. Willis, G. B., & Artino, A. R. (2013). What Do Our Respondents Think Were Asking? Using Cognitive Interviewing to Improve Medical Education Surveys. Journal of Graduate Medical Education,5(3), 353-356. doi:10.4300/jgme-d-13-00154.1                                       19 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Appendices Appendix A. Universal Change Room Survey Thank you for agreeing to take part in this survey, which is meant to improve patron                experiences with UBC’s universal change rooms. The survey was made in collaboration            between SEEDS Sustainability Program and 4th year Kinesiology students in KIN 464. It             should take no more than 10 minutes to complete. Your answers will be kept in full                confidentiality.    1. What is your ​ ​age? a. 19-30 years b. 31-65 years c. 65+ years  2. Which gender do you identify most with? a. Male b. Female c. Gender Fluid d. Non-Binary  e. Transgender f. Other:  _____________________  3. Please select the ​ ​racial or ethnic background that you identify most with:  a. White/Caucasian  b. Asian - Central/South Asian Heritage c. Asian - East Asian Heritage d. Middle Eastern e. African Canadian or African Heritage  f. Hispanic or Latino g. Aboriginal h. Other:  _____________________  4. Employment Status: Are you currently… a. Employed full time (32+ hours per week) b. Employed part time (less than 32 hours per week) c. Unemployed and currently looking for work   20 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS d. Unemployed and not currently looking for work e. Student f. Retired g. Unable to work/on disability h. Other:  _____________________  5. What is your education level? a. No schooling completed b. Some high school c. High school graduate, diploma or the equivalent d. Some college credit, no degree e. College certificate or diploma f. Bachelor’s degree or higher g. Other:  _____________________  6. How long have you been using the UBC Aquatic Centre facilities? (Multiple Choice) a. < 3 months  b. 3 - 6 months  c. 6 months - 1 year d. 1 - 2 years    7. Which of the following best describes your household composition? a. Single (never married) b. Married/domestic partnership c. Widowed d. Divorced e. Single parent f. Married with kids  8. How many days do you use the universal change room in an average week? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3   21 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS e. 4 f. 5 g. 6 h. 7   9. Was UBC’s facility your first experience with the universal change rooms?  a. Yes b. No  c. If no, where else have you seen this? _____________________  10. Why do you like using the universal change room? (Please select all the apply) a. I prefer using the private stalls b. I like using the larger facility  c. I am able to use my mobility devices or support workers  d. I feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones e. It fits more with my gender identity  f. It fits more with my sexual identity g.  Other: _____________________  11. Have you had any negative experiences using the universal change rooms?  a. Yes b. No, I have not have any negative experiences . 12. If yes to the previous question, which negative experiences have you had? a. I don’t feel safe b. I don’t feel welcomed c. Physical harassment  d. Verbal harassment  e. Other:  _____________________  13. Would you make any suggestions for the improvement of the change rooms?  ___________________________________________________________________   22 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________   The following questions are to be answered based on your agreeance or disagreeance with the statement:   (1 - strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3 - neutral, 4 - agree, 5 - strongly agree)  1.  I am satisfied with UBC’s Universal Change Room facilities    1      2      3      4      5 2.  I would recommend the universal change rooms to friends & family   1      2      3      4      5 3.  It is clear who is able to use the universal change rooms   1      2      3      4      5 4. The facility would benefit from signage making clear who the universal change rooms are to be used by   1      2      3      4      5 5. It is important to me to have private changing stalls   1      2      3      4      5 6. I felt there are a sufficient number of private changing stalls   1      2      3      4      5 7. UBC should install more universal change room facilities throughout campus   1      2      3      4      5 8. I prefer using the universal change room rather than the traditional male/female ones   1      2      3      4      5    23 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS   Any additional comments: _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________  Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey!                    24 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Appendix B. Consent Form  KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity  Participant Consent Form   Principal Investigator(s): Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education)  The purpose of the class project: To gather knowledge and expertise from community members on topics related to universal change rooms and their impact on the community.   Study Procedures: With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a survey. With the information gathered, we will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage with universal change rooms.   Project outcomes: The information gathered from survey questions will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports.   UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library      25 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with the universal change rooms and will provide us with an opportunity to learn from your experiences.   Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in an interview is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course.   Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. As there is a list of questions, the person you are surveying is free to share what they would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed.   Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca   Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in   26 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca . or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.   Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this study.     Subject signature____________________________________________________     Date: ____________________________________________________             27 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Appendix C. Universal Change Room Raw Data Also viewable at: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1MWOJrC0J2l4te1XlGECBxeE4rpT-D59PBHtcRYBHBiQ/edit?usp=sharing   PARTICIPANT AGE GENDER 1 19-30 years Female 2 31-65 years Female 3 19-30 years Female 4 19-30 years Female 5 19-30 years Male 6 19-30 years Female 7 65+ years Male 8 65+ years Male 9 31-65 years Female 10 19-30 years Female 11 31-65 years Male 12 31-65 years Male 13 19-30 years Male 14 31-65 years Female 15 19-30 years Female 16 31-65 years Female     28 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS PARTICIPANT ETHNICITY EMPLOYMENT STATUS 1 Asian - East Asian Hertiage Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 2 White/Caucasian Unable to work/on disability 3 White/Caucasian Student 4 White/Caucasian Student 5 White/Caucasian Student 6 White/Caucasian Student 7 Asian - Central/South Asian Heritage Retired 8 White/Caucasian Retired 9 Hispanic or Latino Student 10 Asian - East Asian Hertiage Student 11 White/Caucasian Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 12 White/Caucasian Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 13 White/Caucasian Student 14 White/Caucasian Other: On Maternity Leave 15 Asian - East Asian Hertiage Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 16 Asian - Central/South Asian Heritage Employed part time (less than 32 hours per week)  PARTICIPANT EDUCATION HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN USING THIS FACILITY 1 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years   29 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 2 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 3 Some college credit, no degree 3-6 months 4 Some college credit, no degree 1-2 years 5 Some college credit, no degree 6 months-1 year 6 Bachelor's degree or higher 3-6 months 7 Bachelor's degree or higher 6 months-1 year 8 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 9 Bachelor's degree or higher 6 months-1 year 10 Some college credit, no degree 6 months-1 year 11 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 12 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 13 Some college credit, no degree 1-2 years 14 Bachelor's degree or higher 3-6 months 15 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years   30 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 16 Bachelor's degree or higher 3-6 months   PARTICIPANT HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION HOW MANY DAYS A WEEK DO YOU USE THIS FACILITY IS UBC THE FIRST PLACE YOU HAVE SEEN UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 1 Single (never married) One No - Watermania 2 Divorced Two No - Hillcrest 3 Single (never married) Three Yes 4 Single (never married) One Yes 5 Single (never married) Zero No - Kelowna 6 Single (never married) One Yes 7 Married/domestic partnership Three Yes 8 Married/domestic partnership Seven No - Hillcrest Pool 9 Single (never married) Five No- other community centres 10 Married/domestic partnership Two No - UVIC 11 Married/domestic partnership Four Yes 12 Married with kids One No - other pools 13 Single (never married) One No 14 Married with kids One No - in Paris 15 Single (never married) Three Yes 16 Married with kids One Yes     31 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  PARTICIPANT WHY DO YOU LIKE USING THE UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 1 I prefer using the private stalls 2 I like using the larger facility 3 I prefer using the private stalls - able to talk to friends while changing 4 Other: generally no difference, but sometimes I don't like being confined to stalls and feel being naked in the women’s is more acceptable 5 I prefer using the private stalls 6 I prefer using the private stalls 7 I prefer using the private stalls 8 I prefer using the private