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Plant-Based Food Offerings for the AMS Koppenaal, Celine; Pestoni, Daniele; Dong, Louise; Cardoz, Celeste; Del Begio, Bethany 2019-04-08

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report        Plant-Based Food Offerings for the AMS Celine Koppenaal, Daniele Pestoni, Louise Dong, Celeste Cardoz, Bethany Del Begio University of British Columbia FNH 473 Themes: Food, Climate, Procurement April 8, 2019         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1 Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Situational Assessment and Planning Framework 3 i. Issues relevant to the target population 3 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population 4 iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels 5 iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice 7 Project Goal and Objectives 9 Description of Project Outputs 10 i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations 10 ii. Introduction of Recipes 11 iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages 12 Evaluation Plan 12 Conclusion 15 Authors’ Contributions 16 References 19 Appendices 21 Appendix A: Logic Model 21 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report 22 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations 23 Appendix D: Recipes 27 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages 48               2 Executive Summary Introduction The relationship between food and the environment has been steadily and increasingly endorsed in recent years, and it is at this junction where the potential for human intervention is substantial (Willett et al., 2019). The statement “feeding nine billion” is frequently included in discourse concerning future physical, environmental and social health, this statement aptly encompasses the importance of food in terms of sufficient nutrition, but also the immense demand for resources required to achieve this goal. There is already disparity in the health of the global population, with millions individuals lacking sufficient nutrition, and millions more affected by chronic diseases associated with overnutrition and poor diet, and it is likely that the current patterns of food consumption and production will not amend these obstacles, if left unchanged (Lindgren et al., 2018).  Furthermore, the EAT Lancet Commission (2019) encompasses the importance of food within the context of climate change, stating, “Food is the single strongest lever to optimize human health and environmental sustainability of Earth”. Despite a somewhat dismal outlook at the fate of the planet, this statement can inspire and encourage individuals to make changes, no matter how small, in efforts to live sustainably for environmental and health benefits. The overarching recommendation in order to positively modify the environmental impacts of food consumption and production require switching to primarily plant-based diets (Mertens et al, 2017; Shepon et al., 2018; Tilman & Clark, 2014). These dietary changes are said to promote the greatest improvement in population health but also the greatest reduction in the impact of diet upon resources. It is through these recommendations that food can be seen as a vehicle for change, thus supporting integration of more plant-based options into the Nest Catering menu.  3 This partnership with Nest Catering will increase the prevalence and marketing of plant-based meal options, through which perceptions of those who use AMS catering services, can shift toward sustainable food options.  Situational Assessment and Planning Framework i. Issues relevant to the target population  The target population for this project is the general public who are using Nest Catering services. This includes a wide range of individuals such as UBC faculty, domestic and international students, family of students, and many others. As expressed by the Nest Catering, the clients using their services have various goals for the food that they eat. The clients would like the food provided by nest catering to be “tasty, sustainable, and ethical” (University of British Columbia, 2019).  The current catering menu lacks a diverse selection of tasty, plant-based, sustainable food options that draw on a variety of cultural cuisines (Nest Catering & Conferences, 2019). Because individuals using the catering services are generally ‘single time users’, this is not a major issue of food security. Still, using the lens of food security to look at the current situation brings up issues such as acceptability for those using the catering services. Food security is achieved when all people at all times have access to safe, nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences (Food and Agricultural Organization). Drawing on this definition, in order to increase food security for their clients, Nest Catering must increase the availability of items on their menu that meet their client’s goals. Transitioning the menu to be more plant-forward is also a meaningful step towards increasing the overall sustainability of the Nest Catering and in fulfilling a social responsibility of moving towards global sustainability (Willett et al., 2019).   4 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population Diet choice is a consumer behaviour that contributes to the issues identified mentioned in section (i).  The greatest barrier to adopting a plant-based diet is the enjoyment and pleasure of eating meat (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Additionally, some of our consumer audience may be unwilling to try eating sustainable, vegan food if they have a bias against vegan food (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017). For example, many consumers may be deterred from selecting plant-based menu items due to their negative perceptions regarding nutritional values (i.e. insufficient protein or iron content) (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017; Pohjolainen, Vinnari, & Jokinen, 2015 ). Furthermore, plant-based diets are perceived as less nutritionally balanced as well as tasting bland and boring (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). These factors may deter consumers from choosing plant-based menu items. These behaviours presents an issue for Nest Catering who would like to increase the presence of plant based items on the menu. Moreover, a lack of plant-based options when eating out is also a barrier for not consuming plant-based menu items (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). For example, some consumers may have food allergies and food preferences and if these consumers do not request for more sustainable, plant-based and allergen-free meals from Nest Catering, this could lead to limited choices of plant-based and gluten-free food options. In addition, limited experience cooking and producing sustainable, plant-based and gluten-free foods is a behaviour from Nest Catering that contributes to their lack of plant-based food options on the Nest Catering menu. As well, convenience is a barrier to adopting a plant-based diet due to difficulty preparing plant-based foods (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Chefs lacking experience developing a diverse menu featuring a variety of plant-based recipes and cooking plant-based meals may find it more difficult to prepare these foods. Furthermore, our situational  5 analysis is limited in that there is insufficient data on the behaviours of the event organizers such as the catering manager, who are the decision makers for selection, ordering and implementation of plant-based menu items. iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels Individual Personal preferences Observationally, it can be said that food choices are often a matter of consumer preference. During events, plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free food choices may be less popular among guests, which makes these meal options of a low priority for event organizers. A key reason for this is personal preference towards plant-based foods; which may be based on appearance, taste, and quality of the foods. Many individuals may have a biased perception of vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free as less satiable foods, which results being an unpopular selection (Douglas et al., 2015). Unless an individual has a strict diet or religious restrictions, his or her choice of food does not limit them to solely plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. Moreover, many plant-based recipes include nuts in their ingredients in order to create texture but also to contribute protein; however, in Canada, nut allergy is very common among the general public and comes with life-threatening repercussions for some individuals (Ben-Shoshan et al., 2012). Thus, event organizers may tend to order less of the vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free foods in order to reduce the presence of food allergens in their event menus.  Cost It is to no surprise that cost is one of the primary considerations when producing food both for events or at the individual level. Cost not only dictates what is feasible from an economic standpoint, but is also subject to seasonal and other fluctuation, which further  6 complicates the process of implementing a plant-based menu. Plant foods that are not in season may result in a higher price (McLaughlin, 2004). When choosing between being sustainable or being cost-friendly, the general public may be faced with a dilemma, and often affordability is the prevailing factor. For events where food is provided by organizers, cost-effectiveness is typically of high priority to ensure that the event is economically beneficial. For individuals who are paying for their own meal at events, more expensive options may become last preference.   Interpersonal Awareness of consuming plant-based foods Although plant-based, vegan and gluten free foods appear to be very popular in the city of Vancouver, the majority of the population may be lagging behind on this trend. In addition, the definition of eating healthy is very vague and cannot be limited to solely consuming plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods. Furthermore, the general public may not be aware of what exactly if plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. They are less aware of what is available in the market for them to choose, thus many people may not event have tried these options before (Horta, 2018).  Social influence There has been reports, media coverage, as well as celebrity advocacy for consumption of vegan, plant-based, gluten-free foods. The general public may be influenced by these factors when it comes to foods choices in flavour of plant-based meals or alternatives. On the other hand, there may be people who make negative comments on individuals who consume these types of food, which may create social pressure which dissuades individuals from consuming plant-based meals or foods (Ensaff, 2015).   7  Environmental  Storage and preservation The storage and preservation of the plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods may increase the difficulty of the storage and preservation. Once cooked or semi-prepared, they cannot be stored longer than a day unlike meats and other preservatives. In addition, the plant-based foods, tends to decrease in appearance as time progresses. Though some foods such as nuts and beans have longer shelf-life, for most to the plant-based foods, more care and preservation methods are needed (Karunaratne, 2018). iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice The theoretical framework for the planning process of this project relies mainly on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. This theoretical model considers the community level of influence on health, and provides insight on how it would be possible to diffuse this novel trend of healthy and sustainable food in the context of catering services, in which our partner intends to assume a leadership role. The five main characteristics of an innovation that maximize its appeal are the following: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005).  Relative advantage refers to the superiority to what the innovation replaces. In the context of sustainable catering practices, the emphasis is precisely on the environmental-friendly and healthy alternative presented by a plant-based alternative. Compatibility describes how the novelty is appropriate to the target audience. Applied to this project, this feature is tackled from different angles: tasty menu options, vegan and gluten-free alternatives, recipes from different  8 cultures all contribute to making the offer compatible with a broad population. Complexity, or the ease of implementation, is in this case related to how difficult it is to reproduce new recipes, both for catering services and individuals that encounter these recipes at events. Trialability indicates whether new items can be tried before deciding to adapt them for use, and this occurs naturally in our context, since food is consumed. The last point, observability, can be less perceptible than the others, because the adoption of environmental-friendly practices are part of a much larger system of measures that aim to mitigate climate change. However, if the focus is on other catering companies, the estimation of how many of them adapt this trend should be less difficult to perform (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005). The rationale for choosing this theoretical framework lies in the nature of influences a catering service can have: the fact that catering services offer whole-food, plant-based delicacies and expose different demographics to them represents an opportunity to provoke a sense of novelty in the target audience. Florea (2015) suggests that “consuming or using a product innovation in social context is a premise for behavior social exchange and social learning, which includes brand related information and inferences”. As such, since catering events occur in social circumstances, this finding supports the introduction and promotion of novel environmentally-friendly menu options aimed at enhancing the recognition of our partner’s brand as part of the sustainability trend.  9 Project Goal and Objectives Our project goal is to provide healthy, tasty, and sustainable plant-based and gluten-free recipes and resources that are feasible for AMS catering to implement so that they can become a leader in sustainable catering.  Project Objectives: ● Short Term Objectives: ○ Implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the catering menu by April 2021. ● Medium Term Objectives: ○ 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by April 2021. ○ Implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations by April 2023. ● Long Term Objectives: ○ Adoption of plant-based menu items in 75% of catering companies in Vancouver by April 2025. ○ Increased selection for plant-based menu items by 20% in the year 2025 as compared to the year of implementation.  10 Description of Project Outputs i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations Nest Catering is in the early majority of catering companies looking to innovate and go green. Social trends in environmental sustainability and eating foods that have been ethically and sustainably sourced has increased many catering company’s incentive to go green. Catering companies want to provide products that meet their customers values. In order to support Nest Catering with implementing sustainable practices we have included recommendations for future company use. These recommendations are based on a review of sustainable catering companies across the globe and highlight the qualities of leaders in this area.  The recommendations are sub-categorized to focus on six different areas of sustainability including locally grown food, plant-based options, ethical and sustainable sourcing, organic foods, reducing food waste, and green facilities. Each category has a set of recommendations, some that may be implemented in the future or some that should be continued based on current practices. For example, we recommend that the nest catering continue to serve only 100% Oceanwise Certified fish and additionally, to implement a policy to use only cage free eggs. Some recommendations will be easier to attain in the short term, where as some require more resources and will take longer to adopt as a result. For example, adjusting the menu to allow for seasonal features requires more resources than removing bottled beverages such as water and juice from the menu, and will therefore take a longer time period to adopt. The sustainable practice recommendations can be found in Appendix C.  11 ii. Introduction of Recipes One of the primary outputs of the project consists of the collection of 19 vegan, gluten-free recipes to provide ideas for Nest Catering to integrate into the catering service menu for lunch and dinner. We provide a complete list of ingredients, with specified serving sizes per recipe, estimated preparation time, estimated cook time, as well as the detailed directions for both preparation and cooking. We also include the indication of gluten presence and possible gluten-free alternatives throughout the collection of recipes, where necessary. The selection of new recipes was based on the current menu options from Nest Catering, and the respective ingredients available to the kitchen, which were made partially accessible by our partner. The purpose the list of recipes is meant to serve is to offer Nest Catering novel and practical examples that can be implemented to support the pursuit of its goal of becoming a recognized sustainable leader in the catering companies context. The collection of recipes can be found in Appendix D.  To highlight the importance of this project output, it is useful to refer back to the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, especially to some features of innovations that make them more likely to spread across the population. For instance, one of our partner’s priorities was to be able to provide meals options that would be compatible and appealing to a broader range of clients, that is, meals that are appetizing, tasteful, as well as being gluten-free and vegan. This last point reflects the tendency of adopting plant-based diets and consuming meat less frequently, both as a social trend, but also as reflected by recent public health messaging, such as Canada’s Food Guide 2019. This also represents the relative advantage of the sustainable catering offer, an additional factor that contributes to the diffusion of an innovation. Lastly, we considered how  12 complex the recipes are to reproduce, and in order to facilitate their introduction into the catering menu, we looked for dishes that did not require special skills nor uncommon ingredients. iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages The two aspects of the Diffusion of Innovations theoretical framework that relate are Adopters and Communication Channels. In the context of this CBEL project, Nest Catering is an early adopter pursuing to be the leader of plant-based catering in Vancouver. Additionally, Nest Catering hopes to influence other catering companies from the city of Vancouver, who can be described as early majorities. The broad public are also considered early majorities, as they may be influenced by the possible implementations by catering companies. Seeing an increase in plant-based food offerings, the early majorities in the broad public will soon join the early adopters to choose more of these “innovative” options. Nest Catering can be seen as a communication channel, which diffuses the innovation into the general public. Increasing plant-based food options in the catering services, subsequently influences the public’s food choice. In addition, the Nest Catering should utilize some of the suggested marketable nutritional messages to persuade the public into choosing these new plant-based food options in their menu, subsequently contributing to a shift in the consumer choice toward the new innovation provided by Nest Catering. Examples of Marketable Nutritional Messages and appropriate recipe pairings can be found in Appendix E.  Evaluation Plan  Short Term Outcomes:  The implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the AMS catering menu by  13 April 2020 is the sole short-term outcome for this project. The outcome indicator for the short term is the number of plant-based menu items present on the Nest Catering menu. An example for the evaluation of this indicator could be a comparison of the Nest Catering menu from 2020 and 2019; where the number of plant-based items on each menu is counted and contrasted, ideally to show an increase in prevalence of plant-based menu items.  Medium Term Outcomes: The first medium term outcome for this project is a 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by December 2021. The outcome indicator for this is the percentage of customers selecting plant-based menu items, which then infers the percentage of those who consume plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this indicator is through comparison of sales details from the 2018-2019 as compared to the sales details from 2020-2010, to determine what percentage of annual sales come from plant-based menu items. Another example of an evaluation for this indicator is the use of a survey to assess the percentage increase or decrease in selection for plant-based menu items. One survey would be done in the year 2019 (or year of implementation of new recipes to the menu), and a follow up survey would be conducted in the year 2021. Example questions include: Did you select/consume a plant-based menu item from Nest Catering? Answer: Yes/No. However, the survey method is limited as not all consumers are guaranteed to take part, and this would generate data that is not fully representative.    The second medium term outcome for this project is the implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations, by April 2023. The outcome indicator for this is determined by what, and how many sustainable practices Nest Catering has implemented into their production, preparation or other practices. An example of the evaluation  14 for this outcome is discussion with the Nest Catering management to identify what changes from our sustainable practice recommendations, specifically, have been incorporated by Nest Catering.  Long Term Outcomes: The first long term outcome for this project is the adoption of plant-based menu items by 75% of the licensed catering companies within the city of Vancouver, by April 2025. The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of licensed catering companies within Vancouver that offer plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this outcome could be done through a scoping review of the menus provided by all the licensed catering companies in Vancouver, and determination of how many caterers provide plant-based items on their menus. This information would then be used to determine the percentage of catering companies that provide plant-based menu items. These long-term outcomes specifically relate to the Diffusion of Innovations theory, as they are representative of the percentage of catering companies that are responsive to Nest Catering’s changes to become more sustainable and plant-forward in food offerings. Thus, caterers within Vancouver can be identified as early majorities as they are responding to the innovation of sustainable catering.    The second long-term outcome is a 20% increased selection for plant-based menu items in the year 2025 as compared to the year 2019.  The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of individuals who consume plant-based meals from Nest Catering. An example of evaluation for this outcome is through analysis and comparison of sales data from the year 2025 as compared to 2019, to indicate if selection for plant-based items has changed and by what percentage.   15 Conclusion  Upon completion of this project, sustainable practice recommendations, plant-based recipes, and marketable nutritional messages were produced in order to potentially increase the selection and consumption of plant-based meals from Nest Catering. In addition, the sustainable practice recommendations provide a resource for Nest Catering to become a leader in sustainability, furthermore increasing potential to align company practices with consumer values.  The main lessons learned during this process encompass theoretical understanding, self-efficacy and practical experience within the public health context. Specifically, our group was able to understand the difference between theoretical frameworks and utilize critical thinking and collaboration to determine the health behaviour theory best suited to our project. Furthermore, we were able to expand upon this understanding thorough application of the Diffusion of Innovations theory within the context of the CBEL project. Due to the self-facilitated nature of this project, self-efficacy was developed as each group member participated in the assessment of future obstacles and goals, and required steps to overcome and achieve them. Finally, and arguably most importantly, the process of planning and preparing for implementation of the project outcomes led to a realistic conclusion; implementation of policies or plans takes time. This conclusion is reflective of the challenges that exist when planning for an initiative in practice as compared to in theory.  Unfortunately, due to the nature of this project, the completion of project objectives is not an area of complete control. The combination of sustainable practice recommendations, recipes, and marketable nutritional messages are intended to facilitate the completion of the project goal and objectives, however the implementation of these and community response to these changes are beyond the scope of this project.  16 Authors’ Contributions All group members contributed toward the generation of the recipe list provided to Nest Catering. Each member researched available plant-based recipes through online sources, blogs, or recipe boards in order to contribute between 2-4 recipes each, for both lunch and dinner. In addition, all group members were involved in the discussions to decide upon the project goal and objectives, as well as formation of each objective into the SMART format. Each member of the group also contributed to the creation of the Google Slides for the presentation of this CBEL project; each individual’s specific contributions to the presentation and written report are detailed below.   Celine Koppenaal (C.K.) contributed to the development of the group logic model and presentation of the logic model, as well as development of the project evaluation plan and outcome indicators. As well, C.K. completed research regarding the behaviours that contribute to issues with respect to our target population (Section ii of Situational Assessment), and grey literature research regarding sustainable catering practices. C.K. contributed to the production and designing of the newsletter using the online platform, Canva. C.K. reviewed and formatted the reference section for the written report. For the presentation, C.K. contributed to sections pertaining to behaviours of the target population, as well as the evaluation plan, and presented the information on slides 7, 16, 17 of the presentation.  Daniele Pestoni (D.P.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs. D.P. also contributed to grey literature research for the sustainable catering recommendations. Independently, D.P. investigated the Diffusions of Innovation theoretical framework in depth to synthesize the information contained in the Situational Assessment (section iv). For the presentation, D.P. contributed to the sections  17 pertaining to the project goal, objectives, theoretical framework and recipe collection; as well, D.P. presented the information on slides 9-13 of the presentation.  Louise Dong (L.D.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs; specifically, section iii “Marketable Nutritional Messages”. L.D. researched the mediating factors related to the target population (section iii of the Situational Assessment). L.D. also contributed to the generation of the newsletter content and the formatting and editing of the written report reference list. For the presentation, L.D. contributed to the sections pertaining to mediating factors and marketable nutritional messages, and presented slides 1, 2, 15, and 18.  Celeste Cardoz (C.C.) contributed to the development of the proposed evaluation and outcome indicators. C.C. completed background research regarding sustainability food systems, sustainable diets, and global trends in food consumption and production for the introduction of the report. In addition, C.C. completed the conclusion and author’s contributions sections of the written report. As well, C.C. was involved in editing of the written report for sentence structure, spelling, grammar, and continuity. For the presentation, C.C. contributed to the sections pertaining to the introduction, evaluation plan and outcome indicators, lessons learned and future recommendations; specifically, C.C. presented slides 3-5, 18-20.  Bethany Del Begio (B.D.B.) conducted research to complete the sections of the report which discuss issues relevant to the target population and behaviours contributing to these issues (sections i and ii of situational assessment). In addition, B.D.B. contributed to the generation of the sustainable catering guideline resource for Nest Catering. B.D.B was also involved in the generation of the content for the Newsletter. For the presentation, B.D.B. contributed to the  18 sections pertaining to sustainable catering recommendations and barriers within the target population; specifically, B.D.B. presented slides 6 and 14.     19 References  Ben-Shoshan, M., Harrington, D. W., Soller, L., Fragapane, J., Joseph, L., Pierre, Y. S., Clarke, A. E. (2012). Demographic predictors of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in canada. Journal of Allergy, 2012, 858306-6. doi:10.1155/2012/858306  Corrin, T., & Papadopoulos, A. (2017). Understanding the attitudes and perceptions of vegetarian   and plant-based diets to shape future health promotion programs. Appetite, 109, 40-47.   doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.018  Douglas, S. M., Lasley, T. R., & Leidy, H. J. (2015). Consuming beef vs. soy protein has little effect on appetite, satiety, and food intake in healthy adults 1,2. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(5), 1010.  Ensaff, H., Coan, S., Sahota, P., Braybrook, D., Akter, H., & McLeod, H. (2015). Adolescents' food choice and the place of plant-based foods. Nutrients, 7(6), 4619-4637. doi:10.3390/nu7064619  Florea, D. (2015). The Relationship between Branding and Diffusion of Innovation: A   Systematic Review. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 1527-1534.   https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00407-4   Food and Agricultural Organization. Chapter 2. Food Security: concepts and measurement. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/y4671e/y4671e06.htm   Horta, O. (2018). Discrimination against vegans. Res Publica, 24(3), 359-373. doi:10.1007/s11158-017-9356-3  Karunaratne, A. M. (2018). A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods, for enhanced benefits to be reaped at a global level: A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(14), 5189-5196. doi:10.1002/jsfa.9215  Lindgren, E., Harris, F., Dangour, A. D., Gasparatos, A., Hiramatsu, M., Javadi, F., . . .   Stockholm Resilience Centre. (2018). Sustainable food systems-a health   perspective.Sustainability Science, 13(6), 1505.  MacInnis, C. C., & Hodson, G. (2017). It ain’t easy eating greens: Evidence of bias toward   vegetarians and vegans from both source and target. Group Processes & Intergroup   Relations, 20(6), 721–744. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430215618253  McLaughlin, E. W. (2004). The dynamics of fresh fruit and vegetable pricing in the supermarket channel. Preventive Medicine, 39, 81-87. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.12.026   20 Mertens, E., Van't Veer, P., Hiddink, G. J., Steijns, J. M., & Kuijsten, A. (2017). Operationalising   the health aspects of sustainable diets: A review. Public Health Nutrition, 20(4), 739-757.   doi:10.1017/S1368980016002664  Nest Catering & Conferences. (2019). Catering menu. Retrieved from https://www.nestcatering.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Nest-Catering-and-Conferenc  es-Menu-2019.pdf  Pohjolainen, P., Vinnari, M., & Jokinen, P. (2015). Consumers’ perceived barriers to following a   plant-based diet. British Food Journal, 117(3), 1150-1167.   doi:10.1108/BFJ-09-2013-0252  Shepon, A., Eshel, G., Noor, E., & Milo, R. (2018). The opportunity cost of animal based diets   exceeds all food losses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United   States of America, 115(15), 3804-3809. doi:10.1073/pnas.1713820115  Tilman, D., & Clark, M. (2014). Global diets link environmental sustainability and human   health. Nature, 515(7528), 518-522. doi:10.1038/nature13959  University of British Columbia. (2019). FNH 473: January-April, 2019 CBEL Projects.   US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (2005). Theory at a   Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. Retrieved from  https://www.sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/The ory-at-a-Glance-A-Guide-For-Health-Promotion-Practice.pdf  Willett, W., Rockstrom, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., … Murray,   C.J.L.  (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets   from sustainable food systems, The Lancet. 393(10170), 447-492. doi:   https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4  Yoshihara, D., Fujiwara, N., & Suzuki, K. (2010). Antioxidants: Benefits and risks for long-term health. Maturitas, 67(2), 103-107. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.05.001    21 Appendices  Appendix A: Logic Model           22 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report   23 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations SUSTAINABLE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEST CATERING  Practices to continue or implement:  1. Locally produced food a. Continue partnership with UBC farm b. Continue to purchase produce and dry goods locally when possible  c. Source local proteins such as chicken and beef (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats d. Adjust menu to allow for seasonal foods (i.e. side of local, seasonal greens, topped with local, seasonal fruit) (2)  2. Plant-based options a. Incorporate more plant-based menu items  i. see Appendix D: Recipes b. Menu is labelled for menu choices such as “vegan”, “vegetarian”, etc.  3. Ethically and sustainably produced a. Continue to serve only 100% Ocean Wise certified fish b. Continue to serve organic, fair trade coffee c. Aim to use grass fed chicken and beef (2) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC d. Seek out fair trade certification for items such as bananas, chocolate, sugar (3) e. Source cage free, certified humane eggs (3) i. Rabbit River Farms, Richmond BC f. Aim to source SPCA certified, Certified Humane approved meats (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC g. Menu communicates sustainable and/or ethical products to customers  4. Organic  a. Aim to source meat that comes from animals raised without hormones, antibiotics, or chemical feed additives (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats, North Vancouver BC b. Purchase organic foods when possible, but focus on local over organic (1)  5. Reduce food waste  24 a. Donate leftover food to shelters in Vancouver (2) i. Vancouver Food Bank Food Rescue Program ii. Vancouver Covenant House b. Compost all food waste in kitchen and dining hall (5) c. Recycle leftover cooking oil for future biofuel use (3) i. recycle used cooking oil at Vancouver Zero Waste Center ii. use service such as Redux to pick up and recycle used cooking oil  6. Green facilities a. Continue using 100% recyclable or compostable containers b. Recycling program for plastics, cardboard, metal and mixed media (6) c. Removal of water, juice and other beverages in plastic bottles from the menu (4) d. Papers towels made from 100% recycled paper (3) e. Cleaning products are biodegradable (8)  i. Eco-max commercial products f. Bulbs and lighting are Energy Star rated (3) g. Install low-temp drying dishwasher - uses less power and water (4) h. Install low-flow sink sprayers and taps to reduce water consumption (8) i. Install high efficient water tank and recirculating pump (5) j. Combine delivery trips and use smaller vans when possible (3)   Additional Next Steps: Adapted from WWF-UK’s Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability  ● In your business: ○ Pilot sustainable menus and, if successful, roll them out across all outlets. ○ ‘Bundle’ costs: calculate the overall costs and benefits of introducing a sustainable menu, not the cost of individual products. ○ Develop staff who are passionate about delivering sustainability: provide them with the space, tools and training to deliver sustainable diets. ○ Remove worst offenders: Rule out ingredients that are unsustainably sourced   ● Across your stakeholders: ○ Educate and build demand: tell customers, clients and suppliers why sustainable diets are important. ○ Invest in sustainable supply chains. ○ Ask ‘would customers eat your food if they knew where it came from, how it was made, and what its health and sustainability credentials were?’. ○ Promote your values: tell stakeholders why sustainable diets matter to you.  25  ● Across your industry: ○ Share best practice, including noncommercially-competitive information about what has worked for you. ○ Agree on a shared definition (or common principles) for sustainable diets to create a level playing field when implementing them. ○ Advocate (to national governments) for a level playing fields; a change to competition law; and agree an industry-wide definition of sustainable diets.” Resources  Sustainable catering companies:  1. Savoury Chef. Vancouver, BC https://www.savourychef.com/vancouver-caterers/green-sustainability-practices/  2. Chef Laura. Vancouver, BC https://www.cheflaura.ca/about/sustainability/   3. Basil Tree Catering. Boston, MA https://www.basiltree.com/practices/  4. Pomona Dining. Claremont, CA https://www.pomona.edu/administration/dining/sustainability  5. Culinary Capers. Vancouver BC https://www.culinarycapers.com/about-us/sustainability/  6. Truffles Catering. Victoria, BC https://www.trufflescatering.net/culture  7. Drew’s Catering. Vancouver, BC https://drewscatering.com/about/sustainability/  8. Windows Catering. Alexandria, VA https://www.catering.com/company/about-us/green-initiatives/   Grey Literature:   26 Berkeley Food Institute. (2018). A Guide for UC Berkeley Departments on Sustainable and Just Catering. Retrieved from  http://food.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Sustainable-and-Just-Catering.pdf  Monash University Office of Environmental Sustainability. (2009). Sustainable Catering Guide. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54dd5ffce4b0cc2d46391991/t/594d1039b11be14d41a42967/1498222659822/Monash-Sustainable-Catering-Guide-2.pdf  World Wide Fund for Nature UK (WWF). (2016). Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability. Retrieved from http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/wwf_catering_summary_report_signoff.pdf?_ga=1.172826020.629931605.1470744313    Additional Resources:  Sumas Mountain Farms http://www.sumasmountainfarms.ca/  Two Rivers Farms https://tworiversmeats.ca/farms/  Rabbit River Farms http://www.rabbitriverfarms.com/  SPCA Certified standards https://spca.bc.ca/programs-services/certifications-accreditation/spca-certified/  Redux cooking oil recycling program http://www.reduxprogram.com/used-cooking-oil.php  Vancouver Food Bank food recovery program https://foodbank.bc.ca/our-programs/food-recovery/  Covenant House Vancouver food donations https://www.covenanthousebc.org/ways-to-give/other-ways-to-give-2/donate-items/  Eco-max biodegradable cleaning products  https://www.eco-max.ca/commercial-products/  27 Appendix D: Recipes NEST CATERING VEGAN, GLUTEN-FREE RECIPES  Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF) iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF) v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF) iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2015/07/21/chickpea-salad/  Yields: 3 servings Prep Time: 15 min Cook Time: 0 min  Ingredients: ● 1 (15-ounce/425 grams) can chickpeas, drained and rinsed ● 2 stalks celery, finely chopped ● 3 green onions, thinly sliced  28 ● 1/4 cup finely chopped dill pickle ● 1/4 cup finely chopped red bell pepper ● 3 tablespoons store-bought or homemade vegan mayonnaise ● 1 clove garlic, minced ● 1 1/2 teaspoons yellow mustard ● 2 teaspoons minced fresh dill (optional) ● 1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons fresh lemon juice, to taste ● 1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. In a large bowl, mash the chickpeas with a potato masher until flaked in texture. 2. Stir in the celery, green onions, pickles, bell peppers, mayonnaise, and garlic until combined. 3. Now, stir in the mustard and dill, and season with the lemon juice, salt, and pepper, adjusting the quantities to taste. 4. Serve with toasted bread, on crackers, wraps, or on top of a basic leafy green salad. Or just enjoy it all on its own! ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/11/28/vegan-grain-free-sticky-crispy-sesame-cauliflower/   Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Cauliflower: ● 1 head of cauliflower (about 2 ½ lbs) ● 1 cup cassava flour ● 1 ½ cups water, plus extra ● ½ teaspoon garlic powder ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds ● sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste Sticky Sesame Sauce: ● ¼ cup tamari soy sauce ● 2 tablespoons maple syrup ● 1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil  29 ● 1 tablespoon rice vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● 1 tablespoon chili paste (optional) ● 2 cloves garlic, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 2-inch piece fresh ginger, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. 2. Cut the cauliflower into small florets. In a large bowl, combine the cassava flour, water, garlic powder, sesame seeds, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. The resulting batter should be fluid but thick–thick enough to coat a piece of cauliflower and pool only slightly once set on the baking sheet. If the batter is too thick/pasty, add water by the tablespoon until you reach the proper consistency. 3. Drop the cauliflower florets into the batter and stir until all pieces are coated. Using a fork, carefully transfer battered cauliflower to the baking sheets, leaving 1 inch of space around each floret. 4. Bake the battered cauliflower for 20 minutes. While the cauliflower is baking, make the sauce. In a small saucepan combine the tamari, maple syrup, sesame oil, rice vinegar, tomato paste, chili paste, garlic, ginger, and sesame seeds. Bring the sauce to a boil on the stove over medium heat. Simmer for 5 minutes or until slightly reduced. Set aside. 5. After cauliflower has baked for 20 minutes, remove and let cool slightly. Once it’s cool enough to handle, transfer the par-baked cauliflower to a large bowl. Cover the cauliflower with all but 3 tablespoons of the sesame sauce. Toss to thoroughly coat the cauliflower. 6. Bake the cauliflower for another 20 minutes, or until the edges are starting to darken. Remove the crispy sesame cauliflower and let it sit for a full 5 minutes before serving in lettuce wraps, on rice etc., drizzled with remaining sauce and topped with extra sesame seeds, and chopped green onions.  Notes:  If you don’t want to use cassava flour, you can substitute brown rice, chickpea or regular wheat flour. Lower the amount of water to 1 cup if you’re making this substitution (and add more if necessary)! -It’s important to really keep an eye on these towards the end of the cooking process. They can go from perfect to burnt in what feels like seconds.  -I use a Microplane to get the garlic and ginger nice and fine for the sauce -The sauce is light here! Double the batch if you like it saucy.  30 iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF)  https://minimalistbaker.com/spicy-buffalo-chickpea-wraps/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 20 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients:  Dressing and Salad: ● 1/3 cup hummus (or store-bought) ● 1 1/2 - 2 Tbsp maple syrup (plus more to taste) ● 1 small lemon, juiced (1 small lemon yields ~2 Tbsp or 30 ml) ● 1-2 Tbsp hot water (to thin) ● 1 head romaine lettuce (or sub 1 bundle kale per 1 head romaine // cleaned, large stems removed, roughly chopped) Buffalo Chickpeas: ● 1 15-ounce can chickpeas (rinsed, drained and dried // ~ 1 1/4 cups per can when drained) ● 1 Tbsp coconut oil (or sub grape seed or olive oil) ● 4 Tbsp hot sauce (divided) ● 1/4 tsp garlic powder (or sub 1 minced garlic clove per 1/4 tsp powder) ● 1 pinch sea salt For Serving: ● 3-4 vegan-friendly flour tortillas, pita, or flatbread ● 1/4 cup red onion, diced (optional) ● 1/4 cup baby tomato, diced (optional) ● 1/4 ripe avocado, thinly sliced (optional)  Directions:  1. Make dressing by adding hummus, maple syrup, and lemon juice to a mixing bowl and whisking to combine. Add hot water until thick but pourable. 2. Taste and adjust flavor as needed, then add romaine lettuce or kale, and toss. Set aside. 3. To make chickpeas, add drained, dried chickpeas to a separate mixing bowl. Add coconut oil, 3 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size), garlic powder, and a pinch of salt - toss to combine/coat.  31 4. Heat a metal or cast-iron skillet over medium heat. Once hot, add chickpeas and sauté for 3-5 minutes, mashing a few chickpeas gently with a spoon to create texture (see photo). 5. Once chickpeas are hot and slightly dried out, remove from heat and add remaining 1 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size). Stir to combine. Set aside. 6. To assemble, top each wrap with a generous portion of the dressed romaine salad, and top with 1/4 cup buffalo chickpeas and a sprinkle of diced tomatoes, avocado, and/or onion (optional). 7. Serve immediately. Store leftovers separately in the refrigerator up to 3 days, though best when fresh. You can enjoy the buffalo chickpeas cold, room temperature or heated up. iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF)  https://nutritionstripped.com/open-faced-sprout-sandwich/  Yields: 1 serving Prep Time: 5 minutes  Cook Time: 0 minutes   Ingredients:  ● 2 slices of grain-free bread ● 1 teaspoon dijon mustard ● 2 tablespoons hummus  ● Sliced vegetables: thinly sliced red onion, tomato, cucumber, 2 romaine lettuce leafs ● Protein of your choice: eggs (scrambled, sliced hard boiled, or poached), thinly sliced tempeh, thinly sliced tofu, chicken, etc. ● 1/2 avocado, sliced or mashed on the vegetables ● 1 handful of sprouts ● Sea salt ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions:  32 1. Lightly toast the bread until desired firmness, then simply spread mustard, followed by hummus, layer sliced cucumber, then tomato, then the protein of your choice, then sliced avocado, followed by the lettuce and sprouts. 2. Top with fresh black pepper and a pinch of sea salt. 3. Enjoy immediately or place in an airtight glass container for lunch on the go! v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) https://theminimalistvegan.com/spiced-quinoa-and-eggplant-rolls/ Yields: 15 rolls  Ingredients: ● ½ cup of washed quinoa ● 1 cup of water (to cook the quinoa in) ● 2 tbsp rice bran oil ● 1 small onion diced ● 1 tsp garam masala ● ¼ tsp turmeric powder ● 1 tbsp finely grated fresh ginger ● Pinch of hot chilli powder (or more if you like spicy food) ● Half a medium sized capsicum chopped ● 3 medium sized eggplants, cut into ½ inch thin slices ● ½ cup olive oil ● Salt for seasoning ● A handful of parsley for dressing, finely chopped  Directions: 1. Bring quinoa and water to a boil in a small saucepan. Reduce heat to low, cover and simmer until tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed. This typically takes 15 to 20 minutes. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, add the rice bran oil and onion to a medium sized saucepan on medium heat. 3. Once the onion starts to brown, add in the garam masala, turmeric, ginger, chilli stirring to coat the onions in the spices well. Let it cook for about 2-3 minutes. 4. Add in the capsicum and stir to combine all ingredients well. Reduce heat to low and cook until the capsiucum is soft. Season to taste. 5. Combine the cooked quinoa and spicy onion and capsicum and mix well. Set aside. 6. For the eggplant, preheat a medium-high charcoal grill on a barbecue or stove grill. Brush both sides of the eggplant slices with olive oil and season with salt. Grill until golden- 33 brown grill marks form, which should take around 3 to 4 minutes on one side. Turn the eggplant and repeat the same process. You can also do this in a frying pan. 7. Once all the eggplants are done. Start adding 1-2 tbsp of quinoa mixture at the bottom of each eggplant piece and roll tightly. You can use toothpicks to keep together if they are coming undone easily. I find that placing the end of the eggplant facing the plate helps to keep it in place. Roll all the eggplant pieces and sprinkle the stack with some fresh parsley and a little more olive oil drizzled over the top. 8. You can serve this warm or cold on its own or with some hummus. vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) https://www.emilieeats.com/easy-quinoa-salad-tomatoes-spinach/  Yields: 4-6 Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 15 minutes   Ingredients: ● 1/2 cup dry quinoa ● 2 cups cherry or grape tomatoes, halved ● 2 1/2 cups spinach, chopped ● 1 15-ounce can white beans, drained and rinsed ● 1/3 cup slivered almonds ● 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar ● 1/2 tablespoon maple syrup ● 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder ● 1/4 teaspoon salt ● 1/4 teaspoon pepper  Directions: 1. In a medium saucepan over high heat, add quinoa and 1 cup water; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for 13-15 minutes. When done, fluff quinoa with a fork. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, heat a little water or oil (if using) in a skillet over medium heat. Add tomatoes; cook for 5 minutes, until tomatoes begin to burst. Add spinach; cook until wilted, about 5-7 more minutes, stirring continuously. 3. In a large bowl, add quinoa, vegetables, beans, and almonds. Stir to combine. 4. In a small bowl, add vinegar, maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. 5. Pour dressing over the other ingredients. Stir to combine.  34 vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) https://www.thefullhelping.com/falafel-fattoush-real-food-really-fast/  Yields:  Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients: ● 4 2-ounce pita breads ● 1 pint cherry tomatoes halved if large ● 1 cup sliced Persian cucumber or diced English cucumber ● 1 15- ounce can chickpeas rinsed and drained ● 2 scallions thinly sliced ● 1 cup fresh parsley leaves ● 1 clove garlic finely minced ● 1/4-1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes ● 2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 2 teaspoons ground coriander ● 1/2-1 teaspoon salt ● 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper ● 1 tablespoon lemon juice ● 2 tablespoons olive oil ● 2 tablespoons sesame seeds toasted  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the pita bread and chop it into bite-sized squares, about 1/2-inch each. Place the bread in a large bowl along with the tomatoes, cucumber, chickpeas, scallions, and parsley. Mix the vegetables around lightly to combine. Sprinkle in the minced garlic, red pepper flakes, cumin, coriander, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and pepper. Toss everything together until the vegetables are well distributed and evenly coated with the spices.  2. Right before serving, drizzle in the lemon juice and olive oil, tossing once more to incorporate. Add more salt to taste, if needed, and finish with a sprinkle of sesame seeds over the top. viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) http://www.onegreenplanet.org/vegan-recipe/the-vegan-eggplant-crunchburger/ Calories: 754  35 Yields: 4 burgers  Ingredients:  Horseradish Mustard Mayo ● 1/4 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbs. Dijon mustard ● 2 Tbs. prepared horseradish ● A pinch of dried tarragon ● Kosher salt and black pepper to taste Eggplant Burgers ● 1 large or 2 medium eggplants, peeled and cubed ● 2 Tbs. extra-virgin olive oil, divided ● 1 shallot, finely minced ● 1 cup vegan cheese shreds, any flavor ● 1 clove garlic, minced or grated ● ½ tsp. Kosher salt ● ¼ tsp. black pepper ● 1 Tbs. fresh parsley, chopped ● 1 cup gluten-free bread crumbs Toppings ● 1 cup vegan cheese, either slices or shreds (as long as it melts) ● 4 gluten-free buns ● 4 slices beefsteak tomato ● 4 leaves romaine lettuce ● 4 slices red onion ● Horseradish Mustard Mayonnaise (recipe above) ● 4 handfuls of potato chips  Directions:  For the Horseradish Mustard Mayo 1. Whisk together the mayonnaise, mustard, and horseradish in a small bowl and season with salt and pepper. 2. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes to allow the flavors to meld. 3. The sauce can be prepared 1 day in advance and kept covered in the refrigerator. To make the Eggplant Burgers 1. In a large skillet, heat 1 Tbs. of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the eggplant cubes and sauté until they are browned and very soft, about 10-12 minutes. Make sure they are  36 super-soft because they need to be mashed. You could also roast the eggplant to make it soft. 2. Transfer the eggplant to a large bowl. Mash the eggplant up until there are no whole pieces left. I use a potato masher to do this. Once you have a big bowl of mush, add the shallot, cheese, garlic, salt, pepper and parsley. Mix it into the eggplant. Add the breadcrumbs. Don’t add them all at once; you want to feel the mix and see whether you need a whole cup. I add ½ cup of bread crumbs and mix it. 3. The best way to mix it is wet your hands and use one hand (keep the other hand clean) to gently mix the crumbs into the eggplant. You will probably need more crumbs so add another ¼ cup and mix it again. You want the consistency to feel firm, like it will hold up as a burger. If it feels too moist, add the last ¼ cup of bread crumbs. Usually, I end up using the whole cup of crumbs. 4. Put the eggplant mixture into the fridge for about 30 minutes. Take the bowl out of the fridge and with your hand, divide the mixture into 4 parts. To form the burgers, I use a 3 ½ inch cookie cutter. I spray it with a bit of cooking oil spray and then pack the eggplant mixture into the cookie cutter. Pat it down, let it sit for about 20 seconds and then gently lift the cookie cutter off. Let your perfect burger sit for a few minutes undisturbed while you make the other 3 burgers. 5. In the same skillet that you sautéed the eggplant in (but cleaned), heat the other Tbs. of oil over medium-high heat and add the burgers to the pan. Let cook until slightly browned on one side and (this is very important), you can lift the burger with a spatula without breaking it. I use 2 spatulas to gently turn the burgers. Flip them and let them cook on the other side. When the 2nd side gets golden brown, flip them back over and let the first side cook until golden brown. To make the Vegan Crunch Burgers 1. Top the burgers with either 2 slices or ¼ cup of vegan cheese. Add about a Tbs. of water to the pan and cover it. This will create steam and allow the cheese to melt and get ooey-gooey. 2. If you want your buns toasty, put on some pants. If you want your burger buns toasty, preheat the broiler while you are cooking the burgers. Split the buns and put the halves, cut side up, on a baking sheet and cook them until they are lightly golden brown, about 30 seconds. Don’t burn them!! 3. Place the burgers on the bun bottoms and, if desired, top with tomato, lettuce, onion, and a dollop of horseradish mustard mayonnaise. Pile on the potato chips, top with the bun tops, and serve immediately. Make sure you have tons of napkins because it’s going to be messy.  Nutritional Information Per Serving: Calories: 754 ● Carbs: 104 g  37 ● Fat: 36 g ● Protein: 15 g ● Sodium: 1,245 mg ● Sugar: 9 g ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/delicious-deviled-eggs/  Ingredients ● 10 small potatoes, halved lengthwise ● 2 Tbsp. refined coconut oil ● 1/2 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard ● 1/2 tsp. Kala Namak (for an egg-like taste) (optional) ● Salt and pepper, to taste ● Smoked paprika, for garnish ● Fresh dill sprigs, for garnish  Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 425ºF. Place the potatoes on a baking sheet, drizzle with the coconut oil, and bake for 30 minutes, or until tender. 