stalls - I like using the larger facility - other: rented locker in universal 9 I prefer using the private stalls/ i feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones/ it fits more with my sexual identity 10 I prefer using the private stalls/I like using the larger facility, I feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones 11 I prefer using the private stalls/I like using the larger facility/Its cleaner 12 I prefer using the private stalls/ I like using the larger facility 13 I prefer using the private stalls 14 I prefer using the private stalls/I like using the larger facility 15 I like using the larger facility 16 I prefer using the private stalls/ I feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones        32 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS PARTICIPANT HAVE YOU HAD ANY NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES IN THIS FACILITY IF SO, WHAT NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES 1 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 2 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 3 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 4 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 5 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 6 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 7 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 8 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 9 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 10 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 11 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A   33 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 12 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 13 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 14 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 15 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 16 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A   PARTICIPANT ANY SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT? 1 N/A 2 Lockers could lock more easily - private change rooms could be cleaner - especially when many kids have used in a day or on weekend 3 More showers & stalls - free lockers/different pay options 4 N/A 5 N/A 6 Lockers are hard to use 7 Some lockers not working and locked by private locks 8 1. Move hand dryers in bathrooms so that they do not start when you use the toilet - 2. Fix cubicle doors that are not working making the cubicles unaccessible for months 9 More stalls I guess 10 They're great! More shower stalls would be awesome 11 Clean better/Have better showers 12 N/A 13 T.V.'s 14 Free lockers   34 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 15 N/A 16 More showers    PARTICIPANT I AM SATISFIED WITH UBC’S UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOM FACILITIES 1 4 2 4 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 4 9 4 10 5 11 4 12 4 13 4 14 5 15 5 16 4   35 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.5   PARTICIPANT I WOULD RECOMMEND TO FAMILY AND FRIENDS 1 4 2 4 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 5 10 5 11 5 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 5 16 5   36 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.8125   PARTICIPANT IT IS CLEAR WHO IS ABLE TO USE THEM 1 5 2 5 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 4 8 5 9 5 10 5 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 3 16 5   37 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.5625     PARTICIPANT FACILITY WOULD BENEFIT FROM SIGNAGE 1 5 2 2 3 4 4 1 5 3 6 3 7 5 8 2 9 3 10 3 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 5 16 5   38 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 3.625    PARTICIPANT IMPORTANT TO HAVE PRIVATE CHANGING STALLS 1 5 2 4 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 5 7 5 8 2 9 5 10 4 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 4 16 5   39 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.0625    PARTICIPANT SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF PRIVATE CHANGING STALLS 1 4 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 4 7 3 8 3 9 2 10 3 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 3 16 5   40 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 3.8125   PARTICIPANT SHOULD INSTALL MORE UNIVERSAL CHANGEROOMS 1 4 2 3 3 5 4 4 5 3 6 5 7 3 8 3 9 5 10 5 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 3 15 4 16 5   41 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4   PARTICIPANT I PREFER USING THE UNIVERSAL OVER THE TRADITIONAL MALE/FEMALE ONES 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 3 5 3 6 5 7 2 8 3 9 5 10 4 11 4 12 4 13 3 14 5 15 4 16 5   42 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 3.875   PARTICIPANT ANY ADDITIONAL COMMENTS 1 N/A 2 This facility is superior to Hillcrest - bedbug incident 3 N/A 4 N/A 5 N/A 6 N/A 7 N/A 8 I rented a locker in the universal because it is bigger than in the mens (my umbrella did not fit in the mens locker) 9 Although I have no negative experience per se using female change rooms, sometimes I get "looks" for my gender expression. The universal change rooms avoids all of these making things easier. 10 N/A 11 N/A 12 N/A 13 N/A 14 N/A 15 One concern is the scale of the usage: managing the number of people vs. number of available facilities 16 N/A    43  UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report          UBC Aquatic Centre Universal Change Rooms Paige Barkowsky, Mikaia Roberts, Christie Stewart, Ana Zelembaba University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Buildings, Community April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS       UBC AQUATIC CENTRE  UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS   Improving Patron Experience with Universal  Change Rooms    ____________________________________________________    A research project in conjunction with the School of Kinesiology,  University of British Columbia   _____________________________________________       April 2019     1 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Executive Summary  The purpose of the ​UBC Aquatic Centre Universal Change Rooms: Improving Patron            Experience with Universal Change Rooms study is to gain a better understanding of patrons              who use this facility in the Aquatic Centre at the University of British Columbia (UBC), and                how we can better them and make them more accessible for all patrons. Sixteen participants               were surveyed about their use and experiences in the universal change rooms. This study              focused on both statistical data and a descriptive thematic analysis to understand findings from              the 21-item in-person survey. The information gathered will be used by our SEEDs partners to               improve experiences in the universal change rooms. The findings of the study coincided with the average age and gender identification of              UBC (Smith, 2008; “Demographics Overview,” n.d.). An overview of participants’          demographics were displayed, including a majority of Caucasian participants, students, and           those who identified as single. Small trends were found from the open-ended questions and              optional suggestion questions such as the want for more private changing stalls and showers,              making lockers more accessible and easier to use, and overall better cleanliness of the facility.               Two larger themes arose from the data analysis: importance of privacy and feelings of safety. A                large majority of participants reported that the reason they used the universal change rooms,              was that they preferred the private changing stalls that they offered. This privacy allowed users               to feel more comfortable, and made them more likely to engage in physical activity. Many               participants also expressed that when they used the universal change rooms, they felt safer.              Specifically, members of the LGBTQ+ community felt that in these spaces, they were able to be                themselves and were more accepted. As this barrier of non-acceptance is a deterrent for              LGBTQ+ members to participate in physical activity, it is important to address to ensure they               are able to sustain a healthy lifestyle.  Based on the findings of the study, three main recommendations for moving forward             were created. First, to create signage depicting a code of conduct for appropriate behaviour in               the universal change rooms to promote and enhance security, comfort and privacy for users.              Second, to implement various modifications, including providing an increased quantity of           lockers, the number of private changing stalls and showers, as well as to reassess cleaning               procedures for the locker room. Finally, to install more universal change rooms in the future               across campus, and to renovate pre-existing facilities in order to increase the accessibility for              those who feel more comfortable using the universal change rooms.        2 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Introduction   UBC has implemented universal change rooms as part of an initiative to help make              campus safer, accessible and more welcoming for those who do not feel comfortable or safe               using male or female designated washrooms (“Inclusive Washrooms & Change Rooms,” n.d.).            This includes many trans, non-binary and gender-non-conforming individuals, who often report           washrooms as one of the places they feel least safe in, in addition to individuals with mobility                 issues or those who require personal support workers or service dogs (“Inclusive Washrooms &              Change Rooms,” n.d.). It is important to emphasize that the universal change rooms are              available for everyone to use, regardless of their gender identity or presentation (Inclusive             Washrooms & Change Rooms,” n.d.).  Despite best intentions to promote inclusivity through use of these change rooms, there             appears to be uncertainty among students regarding who exactly can use the facilities at UBC.               