2. Let cool, then scoop out the insides of the potatoes with a melon baller or spoon and place in a large bowl. Add the vegan mayonnaise, mustard, and kala namak and season with salt and pepper. Stir until well combined. 3. Fill the potatoes skins with the mixture and garnish with smoked paprika and dill sprigs.  Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2016/04/03/glowing-spiced-lentil-soup/   Yields: 7 cups (1.65 litres)  Prep time: 15 Minutes   Cook time: 20 Minutes  Ingredients: ● 1 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil ● 2 cups (280 grams) diced onion (1 medium/large) ● 2 large garlic cloves, minced  38 ● 2 teaspoons ground turmeric ● 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon ● 1/4 teaspoon ground cardamom ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can diced tomatoes, with juices ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can full-fat coconut milk ● 3/4 cup (140 grams) uncooked red lentils, rinsed and drained ● 3 1/2 cups (875 mL) low-sodium vegetable broth ● 1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper, to taste ● Red pepper flakes or cayenne pepper, to taste (for a kick of heat!) ● 1 (5-ounce/140-gram) package baby spinach ● 2 teaspoons fresh lime juice, or more to taste  Directions: 1. In a large pot, add the oil, onion, and garlic. Add a pinch of salt, stir, and sauté over medium heat for 4 to 5 minutes until the onion softens. 2. Stir in the turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and cardamom until combined. Continue cooking for about 1 minute, until fragrant. 3. Add the diced tomatoes (with juices), entire can of coconut milk, red lentils, broth, salt, and plenty of pepper. Add red pepper flakes or cayenne, if desired, to taste. Stir to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a low boil. 4. Once it boils, reduce the heat to medium-high, and simmer, uncovered, for about 18 to 22 minutes, until the lentils are fluffy and tender. 5. Turn off the heat and stir in the spinach until wilted. Add the lime juice to taste. Taste and add more salt and pepper, if desired. Ladle into bowls and serve with toasted bread and lime wedges.  ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF)  http://thefirstmess.com/2018/08/01/braised-harissa-eggplant-chickpeas/ Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 large eggplant ● 1 tablespoon sea salt + extra ● 3 tablespoons heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado (plus extra if necessary) ● 1 medium cooking onion, small dice ● 1 small chili, such as cayenne or fresno, seeded and minced ● 3 cloves of garlic, minced  39 ● ½ teaspoon ground cumin ● ½ teaspoon ground caraway ● ½ teaspoon ground coriander ● 1 ½ cups cooked chickpeas ● Ground black pepper, to taste ● 2 cups crushed tomatoes ● 1 cup vegetable stock ● 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice ● ¼ cup chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Remove the stem of the eggplant and chop into 1-inch cubes. Place the cubes in a colander and toss them with the tablespoon of salt. Set aside for an hour in the sink. 2. After an hour, rinse the eggplant (to remove excess salt) and thoroughly pat the cubes dry with paper towel or clean kitchen towels. 3. Set up a dinner plate with a couple paper towels on top. In a wide, deep braiser-style pot, heat the oil over medium-high heat. In batches, sear the eggplant until it’s golden brown on all sides and softened. As the eggplant finishes, remove it from the pot with a slotted spoon and place it on the paper towel-lined plate. Set aside. 4. Add more oil to the pot of necessary and lower the heat to medium. Add the onions and hot pepper to the pot and sauté until onion is translucent, about 4 minutes. Add the garlic, cumin, caraway, and coriander to the pot and stir until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the chickpeas, some salt and black pepper to taste, and then stir to coat the chickpeas in spices. Add the tomatoes and vegetable stock to the pot. 5. Bring the braise to a boil and simmer, uncovered and stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes. Add the eggplant back into the pot and bring the braise up to a boil once more. Stir in the lemon juice and parsley. Serve the braised harissa eggplant hot over millet or rice (or any other starch of choice).  iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2017/07/12/vegan-stuffed-eggplant-sunflower-romesco-recipe/  Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Sunflower Romesco (makes extra): ● ½ cup toasted sunflower seeds ● 2 roasted red peppers (homemade or from a jar) ● 2 cloves of garlic, chopped ● 1 teaspoon smoked paprika ● ½ teaspoon aleppo pepper, or a pinch of cayenne ● 2 tablespoons sherry OR apple cider vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● small handful flat parsley leaves  40 ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● scant ½ cup virgin olive oil Stuffed Eggplant: ● 2 small-medium eggplants ● olive oil ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● 1 small shallot, chopped ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● ¼ cup romesco ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice 2 tablespoons tahini ● 4 servings cooked grain of choice (I used quinoa) ● big handful of fresh and leafy herbs, chopped (I used cilantro, parsley & a bit of dill) ● toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah, for topping Directions: 1. Make the sunflower romesco: In the bowl of a food processor, combine the sunflower seeds, roasted red peppers, garlic, paprika, aleppo pepper, vinegar, tomato paste, parsley, salt, and pepper. Pulse the mixture until all ingredients are finely chopped and lightly pasty. Scrape the bowl down. Then, with the motor on low, drizzle the olive oil in through the feed tube until fully incorporated. Check the sauce for seasoning. Transfer sauce to a sealable jar, and set aside in the fridge until ready to use.  2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. Cut the eggplants in half lengthwise, right through the stem. Using a paring knife, carve into the eggplant flesh all the way around the perimeter. Pry the eggplant flesh out of the eggplant halves with your fingers or a spoon and set it aside. Place eggplant halves on a baking sheet, facing up. Brush the eggplant halves with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Bake eggplant for 20 minutes, or until golden brown and lightly tender. 4. Roughly chop the scooped out eggplant. Heat a bit of oil in a medium-large saute pan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic to the pan and saute until fragrant and slightly soft, about 2 minutes. Add the chopped eggplant, and season with salt and pepper. Stir. Saute the eggplant, stirring occasionally, until tender, browned, and slightly reduced in size, about 4 minutes. 5. Carefully transfer eggplant to the food processor. Add the ¼ cup of romesco, lemon juice, and tahini to the food processor as well. Pulse the mixture until you have a chunky paste. 6. To serve, divide the warm eggplant filling evenly among the eggplant “boats.” Then, spoon your cooked grain of choice on top along with a sprinkle of chopped herbs. Garnish the tops of the stuffed eggplants with more romesco and toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah. Enjoy warm. iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/01/03/creamy-white-bean-soup-vegan-recipe/  Yields: 4-5 servings  Ingredients:  41 ● 1 tablespoon heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado or refined coconut oil ● 1 medium yellow onion, small dice ● 1 medium carrot, small dice ● 1 celery stalk, small dice ● 2 cloves garlic, minced ● chili flakes or aleppo pepper, to taste ● 1 sprig fresh rosemary, minced ● 4 cups cooked navy beans (about 2 15-ounce cans, drained) ● 4 cups vegetable stock ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice ● sea salt & ground black pepper, to taste ● 3 cups packed chopped lacinato kale (roughly 1 small bunch) big handful finely chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Heat the oil in a medium-large soup pot over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, and celery to the pot and stir. Saute the vegetables until slightly softened and translucent, about 5 minutes. 2. To the pot, add the garlic, chili flakes, and rosemary. Stir and cook until garlic is fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the navy beans to the pot and stir. Add the vegetable stock to the pot and stir once more. Bring the soup to a boil. 3. Once boiling, ladle half of the soup into an upright blender. Add the lemon juice to the blender as well. Carefully bring the speed of the blender up to high and blend until this portion of the soup is totally liquified. Pour this liquified portion back into the pot. Season the soup with salt and pepper. 4. Add the kale to the pot and bring the soup to a boil. Once the kale is slightly wilted and bright green, season the soup once more with salt and pepper, if you find it necessary. Stir in the chopped parsley as well. Serve the soup hot. v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2014/12/11/sweet-potato-carrot-dal-with-coconut-leeks-and-a-wine-country-ontario-giveaway/   Yields:  4 servings  Ingredients:  Dal: ● 2-3 tsp coconut oil ● 1 tsp ground coriander ● 1/2 tsp mustard seeds ● pinch of chili flakes ● 1 cup red lentils ● 1 sweet potato, peeled and diced small ● 1 two inch piece of ginger, peeled + minced  42 ● 1 one inch piece of fresh turmeric, peeled + minced (or substitute 1 tsp dried turmeric powder) ● 3 ½  cups filtered water + extra if necessary ● 1.5 tsp garam masala ● salt to taste Coconut Leeks: ● 1 tbsp extra virgin coconut oil ● 1 leek, white and light green part julienned ● squeeze of lime juice ● pinch of salt To serve: ● Cooked, warm rice ● Chopped parsley, cilantro or mint (or a combination)  Directions: 1. Place a large pot over medium heat. Heat up the coconut oil in the pot and add the ground coriander, mustard seeds and chili flakes. Stir about until the mustard seeds start to pop just a little bit. 2. Add the lentils, diced sweet potato, carrots, ginger, turmeric, and a pinch of salt. Stir to mix and coat everything in the oil and spice. Add the filtered water to the pot. Bring mixture to a boil and simmer until the mixture is creamy and soupy, stirring occasionally. The sweet potato pieces should still be intact with a tiny bit of bite. The lentils will be broken down, filling out the mixture. Keep it warm while you sauté the leeks. 3. Heat the coconut oil in a small sauté pan over medium heat. Add the leeks to the pan and sauté until leeks are soft and very fragrant. Season with salt. Add a squeeze of lime if you like at the end. Remove from the heat. 4. To serve: divide the hot dal over 4 portions of rice. Top the dal with sautéed leeks and a few dribbles of the coconut oil left in the pan. Garnish each serving with the chopped herbs and black sesame seeds. vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/1-pot-butternut-squash-quinoa-chili/  Yields: 6 servings Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 50 minutes  Ingredients:  Chili: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or coconut oil (sub water if avoiding oil) ● 1 small white or yellow onion (diced) ● 1 jalapeño (minced // remove seeds for less heat) ● 1/2 tsp each sea salt and black pepper (DIVIDED // plus more to taste)  43 ● 4 cloves garlic ● 4 cups diced butternut squash ● 3 Tbsp chili powder (DIVIDED) ● 2 Tbsp ground cumin (DIVIDED) ● 2 tsp smoked paprika ● 2 15- ounce cans fire-roasted (or regular) diced tomatoes (if unsalted, add more sea salt to taste) ● 1/4 cup tomato paste ● 3 cups vegetable broth (sub up to half with water for lower sodium // plus more as needed) ● 1/4 cup quinoa, rinsed ● 1 15- ounce can kidney beans (slightly drained) ● 1 15- ounce can black beans (slightly drained) ● 1-2 Tbsp coconut sugar (or maple syrup) ● 1 small chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (for heat) (optional) ● 1 cup chopped kale (or other sturdy green) (optional) For Serving (optional): ● Rice or quinoa ● Fresh chopped cilantro or parsley ● Avocado Directions: 1. Heat a large pot over medium heat. Once hot, add oil (or water), onion, and jalapeño pepper. Season with a healthy pinch each salt and pepper and stir. Sauté for 3-4 minutes, stirring frequently. 2. Add garlic and sauté (stirring occasionally) for 2-3 minutes more, or until onion, pepper, and garlic are softened and slightly browned. 3. Add butternut squash, 2/3 of the chili powder (2 Tbsp as original recipe is written), half the cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), smoked paprika and stir to coat. Cook for 3 minutes. 4. Add diced tomatoes, tomato paste, and vegetable broth and stir to combine. Bring to a low boil over medium-high heat. 5. Once boiling, add quinoa (see photo) and reduce heat to medium-low or low, so it's at a gentle simmer. You want to see bubbles, but you don't want it boiling. Cover and cook for 12-15 minutes, or until quinoa is mostly tender. As it's cooking you may need to add more vegetable broth or water if it's looking too dry and the quinoa isn't submerged (I didn't find that necessary). 6. Next add kidney beans, black beans, 1/4 tsp each salt and pepper, and remaining cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written) and chili powder (1 Tbsp as original  44 recipe is written), coconut sugar, and stir to combine. If adding the chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (optional), add now. 7. Bring to a simmer over medium heat, then reduce heat slightly to low (or medium-low), cover, and gently simmer for 15-20 minutes to meld the flavors together. Stir occasionally. 8. Taste and adjust seasonings as needed, adding more chili powder or cumin for smokiness, salt for saltiness, or a little coconut sugar to balance the heat and draw out the other flavors. 9. Add kale (optional), cover, and cook for 2-3 minutes more. Serve as is, or garnished with lime, fresh jalapeño, cilantro, red onion, and/or avocado (all optional). 10. Store leftovers in the refrigerator up to 5-6 days, or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop or in the microwave until hot. vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/caramelized-shiitake-mushroom-risotto/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 20 minutes   Ingredients:  Broth: ● 3 1/2 - 4 cups vegetable broth (or store-bought) Risotto: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or olive oil (if avoiding oil, sub water) ● 3/4 cup thinly sliced shallot ● 1/4 tsp each sea salt and black pepper ● 2 cups sliced Shiitake mushrooms (or other similar mushroom) ● 1 Tbsp coconut aminos (or tamari // soy sauce) ● 1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme (or sub dried) ● 1 cup arborio rice (works best here - we recommend not subbing other grains) ● 1/4 cup dry white wine (or omit) ● 1/4 cup vegan parmesan cheese (plus more for serving // or sub nutritional yeast) For Serving (optional): ● Fresh chopped parsley  Directions:  45 1. In a medium saucepan, heat vegetable broth over medium heat. Once simmering, reduce heat to low to keep warm. 2. In the meantime, heat a large pan* over medium heat. Once hot, add oil and shallot and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. Sauté for 3-4 minutes - stirring frequently. Then add mushrooms and coconut aminos and continue sautéing until the mushrooms are golden brown and caramelized. Optional: remove some of the shiitake mushrooms from the pan and reserve for serving - not necessary, but it makes a nice garnish. 3. Add the thyme and arborio rice and cook for 1 minute, stirring occasionally. Then add dry white wine and stir gently. Cook for 2 minutes or until the liquid is mostly absorbed. 4. Using a ladle, add warmed vegetable stock 1/2 cup (120 ml) at a time, stirring almost constantly, giving the risotto little breaks to come back to a simmer. The heat should be medium, and there should always be a slight simmer (adjust heat as needed). You want the mixture to be cooking consistently but not boiling or it can get gummy and cook too quickly. 5. Continue to add vegetable stock 1 ladle at a time, stirring to incorporate, until the rice is 'al dente' - cooked through but still has a slight bite. This whole process should take about 15-20 minutes. 6. Once the rice is cooked through and al dente, remove from heat and add vegan parmesan cheese. Stir to coat (see photo). Taste and adjust flavor as needed, adding sea salt and pepper to taste or more vegan parmesan to enhance the cheesiness. If dry at this point, add a little more warmed broth. 7. To serve, divide between serving bowls and top with reserved mushrooms, additional vegan parmesan cheese, and a sprinkle of fresh parsley (all optional). 8. Best when fresh, though leftovers will keep covered in the refrigerator for 4-5 days or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop with additional (warmed) vegetable broth until hot.  viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) https://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipe/pasta-with-mushrooms-herbs-and-beet-greens/9470/  Ingredients: ● 4 oz dried gluten-free pasta  ● 2 cup mushrooms (cremini or a combination of cremini, oyster and shitake), sliced ● 1 medium onion, coarsely chopped ● extra virgin olive oil (just enough to sauté the mushrooms and onions) ● 2 large cloves garlic, minced  46 ● 1 Tbsp fresh thyme leaves (or 1 tsp dried) You can mix herbs, or choose your favourite ● 1 bunch baby beet greens (save the roots for another dish), well washed, dried and coarsely chopped ● Chili pepper flakes – amount is up to you ● 2-3 tbsp balsamic vinegar ● Vegan cheese to sprinkle over the pasta just before serving…again, amount is up to you  Directions: 1. Bring a large pot of well-salted water to a boil. Add the gluten-free pasta and cook until al dente (8-10 minutes depending on the type of pasta). Set aside 1 cup cooking water. (Sometimes I need it, sometimes not, but it’s best to have some handy.) Drain and place in a large serving bowl. 2. In the meantime, in a large non-stick skillet, over medium high heat, add a little olive oil and sauté the onions and mushrooms until the onions are translucent and the mushrooms golden (about 5 minutes). Add the garlic and toss once or twice, then add the baby beet greens and toss until wilted (2-3 minutes). 3. Just before adding to the pasta, add balsamic vinegar, chili pepper flakes and toss. Taste for seasoning and add to the serving bowl. (Here's where you might want to add some cooking water or some olive oil. Toss and add coarsely grated vegan cheese and serve.   ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/white-bean-fettuccine-alfredo/  Ingredients: ● 2 Tbsp. vegan butter ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● 1/4 cup chopped broccoli florets ● 1/4 cup sliced mushrooms ● 1 15-oz. can white beans (also known as Great Northern beans), drained and rinsed ● 1 tsp. lemon juice ● 1 Tbsp. nutritional yeast ● 1/2 cup almond milk ● 2 oz. dried fettuccine ● 1 tomato, chopped  Directions: ● Melt the vegan butter in a large pan. Add the garlic, broccoli, and sliced mushrooms. Cook over medium heat for 2 to 3 minutes.  47 ● Remove the broccoli and mushrooms, then set aside. Pour the melted butter and garlic into a blender. Add the white beans and blend for 5 seconds. Add the lemon juice, nutritional yeast, and almond milk and blend until completely smooth. Transfer to the large pan and cook over medium heat until warm. ● Bring a large pot of water to a boil and cook the fettuccine according to the package directions. Drain the pasta, then return to the pot. Pour the white-bean Alfredo sauce over the pasta and add the broccoli, mushroom slices, and tomato. x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/black-eyed-peas-veggie-medley/  Ingredients: ● 1/2 pkg. of 14 oz. extra firm tofu ● 2 Tbsp. oil ● 1/4 onion, chopped ● 1 1/2 cups rice, cooked (a microwavable bag of rice works fine) ● 1 can black-eyed peas ● 2 cups collard greens, chopped (frozen works fine) ● 1 pkg. smoked tofu, cubed ● 1 tsp. salt ● Hot sauce, to taste  ● Cooking spray, for tofu   Instructions: ● Use a tofu press to drain the tofu. Alternatively, wrap in a kitchen towel and place between two plates with a heavy book on top for 30 minutes, replace the towel with a fresh one, and repeat. ● Preheat the oven to 400°F. ● Cut the tofu into 1-inch cubes and arrange in a single layer on a large parchment-lined baking sheet. Lightly spray with cooking oil. Bake for 20 minutes, flip, then continue baking until golden brown and crisp, about 20 more minutes. ● Add the oil to a pan over medium heat. Add the onion and stir for 1 minute. ● Add the rice and black-eyed peas. Sauté for 3 minutes, stirring often. ● Add the collard greens and salt and stir for a few minutes, until cooked through. Top with baked tofu.      48 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages EXAMPLES OF MARKETABLE NUTRITIONAL MESSAGES 1. Protein sufficient a. Substitutions of meat as a protein source in the foods, such as, vegan cheese, legumes, lentils, and/or eggs, to fulfill nutritional needs. b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Chickpea Salad, Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls, Spiced Lentil Soup, and Creamy White Bean Soup.  2. Energy sufficient  a. For each recipe provided, the average calorie content per serving is between 500-800 kcal, which is sufficient for an individual to consume and provides satiety.  b. This can be applied to any recipe chosen from the recipe list, specific calorie numbers can be listed beside the selection on the menu. 3. Promotes digestive health a. Increase in fibre consumption, which promotes the motility of the digestive tract (Karunaratne, 2018). b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach, and Sweet Potato Carrot Dal with Coconut Leeks. 4. Rich in antioxidants  a. Reduced oxidative stress in functional parts of the body and potential decreased risk against the development of age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases (Yoshihara, 2010). b. Example of recipe that can use this message Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto.  UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report        Plant-Based Food Offerings for the AMS Celine Koppenaal, Daniele Pestoni, Louise Dong, Celeste Cardoz, Bethany Del Begio University of British Columbia FNH 473 Themes: Food, Climate, Procurement April 8, 2019         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1 Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Situational Assessment and Planning Framework 3 i. Issues relevant to the target population 3 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population 4 iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels 5 iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice 7 Project Goal and Objectives 9 Description of Project Outputs 10 i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations 10 ii. Introduction of Recipes 11 iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages 12 Evaluation Plan 12 Conclusion 15 Authors’ Contributions 16 References 19 Appendices 21 Appendix A: Logic Model 21 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report 22 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations 23 Appendix D: Recipes 27 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages 48               2 Executive Summary Introduction The relationship between food and the environment has been steadily and increasingly endorsed in recent years, and it is at this junction where the potential for human intervention is substantial (Willett et al., 2019). The statement “feeding nine billion” is frequently included in discourse concerning future physical, environmental and social health, this statement aptly encompasses the importance of food in terms of sufficient nutrition, but also the immense demand for resources required to achieve this goal. There is already disparity in the health of the global population, with millions individuals lacking sufficient nutrition, and millions more affected by chronic diseases associated with overnutrition and poor diet, and it is likely that the current patterns of food consumption and production will not amend these obstacles, if left unchanged (Lindgren et al., 2018).  Furthermore, the EAT Lancet Commission (2019) encompasses the importance of food within the context of climate change, stating, “Food is the single strongest lever to optimize human health and environmental sustainability of Earth”. Despite a somewhat dismal outlook at the fate of the planet, this statement can inspire and encourage individuals to make changes, no matter how small, in efforts to live sustainably for environmental and health benefits. The overarching recommendation in order to positively modify the environmental impacts of food consumption and production require switching to primarily plant-based diets (Mertens et al, 2017; Shepon et al., 2018; Tilman & Clark, 2014). These dietary changes are said to promote the greatest improvement in population health but also the greatest reduction in the impact of diet upon resources. It is through these recommendations that food can be seen as a vehicle for change, thus supporting integration of more plant-based options into the Nest Catering menu.  3 This partnership with Nest Catering will increase the prevalence and marketing of plant-based meal options, through which perceptions of those who use AMS catering services, can shift toward sustainable food options.  Situational Assessment and Planning Framework i. Issues relevant to the target population  The target population for this project is the general public who are using Nest Catering services. This includes a wide range of individuals such as UBC faculty, domestic and international students, family of students, and many others. As expressed by the Nest Catering, the clients using their services have various goals for the food that they eat. The clients would like the food provided by nest catering to be “tasty, sustainable, and ethical” (University of British Columbia, 2019).  The current catering menu lacks a diverse selection of tasty, plant-based, sustainable food options that draw on a variety of cultural cuisines (Nest Catering & Conferences, 2019). Because individuals using the catering services are generally ‘single time users’, this is not a major issue of food security. Still, using the lens of food security to look at the current situation brings up issues such as acceptability for those using the catering services. Food security is achieved when all people at all times have access to safe, nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences (Food and Agricultural Organization). Drawing on this definition, in order to increase food security for their clients, Nest Catering must increase the availability of items on their menu that meet their client’s goals. Transitioning the menu to be more plant-forward is also a meaningful step towards increasing the overall sustainability of the Nest Catering and in fulfilling a social responsibility of moving towards global sustainability (Willett et al., 2019).   4 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population Diet choice is a consumer behaviour that contributes to the issues identified mentioned in section (i).  