Due to the recent introduction of these change rooms, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding                the patronage and frequency of usage of the universal change rooms. Therefore, the purpose of               this report is to better understand patron knowledge, perceptions, and experiences with universal             change rooms at the UBC Aquatic Centre through distribution of surveys. The findings will be               used to develop recommendations for communication tools such as signage, and modifications            to this facility or future facilities. Literature Review Transgender individuals are those who identify with a gender that does not correspond             with their birth sex, while non-binary and gender-non-conforming individuals are those who do             not identify with the traditional gender binary classification of male or female (American             Psychological Association, 2015; Fiani & Han, 2018). Research suggests that compared to their             heterosexual counterparts, LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer etc.) adults          experience higher rates of chronic diseases and health concerns, such as diabetes, hypertension             and limited mobility (Herrick & Duncan, 2018). Many of these chronic diseases can be              prevented or mitigated through regular physical activity (Herrick & Duncan, 2018).           Furthermore, many transgender individuals state that being physically active is important to            them and helps them cope with their anxiety and depression (Krane, 2018). Unfortunately,             LGBTQ+ adults experience significant barriers to physical activity participation, such as           discrimination and exclusion, which reduce physical activity levels and exacerbates existing           health disparities (Herrick & Duncan, 2018). Locker rooms in particular have been identified as the most traumatic space for             LGBTQ+ individuals (Herrick & Duncan, 2018; Krane, 2018; Wernick, Kulick & Chin, 2017).             Specifically, locker rooms in aquatic facilities are known to be particularly anxiety provoking             for transgender athletes, as they typically require one to use a gender-segregated locker room in               order to gain entry to the sport space (Herrick & Duncan, 2018; Krane, 2018). As a result,                 transgender individuals in the process of transitioning or those who feel they can not pass as                  3 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS their identified gender often stop doing the physical activities they enjoy; swimming is one such               activity that individuals often chose to opt out of (Krane, 2018).  Similarly, individuals with disabilities are more likely to be sedentary, have greater            health problems and have more physical activity barriers when compared to the general             population (Rimmer, Riley, Wang & Rauworth, 2005). Some of the barriers to physical activity              are inaccessible environments, such as facilities that have inaccessible access routes or too             narrow doorways for wheelchair access ( ​Rimmer, Riley, Wang, Rauworth & Jurkowski, ​2004).            The larger facility offered by UBC’s universal change rooms may increase the accessibility of              these facilities by enabling the use of mobility aids within the change rooms. Providing facilities for all, such as UBC’s universal change room, is essential in order to               begin to address the health disparities seen in both the LGBTQ+ community and the disabled               community (Herrick & Duncan, 2018; Wernick et al., 2017; Rimmer et al., 2005). It is               important to note that UBC is not the only university in Canada, or globally, to implement these                 facilities (Croteau, 2016; “Gender-inclusive signs coming to washrooms,” 2016; ​Lucas, 2018;           Rubinoff, 2016; Gretchen, 2018). The University of Waterloo (UW) in Waterloo, Ontario is             focusing on gender-free spaces and equipping washrooms with baby-change tables and safe            containers for needle disposal to increase accessibility (Latif, 2016). Additionally, the           introduction of universal change rooms and washrooms in community leisure centres are            becoming increasingly common, as seen at the Crystal Pool in Victoria, B.C., and the              Grandview Heights Aquatic Centre in Surrey, B.C. (Cleverley, 2017; “Grandview Heights           Aquatic Centre,” 2017). However, implementation of these universal facilities has sometimes           been met with opposition, with fears that unisex change areas could put women, particularly the               vulnerable and those with learning difficulties, at risk ​(“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018;            Sleigh, 2016).  Although there have only been a few past studies done, one similar in design was               conducted by Strathcona County in 2017, who conducted a survey to gain feedback on the               design of a universal change room after it was implemented (“Universal Change Room             Feedback,” 2017). This study will look at similar concepts, however will expand by gathering              more data on patron demographics. Further, the purpose of this report is to investigate the               perceptions of the universal change room patrons, in order to develop recommendations to             dispel any misunderstandings and encourage usage of the facilities to promote physical activity             for all.  Methods Study Population and Rationale   For this study, surveys were conducted at the UBC Aquatic Centre, located at ​6080              Student Union Blvd, Vancouver, BC​. The target audience were people aged 19 years and older               of all genders and ethnicities who use the universal change rooms. The reasoning behind this               was to obtain information from all types of users to ensure more diverse information was               attained, allowing for generalization of the findings to other universal change rooms. The             survey took place between 2:00 pm and 5:00 pm on Wednesday afternoon, as this was within                  4 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS the busiest time range as stated by the SEEDS partner Nathan Jesse (personal communication,              January 12, 2019). This time period also takes place after general school hours, when many               parents and children may be coming to the Aquatic Center and using the change rooms. A                public swim and a 25-meter length swim were also open during this time, which was theorized                to potentially bring in a higher number of people to survey (“Aquatics Drop-In,” 2019). Recruitment Process  16 participants present at the UBC Aquatic Centre during the aforementioned time were             surveyed in this study. A loose script was used to engage and explain the study to the                 participants (Willis & Artino, 2013). In order to collect data that produced an accurate              representation of the broader population, eligibility to participate in this study was open to all               demographics, with the only criterion being that they were users of the UBC Aquatic Centre               universal change room.  Before beginning the survey, potential participants were asked if they had used the             universal change room during this visit, or on previous visits. If yes, participants were given a                verbal explanation of the research project and were asked to sign a consent form (see Appendix                B), before being asked to complete the survey (see Appendix A). Participants were given both               the consent form and survey on a clipboard, as well as a second consent form to take home with                   them if they wanted. The participants were given a chair and table they could complete the                survey at, or they were allowed to move to other areas of the Aquatic Centre lobby. The                 facilitators did not engage with the participants while they were completing the survey to reduce               any experimenter biases (Strickland & Suben, 2012). This recruitment process can be viewed as an ‘opt out’ method rather than an ‘opt in’                method, as it has been demonstrated that an ‘opt out’ method yields higher response rates (Hunt,                Shlomo, & Addington-Hall, 2013). As explained in a study done by Hunt et al. (2013), the ‘opt                 out’ method involves participants receiving the opportunity to participate in the study and             complete the survey questions within one session, while the ‘opt in’ method involves agreeing              to participate, and then completing the survey at a later date, for example, being sent home with                 a link to complete the survey online. By providing the facility users the simplest way to                complete the survey, it was hoped that this would easily attract participants. Data Collection   As mentioned previously, patrons experiences with the universal change rooms were           collected through surveys. The survey was created to gain an understanding of patrons’             knowledge, perceptions, and experiences with using the universal change rooms in addition to             the overall quality of their experience (Riazi, 2018).  The survey was composed of clear, concise questions, to minimize any biases that may              make the results less reliable. This was done by primarily using close-ended questions such as               multiple-choice and Likert-Scale questions. However, since open-ended questions are valuable            5 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS to gain greater insight in responses (Dolnicar, 2013), two questions where comments could be              made were included (see Appendix A). Data Analysis  After conducting the 21-item survey, all of the collected data was compiled into one              excel document to analyze and assess the results. The descriptive statistical data from the              quantitative questions were analyzed and displayed using statistical graphics such as pie charts             and information tables, (Beniger & Robyn, 1978; Spence, 2005). The open-ended question            responses were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach, in which the responses were             divided into themes that were identified by looking at patterns within the data (Braun & Clark,                2006; Ryan & Bernard, 2003). During the analysis, participant results were also examined and analyzed according to            age, ethnicity, gender, employment status, household composition and how often and how long             they had been using this facility. Challenges Several foreseeable challenges were recognized as having the potential to occur during            the data collection process. These challenges were mitigated through the development of sound             survey questions and in adopting behaviours for participant recruitment on the data collection             day. For instance, one challenge that arose during the development of the survey questions was               ensuring that questions were designed so that each respondent would interpret them in the same               way (Dolnicar, 2013). Actions taken to minimize this risk of misinterpretation of the questions              included using common everyday language, having shorter questions, and avoiding the use of             double negatives (Dolnicar, 2013). A few participants asked for clarification on some questions,             however for the most part the survey questions were clear and concise, and easy to understand                for most participants.  Another anticipated challenge was the recruitment of an adequate number of           participants. As the recruitment of participants occurred outside the change rooms, this            disrupted the daily routine of individuals by asking them to stop and complete the survey. This                proved to be a challenge. In addition, there were a limited number of individuals going in and                 out and using the universal change room, which limited the overall number of participants for               survey recruitment. A number of individuals approached the survey station willingly to provide             their feedback, however they were not users of the universal change room so they were unable                to participate. Due to this, this research study lacks information on non-users. As the universal               change room is located on a university campus, it was anticipated that the students and faculty                members who use the facility may have other obligatory commitments that could influence their              decision to participate. The survey was developed to take no more than ten minutes of the                respondents time in order to increase the likelihood of participation, however some individuals             still felt they were unable to participate due to the time commitment. In an attempt to overcome                 this challenge, individuals who did participate in the project were made to feel that their               contributions were necessary in order for the success of this study (Visser, Krosnick, &                6 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Lavrakas, n.d.). The aim was to make them feel as though they were the experts and that the                  study required their expertise as the main users of the universal change rooms.  Procedural bias, defined as “an unfair amount of pressure that is applied to the subjects,               forcing them to complete their response quickly” (Shuttleworth, 2009), was another foreseeable            challenge with the potential to arise and skew the data. This type of bias can also result in                  participants not providing adequate answers to the questions or skipping them completely, as             well as being unable to provide their honest opinion and not being fully engaged in the content                 of the survey (Shuttleworth, 2009). In order to avoid this, participants were given the option to                sit down and make themselves comfortable while also being informed that they can take their               time to complete the survey. It was noticed that quite a few participants chose to fill out the                  survey away from the survey table where other individuals were around. This allowed the              participants to be in their own space without the distraction of the researchers, as well as                enabled them to fill out the questions to the best of their abilities without any added pressure.                 This could have made them feel more comfortable knowing that no one was watching them or                the answers they were providing, allowing them to be more honest and open.  Finally, inclusion bias was another anticipated challenge, which is “often a result of             convenience where, for example, volunteers are the only group available, and they tend to fit a                narrow demographic range” (Shuttleworth, 2009). As the survey was conducted on campus,            43.8% of the participants identified as students, which is almost half of the data. Having a large                 number of students and young adults participate makes the final results less generalizable to the               broader population, as opinions of varying demographic groups may differ greatly. This was             mitigated by attempting to recruit a variety of demographics to complete the survey, however as               previously mentioned, this attempt was limited due to the individuals using the universal change              room and those who qualified for participation.  Results/Findings  Sixteen participants completed the survey, ten of which identified as female and six as              male (see Figure 1). Half of the participants fell into the 19-30 years of age category, which                 coincides with the average age of 20 years across UBC’s undergraduate students (Coutts, 2012).              Meanwhile 37.5% were aged 31-65 years, and the remaining 12.5% were aged 65 years and               older (see Figure 2). 62.5% of the participants were of Caucasian ethnicity, 31.3% represented              the combined Asian Heritages and the remaining 6.3% identified as Hispanic or Latino. As              suspected, due to the venue being located on the university campus, a large portion of               participants were students (43.8%), followed by those employed full-time (25.0%), and those            retired (12.5%). The remaining participants identified equally as employed part-time, unable to            work/on disability, and other, the explanation being maternity leave; each of these sectors made              up 6.3% of the sample (see Figure 3). Of the participants, 68.8% had attained a Bachelor’s                degree or higher for education, while 31.3% had some college credit, but no degree; this would                include those whose degree was still in progress (see Figure 4). Half of the sample reported as                 using this facility for 1 to 2 years, while the other half was split equally between 6 months to 1                    year, and 3 to 6 months. Half of the participants identified as single (never married), followed                by 25.0% who identified as being married or in a domestic partnership, 18.8% married with                 7 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS kids, and 6.3% divorced. The number of days per week that survey participants reported using               this facility were as follows: one day (43.8%), two days (12.5%), three days (18.8%), four days                (6.3%), five days (6.3%), six days (0%), seven days (6.3%), and zero days (6.3%). Over half                (56.3%) of the participants said that they had seen universal change rooms at other facilities               before this one, most of which were other community or aquatic centers in British Columbia.    Figure 1. ​Identified genders of survey participants.   Figure 2. ​ Ages of survey participants.          8 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  Figure 3. ​Employment status of survey participants.    Figure 4. ​Completed education levels of survey participants.   For the 5-point Likert Scale questions of the survey, descriptive statistics were used for              analysis. The mean and standard deviation of each question are displayed in Table 1.  Table 1. Descriptive statistics for 5-point Likert Scale survey questions.   9 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  Question: Mean: Standard Deviation: 1. I am satisfied with UBC’s Universal Change Room facilities  4.50 0.52 2. I would recommend the universal change rooms to friends & family 4.81 0.40 3. It is clear who is able to use the universal change rooms 4.56 0.73 4. The facility would benefit from signage making clear who the universal change rooms are to be used by 3.63 1.31 5. It is important to me to have private changing stalls 4.06 1.24 6. I felt there are a sufficient number of private changing stalls 3.81 0.98 7. UBC should install more universal change room facilities throughout campus 4.00 0.89 8. I prefer using the universal change room rather than the traditional male/female ones 3.88 0.96  Based on participant responses and input in the open-ended suggestion and comment            questions, two significant themes arose. The first theme was the importance of privacy; a large               majority, 81.25% of the participants indicated that they used the universal change rooms             because they prefer using the private stalls, which the single-sex change rooms do not offer. The                second theme was the feeling of safety; it was reported that those who do not identify with the                  dichromatic sex of the single-sex change rooms felt safer and more accepted in the universal               change room. Additionally, smaller themes arose such as the want for more private changing              stalls and showers, making lockers more accessible and easier to use, and improving the overall               cleanliness of the facilities.  Discussion  As mentioned, three broad themes emerged during analysis of the data: (1) Importance of privacy; (2) feelings of safety and (3) trends in the demographics of the sample. An in-depth analysis of each of these themes will be discussed below.   