The greatest barrier to adopting a plant-based diet is the enjoyment and pleasure of eating meat (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Additionally, some of our consumer audience may be unwilling to try eating sustainable, vegan food if they have a bias against vegan food (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017). For example, many consumers may be deterred from selecting plant-based menu items due to their negative perceptions regarding nutritional values (i.e. insufficient protein or iron content) (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017; Pohjolainen, Vinnari, & Jokinen, 2015 ). Furthermore, plant-based diets are perceived as less nutritionally balanced as well as tasting bland and boring (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). These factors may deter consumers from choosing plant-based menu items. These behaviours presents an issue for Nest Catering who would like to increase the presence of plant based items on the menu. Moreover, a lack of plant-based options when eating out is also a barrier for not consuming plant-based menu items (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). For example, some consumers may have food allergies and food preferences and if these consumers do not request for more sustainable, plant-based and allergen-free meals from Nest Catering, this could lead to limited choices of plant-based and gluten-free food options. In addition, limited experience cooking and producing sustainable, plant-based and gluten-free foods is a behaviour from Nest Catering that contributes to their lack of plant-based food options on the Nest Catering menu. As well, convenience is a barrier to adopting a plant-based diet due to difficulty preparing plant-based foods (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Chefs lacking experience developing a diverse menu featuring a variety of plant-based recipes and cooking plant-based meals may find it more difficult to prepare these foods. Furthermore, our situational  5 analysis is limited in that there is insufficient data on the behaviours of the event organizers such as the catering manager, who are the decision makers for selection, ordering and implementation of plant-based menu items. iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels Individual Personal preferences Observationally, it can be said that food choices are often a matter of consumer preference. During events, plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free food choices may be less popular among guests, which makes these meal options of a low priority for event organizers. A key reason for this is personal preference towards plant-based foods; which may be based on appearance, taste, and quality of the foods. Many individuals may have a biased perception of vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free as less satiable foods, which results being an unpopular selection (Douglas et al., 2015). Unless an individual has a strict diet or religious restrictions, his or her choice of food does not limit them to solely plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. Moreover, many plant-based recipes include nuts in their ingredients in order to create texture but also to contribute protein; however, in Canada, nut allergy is very common among the general public and comes with life-threatening repercussions for some individuals (Ben-Shoshan et al., 2012). Thus, event organizers may tend to order less of the vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free foods in order to reduce the presence of food allergens in their event menus.  Cost It is to no surprise that cost is one of the primary considerations when producing food both for events or at the individual level. Cost not only dictates what is feasible from an economic standpoint, but is also subject to seasonal and other fluctuation, which further  6 complicates the process of implementing a plant-based menu. Plant foods that are not in season may result in a higher price (McLaughlin, 2004). When choosing between being sustainable or being cost-friendly, the general public may be faced with a dilemma, and often affordability is the prevailing factor. For events where food is provided by organizers, cost-effectiveness is typically of high priority to ensure that the event is economically beneficial. For individuals who are paying for their own meal at events, more expensive options may become last preference.   Interpersonal Awareness of consuming plant-based foods Although plant-based, vegan and gluten free foods appear to be very popular in the city of Vancouver, the majority of the population may be lagging behind on this trend. In addition, the definition of eating healthy is very vague and cannot be limited to solely consuming plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods. Furthermore, the general public may not be aware of what exactly if plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. They are less aware of what is available in the market for them to choose, thus many people may not event have tried these options before (Horta, 2018).  Social influence There has been reports, media coverage, as well as celebrity advocacy for consumption of vegan, plant-based, gluten-free foods. The general public may be influenced by these factors when it comes to foods choices in flavour of plant-based meals or alternatives. On the other hand, there may be people who make negative comments on individuals who consume these types of food, which may create social pressure which dissuades individuals from consuming plant-based meals or foods (Ensaff, 2015).   7  Environmental  Storage and preservation The storage and preservation of the plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods may increase the difficulty of the storage and preservation. Once cooked or semi-prepared, they cannot be stored longer than a day unlike meats and other preservatives. In addition, the plant-based foods, tends to decrease in appearance as time progresses. Though some foods such as nuts and beans have longer shelf-life, for most to the plant-based foods, more care and preservation methods are needed (Karunaratne, 2018). iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice The theoretical framework for the planning process of this project relies mainly on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. This theoretical model considers the community level of influence on health, and provides insight on how it would be possible to diffuse this novel trend of healthy and sustainable food in the context of catering services, in which our partner intends to assume a leadership role. The five main characteristics of an innovation that maximize its appeal are the following: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005).  Relative advantage refers to the superiority to what the innovation replaces. In the context of sustainable catering practices, the emphasis is precisely on the environmental-friendly and healthy alternative presented by a plant-based alternative. Compatibility describes how the novelty is appropriate to the target audience. Applied to this project, this feature is tackled from different angles: tasty menu options, vegan and gluten-free alternatives, recipes from different  8 cultures all contribute to making the offer compatible with a broad population. Complexity, or the ease of implementation, is in this case related to how difficult it is to reproduce new recipes, both for catering services and individuals that encounter these recipes at events. Trialability indicates whether new items can be tried before deciding to adapt them for use, and this occurs naturally in our context, since food is consumed. The last point, observability, can be less perceptible than the others, because the adoption of environmental-friendly practices are part of a much larger system of measures that aim to mitigate climate change. However, if the focus is on other catering companies, the estimation of how many of them adapt this trend should be less difficult to perform (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005). The rationale for choosing this theoretical framework lies in the nature of influences a catering service can have: the fact that catering services offer whole-food, plant-based delicacies and expose different demographics to them represents an opportunity to provoke a sense of novelty in the target audience. Florea (2015) suggests that “consuming or using a product innovation in social context is a premise for behavior social exchange and social learning, which includes brand related information and inferences”. As such, since catering events occur in social circumstances, this finding supports the introduction and promotion of novel environmentally-friendly menu options aimed at enhancing the recognition of our partner’s brand as part of the sustainability trend.  9 Project Goal and Objectives Our project goal is to provide healthy, tasty, and sustainable plant-based and gluten-free recipes and resources that are feasible for AMS catering to implement so that they can become a leader in sustainable catering.  Project Objectives: ● Short Term Objectives: ○ Implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the catering menu by April 2021. ● Medium Term Objectives: ○ 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by April 2021. ○ Implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations by April 2023. ● Long Term Objectives: ○ Adoption of plant-based menu items in 75% of catering companies in Vancouver by April 2025. ○ Increased selection for plant-based menu items by 20% in the year 2025 as compared to the year of implementation.  10 Description of Project Outputs i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations Nest Catering is in the early majority of catering companies looking to innovate and go green. Social trends in environmental sustainability and eating foods that have been ethically and sustainably sourced has increased many catering company’s incentive to go green. Catering companies want to provide products that meet their customers values. In order to support Nest Catering with implementing sustainable practices we have included recommendations for future company use. These recommendations are based on a review of sustainable catering companies across the globe and highlight the qualities of leaders in this area.  The recommendations are sub-categorized to focus on six different areas of sustainability including locally grown food, plant-based options, ethical and sustainable sourcing, organic foods, reducing food waste, and green facilities. Each category has a set of recommendations, some that may be implemented in the future or some that should be continued based on current practices. For example, we recommend that the nest catering continue to serve only 100% Oceanwise Certified fish and additionally, to implement a policy to use only cage free eggs. Some recommendations will be easier to attain in the short term, where as some require more resources and will take longer to adopt as a result. For example, adjusting the menu to allow for seasonal features requires more resources than removing bottled beverages such as water and juice from the menu, and will therefore take a longer time period to adopt. The sustainable practice recommendations can be found in Appendix C.  11 ii. Introduction of Recipes One of the primary outputs of the project consists of the collection of 19 vegan, gluten-free recipes to provide ideas for Nest Catering to integrate into the catering service menu for lunch and dinner. We provide a complete list of ingredients, with specified serving sizes per recipe, estimated preparation time, estimated cook time, as well as the detailed directions for both preparation and cooking. We also include the indication of gluten presence and possible gluten-free alternatives throughout the collection of recipes, where necessary. The selection of new recipes was based on the current menu options from Nest Catering, and the respective ingredients available to the kitchen, which were made partially accessible by our partner. The purpose the list of recipes is meant to serve is to offer Nest Catering novel and practical examples that can be implemented to support the pursuit of its goal of becoming a recognized sustainable leader in the catering companies context. The collection of recipes can be found in Appendix D.  To highlight the importance of this project output, it is useful to refer back to the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, especially to some features of innovations that make them more likely to spread across the population. For instance, one of our partner’s priorities was to be able to provide meals options that would be compatible and appealing to a broader range of clients, that is, meals that are appetizing, tasteful, as well as being gluten-free and vegan. This last point reflects the tendency of adopting plant-based diets and consuming meat less frequently, both as a social trend, but also as reflected by recent public health messaging, such as Canada’s Food Guide 2019. This also represents the relative advantage of the sustainable catering offer, an additional factor that contributes to the diffusion of an innovation. Lastly, we considered how  12 complex the recipes are to reproduce, and in order to facilitate their introduction into the catering menu, we looked for dishes that did not require special skills nor uncommon ingredients. iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages The two aspects of the Diffusion of Innovations theoretical framework that relate are Adopters and Communication Channels. In the context of this CBEL project, Nest Catering is an early adopter pursuing to be the leader of plant-based catering in Vancouver. Additionally, Nest Catering hopes to influence other catering companies from the city of Vancouver, who can be described as early majorities. The broad public are also considered early majorities, as they may be influenced by the possible implementations by catering companies. Seeing an increase in plant-based food offerings, the early majorities in the broad public will soon join the early adopters to choose more of these “innovative” options. Nest Catering can be seen as a communication channel, which diffuses the innovation into the general public. Increasing plant-based food options in the catering services, subsequently influences the public’s food choice. In addition, the Nest Catering should utilize some of the suggested marketable nutritional messages to persuade the public into choosing these new plant-based food options in their menu, subsequently contributing to a shift in the consumer choice toward the new innovation provided by Nest Catering. Examples of Marketable Nutritional Messages and appropriate recipe pairings can be found in Appendix E.  Evaluation Plan  Short Term Outcomes:  The implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the AMS catering menu by  13 April 2020 is the sole short-term outcome for this project. The outcome indicator for the short term is the number of plant-based menu items present on the Nest Catering menu. An example for the evaluation of this indicator could be a comparison of the Nest Catering menu from 2020 and 2019; where the number of plant-based items on each menu is counted and contrasted, ideally to show an increase in prevalence of plant-based menu items.  Medium Term Outcomes: The first medium term outcome for this project is a 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by December 2021. The outcome indicator for this is the percentage of customers selecting plant-based menu items, which then infers the percentage of those who consume plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this indicator is through comparison of sales details from the 2018-2019 as compared to the sales details from 2020-2010, to determine what percentage of annual sales come from plant-based menu items. Another example of an evaluation for this indicator is the use of a survey to assess the percentage increase or decrease in selection for plant-based menu items. One survey would be done in the year 2019 (or year of implementation of new recipes to the menu), and a follow up survey would be conducted in the year 2021. Example questions include: Did you select/consume a plant-based menu item from Nest Catering? Answer: Yes/No. However, the survey method is limited as not all consumers are guaranteed to take part, and this would generate data that is not fully representative.    The second medium term outcome for this project is the implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations, by April 2023. The outcome indicator for this is determined by what, and how many sustainable practices Nest Catering has implemented into their production, preparation or other practices. An example of the evaluation  14 for this outcome is discussion with the Nest Catering management to identify what changes from our sustainable practice recommendations, specifically, have been incorporated by Nest Catering.  Long Term Outcomes: The first long term outcome for this project is the adoption of plant-based menu items by 75% of the licensed catering companies within the city of Vancouver, by April 2025. The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of licensed catering companies within Vancouver that offer plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this outcome could be done through a scoping review of the menus provided by all the licensed catering companies in Vancouver, and determination of how many caterers provide plant-based items on their menus. This information would then be used to determine the percentage of catering companies that provide plant-based menu items. These long-term outcomes specifically relate to the Diffusion of Innovations theory, as they are representative of the percentage of catering companies that are responsive to Nest Catering’s changes to become more sustainable and plant-forward in food offerings. Thus, caterers within Vancouver can be identified as early majorities as they are responding to the innovation of sustainable catering.    The second long-term outcome is a 20% increased selection for plant-based menu items in the year 2025 as compared to the year 2019.  The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of individuals who consume plant-based meals from Nest Catering. An example of evaluation for this outcome is through analysis and comparison of sales data from the year 2025 as compared to 2019, to indicate if selection for plant-based items has changed and by what percentage.   15 Conclusion  Upon completion of this project, sustainable practice recommendations, plant-based recipes, and marketable nutritional messages were produced in order to potentially increase the selection and consumption of plant-based meals from Nest Catering. In addition, the sustainable practice recommendations provide a resource for Nest Catering to become a leader in sustainability, furthermore increasing potential to align company practices with consumer values.  The main lessons learned during this process encompass theoretical understanding, self-efficacy and practical experience within the public health context. Specifically, our group was able to understand the difference between theoretical frameworks and utilize critical thinking and collaboration to determine the health behaviour theory best suited to our project. Furthermore, we were able to expand upon this understanding thorough application of the Diffusion of Innovations theory within the context of the CBEL project. Due to the self-facilitated nature of this project, self-efficacy was developed as each group member participated in the assessment of future obstacles and goals, and required steps to overcome and achieve them. Finally, and arguably most importantly, the process of planning and preparing for implementation of the project outcomes led to a realistic conclusion; implementation of policies or plans takes time. This conclusion is reflective of the challenges that exist when planning for an initiative in practice as compared to in theory.  Unfortunately, due to the nature of this project, the completion of project objectives is not an area of complete control. The combination of sustainable practice recommendations, recipes, and marketable nutritional messages are intended to facilitate the completion of the project goal and objectives, however the implementation of these and community response to these changes are beyond the scope of this project.  16 Authors’ Contributions All group members contributed toward the generation of the recipe list provided to Nest Catering. Each member researched available plant-based recipes through online sources, blogs, or recipe boards in order to contribute between 2-4 recipes each, for both lunch and dinner. In addition, all group members were involved in the discussions to decide upon the project goal and objectives, as well as formation of each objective into the SMART format. Each member of the group also contributed to the creation of the Google Slides for the presentation of this CBEL project; each individual’s specific contributions to the presentation and written report are detailed below.   Celine Koppenaal (C.K.) contributed to the development of the group logic model and presentation of the logic model, as well as development of the project evaluation plan and outcome indicators. As well, C.K. completed research regarding the behaviours that contribute to issues with respect to our target population (Section ii of Situational Assessment), and grey literature research regarding sustainable catering practices. C.K. contributed to the production and designing of the newsletter using the online platform, Canva. C.K. reviewed and formatted the reference section for the written report. For the presentation, C.K. contributed to sections pertaining to behaviours of the target population, as well as the evaluation plan, and presented the information on slides 7, 16, 17 of the presentation.  Daniele Pestoni (D.P.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs. D.P. also contributed to grey literature research for the sustainable catering recommendations. Independently, D.P. investigated the Diffusions of Innovation theoretical framework in depth to synthesize the information contained in the Situational Assessment (section iv). For the presentation, D.P. contributed to the sections  17 pertaining to the project goal, objectives, theoretical framework and recipe collection; as well, D.P. presented the information on slides 9-13 of the presentation.  Louise Dong (L.D.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs; specifically, section iii “Marketable Nutritional Messages”. L.D. researched the mediating factors related to the target population (section iii of the Situational Assessment). L.D. also contributed to the generation of the newsletter content and the formatting and editing of the written report reference list. For the presentation, L.D. contributed to the sections pertaining to mediating factors and marketable nutritional messages, and presented slides 1, 2, 15, and 18.  Celeste Cardoz (C.C.) contributed to the development of the proposed evaluation and outcome indicators. C.C. completed background research regarding sustainability food systems, sustainable diets, and global trends in food consumption and production for the introduction of the report. In addition, C.C. completed the conclusion and author’s contributions sections of the written report. As well, C.C. was involved in editing of the written report for sentence structure, spelling, grammar, and continuity. For the presentation, C.C. contributed to the sections pertaining to the introduction, evaluation plan and outcome indicators, lessons learned and future recommendations; specifically, C.C. presented slides 3-5, 18-20.  Bethany Del Begio (B.D.B.) conducted research to complete the sections of the report which discuss issues relevant to the target population and behaviours contributing to these issues (sections i and ii of situational assessment). In addition, B.D.B. contributed to the generation of the sustainable catering guideline resource for Nest Catering. B.D.B was also involved in the generation of the content for the Newsletter. For the presentation, B.D.B. contributed to the  18 sections pertaining to sustainable catering recommendations and barriers within the target population; specifically, B.D.B. presented slides 6 and 14.     19 References  Ben-Shoshan, M., Harrington, D. W., Soller, L., Fragapane, J., Joseph, L., Pierre, Y. S., Clarke, A. E. (2012). Demographic predictors of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in canada. Journal of Allergy, 2012, 858306-6. doi:10.1155/2012/858306  Corrin, T., & Papadopoulos, A. (2017). Understanding the attitudes and perceptions of vegetarian   and plant-based diets to shape future health promotion programs. Appetite, 109, 40-47.   doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.018  Douglas, S. M., Lasley, T. R., & Leidy, H. J. (2015). Consuming beef vs. soy protein has little effect on appetite, satiety, and food intake in healthy adults 1,2. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(5), 1010.  Ensaff, H., Coan, S., Sahota, P., Braybrook, D., Akter, H., & McLeod, H. (2015). Adolescents' food choice and the place of plant-based foods. Nutrients, 7(6), 4619-4637. doi:10.3390/nu7064619  Florea, D. (2015). The Relationship between Branding and Diffusion of Innovation: A   Systematic Review. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 1527-1534.   https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00407-4   Food and Agricultural Organization. Chapter 2. Food Security: concepts and measurement. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/y4671e/y4671e06.htm   Horta, O. (2018). Discrimination against vegans. Res Publica, 24(3), 359-373. doi:10.1007/s11158-017-9356-3  Karunaratne, A. M. (2018). A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods, for enhanced benefits to be reaped at a global level: A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(14), 5189-5196. doi:10.1002/jsfa.9215  Lindgren, E., Harris, F., Dangour, A. D., Gasparatos, A., Hiramatsu, M., Javadi, F., . . .   Stockholm Resilience Centre. (2018). Sustainable food systems-a health   perspective.Sustainability Science, 13(6), 1505.  MacInnis, C. C., & Hodson, G. (2017). It ain’t easy eating greens: Evidence of bias toward   vegetarians and vegans from both source and target. Group Processes & Intergroup   Relations, 20(6), 721–744. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430215618253  McLaughlin, E. W. (2004). The dynamics of fresh fruit and vegetable pricing in the supermarket channel. Preventive Medicine, 39, 81-87. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.12.026   20 Mertens, E., Van't Veer, P., Hiddink, G. J., Steijns, J. M., & Kuijsten, A. (2017). Operationalising   the health aspects of sustainable diets: A review. Public Health Nutrition, 20(4), 739-757.   doi:10.1017/S1368980016002664  Nest Catering & Conferences. (2019). Catering menu. Retrieved from https://www.nestcatering.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Nest-Catering-and-Conferenc  es-Menu-2019.pdf  Pohjolainen, P., Vinnari, M., & Jokinen, P. (2015). Consumers’ perceived barriers to following a   plant-based diet. British Food Journal, 117(3), 1150-1167.   doi:10.1108/BFJ-09-2013-0252  Shepon, A., Eshel, G., Noor, E., & Milo, R. (2018). The opportunity cost of animal based diets   exceeds all food losses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United   States of America, 115(15), 3804-3809. doi:10.1073/pnas.1713820115  Tilman, D., & Clark, M. (2014). Global diets link environmental sustainability and human   health. Nature, 515(7528), 518-522. doi:10.1038/nature13959  University of British Columbia. (2019). FNH 473: January-April, 2019 CBEL Projects.   US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (2005). Theory at a   Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. Retrieved from  https://www.sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/The ory-at-a-Glance-A-Guide-For-Health-Promotion-Practice.pdf  Willett, W., Rockstrom, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., … Murray,   C.J.L.  (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets   from sustainable food systems, The Lancet. 393(10170), 447-492. doi:   https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4  Yoshihara, D., Fujiwara, N., & Suzuki, K. (2010). Antioxidants: Benefits and risks for long-term health. Maturitas, 67(2), 103-107. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.05.001    21 Appendices  Appendix A: Logic Model           22 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report   23 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations SUSTAINABLE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEST CATERING  Practices to continue or implement:  1. Locally produced food a. Continue partnership with UBC farm b. Continue to purchase produce and dry goods locally when possible  c. Source local proteins such as chicken and beef (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats d. Adjust menu to allow for seasonal foods (i.e. side of local, seasonal greens, topped with local, seasonal fruit) (2)  2. Plant-based options a. Incorporate more plant-based menu items  i. see Appendix D: Recipes b. Menu is labelled for menu choices such as “vegan”, “vegetarian”, etc.  3. Ethically and sustainably produced a. Continue to serve only 100% Ocean Wise certified fish b. Continue to serve organic, fair trade coffee c. Aim to use grass fed chicken and beef (2) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC d. Seek out fair trade certification for items such as bananas, chocolate, sugar (3) e. Source cage free, certified humane eggs (3) i. Rabbit River Farms, Richmond BC f. Aim to source SPCA certified, Certified Humane approved meats (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC g. Menu communicates sustainable and/or ethical products to customers  4. Organic  a. Aim to source meat that comes from animals raised without hormones, antibiotics, or chemical feed additives (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats, North Vancouver BC b. Purchase organic foods when possible, but focus on local over organic (1)  5. Reduce food waste  24 a. Donate leftover food to shelters in Vancouver (2) i. Vancouver Food Bank Food Rescue Program ii. Vancouver Covenant House b. Compost all food waste in kitchen and dining hall (5) c. Recycle leftover cooking oil for future biofuel use (3) i. recycle used cooking oil at Vancouver Zero Waste Center ii. use service such as Redux to pick up and recycle used cooking oil  6. Green facilities a. Continue using 100% recyclable or compostable containers b. Recycling program for plastics, cardboard, metal and mixed media (6) c. Removal of water, juice and other beverages in plastic bottles from the menu (4) d. Papers towels made from 100% recycled paper (3) e. Cleaning products are biodegradable (8)  i. Eco-max commercial products f. Bulbs and lighting are Energy Star rated (3) g. Install low-temp drying dishwasher - uses less power and water (4) h. Install low-flow sink sprayers and taps to reduce water consumption (8) i. Install high efficient water tank and recirculating pump (5) j. Combine delivery trips and use smaller vans when possible (3)   Additional Next Steps: Adapted from WWF-UK’s Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability  ● In your business: ○ Pilot sustainable menus and, if successful, roll them out across all outlets. ○ ‘Bundle’ costs: calculate the overall costs and benefits of introducing a sustainable menu, not the cost of individual products. ○ Develop staff who are passionate about delivering sustainability: provide them with the space, tools and training to deliver sustainable diets. ○ Remove worst offenders: Rule out ingredients that are unsustainably sourced   ● Across your stakeholders: ○ Educate and build demand: tell customers, clients and suppliers why sustainable diets are important. ○ Invest in sustainable supply chains. ○ Ask ‘would customers eat your food if they knew where it came from, how it was made, and what its health and sustainability credentials were?’. ○ Promote your values: tell stakeholders why sustainable diets matter to you.  25  ● Across your industry: ○ Share best practice, including noncommercially-competitive information about what has worked for you. ○ Agree on a shared definition (or common principles) for sustainable diets to create a level playing field when implementing them. ○ Advocate (to national governments) for a level playing fields; a change to competition law; and agree an industry-wide definition of sustainable diets.” Resources  Sustainable catering companies:  1. Savoury Chef. Vancouver, BC https://www.savourychef.com/vancouver-caterers/green-sustainability-practices/  2. Chef Laura. Vancouver, BC https://www.cheflaura.ca/about/sustainability/   3. Basil Tree Catering. Boston, MA https://www.basiltree.com/practices/  4. Pomona Dining. Claremont, CA https://www.pomona.edu/administration/dining/sustainability  5. Culinary Capers. Vancouver BC https://www.culinarycapers.com/about-us/sustainability/  6. Truffles Catering. Victoria, BC https://www.trufflescatering.net/culture  7. Drew’s Catering. Vancouver, BC https://drewscatering.com/about/sustainability/  8. Windows Catering. Alexandria, VA https://www.catering.com/company/about-us/green-initiatives/   Grey Literature:   26 Berkeley Food Institute. (2018). A Guide for UC Berkeley Departments on Sustainable and Just Catering. Retrieved from  http://food.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Sustainable-and-Just-Catering.pdf  Monash University Office of Environmental Sustainability. (2009). Sustainable Catering Guide. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54dd5ffce4b0cc2d46391991/t/594d1039b11be14d41a42967/1498222659822/Monash-Sustainable-Catering-Guide-2.pdf  World Wide Fund for Nature UK (WWF). (2016). Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability. Retrieved from http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/wwf_catering_summary_report_signoff.pdf?_ga=1.172826020.629931605.1470744313    Additional Resources:  Sumas Mountain Farms http://www.sumasmountainfarms.ca/  Two Rivers Farms https://tworiversmeats.ca/farms/  Rabbit River Farms http://www.rabbitriverfarms.com/  SPCA Certified standards https://spca.bc.ca/programs-services/certifications-accreditation/spca-certified/  Redux cooking oil recycling program http://www.reduxprogram.com/used-cooking-oil.php  Vancouver Food Bank food recovery program https://foodbank.bc.ca/our-programs/food-recovery/  Covenant House Vancouver food donations https://www.covenanthousebc.org/ways-to-give/other-ways-to-give-2/donate-items/  Eco-max biodegradable cleaning products  https://www.eco-max.ca/commercial-products/  27 Appendix D: Recipes NEST CATERING VEGAN, GLUTEN-FREE RECIPES  Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF) iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF) v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF) iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2015/07/21/chickpea-salad/  Yields: 3 servings Prep Time: 15 min Cook Time: 0 min  Ingredients: ● 1 (15-ounce/425 grams) can chickpeas, drained and rinsed ● 2 stalks celery, finely chopped ● 3 green onions, thinly sliced  28 ● 1/4 cup finely chopped dill pickle ● 1/4 cup finely chopped red bell pepper ● 3 tablespoons store-bought or homemade vegan mayonnaise ● 1 clove garlic, minced ● 1 1/2 teaspoons yellow mustard ● 2 teaspoons minced fresh dill (optional) ● 1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons fresh lemon juice, to taste ● 1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. In a large bowl, mash the chickpeas with a potato masher until flaked in texture. 2. Stir in the celery, green onions, pickles, bell peppers, mayonnaise, and garlic until combined. 3. Now, stir in the mustard and dill, and season with the lemon juice, salt, and pepper, adjusting the quantities to taste. 4. Serve with toasted bread, on crackers, wraps, or on top of a basic leafy green salad. Or just enjoy it all on its own! ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/11/28/vegan-grain-free-sticky-crispy-sesame-cauliflower/   Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Cauliflower: ● 1 head of cauliflower (about 2 ½ lbs) ● 1 cup cassava flour ● 1 ½ cups water, plus extra ● ½ teaspoon garlic powder ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds ● sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste Sticky Sesame Sauce: ● ¼ cup tamari soy sauce ● 2 tablespoons maple syrup ● 1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil  29 ● 1 tablespoon rice vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● 1 tablespoon chili paste (optional) ● 2 cloves garlic, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 2-inch piece fresh ginger, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. 2. Cut the cauliflower into small florets. In a large bowl, combine the cassava flour, water, garlic powder, sesame seeds, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. The resulting batter should be fluid but thick–thick enough to coat a piece of cauliflower and pool only slightly once set on the baking sheet. If the batter is too thick/pasty, add water by the tablespoon until you reach the proper consistency. 3. Drop the cauliflower florets into the batter and stir until all pieces are coated. Using a fork, carefully transfer battered cauliflower to the baking sheets, leaving 1 inch of space around each floret. 4. Bake the battered cauliflower for 20 minutes. While the cauliflower is baking, make the sauce. In a small saucepan combine the tamari, maple syrup, sesame oil, rice vinegar, tomato paste, chili paste, garlic, ginger, and sesame seeds. Bring the sauce to a boil on the stove over medium heat. Simmer for 5 minutes or until slightly reduced. Set aside. 5. After cauliflower has baked for 20 minutes, remove and let cool slightly. Once it’s cool enough to handle, transfer the par-baked cauliflower to a large bowl. Cover the cauliflower with all but 3 tablespoons of the sesame sauce. Toss to thoroughly coat the cauliflower. 6. Bake the cauliflower for another 20 minutes, or until the edges are starting to darken. Remove the crispy sesame cauliflower and let it sit for a full 5 minutes before serving in lettuce wraps, on rice etc., drizzled with remaining sauce and topped with extra sesame seeds, and chopped green onions.  Notes:  If you don’t want to use cassava flour, you can substitute brown rice, chickpea or regular wheat flour. Lower the amount of water to 1 cup if you’re making this substitution (and add more if necessary)! -It’s important to really keep an eye on these towards the end of the cooking process. They can go from perfect to burnt in what feels like seconds.  -I use a Microplane to get the garlic and ginger nice and fine for the sauce -The sauce is light here! Double the batch if you like it saucy.  30 iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF)  https://minimalistbaker.com/spicy-buffalo-chickpea-wraps/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 20 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients:  Dressing and Salad: ● 1/3 cup hummus (or store-bought) ● 1 1/2 - 2 Tbsp maple syrup (plus more to taste) ● 1 small lemon, juiced (1 small lemon yields ~2 Tbsp or 30 ml) ● 1-2 Tbsp hot water (to thin) ● 1 head romaine lettuce (or sub 1 bundle kale per 1 head romaine // cleaned, large stems removed, roughly chopped) Buffalo Chickpeas: ● 1 15-ounce can chickpeas (rinsed, drained and dried // ~ 1 1/4 cups per can when drained) ● 1 Tbsp coconut oil (or sub grape seed or olive oil) ● 4 Tbsp hot sauce (divided) ● 1/4 tsp garlic powder (or sub 1 minced garlic clove per 1/4 tsp powder) ● 1 pinch sea salt For Serving: ● 3-4 vegan-friendly flour tortillas, pita, or flatbread ● 1/4 cup red onion, diced (optional) ● 1/4 cup baby tomato, diced (optional) ● 1/4 ripe avocado, thinly sliced (optional)  Directions:  1. Make dressing by adding hummus, maple syrup, and lemon juice to a mixing bowl and whisking to combine. Add hot water until thick but pourable. 2. Taste and adjust flavor as needed, then add romaine lettuce or kale, and toss. Set aside. 3. To make chickpeas, add drained, dried chickpeas to a separate mixing bowl. Add coconut oil, 3 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size), garlic powder, and a pinch of salt - toss to combine/coat.  31 4. Heat a metal or cast-iron skillet over medium heat. Once hot, add chickpeas and sauté for 3-5 minutes, mashing a few chickpeas gently with a spoon to create texture (see photo). 5. Once chickpeas are hot and slightly dried out, remove from heat and add remaining 1 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size). Stir to combine. Set aside. 6. To assemble, top each wrap with a generous portion of the dressed romaine salad, and top with 1/4 cup buffalo chickpeas and a sprinkle of diced tomatoes, avocado, and/or onion (optional). 7. Serve immediately. Store leftovers separately in the refrigerator up to 3 days, though best when fresh. You can enjoy the buffalo chickpeas cold, room temperature or heated up. iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF)  https://nutritionstripped.com/open-faced-sprout-sandwich/  Yields: 1 serving Prep Time: 5 minutes  Cook Time: 0 minutes   Ingredients:  ● 2 slices of grain-free bread ● 1 teaspoon dijon mustard ● 2 tablespoons hummus  ● Sliced vegetables: thinly sliced red onion, tomato, cucumber, 2 romaine lettuce leafs ● Protein of your choice: eggs (scrambled, sliced hard boiled, or poached), thinly sliced tempeh, thinly sliced tofu, chicken, etc. ● 1/2 avocado, sliced or mashed on the vegetables ● 1 handful of sprouts ● Sea salt ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions:  32 1. Lightly toast the bread until desired firmness, then simply spread mustard, followed by hummus, layer sliced cucumber, then tomato, then the protein of your choice, then sliced avocado, followed by the lettuce and sprouts. 2. Top with fresh black pepper and a pinch of sea salt. 3. Enjoy immediately or place in an airtight glass container for lunch on the go! v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) https://theminimalistvegan.com/spiced-quinoa-and-eggplant-rolls/ Yields: 15 rolls  Ingredients: ● ½ cup of washed quinoa ● 1 cup of water (to cook the quinoa in) ● 2 tbsp rice bran oil ● 1 small onion diced ● 1 tsp garam masala ● ¼ tsp turmeric powder ● 1 tbsp finely grated fresh ginger ● Pinch of hot chilli powder (or more if you like spicy food) ● Half a medium sized capsicum chopped ● 3 medium sized eggplants, cut into ½ inch thin slices ● ½ cup olive oil ● Salt for seasoning ● A handful of parsley for dressing, finely chopped  Directions: 1. Bring quinoa and water to a boil in a small saucepan. Reduce heat to low, cover and simmer until tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed. This typically takes 15 to 20 minutes. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, add the rice bran oil and onion to a medium sized saucepan on medium heat. 3. Once the onion starts to brown, add in the garam masala, turmeric, ginger, chilli stirring to coat the onions in the spices well. Let it cook for about 2-3 minutes. 4. Add in the capsicum and stir to combine all ingredients well. Reduce heat to low and cook until the capsiucum is soft. Season to taste. 5. Combine the cooked quinoa and spicy onion and capsicum and mix well. Set aside. 6. For the eggplant, preheat a medium-high charcoal grill on a barbecue or stove grill. Brush both sides of the eggplant slices with olive oil and season with salt. Grill until golden- 33 brown grill marks form, which should take around 3 to 4 minutes on one side. Turn the eggplant and repeat the same process. You can also do this in a frying pan. 7. Once all the eggplants are done. Start adding 1-2 tbsp of quinoa mixture at the bottom of each eggplant piece and roll tightly. You can use toothpicks to keep together if they are coming undone easily. I find that placing the end of the eggplant facing the plate helps to keep it in place. Roll all the eggplant pieces and sprinkle the stack with some fresh parsley and a little more olive oil drizzled over the top. 8. You can serve this warm or cold on its own or with some hummus. vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) https://www.emilieeats.com/easy-quinoa-salad-tomatoes-spinach/  Yields: 4-6 Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 15 minutes   Ingredients: ● 1/2 cup dry quinoa ● 2 cups cherry or grape tomatoes, halved ● 2 1/2 cups spinach, chopped ● 1 15-ounce can white beans, drained and rinsed ● 1/3 cup slivered almonds ● 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar ● 1/2 tablespoon maple syrup ● 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder ● 1/4 teaspoon salt ● 1/4 teaspoon pepper  Directions: 1. In a medium saucepan over high heat, add quinoa and 1 cup water; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for 13-15 minutes. When done, fluff quinoa with a fork. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, heat a little water or oil (if using) in a skillet over medium heat. Add tomatoes; cook for 5 minutes, until tomatoes begin to burst. Add spinach; cook until wilted, about 5-7 more minutes, stirring continuously. 3. In a large bowl, add quinoa, vegetables, beans, and almonds. Stir to combine. 4. In a small bowl, add vinegar, maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. 5. Pour dressing over the other ingredients. Stir to combine.  34 vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) https://www.thefullhelping.com/falafel-fattoush-real-food-really-fast/  Yields:  Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients: ● 4 2-ounce pita breads ● 1 pint cherry tomatoes halved if large ● 1 cup sliced Persian cucumber or diced English cucumber ● 1 15- ounce can chickpeas rinsed and drained ● 2 scallions thinly sliced ● 1 cup fresh parsley leaves ● 1 clove garlic finely minced ● 1/4-1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes ● 2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 2 teaspoons ground coriander ● 1/2-1 teaspoon salt ● 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper ● 1 tablespoon lemon juice ● 2 tablespoons olive oil ● 2 tablespoons sesame seeds toasted  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the pita bread and chop it into bite-sized squares, about 1/2-inch each. Place the bread in a large bowl along with the tomatoes, cucumber, chickpeas, scallions, and parsley. Mix the vegetables around lightly to combine. Sprinkle in the minced garlic, red pepper flakes, cumin, coriander, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and pepper. Toss everything together until the vegetables are well distributed and evenly coated with the spices.  2. Right before serving, drizzle in the lemon juice and olive oil, tossing once more to incorporate. Add more salt to taste, if needed, and finish with a sprinkle of sesame seeds over the top. viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) http://www.onegreenplanet.org/vegan-recipe/the-vegan-eggplant-crunchburger/ Calories: 754  35 Yields: 4 burgers  Ingredients:  Horseradish Mustard Mayo ● 1/4 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbs. Dijon mustard ● 2 Tbs. prepared horseradish ● A pinch of dried tarragon ● Kosher salt and black pepper to taste Eggplant Burgers ● 1 large or 2 medium eggplants, peeled and cubed ● 2 Tbs. extra-virgin olive oil, divided ● 1 shallot, finely minced ● 1 cup vegan cheese shreds, any flavor ● 1 clove garlic, minced or grated ● ½ tsp. Kosher salt ● ¼ tsp. black pepper ● 1 Tbs. fresh parsley, chopped ● 1 cup gluten-free bread crumbs Toppings ● 1 cup vegan cheese, either slices or shreds (as long as it melts) ● 4 gluten-free buns ● 4 slices beefsteak tomato ● 4 leaves romaine lettuce ● 4 slices red onion ● Horseradish Mustard Mayonnaise (recipe above) ● 4 handfuls of potato chips  Directions:  For the Horseradish Mustard Mayo 1. Whisk together the mayonnaise, mustard, and horseradish in a small bowl and season with salt and pepper. 2. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes to allow the flavors to meld. 3. The sauce can be prepared 1 day in advance and kept covered in the refrigerator. To make the Eggplant Burgers 1. In a large skillet, heat 1 Tbs. of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the eggplant cubes and sauté until they are browned and very soft, about 10-12 minutes. Make sure they are  36 super-soft because they need to be mashed. You could also roast the eggplant to make it soft. 2. Transfer the eggplant to a large bowl. Mash the eggplant up until there are no whole pieces left. I use a potato masher to do this. Once you have a big bowl of mush, add the shallot, cheese, garlic, salt, pepper and parsley. Mix it into the eggplant. Add the breadcrumbs. Don’t add them all at once; you want to feel the mix and see whether you need a whole cup. I add ½ cup of bread crumbs and mix it. 3. The best way to mix it is wet your hands and use one hand (keep the other hand clean) to gently mix the crumbs into the eggplant. You will probably need more crumbs so add another ¼ cup and mix it again. You want the consistency to feel firm, like it will hold up as a burger. If it feels too moist, add the last ¼ cup of bread crumbs. Usually, I end up using the whole cup of crumbs. 4. Put the eggplant mixture into the fridge for about 30 minutes. Take the bowl out of the fridge and with your hand, divide the mixture into 4 parts. To form the burgers, I use a 3 ½ inch cookie cutter. I spray it with a bit of cooking oil spray and then pack the eggplant mixture into the cookie cutter. Pat it down, let it sit for about 20 seconds and then gently lift the cookie cutter off. Let your perfect burger sit for a few minutes undisturbed while you make the other 3 burgers. 5. In the same skillet that you sautéed the eggplant in (but cleaned), heat the other Tbs. of oil over medium-high heat and add the burgers to the pan. Let cook until slightly browned on one side and (this is very important), you can lift the burger with a spatula without breaking it. I use 2 spatulas to gently turn the burgers. Flip them and let them cook on the other side. When the 2nd side gets golden brown, flip them back over and let the first side cook until golden brown. To make the Vegan Crunch Burgers 1. Top the burgers with either 2 slices or ¼ cup of vegan cheese. Add about a Tbs. of water to the pan and cover it. This will create steam and allow the cheese to melt and get ooey-gooey. 2. If you want your buns toasty, put on some pants. If you want your burger buns toasty, preheat the broiler while you are cooking the burgers. Split the buns and put the halves, cut side up, on a baking sheet and cook them until they are lightly golden brown, about 30 seconds. Don’t burn them!! 3. Place the burgers on the bun bottoms and, if desired, top with tomato, lettuce, onion, and a dollop of horseradish mustard mayonnaise. Pile on the potato chips, top with the bun tops, and serve immediately. Make sure you have tons of napkins because it’s going to be messy.  Nutritional Information Per Serving: Calories: 754 ● Carbs: 104 g  37 ● Fat: 36 g ● Protein: 15 g ● Sodium: 1,245 mg ● Sugar: 9 g ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/delicious-deviled-eggs/  Ingredients ● 10 small potatoes, halved lengthwise ● 2 Tbsp. refined coconut oil ● 1/2 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard ● 1/2 tsp. Kala Namak (for an egg-like taste) (optional) ● Salt and pepper, to taste ● Smoked paprika, for garnish ● Fresh dill sprigs, for garnish  Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 425ºF. Place the potatoes on a baking sheet, drizzle with the coconut oil, and bake for 30 minutes, or until tender. 2. Let cool, then scoop out the insides of the potatoes with a melon baller or spoon and place in a large bowl. Add the vegan mayonnaise, mustard, and kala namak and season with salt and pepper. Stir until well combined. 3. Fill the potatoes skins with the mixture and garnish with smoked paprika and dill sprigs.  Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2016/04/03/glowing-spiced-lentil-soup/   Yields: 7 cups (1.65 litres)  Prep time: 15 Minutes   Cook time: 20 Minutes  Ingredients: ● 1 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil ● 2 cups (280 grams) diced onion (1 medium/large) ● 2 large garlic cloves, minced  38 ● 2 teaspoons ground turmeric ● 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon ● 1/4 teaspoon ground cardamom ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can diced tomatoes, with juices ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can full-fat coconut milk ● 3/4 cup (140 grams) uncooked red lentils, rinsed and drained ● 3 1/2 cups (875 mL) low-sodium vegetable broth ● 1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper, to taste ● Red pepper flakes or cayenne pepper, to taste (for a kick of heat!) ● 1 (5-ounce/140-gram) package baby spinach ● 2 teaspoons fresh lime juice, or more to taste  Directions: 1. In a large pot, add the oil, onion, and garlic. Add a pinch of salt, stir, and sauté over medium heat for 4 to 5 minutes until the onion softens. 2. Stir in the turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and cardamom until combined. Continue cooking for about 1 minute, until fragrant. 3. Add the diced tomatoes (with juices), entire can of coconut milk, red lentils, broth, salt, and plenty of pepper. Add red pepper flakes or cayenne, if desired, to taste. Stir to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a low boil. 4. Once it boils, reduce the heat to medium-high, and simmer, uncovered, for about 18 to 22 minutes, until the lentils are fluffy and tender. 5. Turn off the heat and stir in the spinach until wilted. Add the lime juice to taste. Taste and add more salt and pepper, if desired. Ladle into bowls and serve with toasted bread and lime wedges.  ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF)  http://thefirstmess.com/2018/08/01/braised-harissa-eggplant-chickpeas/ Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 large eggplant ● 1 tablespoon sea salt + extra ● 3 tablespoons heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado (plus extra if necessary) ● 1 medium cooking onion, small dice ● 1 small chili, such as cayenne or fresno, seeded and minced ● 3 cloves of garlic, minced  39 ● ½ teaspoon ground cumin ● ½ teaspoon ground caraway ● ½ teaspoon ground coriander ● 1 ½ cups cooked chickpeas ● Ground black pepper, to taste ● 2 cups crushed tomatoes ● 1 cup vegetable stock ● 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice ● ¼ cup chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Remove the stem of the eggplant and chop into 1-inch cubes. Place the cubes in a colander and toss them with the tablespoon of salt. Set aside for an hour in the sink. 2. After an hour, rinse the eggplant (to remove excess salt) and thoroughly pat the cubes dry with paper towel or clean kitchen towels. 3. Set up a dinner plate with a couple paper towels on top. In a wide, deep braiser-style pot, heat the oil over medium-high heat. In batches, sear the eggplant until it’s golden brown on all sides and softened. As the eggplant finishes, remove it from the pot with a slotted spoon and place it on the paper towel-lined plate. Set aside. 4. Add more oil to the pot of necessary and lower the heat to medium. Add the onions and hot pepper to the pot and sauté until onion is translucent, about 4 minutes. Add the garlic, cumin, caraway, and coriander to the pot and stir until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the chickpeas, some salt and black pepper to taste, and then stir to coat the chickpeas in spices. Add the tomatoes and vegetable stock to the pot. 5. Bring the braise to a boil and simmer, uncovered and stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes. Add the eggplant back into the pot and bring the braise up to a boil once more. Stir in the lemon juice and parsley. Serve the braised harissa eggplant hot over millet or rice (or any other starch of choice).  iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2017/07/12/vegan-stuffed-eggplant-sunflower-romesco-recipe/  Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Sunflower Romesco (makes extra): ● ½ cup toasted sunflower seeds ● 2 roasted red peppers (homemade or from a jar) ● 2 cloves of garlic, chopped ● 1 teaspoon smoked paprika ● ½ teaspoon aleppo pepper, or a pinch of cayenne ● 2 tablespoons sherry OR apple cider vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● small handful flat parsley leaves  40 ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● scant ½ cup virgin olive oil Stuffed Eggplant: ● 2 small-medium eggplants ● olive oil ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● 1 small shallot, chopped ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● ¼ cup romesco ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice 2 tablespoons tahini ● 4 servings cooked grain of choice (I used quinoa) ● big handful of fresh and leafy herbs, chopped (I used cilantro, parsley & a bit of dill) ● toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah, for topping Directions: 1. Make the sunflower romesco: In the bowl of a food processor, combine the sunflower seeds, roasted red peppers, garlic, paprika, aleppo pepper, vinegar, tomato paste, parsley, salt, and pepper. Pulse the mixture until all ingredients are finely chopped and lightly pasty. Scrape the bowl down. Then, with the motor on low, drizzle the olive oil in through the feed tube until fully incorporated. Check the sauce for seasoning. Transfer sauce to a sealable jar, and set aside in the fridge until ready to use.  2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. Cut the eggplants in half lengthwise, right through the stem. Using a paring knife, carve into the eggplant flesh all the way around the perimeter. Pry the eggplant flesh out of the eggplant halves with your fingers or a spoon and set it aside. Place eggplant halves on a baking sheet, facing up. Brush the eggplant halves with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Bake eggplant for 20 minutes, or until golden brown and lightly tender. 