1. Importance of Privacy   10 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  Privacy was an integral reason for using the universal change room, as 81.25% of              participants stated that the private stalls were a main reason they preferred using the universal               change rooms over the single-sex change rooms. Several studies have demonstrated that athletes             can feel uncomfortable in gendered spaces if they do not identify with the gender they were                assigned at birth and feel uncomfortable changing in front of others (Krane 2018; Herrick &               Duncan, 2018; Porta, Gower, Mehus, Yu, Saewyc & Eisenberg, 2017). They may also feel that               others may be uncomfortable in their presence; the privacy of the private stalls eliminates this               fear for athletes (Krane, 2018). Universal change rooms can play a large part in what facilities                LGBTQ+ people choose to use. In one study it was stated that some LGBTQ+ users would                travel farther to use the universal washrooms and the private, individual stalls as they were more                comfortable (Herrick & Duncan, 2018). Universal change rooms can eliminate worries about            changing in front of others, which can make it difficult for LGBTQ+ individuals to fully               participate in activities such as swimming or other sports (Porta et al., 2017).  Additionally, the LGBTQ+ community is not the only population that can benefit from             the privacy of universal change rooms, as people who struggle with their body image or               self-esteem may prefer more privacy than others in order to feel comfortable and confident              while changing (Noles, Cash & Winstead, 1985). Therefore, the absence of private stalls may              prohibit this population from engaging in physical activity. Consequently, personal privacy is an             important feature of whether or not people use the universal change room, and an integral part                of whether or not they engage in physical activity, subsequently impacting their health and              wellbeing.  Lastly, one issue that was brought up during discussion with participants and staff was              concern over the lack of clothing in the universal change room and inappropriate sexual              behaviour (personal communication, March 13, 2019). This could contribute to individuals           feeling uncomfortable sharing the universal change rooms with a member of the opposite sex              ( ​“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018). 2. Feelings of Safety  Another important theme that arose came from a participant who stated that they felt              safer and more accepted using the universal change rooms. They had shared that, “sometimes              [they] get ‘looks’ for [their] gender expression. The universal change rooms avoids [this],             making things easier for me,” (personal communication, March 13, 2019) This supports the             literature around barriers many in the LGBTQ+ community face, as transgender individuals            often stop participating in the physical activities they enjoy due to the anxiety they experience               from being forced to use a gender-segregated locker room (Krane, 2018). Part of this anxiety               can come from individuals feeling as though they cannot pass as their identified gender (Krane,               2018). Furthermore, locker rooms in aquatic centres are known to be particularly anxiety             provoking, which could be due to the revealing nature of the sports uniform (Krane, 2018).               Therefore, providing spaces where individuals feel comfortable is essential in order to            encourage those in the LGBTQ+ community to become more physically active and keep doing                11 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS the activities they enjoy, and to begin to address the health disparities present (Herrick &               Duncan, 2018).   None of the participants who completed the survey had any visible disabilities. While             there is a lack of literature regarding feelings of safety when using change rooms for this                population, one of the most frequently mentioned barriers to participation is the inaccessibility             of the built environment (Rimmer et al., 2004). UBC’s universal change rooms were created to               address these commonly encountered barriers by providing automatic doors and enough space            to accommodate mobility devices (“Inclusive Washrooms & Change Rooms,” n.d.).          Nevertheless, future research is needed in order to better understand the disabled communities             experiences with using UBC’s universal change rooms in order to understand how to better              serve this community. Several participants also mentioned that the cleanliness of the change             rooms could be improved, and one participant complained of bed bugs found in the locker               room. The importance of maintaining a clean facility is very important not only for aesthetics               but also to ensure safety, as a common safety hazard is slippery floors (Rimmer et al., 2004).   3. Trends in the Sample Demographics  Through the data analysis there were multiple small themes that emerged regarding            tendencies seen in sex, age, occupation, and education level. Of the 16 participants, 62.5%              identified as female. This is consistent with research findings that women are generally more              likely to participate in surveys (Smith, 2008). This sex bias could also be due to the fact that a                   majority of UBC’s student population is female (“Demographics Overview,” n.d.). Large           portions of the participants identified as between the ages of 19-30 years, and as a student. This                 was a demographic theme that was anticipated due to the fact that the facility at which the                 survey took place was located on UBC’s campus. This adheres to the average ages of students                at UBC, as the average ages for undergraduate and master students are 21 and 30 years                respectively (“Demographics Overview,” n.d.). A great majority of the participants (68.8%) had            completed an education of a bachelor degree or higher. This theme was found to be surprising                as it was expected most of the participants, especially considering the generally young age              group, would be in progress of completing their bachelor degree. It is however not surprising               that the results support the idea that people who are more educated are more likely to participate                 in physical activity and a healthy lifestyle (Shaw & Spokane, 2008).  Recommendations   After conducting the survey on patron experience with using the universal change room             at the UBC Aquatic Centre, three main recommendations for moving forward with this facility              and future facilities have been made.  1. Implementation of a Code of Conduct   The survey results revealed participants felt relatively neutral about the change rooms            benefiting from signage designating who can use the space, with a mean of 3.63 out of 5 on the                     12 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Likert Scale. Furthermore, participants strongly agreed that it is clear who can use the universal               change rooms, with a mean of 4.56 out of 5. However, there appears to be some concerns                 regarding appropriate usage of the universal space, as participants brought up concerns that             other users of the change room were inappropriately using the space by walking around              undressed (personal communication, March 13, 2019). Additionally, there have been reports to            the staff regarding inappropriate sexual behaviour occurring within the change rooms (personal            communication, March 13, 2019).   As personal privacy has been found to be an important facilitator for using the universal               change rooms, the facility could benefit from signage displaying a code of conduct for              behaviours appropriate within the change rooms. HCMA Architecture + Design support using            signage to clarify and reinforce the appropriate use of shared spaces ( ​“Designing for             Inclusivity,” 2018). Some of their suggestions include ​implementing signs indicating that           clothing is required in locker areas and to remind everyone to be mindful of the amount of time                  they spend occupying the stalls and showers ( ​“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018). ​Establishing a             code of conduct may also help address some of the fears that universal change rooms could                place women and children at risk ​(Sleigh, 2016; “Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018).   Additionally, some individuals have expressed that sharing change rooms with members           of the opposite sex is uncomfortable or strange (“Designing for Inclusivity,” 2018). A code of               conduct could help to address these concerns by establishing a code of behaviour meant to               encourage appropriate usage of the facilities and to ​enhance patrons security, comfort and             privacy. ​Having staff conduct hourly check ins may also help reduce the reported incidences of               inappropriate sexual activity.  2. Future Facility Modifications  a. Bigger and more lockers available   Participants voiced enjoying having larger lockers to store their belongings while using            the facility, with one participant stating that they use the universal change room purely because               the lockers are larger than the ones in the men’s change room. Having additional lockers               available for patrons to use and store their belongings would also help address shortages as the                facility can get quite busy during times when there are various activities and programs being               conducted. Therefore, this facility would benefit from having a larger quantity of lockers that              are bigger in size compared to regular sized lockers that are typically found in men’s and                women’s change rooms. Individuals would be able to store their belongings with an increased              level of confidence and security, and would not have to worry about whether or not they will                 have to store their valued belongings somewhere else while using the amenities that the UBC               Aquatic Centre has to offer.   b. More private changing stalls/more showers    13 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS With over 80% of participants saying that they use the universal change rooms solely              because they like the private stalls (see Appendix C), having more of them would improve the                experience of patrons while utilizing the facility, by making them feel more comfortable.             