4. Roughly chop the scooped out eggplant. Heat a bit of oil in a medium-large saute pan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic to the pan and saute until fragrant and slightly soft, about 2 minutes. Add the chopped eggplant, and season with salt and pepper. Stir. Saute the eggplant, stirring occasionally, until tender, browned, and slightly reduced in size, about 4 minutes. 5. Carefully transfer eggplant to the food processor. Add the ¼ cup of romesco, lemon juice, and tahini to the food processor as well. Pulse the mixture until you have a chunky paste. 6. To serve, divide the warm eggplant filling evenly among the eggplant “boats.” Then, spoon your cooked grain of choice on top along with a sprinkle of chopped herbs. Garnish the tops of the stuffed eggplants with more romesco and toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah. Enjoy warm. iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/01/03/creamy-white-bean-soup-vegan-recipe/  Yields: 4-5 servings  Ingredients:  41 ● 1 tablespoon heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado or refined coconut oil ● 1 medium yellow onion, small dice ● 1 medium carrot, small dice ● 1 celery stalk, small dice ● 2 cloves garlic, minced ● chili flakes or aleppo pepper, to taste ● 1 sprig fresh rosemary, minced ● 4 cups cooked navy beans (about 2 15-ounce cans, drained) ● 4 cups vegetable stock ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice ● sea salt & ground black pepper, to taste ● 3 cups packed chopped lacinato kale (roughly 1 small bunch) big handful finely chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Heat the oil in a medium-large soup pot over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, and celery to the pot and stir. Saute the vegetables until slightly softened and translucent, about 5 minutes. 2. To the pot, add the garlic, chili flakes, and rosemary. Stir and cook until garlic is fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the navy beans to the pot and stir. Add the vegetable stock to the pot and stir once more. Bring the soup to a boil. 3. Once boiling, ladle half of the soup into an upright blender. Add the lemon juice to the blender as well. Carefully bring the speed of the blender up to high and blend until this portion of the soup is totally liquified. Pour this liquified portion back into the pot. Season the soup with salt and pepper. 4. Add the kale to the pot and bring the soup to a boil. Once the kale is slightly wilted and bright green, season the soup once more with salt and pepper, if you find it necessary. Stir in the chopped parsley as well. Serve the soup hot. v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2014/12/11/sweet-potato-carrot-dal-with-coconut-leeks-and-a-wine-country-ontario-giveaway/   Yields:  4 servings  Ingredients:  Dal: ● 2-3 tsp coconut oil ● 1 tsp ground coriander ● 1/2 tsp mustard seeds ● pinch of chili flakes ● 1 cup red lentils ● 1 sweet potato, peeled and diced small ● 1 two inch piece of ginger, peeled + minced  42 ● 1 one inch piece of fresh turmeric, peeled + minced (or substitute 1 tsp dried turmeric powder) ● 3 ½  cups filtered water + extra if necessary ● 1.5 tsp garam masala ● salt to taste Coconut Leeks: ● 1 tbsp extra virgin coconut oil ● 1 leek, white and light green part julienned ● squeeze of lime juice ● pinch of salt To serve: ● Cooked, warm rice ● Chopped parsley, cilantro or mint (or a combination)  Directions: 1. Place a large pot over medium heat. Heat up the coconut oil in the pot and add the ground coriander, mustard seeds and chili flakes. Stir about until the mustard seeds start to pop just a little bit. 2. Add the lentils, diced sweet potato, carrots, ginger, turmeric, and a pinch of salt. Stir to mix and coat everything in the oil and spice. Add the filtered water to the pot. Bring mixture to a boil and simmer until the mixture is creamy and soupy, stirring occasionally. The sweet potato pieces should still be intact with a tiny bit of bite. The lentils will be broken down, filling out the mixture. Keep it warm while you sauté the leeks. 3. Heat the coconut oil in a small sauté pan over medium heat. Add the leeks to the pan and sauté until leeks are soft and very fragrant. Season with salt. Add a squeeze of lime if you like at the end. Remove from the heat. 4. To serve: divide the hot dal over 4 portions of rice. Top the dal with sautéed leeks and a few dribbles of the coconut oil left in the pan. Garnish each serving with the chopped herbs and black sesame seeds. vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/1-pot-butternut-squash-quinoa-chili/  Yields: 6 servings Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 50 minutes  Ingredients:  Chili: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or coconut oil (sub water if avoiding oil) ● 1 small white or yellow onion (diced) ● 1 jalapeño (minced // remove seeds for less heat) ● 1/2 tsp each sea salt and black pepper (DIVIDED // plus more to taste)  43 ● 4 cloves garlic ● 4 cups diced butternut squash ● 3 Tbsp chili powder (DIVIDED) ● 2 Tbsp ground cumin (DIVIDED) ● 2 tsp smoked paprika ● 2 15- ounce cans fire-roasted (or regular) diced tomatoes (if unsalted, add more sea salt to taste) ● 1/4 cup tomato paste ● 3 cups vegetable broth (sub up to half with water for lower sodium // plus more as needed) ● 1/4 cup quinoa, rinsed ● 1 15- ounce can kidney beans (slightly drained) ● 1 15- ounce can black beans (slightly drained) ● 1-2 Tbsp coconut sugar (or maple syrup) ● 1 small chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (for heat) (optional) ● 1 cup chopped kale (or other sturdy green) (optional) For Serving (optional): ● Rice or quinoa ● Fresh chopped cilantro or parsley ● Avocado Directions: 1. Heat a large pot over medium heat. Once hot, add oil (or water), onion, and jalapeño pepper. Season with a healthy pinch each salt and pepper and stir. Sauté for 3-4 minutes, stirring frequently. 2. Add garlic and sauté (stirring occasionally) for 2-3 minutes more, or until onion, pepper, and garlic are softened and slightly browned. 3. Add butternut squash, 2/3 of the chili powder (2 Tbsp as original recipe is written), half the cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), smoked paprika and stir to coat. Cook for 3 minutes. 4. Add diced tomatoes, tomato paste, and vegetable broth and stir to combine. Bring to a low boil over medium-high heat. 5. Once boiling, add quinoa (see photo) and reduce heat to medium-low or low, so it's at a gentle simmer. You want to see bubbles, but you don't want it boiling. Cover and cook for 12-15 minutes, or until quinoa is mostly tender. As it's cooking you may need to add more vegetable broth or water if it's looking too dry and the quinoa isn't submerged (I didn't find that necessary). 6. Next add kidney beans, black beans, 1/4 tsp each salt and pepper, and remaining cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written) and chili powder (1 Tbsp as original  44 recipe is written), coconut sugar, and stir to combine. If adding the chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (optional), add now. 7. Bring to a simmer over medium heat, then reduce heat slightly to low (or medium-low), cover, and gently simmer for 15-20 minutes to meld the flavors together. Stir occasionally. 8. Taste and adjust seasonings as needed, adding more chili powder or cumin for smokiness, salt for saltiness, or a little coconut sugar to balance the heat and draw out the other flavors. 9. Add kale (optional), cover, and cook for 2-3 minutes more. Serve as is, or garnished with lime, fresh jalapeño, cilantro, red onion, and/or avocado (all optional). 10. Store leftovers in the refrigerator up to 5-6 days, or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop or in the microwave until hot. vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/caramelized-shiitake-mushroom-risotto/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 20 minutes   Ingredients:  Broth: ● 3 1/2 - 4 cups vegetable broth (or store-bought) Risotto: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or olive oil (if avoiding oil, sub water) ● 3/4 cup thinly sliced shallot ● 1/4 tsp each sea salt and black pepper ● 2 cups sliced Shiitake mushrooms (or other similar mushroom) ● 1 Tbsp coconut aminos (or tamari // soy sauce) ● 1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme (or sub dried) ● 1 cup arborio rice (works best here - we recommend not subbing other grains) ● 1/4 cup dry white wine (or omit) ● 1/4 cup vegan parmesan cheese (plus more for serving // or sub nutritional yeast) For Serving (optional): ● Fresh chopped parsley  Directions:  45 1. In a medium saucepan, heat vegetable broth over medium heat. Once simmering, reduce heat to low to keep warm. 2. In the meantime, heat a large pan* over medium heat. Once hot, add oil and shallot and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. Sauté for 3-4 minutes - stirring frequently. Then add mushrooms and coconut aminos and continue sautéing until the mushrooms are golden brown and caramelized. Optional: remove some of the shiitake mushrooms from the pan and reserve for serving - not necessary, but it makes a nice garnish. 3. Add the thyme and arborio rice and cook for 1 minute, stirring occasionally. Then add dry white wine and stir gently. Cook for 2 minutes or until the liquid is mostly absorbed. 4. Using a ladle, add warmed vegetable stock 1/2 cup (120 ml) at a time, stirring almost constantly, giving the risotto little breaks to come back to a simmer. The heat should be medium, and there should always be a slight simmer (adjust heat as needed). You want the mixture to be cooking consistently but not boiling or it can get gummy and cook too quickly. 5. Continue to add vegetable stock 1 ladle at a time, stirring to incorporate, until the rice is 'al dente' - cooked through but still has a slight bite. This whole process should take about 15-20 minutes. 6. Once the rice is cooked through and al dente, remove from heat and add vegan parmesan cheese. Stir to coat (see photo). Taste and adjust flavor as needed, adding sea salt and pepper to taste or more vegan parmesan to enhance the cheesiness. If dry at this point, add a little more warmed broth. 7. To serve, divide between serving bowls and top with reserved mushrooms, additional vegan parmesan cheese, and a sprinkle of fresh parsley (all optional). 8. Best when fresh, though leftovers will keep covered in the refrigerator for 4-5 days or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop with additional (warmed) vegetable broth until hot.  viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) https://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipe/pasta-with-mushrooms-herbs-and-beet-greens/9470/  Ingredients: ● 4 oz dried gluten-free pasta  ● 2 cup mushrooms (cremini or a combination of cremini, oyster and shitake), sliced ● 1 medium onion, coarsely chopped ● extra virgin olive oil (just enough to sauté the mushrooms and onions) ● 2 large cloves garlic, minced  46 ● 1 Tbsp fresh thyme leaves (or 1 tsp dried) You can mix herbs, or choose your favourite ● 1 bunch baby beet greens (save the roots for another dish), well washed, dried and coarsely chopped ● Chili pepper flakes – amount is up to you ● 2-3 tbsp balsamic vinegar ● Vegan cheese to sprinkle over the pasta just before serving…again, amount is up to you  Directions: 1. Bring a large pot of well-salted water to a boil. Add the gluten-free pasta and cook until al dente (8-10 minutes depending on the type of pasta). Set aside 1 cup cooking water. (Sometimes I need it, sometimes not, but it’s best to have some handy.) Drain and place in a large serving bowl. 2. In the meantime, in a large non-stick skillet, over medium high heat, add a little olive oil and sauté the onions and mushrooms until the onions are translucent and the mushrooms golden (about 5 minutes). Add the garlic and toss once or twice, then add the baby beet greens and toss until wilted (2-3 minutes). 3. Just before adding to the pasta, add balsamic vinegar, chili pepper flakes and toss. Taste for seasoning and add to the serving bowl. (Here's where you might want to add some cooking water or some olive oil. Toss and add coarsely grated vegan cheese and serve.   ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/white-bean-fettuccine-alfredo/  Ingredients: ● 2 Tbsp. vegan butter ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● 1/4 cup chopped broccoli florets ● 1/4 cup sliced mushrooms ● 1 15-oz. can white beans (also known as Great Northern beans), drained and rinsed ● 1 tsp. lemon juice ● 1 Tbsp. nutritional yeast ● 1/2 cup almond milk ● 2 oz. dried fettuccine ● 1 tomato, chopped  Directions: ● Melt the vegan butter in a large pan. Add the garlic, broccoli, and sliced mushrooms. Cook over medium heat for 2 to 3 minutes.  47 ● Remove the broccoli and mushrooms, then set aside. Pour the melted butter and garlic into a blender. Add the white beans and blend for 5 seconds. Add the lemon juice, nutritional yeast, and almond milk and blend until completely smooth. Transfer to the large pan and cook over medium heat until warm. ● Bring a large pot of water to a boil and cook the fettuccine according to the package directions. Drain the pasta, then return to the pot. Pour the white-bean Alfredo sauce over the pasta and add the broccoli, mushroom slices, and tomato. x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/black-eyed-peas-veggie-medley/  Ingredients: ● 1/2 pkg. of 14 oz. extra firm tofu ● 2 Tbsp. oil ● 1/4 onion, chopped ● 1 1/2 cups rice, cooked (a microwavable bag of rice works fine) ● 1 can black-eyed peas ● 2 cups collard greens, chopped (frozen works fine) ● 1 pkg. smoked tofu, cubed ● 1 tsp. salt ● Hot sauce, to taste  ● Cooking spray, for tofu   Instructions: ● Use a tofu press to drain the tofu. Alternatively, wrap in a kitchen towel and place between two plates with a heavy book on top for 30 minutes, replace the towel with a fresh one, and repeat. ● Preheat the oven to 400°F. ● Cut the tofu into 1-inch cubes and arrange in a single layer on a large parchment-lined baking sheet. Lightly spray with cooking oil. Bake for 20 minutes, flip, then continue baking until golden brown and crisp, about 20 more minutes. ● Add the oil to a pan over medium heat. Add the onion and stir for 1 minute. ● Add the rice and black-eyed peas. Sauté for 3 minutes, stirring often. ● Add the collard greens and salt and stir for a few minutes, until cooked through. Top with baked tofu.      48 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages EXAMPLES OF MARKETABLE NUTRITIONAL MESSAGES 1. Protein sufficient a. Substitutions of meat as a protein source in the foods, such as, vegan cheese, legumes, lentils, and/or eggs, to fulfill nutritional needs. b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Chickpea Salad, Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls, Spiced Lentil Soup, and Creamy White Bean Soup.  2. Energy sufficient  a. For each recipe provided, the average calorie content per serving is between 500-800 kcal, which is sufficient for an individual to consume and provides satiety.  b. This can be applied to any recipe chosen from the recipe list, specific calorie numbers can be listed beside the selection on the menu. 3. Promotes digestive health a. Increase in fibre consumption, which promotes the motility of the digestive tract (Karunaratne, 2018). b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach, and Sweet Potato Carrot Dal with Coconut Leeks. 4. Rich in antioxidants  a. Reduced oxidative stress in functional parts of the body and potential decreased risk against the development of age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases (Yoshihara, 2010). b. Example of recipe that can use this message Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto.  MARKETABLE NUTRITIONAL MESSAGES 1. Protein sufficient a. Substitutions of meat as a protein source in the foods, such as, vegan cheese, legumes, lentils, and/or eggs, to fulfill nutritional needs. b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Chickpea Salad, Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls, Spiced Lentil Soup, and Creamy White Bean Soup.  2. Energy sufficient  a. For each recipe provided, the average calorie content per serving is between 500-800 kcal, which is sufficient for an individual to consume and provides satiety.  b. This can be applied to any recipe chosen from the recipe list, specific calorie numbers can be listed beside the selection on the menu. 3. Promotes digestive health a. Increase in fibre consumption, which promotes the motility of the digestive tract (Karunaratne, 2018). b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach, and Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks. 4. Rich in antioxidants  a. Reduced oxidative stress in functional parts of the body and potential decreased risk against the development of age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases (Yoshihara, 2010). b. Example of recipe that can use this message Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto.   UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report        Plant-Based Food Offerings for the AMS Celine Koppenaal, Daniele Pestoni, Louise Dong, Celeste Cardoz, Bethany Del Begio University of British Columbia FNH 473 Themes: Food, Climate, Procurement April 8, 2019         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1 Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Situational Assessment and Planning Framework 3 i. Issues relevant to the target population 3 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population 4 iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels 5 iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice 7 Project Goal and Objectives 9 Description of Project Outputs 10 i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations 10 ii. Introduction of Recipes 11 iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages 12 Evaluation Plan 12 Conclusion 15 Authors’ Contributions 16 References 19 Appendices 21 Appendix A: Logic Model 21 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report 22 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations 23 Appendix D: Recipes 27 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages 48               2 Executive Summary Introduction The relationship between food and the environment has been steadily and increasingly endorsed in recent years, and it is at this junction where the potential for human intervention is substantial (Willett et al., 2019). The statement “feeding nine billion” is frequently included in discourse concerning future physical, environmental and social health, this statement aptly encompasses the importance of food in terms of sufficient nutrition, but also the immense demand for resources required to achieve this goal. There is already disparity in the health of the global population, with millions individuals lacking sufficient nutrition, and millions more affected by chronic diseases associated with overnutrition and poor diet, and it is likely that the current patterns of food consumption and production will not amend these obstacles, if left unchanged (Lindgren et al., 2018).  Furthermore, the EAT Lancet Commission (2019) encompasses the importance of food within the context of climate change, stating, “Food is the single strongest lever to optimize human health and environmental sustainability of Earth”. Despite a somewhat dismal outlook at the fate of the planet, this statement can inspire and encourage individuals to make changes, no matter how small, in efforts to live sustainably for environmental and health benefits. The overarching recommendation in order to positively modify the environmental impacts of food consumption and production require switching to primarily plant-based diets (Mertens et al, 2017; Shepon et al., 2018; Tilman & Clark, 2014). These dietary changes are said to promote the greatest improvement in population health but also the greatest reduction in the impact of diet upon resources. It is through these recommendations that food can be seen as a vehicle for change, thus supporting integration of more plant-based options into the Nest Catering menu.  3 This partnership with Nest Catering will increase the prevalence and marketing of plant-based meal options, through which perceptions of those who use AMS catering services, can shift toward sustainable food options.  Situational Assessment and Planning Framework i. Issues relevant to the target population  The target population for this project is the general public who are using Nest Catering services. This includes a wide range of individuals such as UBC faculty, domestic and international students, family of students, and many others. As expressed by the Nest Catering, the clients using their services have various goals for the food that they eat. The clients would like the food provided by nest catering to be “tasty, sustainable, and ethical” (University of British Columbia, 2019).  The current catering menu lacks a diverse selection of tasty, plant-based, sustainable food options that draw on a variety of cultural cuisines (Nest Catering & Conferences, 2019). Because individuals using the catering services are generally ‘single time users’, this is not a major issue of food security. Still, using the lens of food security to look at the current situation brings up issues such as acceptability for those using the catering services. Food security is achieved when all people at all times have access to safe, nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences (Food and Agricultural Organization). Drawing on this definition, in order to increase food security for their clients, Nest Catering must increase the availability of items on their menu that meet their client’s goals. Transitioning the menu to be more plant-forward is also a meaningful step towards increasing the overall sustainability of the Nest Catering and in fulfilling a social responsibility of moving towards global sustainability (Willett et al., 2019).   4 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population Diet choice is a consumer behaviour that contributes to the issues identified mentioned in section (i).  The greatest barrier to adopting a plant-based diet is the enjoyment and pleasure of eating meat (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Additionally, some of our consumer audience may be unwilling to try eating sustainable, vegan food if they have a bias against vegan food (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017). For example, many consumers may be deterred from selecting plant-based menu items due to their negative perceptions regarding nutritional values (i.e. insufficient protein or iron content) (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017; Pohjolainen, Vinnari, & Jokinen, 2015 ). Furthermore, plant-based diets are perceived as less nutritionally balanced as well as tasting bland and boring (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). These factors may deter consumers from choosing plant-based menu items. These behaviours presents an issue for Nest Catering who would like to increase the presence of plant based items on the menu. Moreover, a lack of plant-based options when eating out is also a barrier for not consuming plant-based menu items (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). For example, some consumers may have food allergies and food preferences and if these consumers do not request for more sustainable, plant-based and allergen-free meals from Nest Catering, this could lead to limited choices of plant-based and gluten-free food options. In addition, limited experience cooking and producing sustainable, plant-based and gluten-free foods is a behaviour from Nest Catering that contributes to their lack of plant-based food options on the Nest Catering menu. As well, convenience is a barrier to adopting a plant-based diet due to difficulty preparing plant-based foods (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Chefs lacking experience developing a diverse menu featuring a variety of plant-based recipes and cooking plant-based meals may find it more difficult to prepare these foods. Furthermore, our situational  5 analysis is limited in that there is insufficient data on the behaviours of the event organizers such as the catering manager, who are the decision makers for selection, ordering and implementation of plant-based menu items. iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels Individual Personal preferences Observationally, it can be said that food choices are often a matter of consumer preference. During events, plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free food choices may be less popular among guests, which makes these meal options of a low priority for event organizers. A key reason for this is personal preference towards plant-based foods; which may be based on appearance, taste, and quality of the foods. Many individuals may have a biased perception of vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free as less satiable foods, which results being an unpopular selection (Douglas et al., 2015). Unless an individual has a strict diet or religious restrictions, his or her choice of food does not limit them to solely plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. Moreover, many plant-based recipes include nuts in their ingredients in order to create texture but also to contribute protein; however, in Canada, nut allergy is very common among the general public and comes with life-threatening repercussions for some individuals (Ben-Shoshan et al., 2012). Thus, event organizers may tend to order less of the vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free foods in order to reduce the presence of food allergens in their event menus.  Cost It is to no surprise that cost is one of the primary considerations when producing food both for events or at the individual level. Cost not only dictates what is feasible from an economic standpoint, but is also subject to seasonal and other fluctuation, which further  6 complicates the process of implementing a plant-based menu. Plant foods that are not in season may result in a higher price (McLaughlin, 2004). When choosing between being sustainable or being cost-friendly, the general public may be faced with a dilemma, and often affordability is the prevailing factor. For events where food is provided by organizers, cost-effectiveness is typically of high priority to ensure that the event is economically beneficial. For individuals who are paying for their own meal at events, more expensive options may become last preference.   Interpersonal Awareness of consuming plant-based foods Although plant-based, vegan and gluten free foods appear to be very popular in the city of Vancouver, the majority of the population may be lagging behind on this trend. In addition, the definition of eating healthy is very vague and cannot be limited to solely consuming plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods. Furthermore, the general public may not be aware of what exactly if plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. They are less aware of what is available in the market for them to choose, thus many people may not event have tried these options before (Horta, 2018).  Social influence There has been reports, media coverage, as well as celebrity advocacy for consumption of vegan, plant-based, gluten-free foods. The general public may be influenced by these factors when it comes to foods choices in flavour of plant-based meals or alternatives. On the other hand, there may be people who make negative comments on individuals who consume these types of food, which may create social pressure which dissuades individuals from consuming plant-based meals or foods (Ensaff, 2015).   7  Environmental  Storage and preservation The storage and preservation of the plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods may increase the difficulty of the storage and preservation. Once cooked or semi-prepared, they cannot be stored longer than a day unlike meats and other preservatives. In addition, the plant-based foods, tends to decrease in appearance as time progresses. Though some foods such as nuts and beans have longer shelf-life, for most to the plant-based foods, more care and preservation methods are needed (Karunaratne, 2018). iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice The theoretical framework for the planning process of this project relies mainly on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. This theoretical model considers the community level of influence on health, and provides insight on how it would be possible to diffuse this novel trend of healthy and sustainable food in the context of catering services, in which our partner intends to assume a leadership role. The five main characteristics of an innovation that maximize its appeal are the following: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005).  Relative advantage refers to the superiority to what the innovation replaces. In the context of sustainable catering practices, the emphasis is precisely on the environmental-friendly and healthy alternative presented by a plant-based alternative. Compatibility describes how the novelty is appropriate to the target audience. Applied to this project, this feature is tackled from different angles: tasty menu options, vegan and gluten-free alternatives, recipes from different  8 cultures all contribute to making the offer compatible with a broad population. Complexity, or the ease of implementation, is in this case related to how difficult it is to reproduce new recipes, both for catering services and individuals that encounter these recipes at events. Trialability indicates whether new items can be tried before deciding to adapt them for use, and this occurs naturally in our context, since food is consumed. The last point, observability, can be less perceptible than the others, because the adoption of environmental-friendly practices are part of a much larger system of measures that aim to mitigate climate change. However, if the focus is on other catering companies, the estimation of how many of them adapt this trend should be less difficult to perform (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005). The rationale for choosing this theoretical framework lies in the nature of influences a catering service can have: the fact that catering services offer whole-food, plant-based delicacies and expose different demographics to them represents an opportunity to provoke a sense of novelty in the target audience. Florea (2015) suggests that “consuming or using a product innovation in social context is a premise for behavior social exchange and social learning, which includes brand related information and inferences”. As such, since catering events occur in social circumstances, this finding supports the introduction and promotion of novel environmentally-friendly menu options aimed at enhancing the recognition of our partner’s brand as part of the sustainability trend.  9 Project Goal and Objectives Our project goal is to provide healthy, tasty, and sustainable plant-based and gluten-free recipes and resources that are feasible for AMS catering to implement so that they can become a leader in sustainable catering.  Project Objectives: ● Short Term Objectives: ○ Implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the catering menu by April 2021. ● Medium Term Objectives: ○ 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by April 2021. ○ Implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations by April 2023. ● Long Term Objectives: ○ Adoption of plant-based menu items in 75% of catering companies in Vancouver by April 2025. ○ Increased selection for plant-based menu items by 20% in the year 2025 as compared to the year of implementation.  10 Description of Project Outputs i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations Nest Catering is in the early majority of catering companies looking to innovate and go green. Social trends in environmental sustainability and eating foods that have been ethically and sustainably sourced has increased many catering company’s incentive to go green. Catering companies want to provide products that meet their customers values. In order to support Nest Catering with implementing sustainable practices we have included recommendations for future company use. These recommendations are based on a review of sustainable catering companies across the globe and highlight the qualities of leaders in this area.  The recommendations are sub-categorized to focus on six different areas of sustainability including locally grown food, plant-based options, ethical and sustainable sourcing, organic foods, reducing food waste, and green facilities. Each category has a set of recommendations, some that may be implemented in the future or some that should be continued based on current practices. For example, we recommend that the nest catering continue to serve only 100% Oceanwise Certified fish and additionally, to implement a policy to use only cage free eggs. Some recommendations will be easier to attain in the short term, where as some require more resources and will take longer to adopt as a result. For example, adjusting the menu to allow for seasonal features requires more resources than removing bottled beverages such as water and juice from the menu, and will therefore take a longer time period to adopt. The sustainable practice recommendations can be found in Appendix C.  11 ii. Introduction of Recipes One of the primary outputs of the project consists of the collection of 19 vegan, gluten-free recipes to provide ideas for Nest Catering to integrate into the catering service menu for lunch and dinner. We provide a complete list of ingredients, with specified serving sizes per recipe, estimated preparation time, estimated cook time, as well as the detailed directions for both preparation and cooking. We also include the indication of gluten presence and possible gluten-free alternatives throughout the collection of recipes, where necessary. The selection of new recipes was based on the current menu options from Nest Catering, and the respective ingredients available to the kitchen, which were made partially accessible by our partner. The purpose the list of recipes is meant to serve is to offer Nest Catering novel and practical examples that can be implemented to support the pursuit of its goal of becoming a recognized sustainable leader in the catering companies context. The collection of recipes can be found in Appendix D.  To highlight the importance of this project output, it is useful to refer back to the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, especially to some features of innovations that make them more likely to spread across the population. For instance, one of our partner’s priorities was to be able to provide meals options that would be compatible and appealing to a broader range of clients, that is, meals that are appetizing, tasteful, as well as being gluten-free and vegan. This last point reflects the tendency of adopting plant-based diets and consuming meat less frequently, both as a social trend, but also as reflected by recent public health messaging, such as Canada’s Food Guide 2019. This also represents the relative advantage of the sustainable catering offer, an additional factor that contributes to the diffusion of an innovation. Lastly, we considered how  12 complex the recipes are to reproduce, and in order to facilitate their introduction into the catering menu, we looked for dishes that did not require special skills nor uncommon ingredients. iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages The two aspects of the Diffusion of Innovations theoretical framework that relate are Adopters and Communication Channels. In the context of this CBEL project, Nest Catering is an early adopter pursuing to be the leader of plant-based catering in Vancouver. Additionally, Nest Catering hopes to influence other catering companies from the city of Vancouver, who can be described as early majorities. The broad public are also considered early majorities, as they may be influenced by the possible implementations by catering companies. Seeing an increase in plant-based food offerings, the early majorities in the broad public will soon join the early adopters to choose more of these “innovative” options. Nest Catering can be seen as a communication channel, which diffuses the innovation into the general public. Increasing plant-based food options in the catering services, subsequently influences the public’s food choice. In addition, the Nest Catering should utilize some of the suggested marketable nutritional messages to persuade the public into choosing these new plant-based food options in their menu, subsequently contributing to a shift in the consumer choice toward the new innovation provided by Nest Catering. Examples of Marketable Nutritional Messages and appropriate recipe pairings can be found in Appendix E.  Evaluation Plan  Short Term Outcomes:  The implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the AMS catering menu by  13 April 2020 is the sole short-term outcome for this project. The outcome indicator for the short term is the number of plant-based menu items present on the Nest Catering menu. An example for the evaluation of this indicator could be a comparison of the Nest Catering menu from 2020 and 2019; where the number of plant-based items on each menu is counted and contrasted, ideally to show an increase in prevalence of plant-based menu items.  Medium Term Outcomes: The first medium term outcome for this project is a 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by December 2021. The outcome indicator for this is the percentage of customers selecting plant-based menu items, which then infers the percentage of those who consume plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this indicator is through comparison of sales details from the 2018-2019 as compared to the sales details from 2020-2010, to determine what percentage of annual sales come from plant-based menu items. Another example of an evaluation for this indicator is the use of a survey to assess the percentage increase or decrease in selection for plant-based menu items. One survey would be done in the year 2019 (or year of implementation of new recipes to the menu), and a follow up survey would be conducted in the year 2021. Example questions include: Did you select/consume a plant-based menu item from Nest Catering? Answer: Yes/No. However, the survey method is limited as not all consumers are guaranteed to take part, and this would generate data that is not fully representative.    The second medium term outcome for this project is the implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations, by April 2023. The outcome indicator for this is determined by what, and how many sustainable practices Nest Catering has implemented into their production, preparation or other practices. An example of the evaluation  14 for this outcome is discussion with the Nest Catering management to identify what changes from our sustainable practice recommendations, specifically, have been incorporated by Nest Catering.  Long Term Outcomes: The first long term outcome for this project is the adoption of plant-based menu items by 75% of the licensed catering companies within the city of Vancouver, by April 2025. The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of licensed catering companies within Vancouver that offer plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this outcome could be done through a scoping review of the menus provided by all the licensed catering companies in Vancouver, and determination of how many caterers provide plant-based items on their menus. This information would then be used to determine the percentage of catering companies that provide plant-based menu items. These long-term outcomes specifically relate to the Diffusion of Innovations theory, as they are representative of the percentage of catering companies that are responsive to Nest Catering’s changes to become more sustainable and plant-forward in food offerings. Thus, caterers within Vancouver can be identified as early majorities as they are responding to the innovation of sustainable catering.    The second long-term outcome is a 20% increased selection for plant-based menu items in the year 2025 as compared to the year 2019.  The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of individuals who consume plant-based meals from Nest Catering. An example of evaluation for this outcome is through analysis and comparison of sales data from the year 2025 as compared to 2019, to indicate if selection for plant-based items has changed and by what percentage.   15 Conclusion  Upon completion of this project, sustainable practice recommendations, plant-based recipes, and marketable nutritional messages were produced in order to potentially increase the selection and consumption of plant-based meals from Nest Catering. In addition, the sustainable practice recommendations provide a resource for Nest Catering to become a leader in sustainability, furthermore increasing potential to align company practices with consumer values.  The main lessons learned during this process encompass theoretical understanding, self-efficacy and practical experience within the public health context. Specifically, our group was able to understand the difference between theoretical frameworks and utilize critical thinking and collaboration to determine the health behaviour theory best suited to our project. Furthermore, we were able to expand upon this understanding thorough application of the Diffusion of Innovations theory within the context of the CBEL project. Due to the self-facilitated nature of this project, self-efficacy was developed as each group member participated in the assessment of future obstacles and goals, and required steps to overcome and achieve them. Finally, and arguably most importantly, the process of planning and preparing for implementation of the project outcomes led to a realistic conclusion; implementation of policies or plans takes time. This conclusion is reflective of the challenges that exist when planning for an initiative in practice as compared to in theory.  Unfortunately, due to the nature of this project, the completion of project objectives is not an area of complete control. The combination of sustainable practice recommendations, recipes, and marketable nutritional messages are intended to facilitate the completion of the project goal and objectives, however the implementation of these and community response to these changes are beyond the scope of this project.  16 Authors’ Contributions All group members contributed toward the generation of the recipe list provided to Nest Catering. Each member researched available plant-based recipes through online sources, blogs, or recipe boards in order to contribute between 2-4 recipes each, for both lunch and dinner. In addition, all group members were involved in the discussions to decide upon the project goal and objectives, as well as formation of each objective into the SMART format. Each member of the group also contributed to the creation of the Google Slides for the presentation of this CBEL project; each individual’s specific contributions to the presentation and written report are detailed below.   Celine Koppenaal (C.K.) contributed to the development of the group logic model and presentation of the logic model, as well as development of the project evaluation plan and outcome indicators. As well, C.K. completed research regarding the behaviours that contribute to issues with respect to our target population (Section ii of Situational Assessment), and grey literature research regarding sustainable catering practices. C.K. contributed to the production and designing of the newsletter using the online platform, Canva. C.K. reviewed and formatted the reference section for the written report. For the presentation, C.K. contributed to sections pertaining to behaviours of the target population, as well as the evaluation plan, and presented the information on slides 7, 16, 17 of the presentation.  Daniele Pestoni (D.P.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs. D.P. also contributed to grey literature research for the sustainable catering recommendations. Independently, D.P. investigated the Diffusions of Innovation theoretical framework in depth to synthesize the information contained in the Situational Assessment (section iv). For the presentation, D.P. contributed to the sections  17 pertaining to the project goal, objectives, theoretical framework and recipe collection; as well, D.P. presented the information on slides 9-13 of the presentation.  Louise Dong (L.D.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs; specifically, section iii “Marketable Nutritional Messages”. L.D. researched the mediating factors related to the target population (section iii of the Situational Assessment). L.D. also contributed to the generation of the newsletter content and the formatting and editing of the written report reference list. For the presentation, L.D. contributed to the sections pertaining to mediating factors and marketable nutritional messages, and presented slides 1, 2, 15, and 18.  Celeste Cardoz (C.C.) contributed to the development of the proposed evaluation and outcome indicators. C.C. completed background research regarding sustainability food systems, sustainable diets, and global trends in food consumption and production for the introduction of the report. In addition, C.C. completed the conclusion and author’s contributions sections of the written report. As well, C.C. was involved in editing of the written report for sentence structure, spelling, grammar, and continuity. For the presentation, C.C. contributed to the sections pertaining to the introduction, evaluation plan and outcome indicators, lessons learned and future recommendations; specifically, C.C. presented slides 3-5, 18-20.  Bethany Del Begio (B.D.B.) conducted research to complete the sections of the report which discuss issues relevant to the target population and behaviours contributing to these issues (sections i and ii of situational assessment). In addition, B.D.B. contributed to the generation of the sustainable catering guideline resource for Nest Catering. B.D.B was also involved in the generation of the content for the Newsletter. For the presentation, B.D.B. contributed to the  18 sections pertaining to sustainable catering recommendations and barriers within the target population; specifically, B.D.B. presented slides 6 and 14.     19 References  Ben-Shoshan, M., Harrington, D. W., Soller, L., Fragapane, J., Joseph, L., Pierre, Y. S., Clarke, A. E. (2012). Demographic predictors of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in canada. Journal of Allergy, 2012, 858306-6. doi:10.1155/2012/858306  Corrin, T., & Papadopoulos, A. (2017). Understanding the attitudes and perceptions of vegetarian   and plant-based diets to shape future health promotion programs. Appetite, 109, 40-47.   doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.018  Douglas, S. M., Lasley, T. R., & Leidy, H. J. (2015). Consuming beef vs. soy protein has little effect on appetite, satiety, and food intake in healthy adults 1,2. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(5), 1010.  Ensaff, H., Coan, S., Sahota, P., Braybrook, D., Akter, H., & McLeod, H. (2015). Adolescents' food choice and the place of plant-based foods. Nutrients, 7(6), 4619-4637. doi:10.3390/nu7064619  Florea, D. (2015). The Relationship between Branding and Diffusion of Innovation: A   Systematic Review. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 1527-1534.   https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00407-4   Food and Agricultural Organization. Chapter 2. Food Security: concepts and measurement. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/y4671e/y4671e06.htm   Horta, O. (2018). Discrimination against vegans. Res Publica, 24(3), 359-373. doi:10.1007/s11158-017-9356-3  Karunaratne, A. M. (2018). A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods, for enhanced benefits to be reaped at a global level: A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(14), 5189-5196. doi:10.1002/jsfa.9215  Lindgren, E., Harris, F., Dangour, A. D., Gasparatos, A., Hiramatsu, M., Javadi, F., . . .   Stockholm Resilience Centre. (2018). Sustainable food systems-a health   perspective.Sustainability Science, 13(6), 1505.  MacInnis, C. C., & Hodson, G. (2017). It ain’t easy eating greens: Evidence of bias toward   vegetarians and vegans from both source and target. Group Processes & Intergroup   Relations, 20(6), 721–744. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430215618253  McLaughlin, E. W. (2004). The dynamics of fresh fruit and vegetable pricing in the supermarket channel. Preventive Medicine, 39, 81-87. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.12.026   20 Mertens, E., Van't Veer, P., Hiddink, G. J., Steijns, J. M., & Kuijsten, A. (2017). Operationalising   the health aspects of sustainable diets: A review. Public Health Nutrition, 20(4), 739-757.   doi:10.1017/S1368980016002664  Nest Catering & Conferences. (2019). Catering menu. Retrieved from https://www.nestcatering.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Nest-Catering-and-Conferenc  es-Menu-2019.pdf  Pohjolainen, P., Vinnari, M., & Jokinen, P. (2015). Consumers’ perceived barriers to following a   plant-based diet. British Food Journal, 117(3), 1150-1167.   doi:10.1108/BFJ-09-2013-0252  Shepon, A., Eshel, G., Noor, E., & Milo, R. (2018). The opportunity cost of animal based diets   exceeds all food losses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United   States of America, 115(15), 3804-3809. doi:10.1073/pnas.1713820115  Tilman, D., & Clark, M. (2014). Global diets link environmental sustainability and human   health. Nature, 515(7528), 518-522. doi:10.1038/nature13959  University of British Columbia. (2019). FNH 473: January-April, 2019 CBEL Projects.   US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (2005). Theory at a   Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. Retrieved from  https://www.sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/The ory-at-a-Glance-A-Guide-For-Health-Promotion-Practice.pdf  Willett, W., Rockstrom, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., … Murray,   C.J.L.  (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets   from sustainable food systems, The Lancet. 393(10170), 447-492. doi:   https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4  Yoshihara, D., Fujiwara, N., & Suzuki, K. (2010). Antioxidants: Benefits and risks for long-term health. Maturitas, 67(2), 103-107. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.05.001    21 Appendices  Appendix A: Logic Model           22 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report   23 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations SUSTAINABLE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEST CATERING  Practices to continue or implement:  1. Locally produced food a. Continue partnership with UBC farm b. Continue to purchase produce and dry goods locally when possible  c. Source local proteins such as chicken and beef (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats d. Adjust menu to allow for seasonal foods (i.e. side of local, seasonal greens, topped with local, seasonal fruit) (2)  2. Plant-based options a. Incorporate more plant-based menu items  i. see Appendix D: Recipes b. Menu is labelled for menu choices such as “vegan”, “vegetarian”, etc.  3. Ethically and sustainably produced a. Continue to serve only 100% Ocean Wise certified fish b. Continue to serve organic, fair trade coffee c. Aim to use grass fed chicken and beef (2) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC d. Seek out fair trade certification for items such as bananas, chocolate, sugar (3) e. Source cage free, certified humane eggs (3) i. Rabbit River Farms, Richmond BC f. Aim to source SPCA certified, Certified Humane approved meats (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC g. Menu communicates sustainable and/or ethical products to customers  4. Organic  a. Aim to source meat that comes from animals raised without hormones, antibiotics, or chemical feed additives (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats, North Vancouver BC b. Purchase organic foods when possible, but focus on local over organic (1)  5. Reduce food waste  24 a. Donate leftover food to shelters in Vancouver (2) i. Vancouver Food Bank Food Rescue Program ii. Vancouver Covenant House b. Compost all food waste in kitchen and dining hall (5) c. Recycle leftover cooking oil for future biofuel use (3) i. recycle used cooking oil at Vancouver Zero Waste Center ii. use service such as Redux to pick up and recycle used cooking oil  6. Green facilities a. Continue using 100% recyclable or compostable containers b. Recycling program for plastics, cardboard, metal and mixed media (6) c. Removal of water, juice and other beverages in plastic bottles from the menu (4) d. Papers towels made from 100% recycled paper (3) e. Cleaning products are biodegradable (8)  i. Eco-max commercial products f. Bulbs and lighting are Energy Star rated (3) g. Install low-temp drying dishwasher - uses less power and water (4) h. Install low-flow sink sprayers and taps to reduce water consumption (8) i. Install high efficient water tank and recirculating pump (5) j. Combine delivery trips and use smaller vans when possible (3)   Additional Next Steps: Adapted from WWF-UK’s Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability  ● In your business: ○ Pilot sustainable menus and, if successful, roll them out across all outlets. ○ ‘Bundle’ costs: calculate the overall costs and benefits of introducing a sustainable menu, not the cost of individual products. ○ Develop staff who are passionate about delivering sustainability: provide them with the space, tools and training to deliver sustainable diets. ○ Remove worst offenders: Rule out ingredients that are unsustainably sourced   ● Across your stakeholders: ○ Educate and build demand: tell customers, clients and suppliers why sustainable diets are important. ○ Invest in sustainable supply chains. ○ Ask ‘would customers eat your food if they knew where it came from, how it was made, and what its health and sustainability credentials were?’. ○ Promote your values: tell stakeholders why sustainable diets matter to you.  25  ● Across your industry: ○ Share best practice, including noncommercially-competitive information about what has worked for you. ○ Agree on a shared definition (or common principles) for sustainable diets to create a level playing field when implementing them. ○ Advocate (to national governments) for a level playing fields; a change to competition law; and agree an industry-wide definition of sustainable diets.” Resources  Sustainable catering companies:  1. Savoury Chef. Vancouver, BC https://www.savourychef.com/vancouver-caterers/green-sustainability-practices/  2. Chef Laura. Vancouver, BC https://www.cheflaura.ca/about/sustainability/   3. Basil Tree Catering. Boston, MA https://www.basiltree.com/practices/  4. Pomona Dining. Claremont, CA https://www.pomona.edu/administration/dining/sustainability  5. Culinary Capers. Vancouver BC https://www.culinarycapers.com/about-us/sustainability/  6. Truffles Catering. Victoria, BC https://www.trufflescatering.net/culture  7. Drew’s Catering. Vancouver, BC https://drewscatering.com/about/sustainability/  8. Windows Catering. Alexandria, VA https://www.catering.com/company/about-us/green-initiatives/   Grey Literature:   26 Berkeley Food Institute. (2018). A Guide for UC Berkeley Departments on Sustainable and Just Catering. Retrieved from  http://food.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Sustainable-and-Just-Catering.pdf  Monash University Office of Environmental Sustainability. (2009). Sustainable Catering Guide. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54dd5ffce4b0cc2d46391991/t/594d1039b11be14d41a42967/1498222659822/Monash-Sustainable-Catering-Guide-2.pdf  World Wide Fund for Nature UK (WWF). (2016). Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability. Retrieved from http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/wwf_catering_summary_report_signoff.pdf?_ga=1.172826020.629931605.1470744313    Additional Resources:  Sumas Mountain Farms http://www.sumasmountainfarms.ca/  Two Rivers Farms https://tworiversmeats.ca/farms/  Rabbit River Farms http://www.rabbitriverfarms.com/  SPCA Certified standards https://spca.bc.ca/programs-services/certifications-accreditation/spca-certified/  Redux cooking oil recycling program http://www.reduxprogram.com/used-cooking-oil.php  Vancouver Food Bank food recovery program https://foodbank.bc.ca/our-programs/food-recovery/  Covenant House Vancouver food donations https://www.covenanthousebc.org/ways-to-give/other-ways-to-give-2/donate-items/  Eco-max biodegradable cleaning products  https://www.eco-max.ca/commercial-products/  27 Appendix D: Recipes NEST CATERING VEGAN, GLUTEN-FREE RECIPES  Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF) iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF) v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF) iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2015/07/21/chickpea-salad/  Yields: 3 servings Prep Time: 15 min Cook Time: 0 min  Ingredients: ● 1 (15-ounce/425 grams) can chickpeas, drained and rinsed ● 2 stalks celery, finely chopped ● 3 green onions, thinly sliced  28 ● 1/4 cup finely chopped dill pickle ● 1/4 cup finely chopped red bell pepper ● 3 tablespoons store-bought or homemade vegan mayonnaise ● 1 clove garlic, minced ● 1 1/2 teaspoons yellow mustard ● 2 teaspoons minced fresh dill (optional) ● 1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons fresh lemon juice, to taste ● 1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. In a large bowl, mash the chickpeas with a potato masher until flaked in texture. 