Individuals tend to prefer a private changing room compared to an open communal changing              space, which is the layout in the men’s and women’s change rooms. Additionally, having more               showers available to use would positively benefit the facility and the needs of the patrons as                they may use the facility on more of a regular basis knowing that showering is available to                 them. For example, individuals going for a drop-in swim prior to going to work or school may                 be more inclined to go if they are assured that they can have a shower once they are done with                    their swim. If it is not guaranteed that a shower would be available for them to use, this may                   impact their decision on whether they will use the facility or not.   c. Cleanliness   A number of participants commented that the cleanliness of the facility could be             improved overall. As suggested by Rimmer et al. (2004), neglected cleanliness of facilities,             such as slippery floors, can pose a safety hazard to users, especially for those with disabilities.                One participant in particular elaborated on her concern of the cleanliness, as she shared that she                had found bed bugs within the lockers. As a result, she said that she stores her change of                  clothing in a plastic bag when using the lockers. This could indicate an investigation into the                cleaning protocol of the lockers is needed in order to assess these concerns. Implementing              additional protocols for staff to monitor the cleanliness more frequently would be beneficial for              all users.   3. Additional Facilities   When asked during the survey whether participants think UBC should install more            universal change rooms around campus, the average answer was 4.0 out of 5.0 on the Likert                Scale. This signified that participants think more facilities should be built around campus. This              is something to consider when building new facilities on campus or renovating pre-existing             facilities. Having more facilities would increase accessibility for those who need, or feel more              comfortable using the universal change rooms. Literature has shown that people will go out of               their way to use facilities that contain a universal change room (Herrick & Duncan, 2018);               providing more facilities would allow for easier access for these populations.   Conclusion  In conclusion, this research project surveyed users of the universal change rooms at the              UBC Aquatic Centre, in attempt to understand the patron usage and experiences. The results              from the surveys showed the general demographic of users, which consisted largely of females,              young adults, those of Caucasian ethnicity, and students. The more in-depth answers portrayed               14 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS that privacy and safety were the two main themes among participants. The information             gathered will be used to further improve patron experiences through further research, facility             modifications, and additional facilities built on campus. It is important to note, however, that the               ability to generalize these findings to the broader population is limited due to the demographic               that was surveyed. For future research on this topic, more options in the multiple choice survey questions              should be included. For example, in this study participants either had to select employed or               student, but could not select both, which would have best reflected a larger number of               participants. Additionally, more options for family status could have been offered, such as             single with kids. Most importantly, future research about the universal change rooms should             include surveying non-users, in addition to the users. Including non-users’ experiences and            opinions would be beneficial in helping researchers and facility staff to better understand why              some people choose not to use the universal change rooms. With this information, the UBC               universal change rooms could be better made to provide for all, subsequently encouraging             physical activity and healthy lifestyles.                          15 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS References:  American Psychological Association. (2015). Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people. ​American Psychologist ​, ​70 ​(9), 832-864.  Aquatic Drop-In. (n.d.). ​University of British Columbia; Recreation. ​ Retrieved from https://recreation.ubc.ca/aquatics/aquatics-drop-in/.  Beniger, J. R., & Robyn, D. L. (1978). Quantitative graphics in statistics: A brief history. ​The American Statistician ​, ​32​(1), 1-11.  Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. ​Qualitative research psychology​, ​3​(2), 77-101. Cleverley, B. (2017). Universal change room approved. ​Times - Colonist. ​ Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1864939780?accountid=14656&pq-origsite=summon.  Coutts, L. (2012). Who are our students? Implications for teaching and learning. ​University of British Columbia; Centre for Teaching, Leaning and Technology. ​ Retrieved from https://ctlt.ubc.ca/2012/08/15/who-are-our-students-implications-for-teaching-and-learning/. Croteau, J. (2016, June 30). Calgary YMCA’s universal locker-room open to all genders. Global News. ​ Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/2797587/calgary-ymcas-universal-locker-room-open-to-all-genders/​.  Demographics Overview. (n.d.). ​University of British Columbia; The Planning and Institutional Research Office. ​ Retrieved from ​http://pair.ubc.ca/student-demographics/demographics/ ​.  Designing for Inclusivity; Strategies for Universal Washrooms and Change rooms in Community and Recreation Facilities. (2018). ​HCMA ​[PDF file]. Retrieved from https://hcma.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/HCMA_Designing-for-Inclusivity_V1-1.pdf Dolnicar, S. (2013). Asking good survey questions. ​Journal of Travel Research ​, ​52​(5), 551-574. Fiani, C. N., & Han, H. J. (2018). Navigating identity: Experiences of binary and non-binary transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) adults. ​International Journal of Transgenderism ​, 1-14. Gender-inclusive signs coming to washrooms. (2016, September 2). ​ UVic News. ​ Retrieved from https://www.uvic.ca/news/topics/2016+gender-neutral-washrooms+ring ​. Grandview Heights Aquatic Centre wins distinction for accessibility. (2017, November 16). HCMA Architecture + Design. ​ Retrieved from   16 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS https://hcma.ca/surreys-grandview-heights-aquatic-centre-wins-iociaks-distinction-accessibility/​.  Gretchen, K. (2018, September 25). A first in California: Berkeley opens large-scale universal locker room. ​Berkeley News. ​ Retrieved from https://news.berkeley.edu/2018/09/25/a-first-in-california-berkeley-opens-large-scale-universal-locker-room/ ​.  Herrick, S. S., & Duncan, L. R. (2018). A Qualitative Exploration of LGBTQ+ and Intersecting Identities Within Physical Activity Contexts. ​Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology​, ​40​(6), 325-335. Hunt, K.J., Shlomo, N., & Addington-Hall, J. (2013). Participant recruitment in sensitive surveys: a comparative trial of ‘opt in’ versus ‘opt out’ approaches. ​BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13 ​(3), 1-8, ​https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-3. Inclusive Washrooms & Change Rooms. (n.d.). ​Equity & Inclusion Office ​. Retrieved from https://equity.ubc.ca/resources/gender-diversity/inclusive-washrooms-changerooms/ ​.  Krane, V. (Ed.). (2018). ​Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in Sport: Queer Inquiries ​. Routledge. Latif, A. (2016). UW launches new universal washrooms: Updates on signs and tweaks for those with needs such as insulin injection needle disposal. ​Waterloo Region Record Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1831174530?accountid=14656 ​. Lucas, T. (2018, July 20). SFU’s New Universal Washrooms. ​Department of Gender, Sexuality, and Women’s Studies: Community Engagement. ​ Retrieved from https://www.sfu.ca/gsws/community-outreach/Blog/SFUs_New_Universal_Washroom.html​.  Noles, S. W., Cash, T. F., & Winstead, B. A. (1985). Body image, physical attractiveness, and depression. ​Journal of consulting and clinical psychology ​, ​53​(1), 88. Porta, C. M., Gower, A. L., Mehus, C. J., Yu, X., Saewyc, E. M., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2017). “Kicked out”: LGBTQ youths' bathroom experiences and preferences. ​Journal of Adolescence ​, ​56​, 107-112. Riazi, N. (2018). KIN 464: Research Project Description Form - Universal Changeroom. [Class Handout]. Retrieved from ​https://www.canvas.ubc.ca ​. Rimmer, J. H., Riley, B., Wang, E., & Rauworth, A. (2005). Accessibility of health clubs for people with mobility disabilities and visual impairments. ​American journal of public health ​, ​95​(11), 2022-2028.   17 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Rimmer, J. H., Riley, B., Wang, E., Rauworth, A., & Jurkowski, J. (2004). Physical activity participation among persons with disabilities: barriers and facilitators. ​American journal of preventive medicine ​, ​26​(5), 419-425. Rubinoff, J. (2016, October 17). Universal change room at U of Guelph like glimpse into land of Oz. ​Waterloo Region Record. ​ Retrieved from https://www.therecord.com/whatson-story/6915705-universal-change-room-at-u-of-guelph-like-glimpse-into-land-of-oz/ ​. Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. ​Field methods ​, ​15​(1), 85-109. Shaw, B. A., & Spokane, L. S. (2008). Examining the association between education level and physical activity changes during early old age. ​ Journal of Aging and Health, 20 ​(7), 767-787. doi:10.1177/0898264308321081.  Shuttleworth, M. (2009). Research bias. ​Explorable. ​ ​Retrieved on February 7th, 2019, from https://explorable.com/research-bias?fbclid=IwAR3hiHQ_d00qgHtXT498lPn4ncm926HA2VlGqrR25NOFszCKO3qFebOEsTk​. Sleigh, S. (2016, October 19). Anger over plans to create unisex changing rooms at Chelsea swimming pool. ​The Evening Standard. ​Retrieved from https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/anger-over-plans-to-create-unisex-changing-rooms-at-chelsea-swimming-pool-a3372896.html ​.  Smith, W.G. (2008). Does gender influence online survey participation? A record-linkage analysis of university faculty online survey response behavior. ​Eric: Institute of Education Sciences. ​ Retrieved from ​https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED501717.pdf ​.  Spence, I. (2005). No humble pie: The origins and usage of a statistical chart. ​Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics ​, ​30​(4), 353-368. Strickland, B., & Suben, A. (2012). Experimenter Philosophy: The Problem of Experimenter Bias in Experimental Philosophy. ​Review of Philosophy and Psychology,3 ​(3), 457-467. doi:10.1007/s13164-012-0100-9 Universal Change Room Feedback. (2017). ​Strathcona County​ [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.strathcona.ca/files/files/universal-change-room-survey-report-2017.pdf Visser, P. S., Krosnick J. A., & Lavrakas P. J. “Survey Research.” (n.d.) ​Stanford ​ [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/dept/communication/faculty/krosnick/Survey_Research.pdf Wernick, L.J., Kulick, A., & Chin, M. (2017). Gender Identity Disparities in Bathroom Safety and Wellbeing Among High School Students. ​J Youth Adolescence, 46 ​, 917-930. Retrieved from:   18 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS https://search.proquest.com/docview/1886584313?accountid=14656&pq-origsite=summon​. Willis, G. B., & Artino, A. R. (2013). What Do Our Respondents Think Were Asking? Using Cognitive Interviewing to Improve Medical Education Surveys. Journal of Graduate Medical Education,5(3), 353-356. doi:10.4300/jgme-d-13-00154.1                                       19 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Appendices Appendix A. Universal Change Room Survey Thank you for agreeing to take part in this survey, which is meant to improve patron                experiences with UBC’s universal change rooms. The survey was made in collaboration            between SEEDS Sustainability Program and 4th year Kinesiology students in KIN 464. It             should take no more than 10 minutes to complete. Your answers will be kept in full                confidentiality.    1. What is your ​ ​age? a. 19-30 years b. 31-65 years c. 65+ years  2. Which gender do you identify most with? a. Male b. Female c. Gender Fluid d. Non-Binary  e. Transgender f. Other:  _____________________  3. Please select the ​ ​racial or ethnic background that you identify most with:  a. White/Caucasian  b. Asian - Central/South Asian Heritage c. Asian - East Asian Heritage d. Middle Eastern e. African Canadian or African Heritage  f. Hispanic or Latino g. Aboriginal h. Other:  _____________________  4. Employment Status: Are you currently… a. Employed full time (32+ hours per week) b. Employed part time (less than 32 hours per week) c. Unemployed and currently looking for work   20 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS d. Unemployed and not currently looking for work e. Student f. Retired g. Unable to work/on disability h. Other:  _____________________  5. What is your education level? a. No schooling completed b. Some high school c. High school graduate, diploma or the equivalent d. Some college credit, no degree e. College certificate or diploma f. Bachelor’s degree or higher g. Other:  _____________________  6. How long have you been using the UBC Aquatic Centre facilities? (Multiple Choice) a. < 3 months  b. 3 - 6 months  c. 6 months - 1 year d. 1 - 2 years    7. Which of the following best describes your household composition? a. Single (never married) b. Married/domestic partnership c. Widowed d. Divorced e. Single parent f. Married with kids  8. How many days do you use the universal change room in an average week? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3   21 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS e. 4 f. 5 g. 6 h. 7   9. Was UBC’s facility your first experience with the universal change rooms?  a. Yes b. No  c. If no, where else have you seen this? _____________________  10. Why do you like using the universal change room? (Please select all the apply) a. I prefer using the private stalls b. I like using the larger facility  c. I am able to use my mobility devices or support workers  d. I feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones e. It fits more with my gender identity  f. It fits more with my sexual identity g.  Other: _____________________  11. Have you had any negative experiences using the universal change rooms?  a. Yes b. No, I have not have any negative experiences . 12. If yes to the previous question, which negative experiences have you had? a. I don’t feel safe b. I don’t feel welcomed c. Physical harassment  d. Verbal harassment  e. Other:  _____________________  13. Would you make any suggestions for the improvement of the change rooms?  ___________________________________________________________________   22 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________   The following questions are to be answered based on your agreeance or disagreeance with the statement:   (1 - strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3 - neutral, 4 - agree, 5 - strongly agree)  1.  I am satisfied with UBC’s Universal Change Room facilities    1      2      3      4      5 2.  I would recommend the universal change rooms to friends & family   1      2      3      4      5 3.  It is clear who is able to use the universal change rooms   1      2      3      4      5 4. The facility would benefit from signage making clear who the universal change rooms are to be used by   1      2      3      4      5 5. It is important to me to have private changing stalls   1      2      3      4      5 6. I felt there are a sufficient number of private changing stalls   1      2      3      4      5 7. UBC should install more universal change room facilities throughout campus   1      2      3      4      5 8. I prefer using the universal change room rather than the traditional male/female ones   1      2      3      4      5    23 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS   Any additional comments: _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________  Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey!                    24 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Appendix B. Consent Form  KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity  Participant Consent Form   Principal Investigator(s): Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education)  The purpose of the class project: To gather knowledge and expertise from community members on topics related to universal change rooms and their impact on the community.   Study Procedures: With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a survey. With the information gathered, we will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage with universal change rooms.   Project outcomes: The information gathered from survey questions will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports.   UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library      25 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the survey will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with the universal change rooms and will provide us with an opportunity to learn from your experiences.   Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in an interview is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course.   Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. As there is a list of questions, the person you are surveying is free to share what they would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the survey and there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed.   Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca   Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in   26 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca . or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.   Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this study.     Subject signature____________________________________________________     Date: ____________________________________________________             27 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS Appendix C. Universal Change Room Raw Data Also viewable at: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1MWOJrC0J2l4te1XlGECBxeE4rpT-D59PBHtcRYBHBiQ/edit?usp=sharing   PARTICIPANT AGE GENDER 1 19-30 years Female 2 31-65 years Female 3 19-30 years Female 4 19-30 years Female 5 19-30 years Male 6 19-30 years Female 7 65+ years Male 8 65+ years Male 9 31-65 years Female 10 19-30 years Female 11 31-65 years Male 12 31-65 years Male 13 19-30 years Male 14 31-65 years Female 15 19-30 years Female 16 31-65 years Female     28 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS PARTICIPANT ETHNICITY EMPLOYMENT STATUS 1 Asian - East Asian Hertiage Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 2 White/Caucasian Unable to work/on disability 3 White/Caucasian Student 4 White/Caucasian Student 5 White/Caucasian Student 6 White/Caucasian Student 7 Asian - Central/South Asian Heritage Retired 8 White/Caucasian Retired 9 Hispanic or Latino Student 10 Asian - East Asian Hertiage Student 11 White/Caucasian Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 12 White/Caucasian Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 13 White/Caucasian Student 14 White/Caucasian Other: On Maternity Leave 15 Asian - East Asian Hertiage Employed full time (32+ hours per week) 16 Asian - Central/South Asian Heritage Employed part time (less than 32 hours per week)  PARTICIPANT EDUCATION HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN USING THIS FACILITY 1 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years   29 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 2 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 3 Some college credit, no degree 3-6 months 4 Some college credit, no degree 1-2 years 5 Some college credit, no degree 6 months-1 year 6 Bachelor's degree or higher 3-6 months 7 Bachelor's degree or higher 6 months-1 year 8 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 9 Bachelor's degree or higher 6 months-1 year 10 Some college credit, no degree 6 months-1 year 11 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 12 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years 13 Some college credit, no degree 1-2 years 14 Bachelor's degree or higher 3-6 months 15 Bachelor's degree or higher 1-2 years   30 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 16 Bachelor's degree or higher 3-6 months   PARTICIPANT HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION HOW MANY DAYS A WEEK DO YOU USE THIS FACILITY IS UBC THE FIRST PLACE YOU HAVE SEEN UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 1 Single (never married) One No - Watermania 2 Divorced Two No - Hillcrest 3 Single (never married) Three Yes 4 Single (never married) One Yes 5 Single (never married) Zero No - Kelowna 6 Single (never married) One Yes 7 Married/domestic partnership Three Yes 8 Married/domestic partnership Seven No - Hillcrest Pool 9 Single (never married) Five No- other community centres 10 Married/domestic partnership Two No - UVIC 11 Married/domestic partnership Four Yes 12 Married with kids One No - other pools 13 Single (never married) One No 14 Married with kids One No - in Paris 15 Single (never married) Three Yes 16 Married with kids One Yes     31 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS  PARTICIPANT WHY DO YOU LIKE USING THE UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 1 I prefer using the private stalls 2 I like using the larger facility 3 I prefer using the private stalls - able to talk to friends while changing 4 Other: generally no difference, but sometimes I don't like being confined to stalls and feel being naked in the women’s is more acceptable 5 I prefer using the private stalls 6 I prefer using the private stalls 7 I prefer using the private stalls 8 I prefer using the private stalls - I like using the larger facility - other: rented locker in universal 9 I prefer using the private stalls/ i feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones/ it fits more with my sexual identity 10 I prefer using the private stalls/I like using the larger facility, I feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones 11 I prefer using the private stalls/I like using the larger facility/Its cleaner 12 I prefer using the private stalls/ I like using the larger facility 13 I prefer using the private stalls 14 I prefer using the private stalls/I like using the larger facility 15 I like using the larger facility 16 I prefer using the private stalls/ I feel more welcome or safe compared to using the male/female ones        32 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS PARTICIPANT HAVE YOU HAD ANY NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES IN THIS FACILITY IF SO, WHAT NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES 1 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 2 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 3 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 4 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 5 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 6 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 7 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 8 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 9 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 10 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 11 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A   33 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 12 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 13 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 14 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 15 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A 16 No, I have not have any negative experiences N/A   PARTICIPANT ANY SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT? 1 N/A 2 Lockers could lock more easily - private change rooms could be cleaner - especially when many kids have used in a day or on weekend 3 More showers & stalls - free lockers/different pay options 4 N/A 5 N/A 6 Lockers are hard to use 7 Some lockers not working and locked by private locks 8 1. Move hand dryers in bathrooms so that they do not start when you use the toilet - 2. Fix cubicle doors that are not working making the cubicles unaccessible for months 9 More stalls I guess 10 They're great! More shower stalls would be awesome 11 Clean better/Have better showers 12 N/A 13 T.V.'s 14 Free lockers   34 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS 15 N/A 16 More showers    PARTICIPANT I AM SATISFIED WITH UBC’S UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOM FACILITIES 1 4 2 4 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 4 9 4 10 5 11 4 12 4 13 4 14 5 15 5 16 4   35 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.5   PARTICIPANT I WOULD RECOMMEND TO FAMILY AND FRIENDS 1 4 2 4 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 5 10 5 11 5 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 5 16 5   36 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.8125   PARTICIPANT IT IS CLEAR WHO IS ABLE TO USE THEM 1 5 2 5 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 4 8 5 9 5 10 5 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 3 16 5   37 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.5625     PARTICIPANT FACILITY WOULD BENEFIT FROM SIGNAGE 1 5 2 2 3 4 4 1 5 3 6 3 7 5 8 2 9 3 10 3 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 5 16 5   38 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 3.625    PARTICIPANT IMPORTANT TO HAVE PRIVATE CHANGING STALLS 1 5 2 4 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 5 7 5 8 2 9 5 10 4 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 4 16 5   39 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4.0625    PARTICIPANT SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF PRIVATE CHANGING STALLS 1 4 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 4 7 3 8 3 9 2 10 3 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 5 15 3 16 5   40 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 3.8125   PARTICIPANT SHOULD INSTALL MORE UNIVERSAL CHANGEROOMS 1 4 2 3 3 5 4 4 5 3 6 5 7 3 8 3 9 5 10 5 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 3 15 4 16 5   41 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 4   PARTICIPANT I PREFER USING THE UNIVERSAL OVER THE TRADITIONAL MALE/FEMALE ONES 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 3 5 3 6 5 7 2 8 3 9 5 10 4 11 4 12 4 13 3 14 5 15 4 16 5   42 IMPROVING PATRON EXPERIENCE WITH UNIVERSAL CHANGE ROOMS    Mean: 3.875   PARTICIPANT ANY ADDITIONAL COMMENTS 1 N/A 2 This facility is superior to Hillcrest - bedbug incident 3 N/A 4 N/A 5 N/A 6 N/A 7 N/A 8 I rented a locker in the universal because it is bigger than in the mens (my umbrella did not fit in the mens locker) 9 Although I have no negative experience per se using female change rooms, sometimes I get "looks" for my gender expression. The universal change rooms avoids all of these making things easier. 10 N/A 11 N/A 12 N/A 13 N/A 14 N/A 15 One concern is the scale of the usage: managing the number of people vs. number of available facilities 16 N/A    43  Universal Change RoomsImproving patron experience with universal change roomsPaige Barkowsky, Mikaia Roberts, Christie Stewart, Ana ZelembabaRESULTS & DISCUSSIONPRIVACY “ I didn’t feel stared at in the universal change rooms ”80% of participants said they use the universal change rooms because they like the private stallsREFERENCESInclusion Criteria:All users of the universal change roomSample Characteristics:Gender: 63% womenAge: 50% aged 19-30 yearsEthnicity: 63% CaucasianEmployment: 44% were studentsEducation: 69% held a Bachelor’s degree or higherBACKGROUND PARTICIPANTSPURPOSE METHODSCONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONSThe purpose of this report is to better understand patron knowledge, perceptions, and experiences with universal change rooms in the UBC Aquatic Centre through distribution of surveysBased on participant suggestions and comments, the following are recommendations drawn from our research:&The LGBTQ+ community & people with disabilities experience higher rates of chronic diseases & health concerns (i.e. diabetes, hypertension & limited mobility) Unfortunately, both experience significant barriers to physical activity:1. Locker rooms are the most traumatic space for LGBTQ+ individuals 2. Inaccessible built environments are a significant barrier for those with disabilities (i.e. doorways too narrow for wheelchairs)This research displayed the general demographics of users, portrayed two main themes; privacy & safety, and brought to light areas of improvement for the universal change rooms at UBCFuture research should:● Include more options for survey questions → better reflect participants● Survey non-users → to understand why some people choose not to use the universal change rooms● Collect larger samples → to better generalized to greater population● Code of Conduct of Behaviour● Bigger & more lockers● More changing stalls● More showers● Cleaner facilities1. Many LGBTQ+ individuals stop participating in activities they enjoy due to anxiety using gender segregated bathroomsChanging stalls were larger → important for safe accessibility for those with mobility issues, wheelchairs, caregivers, etc.Herrick, S. S., & Duncan, L. R. (2018). A Qualitative Exploration of LGBTQ+ and Intersecting Identities Within Physical Activity Contexts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 40(6), 325-335.Rimmer, J. H., Riley, B., Wang, E., Rauworth, A., & Jurkowski, J. (2004). Physical activity participation among persons with disabilities: barriers and facilitators. American journal of preventive medicine, 26(5), 419-425. Krane, V. (Ed.). (2018). Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in Sport: Queer Inquiries. Routledge.Noles, S. W., Cash, T.F., & Winstead, B. A. (1985). Body image, physical attractiveness, and depression. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 53(1), 88. Participants shared that they felt safer & more accepted when using universal change roomsSAFETYAn integral part of feeling comfortable in facilities,important for:1. Those who feel self-conscious changing in front of others2. LGBTQ+ community membersA 21-item in-person survey was used to gather data, using:● Qualitative → multiple choice & open-ended questions● Quantitative → 5-point Likert Scale2.Descriptive thematic and statistical analyses were completedStudy was introduced via a loose script

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