2. Stir in the celery, green onions, pickles, bell peppers, mayonnaise, and garlic until combined. 3. Now, stir in the mustard and dill, and season with the lemon juice, salt, and pepper, adjusting the quantities to taste. 4. Serve with toasted bread, on crackers, wraps, or on top of a basic leafy green salad. Or just enjoy it all on its own! ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/11/28/vegan-grain-free-sticky-crispy-sesame-cauliflower/   Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Cauliflower: ● 1 head of cauliflower (about 2 ½ lbs) ● 1 cup cassava flour ● 1 ½ cups water, plus extra ● ½ teaspoon garlic powder ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds ● sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste Sticky Sesame Sauce: ● ¼ cup tamari soy sauce ● 2 tablespoons maple syrup ● 1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil  29 ● 1 tablespoon rice vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● 1 tablespoon chili paste (optional) ● 2 cloves garlic, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 2-inch piece fresh ginger, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. 2. Cut the cauliflower into small florets. In a large bowl, combine the cassava flour, water, garlic powder, sesame seeds, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. The resulting batter should be fluid but thick–thick enough to coat a piece of cauliflower and pool only slightly once set on the baking sheet. If the batter is too thick/pasty, add water by the tablespoon until you reach the proper consistency. 3. Drop the cauliflower florets into the batter and stir until all pieces are coated. Using a fork, carefully transfer battered cauliflower to the baking sheets, leaving 1 inch of space around each floret. 4. Bake the battered cauliflower for 20 minutes. While the cauliflower is baking, make the sauce. In a small saucepan combine the tamari, maple syrup, sesame oil, rice vinegar, tomato paste, chili paste, garlic, ginger, and sesame seeds. Bring the sauce to a boil on the stove over medium heat. Simmer for 5 minutes or until slightly reduced. Set aside. 5. After cauliflower has baked for 20 minutes, remove and let cool slightly. Once it’s cool enough to handle, transfer the par-baked cauliflower to a large bowl. Cover the cauliflower with all but 3 tablespoons of the sesame sauce. Toss to thoroughly coat the cauliflower. 6. Bake the cauliflower for another 20 minutes, or until the edges are starting to darken. Remove the crispy sesame cauliflower and let it sit for a full 5 minutes before serving in lettuce wraps, on rice etc., drizzled with remaining sauce and topped with extra sesame seeds, and chopped green onions.  Notes:  If you don’t want to use cassava flour, you can substitute brown rice, chickpea or regular wheat flour. Lower the amount of water to 1 cup if you’re making this substitution (and add more if necessary)! -It’s important to really keep an eye on these towards the end of the cooking process. They can go from perfect to burnt in what feels like seconds.  -I use a Microplane to get the garlic and ginger nice and fine for the sauce -The sauce is light here! Double the batch if you like it saucy.  30 iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF)  https://minimalistbaker.com/spicy-buffalo-chickpea-wraps/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 20 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients:  Dressing and Salad: ● 1/3 cup hummus (or store-bought) ● 1 1/2 - 2 Tbsp maple syrup (plus more to taste) ● 1 small lemon, juiced (1 small lemon yields ~2 Tbsp or 30 ml) ● 1-2 Tbsp hot water (to thin) ● 1 head romaine lettuce (or sub 1 bundle kale per 1 head romaine // cleaned, large stems removed, roughly chopped) Buffalo Chickpeas: ● 1 15-ounce can chickpeas (rinsed, drained and dried // ~ 1 1/4 cups per can when drained) ● 1 Tbsp coconut oil (or sub grape seed or olive oil) ● 4 Tbsp hot sauce (divided) ● 1/4 tsp garlic powder (or sub 1 minced garlic clove per 1/4 tsp powder) ● 1 pinch sea salt For Serving: ● 3-4 vegan-friendly flour tortillas, pita, or flatbread ● 1/4 cup red onion, diced (optional) ● 1/4 cup baby tomato, diced (optional) ● 1/4 ripe avocado, thinly sliced (optional)  Directions:  1. Make dressing by adding hummus, maple syrup, and lemon juice to a mixing bowl and whisking to combine. Add hot water until thick but pourable. 2. Taste and adjust flavor as needed, then add romaine lettuce or kale, and toss. Set aside. 3. To make chickpeas, add drained, dried chickpeas to a separate mixing bowl. Add coconut oil, 3 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size), garlic powder, and a pinch of salt - toss to combine/coat.  31 4. Heat a metal or cast-iron skillet over medium heat. Once hot, add chickpeas and sauté for 3-5 minutes, mashing a few chickpeas gently with a spoon to create texture (see photo). 5. Once chickpeas are hot and slightly dried out, remove from heat and add remaining 1 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size). Stir to combine. Set aside. 6. To assemble, top each wrap with a generous portion of the dressed romaine salad, and top with 1/4 cup buffalo chickpeas and a sprinkle of diced tomatoes, avocado, and/or onion (optional). 7. Serve immediately. Store leftovers separately in the refrigerator up to 3 days, though best when fresh. You can enjoy the buffalo chickpeas cold, room temperature or heated up. iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF)  https://nutritionstripped.com/open-faced-sprout-sandwich/  Yields: 1 serving Prep Time: 5 minutes  Cook Time: 0 minutes   Ingredients:  ● 2 slices of grain-free bread ● 1 teaspoon dijon mustard ● 2 tablespoons hummus  ● Sliced vegetables: thinly sliced red onion, tomato, cucumber, 2 romaine lettuce leafs ● Protein of your choice: eggs (scrambled, sliced hard boiled, or poached), thinly sliced tempeh, thinly sliced tofu, chicken, etc. ● 1/2 avocado, sliced or mashed on the vegetables ● 1 handful of sprouts ● Sea salt ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions:  32 1. Lightly toast the bread until desired firmness, then simply spread mustard, followed by hummus, layer sliced cucumber, then tomato, then the protein of your choice, then sliced avocado, followed by the lettuce and sprouts. 2. Top with fresh black pepper and a pinch of sea salt. 3. Enjoy immediately or place in an airtight glass container for lunch on the go! v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) https://theminimalistvegan.com/spiced-quinoa-and-eggplant-rolls/ Yields: 15 rolls  Ingredients: ● ½ cup of washed quinoa ● 1 cup of water (to cook the quinoa in) ● 2 tbsp rice bran oil ● 1 small onion diced ● 1 tsp garam masala ● ¼ tsp turmeric powder ● 1 tbsp finely grated fresh ginger ● Pinch of hot chilli powder (or more if you like spicy food) ● Half a medium sized capsicum chopped ● 3 medium sized eggplants, cut into ½ inch thin slices ● ½ cup olive oil ● Salt for seasoning ● A handful of parsley for dressing, finely chopped  Directions: 1. Bring quinoa and water to a boil in a small saucepan. Reduce heat to low, cover and simmer until tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed. This typically takes 15 to 20 minutes. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, add the rice bran oil and onion to a medium sized saucepan on medium heat. 3. Once the onion starts to brown, add in the garam masala, turmeric, ginger, chilli stirring to coat the onions in the spices well. Let it cook for about 2-3 minutes. 4. Add in the capsicum and stir to combine all ingredients well. Reduce heat to low and cook until the capsiucum is soft. Season to taste. 5. Combine the cooked quinoa and spicy onion and capsicum and mix well. Set aside. 6. For the eggplant, preheat a medium-high charcoal grill on a barbecue or stove grill. Brush both sides of the eggplant slices with olive oil and season with salt. Grill until golden- 33 brown grill marks form, which should take around 3 to 4 minutes on one side. Turn the eggplant and repeat the same process. You can also do this in a frying pan. 7. Once all the eggplants are done. Start adding 1-2 tbsp of quinoa mixture at the bottom of each eggplant piece and roll tightly. You can use toothpicks to keep together if they are coming undone easily. I find that placing the end of the eggplant facing the plate helps to keep it in place. Roll all the eggplant pieces and sprinkle the stack with some fresh parsley and a little more olive oil drizzled over the top. 8. You can serve this warm or cold on its own or with some hummus. vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) https://www.emilieeats.com/easy-quinoa-salad-tomatoes-spinach/  Yields: 4-6 Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 15 minutes   Ingredients: ● 1/2 cup dry quinoa ● 2 cups cherry or grape tomatoes, halved ● 2 1/2 cups spinach, chopped ● 1 15-ounce can white beans, drained and rinsed ● 1/3 cup slivered almonds ● 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar ● 1/2 tablespoon maple syrup ● 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder ● 1/4 teaspoon salt ● 1/4 teaspoon pepper  Directions: 1. In a medium saucepan over high heat, add quinoa and 1 cup water; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for 13-15 minutes. When done, fluff quinoa with a fork. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, heat a little water or oil (if using) in a skillet over medium heat. Add tomatoes; cook for 5 minutes, until tomatoes begin to burst. Add spinach; cook until wilted, about 5-7 more minutes, stirring continuously. 3. In a large bowl, add quinoa, vegetables, beans, and almonds. Stir to combine. 4. In a small bowl, add vinegar, maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. 5. Pour dressing over the other ingredients. Stir to combine.  34 vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) https://www.thefullhelping.com/falafel-fattoush-real-food-really-fast/  Yields:  Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients: ● 4 2-ounce pita breads ● 1 pint cherry tomatoes halved if large ● 1 cup sliced Persian cucumber or diced English cucumber ● 1 15- ounce can chickpeas rinsed and drained ● 2 scallions thinly sliced ● 1 cup fresh parsley leaves ● 1 clove garlic finely minced ● 1/4-1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes ● 2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 2 teaspoons ground coriander ● 1/2-1 teaspoon salt ● 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper ● 1 tablespoon lemon juice ● 2 tablespoons olive oil ● 2 tablespoons sesame seeds toasted  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the pita bread and chop it into bite-sized squares, about 1/2-inch each. Place the bread in a large bowl along with the tomatoes, cucumber, chickpeas, scallions, and parsley. Mix the vegetables around lightly to combine. Sprinkle in the minced garlic, red pepper flakes, cumin, coriander, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and pepper. Toss everything together until the vegetables are well distributed and evenly coated with the spices.  2. Right before serving, drizzle in the lemon juice and olive oil, tossing once more to incorporate. Add more salt to taste, if needed, and finish with a sprinkle of sesame seeds over the top. viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) http://www.onegreenplanet.org/vegan-recipe/the-vegan-eggplant-crunchburger/ Calories: 754  35 Yields: 4 burgers  Ingredients:  Horseradish Mustard Mayo ● 1/4 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbs. Dijon mustard ● 2 Tbs. prepared horseradish ● A pinch of dried tarragon ● Kosher salt and black pepper to taste Eggplant Burgers ● 1 large or 2 medium eggplants, peeled and cubed ● 2 Tbs. extra-virgin olive oil, divided ● 1 shallot, finely minced ● 1 cup vegan cheese shreds, any flavor ● 1 clove garlic, minced or grated ● ½ tsp. Kosher salt ● ¼ tsp. black pepper ● 1 Tbs. fresh parsley, chopped ● 1 cup gluten-free bread crumbs Toppings ● 1 cup vegan cheese, either slices or shreds (as long as it melts) ● 4 gluten-free buns ● 4 slices beefsteak tomato ● 4 leaves romaine lettuce ● 4 slices red onion ● Horseradish Mustard Mayonnaise (recipe above) ● 4 handfuls of potato chips  Directions:  For the Horseradish Mustard Mayo 1. Whisk together the mayonnaise, mustard, and horseradish in a small bowl and season with salt and pepper. 2. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes to allow the flavors to meld. 3. The sauce can be prepared 1 day in advance and kept covered in the refrigerator. To make the Eggplant Burgers 1. In a large skillet, heat 1 Tbs. of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the eggplant cubes and sauté until they are browned and very soft, about 10-12 minutes. Make sure they are  36 super-soft because they need to be mashed. You could also roast the eggplant to make it soft. 2. Transfer the eggplant to a large bowl. Mash the eggplant up until there are no whole pieces left. I use a potato masher to do this. Once you have a big bowl of mush, add the shallot, cheese, garlic, salt, pepper and parsley. Mix it into the eggplant. Add the breadcrumbs. Don’t add them all at once; you want to feel the mix and see whether you need a whole cup. I add ½ cup of bread crumbs and mix it. 3. The best way to mix it is wet your hands and use one hand (keep the other hand clean) to gently mix the crumbs into the eggplant. You will probably need more crumbs so add another ¼ cup and mix it again. You want the consistency to feel firm, like it will hold up as a burger. If it feels too moist, add the last ¼ cup of bread crumbs. Usually, I end up using the whole cup of crumbs. 4. Put the eggplant mixture into the fridge for about 30 minutes. Take the bowl out of the fridge and with your hand, divide the mixture into 4 parts. To form the burgers, I use a 3 ½ inch cookie cutter. I spray it with a bit of cooking oil spray and then pack the eggplant mixture into the cookie cutter. Pat it down, let it sit for about 20 seconds and then gently lift the cookie cutter off. Let your perfect burger sit for a few minutes undisturbed while you make the other 3 burgers. 5. In the same skillet that you sautéed the eggplant in (but cleaned), heat the other Tbs. of oil over medium-high heat and add the burgers to the pan. Let cook until slightly browned on one side and (this is very important), you can lift the burger with a spatula without breaking it. I use 2 spatulas to gently turn the burgers. Flip them and let them cook on the other side. When the 2nd side gets golden brown, flip them back over and let the first side cook until golden brown. To make the Vegan Crunch Burgers 1. Top the burgers with either 2 slices or ¼ cup of vegan cheese. Add about a Tbs. of water to the pan and cover it. This will create steam and allow the cheese to melt and get ooey-gooey. 2. If you want your buns toasty, put on some pants. If you want your burger buns toasty, preheat the broiler while you are cooking the burgers. Split the buns and put the halves, cut side up, on a baking sheet and cook them until they are lightly golden brown, about 30 seconds. Don’t burn them!! 3. Place the burgers on the bun bottoms and, if desired, top with tomato, lettuce, onion, and a dollop of horseradish mustard mayonnaise. Pile on the potato chips, top with the bun tops, and serve immediately. Make sure you have tons of napkins because it’s going to be messy.  Nutritional Information Per Serving: Calories: 754 ● Carbs: 104 g  37 ● Fat: 36 g ● Protein: 15 g ● Sodium: 1,245 mg ● Sugar: 9 g ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/delicious-deviled-eggs/  Ingredients ● 10 small potatoes, halved lengthwise ● 2 Tbsp. refined coconut oil ● 1/2 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard ● 1/2 tsp. Kala Namak (for an egg-like taste) (optional) ● Salt and pepper, to taste ● Smoked paprika, for garnish ● Fresh dill sprigs, for garnish  Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 425ºF. Place the potatoes on a baking sheet, drizzle with the coconut oil, and bake for 30 minutes, or until tender. 2. Let cool, then scoop out the insides of the potatoes with a melon baller or spoon and place in a large bowl. Add the vegan mayonnaise, mustard, and kala namak and season with salt and pepper. Stir until well combined. 3. Fill the potatoes skins with the mixture and garnish with smoked paprika and dill sprigs.  Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2016/04/03/glowing-spiced-lentil-soup/   Yields: 7 cups (1.65 litres)  Prep time: 15 Minutes   Cook time: 20 Minutes  Ingredients: ● 1 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil ● 2 cups (280 grams) diced onion (1 medium/large) ● 2 large garlic cloves, minced  38 ● 2 teaspoons ground turmeric ● 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon ● 1/4 teaspoon ground cardamom ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can diced tomatoes, with juices ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can full-fat coconut milk ● 3/4 cup (140 grams) uncooked red lentils, rinsed and drained ● 3 1/2 cups (875 mL) low-sodium vegetable broth ● 1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper, to taste ● Red pepper flakes or cayenne pepper, to taste (for a kick of heat!) ● 1 (5-ounce/140-gram) package baby spinach ● 2 teaspoons fresh lime juice, or more to taste  Directions: 1. In a large pot, add the oil, onion, and garlic. Add a pinch of salt, stir, and sauté over medium heat for 4 to 5 minutes until the onion softens. 2. Stir in the turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and cardamom until combined. Continue cooking for about 1 minute, until fragrant. 3. Add the diced tomatoes (with juices), entire can of coconut milk, red lentils, broth, salt, and plenty of pepper. Add red pepper flakes or cayenne, if desired, to taste. Stir to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a low boil. 4. Once it boils, reduce the heat to medium-high, and simmer, uncovered, for about 18 to 22 minutes, until the lentils are fluffy and tender. 5. Turn off the heat and stir in the spinach until wilted. Add the lime juice to taste. Taste and add more salt and pepper, if desired. Ladle into bowls and serve with toasted bread and lime wedges.  ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF)  http://thefirstmess.com/2018/08/01/braised-harissa-eggplant-chickpeas/ Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 large eggplant ● 1 tablespoon sea salt + extra ● 3 tablespoons heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado (plus extra if necessary) ● 1 medium cooking onion, small dice ● 1 small chili, such as cayenne or fresno, seeded and minced ● 3 cloves of garlic, minced  39 ● ½ teaspoon ground cumin ● ½ teaspoon ground caraway ● ½ teaspoon ground coriander ● 1 ½ cups cooked chickpeas ● Ground black pepper, to taste ● 2 cups crushed tomatoes ● 1 cup vegetable stock ● 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice ● ¼ cup chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Remove the stem of the eggplant and chop into 1-inch cubes. Place the cubes in a colander and toss them with the tablespoon of salt. Set aside for an hour in the sink. 2. After an hour, rinse the eggplant (to remove excess salt) and thoroughly pat the cubes dry with paper towel or clean kitchen towels. 3. Set up a dinner plate with a couple paper towels on top. In a wide, deep braiser-style pot, heat the oil over medium-high heat. In batches, sear the eggplant until it’s golden brown on all sides and softened. As the eggplant finishes, remove it from the pot with a slotted spoon and place it on the paper towel-lined plate. Set aside. 4. Add more oil to the pot of necessary and lower the heat to medium. Add the onions and hot pepper to the pot and sauté until onion is translucent, about 4 minutes. Add the garlic, cumin, caraway, and coriander to the pot and stir until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the chickpeas, some salt and black pepper to taste, and then stir to coat the chickpeas in spices. Add the tomatoes and vegetable stock to the pot. 5. Bring the braise to a boil and simmer, uncovered and stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes. Add the eggplant back into the pot and bring the braise up to a boil once more. Stir in the lemon juice and parsley. Serve the braised harissa eggplant hot over millet or rice (or any other starch of choice).  iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2017/07/12/vegan-stuffed-eggplant-sunflower-romesco-recipe/  Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Sunflower Romesco (makes extra): ● ½ cup toasted sunflower seeds ● 2 roasted red peppers (homemade or from a jar) ● 2 cloves of garlic, chopped ● 1 teaspoon smoked paprika ● ½ teaspoon aleppo pepper, or a pinch of cayenne ● 2 tablespoons sherry OR apple cider vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● small handful flat parsley leaves  40 ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● scant ½ cup virgin olive oil Stuffed Eggplant: ● 2 small-medium eggplants ● olive oil ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● 1 small shallot, chopped ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● ¼ cup romesco ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice 2 tablespoons tahini ● 4 servings cooked grain of choice (I used quinoa) ● big handful of fresh and leafy herbs, chopped (I used cilantro, parsley & a bit of dill) ● toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah, for topping Directions: 1. Make the sunflower romesco: In the bowl of a food processor, combine the sunflower seeds, roasted red peppers, garlic, paprika, aleppo pepper, vinegar, tomato paste, parsley, salt, and pepper. Pulse the mixture until all ingredients are finely chopped and lightly pasty. Scrape the bowl down. Then, with the motor on low, drizzle the olive oil in through the feed tube until fully incorporated. Check the sauce for seasoning. Transfer sauce to a sealable jar, and set aside in the fridge until ready to use.  2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. Cut the eggplants in half lengthwise, right through the stem. Using a paring knife, carve into the eggplant flesh all the way around the perimeter. Pry the eggplant flesh out of the eggplant halves with your fingers or a spoon and set it aside. Place eggplant halves on a baking sheet, facing up. Brush the eggplant halves with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Bake eggplant for 20 minutes, or until golden brown and lightly tender. 4. Roughly chop the scooped out eggplant. Heat a bit of oil in a medium-large saute pan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic to the pan and saute until fragrant and slightly soft, about 2 minutes. Add the chopped eggplant, and season with salt and pepper. Stir. Saute the eggplant, stirring occasionally, until tender, browned, and slightly reduced in size, about 4 minutes. 5. Carefully transfer eggplant to the food processor. Add the ¼ cup of romesco, lemon juice, and tahini to the food processor as well. Pulse the mixture until you have a chunky paste. 6. To serve, divide the warm eggplant filling evenly among the eggplant “boats.” Then, spoon your cooked grain of choice on top along with a sprinkle of chopped herbs. Garnish the tops of the stuffed eggplants with more romesco and toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah. Enjoy warm. iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/01/03/creamy-white-bean-soup-vegan-recipe/  Yields: 4-5 servings  Ingredients:  41 ● 1 tablespoon heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado or refined coconut oil ● 1 medium yellow onion, small dice ● 1 medium carrot, small dice ● 1 celery stalk, small dice ● 2 cloves garlic, minced ● chili flakes or aleppo pepper, to taste ● 1 sprig fresh rosemary, minced ● 4 cups cooked navy beans (about 2 15-ounce cans, drained) ● 4 cups vegetable stock ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice ● sea salt & ground black pepper, to taste ● 3 cups packed chopped lacinato kale (roughly 1 small bunch) big handful finely chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Heat the oil in a medium-large soup pot over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, and celery to the pot and stir. Saute the vegetables until slightly softened and translucent, about 5 minutes. 2. To the pot, add the garlic, chili flakes, and rosemary. Stir and cook until garlic is fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the navy beans to the pot and stir. Add the vegetable stock to the pot and stir once more. Bring the soup to a boil. 3. Once boiling, ladle half of the soup into an upright blender. Add the lemon juice to the blender as well. Carefully bring the speed of the blender up to high and blend until this portion of the soup is totally liquified. Pour this liquified portion back into the pot. Season the soup with salt and pepper. 4. Add the kale to the pot and bring the soup to a boil. Once the kale is slightly wilted and bright green, season the soup once more with salt and pepper, if you find it necessary. Stir in the chopped parsley as well. Serve the soup hot. v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2014/12/11/sweet-potato-carrot-dal-with-coconut-leeks-and-a-wine-country-ontario-giveaway/   Yields:  4 servings  Ingredients:  Dal: ● 2-3 tsp coconut oil ● 1 tsp ground coriander ● 1/2 tsp mustard seeds ● pinch of chili flakes ● 1 cup red lentils ● 1 sweet potato, peeled and diced small ● 1 two inch piece of ginger, peeled + minced  42 ● 1 one inch piece of fresh turmeric, peeled + minced (or substitute 1 tsp dried turmeric powder) ● 3 ½  cups filtered water + extra if necessary ● 1.5 tsp garam masala ● salt to taste Coconut Leeks: ● 1 tbsp extra virgin coconut oil ● 1 leek, white and light green part julienned ● squeeze of lime juice ● pinch of salt To serve: ● Cooked, warm rice ● Chopped parsley, cilantro or mint (or a combination)  Directions: 1. Place a large pot over medium heat. Heat up the coconut oil in the pot and add the ground coriander, mustard seeds and chili flakes. Stir about until the mustard seeds start to pop just a little bit. 2. Add the lentils, diced sweet potato, carrots, ginger, turmeric, and a pinch of salt. Stir to mix and coat everything in the oil and spice. Add the filtered water to the pot. Bring mixture to a boil and simmer until the mixture is creamy and soupy, stirring occasionally. The sweet potato pieces should still be intact with a tiny bit of bite. The lentils will be broken down, filling out the mixture. Keep it warm while you sauté the leeks. 3. Heat the coconut oil in a small sauté pan over medium heat. Add the leeks to the pan and sauté until leeks are soft and very fragrant. Season with salt. Add a squeeze of lime if you like at the end. Remove from the heat. 4. To serve: divide the hot dal over 4 portions of rice. Top the dal with sautéed leeks and a few dribbles of the coconut oil left in the pan. Garnish each serving with the chopped herbs and black sesame seeds. vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/1-pot-butternut-squash-quinoa-chili/  Yields: 6 servings Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 50 minutes  Ingredients:  Chili: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or coconut oil (sub water if avoiding oil) ● 1 small white or yellow onion (diced) ● 1 jalapeño (minced // remove seeds for less heat) ● 1/2 tsp each sea salt and black pepper (DIVIDED // plus more to taste)  43 ● 4 cloves garlic ● 4 cups diced butternut squash ● 3 Tbsp chili powder (DIVIDED) ● 2 Tbsp ground cumin (DIVIDED) ● 2 tsp smoked paprika ● 2 15- ounce cans fire-roasted (or regular) diced tomatoes (if unsalted, add more sea salt to taste) ● 1/4 cup tomato paste ● 3 cups vegetable broth (sub up to half with water for lower sodium // plus more as needed) ● 1/4 cup quinoa, rinsed ● 1 15- ounce can kidney beans (slightly drained) ● 1 15- ounce can black beans (slightly drained) ● 1-2 Tbsp coconut sugar (or maple syrup) ● 1 small chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (for heat) (optional) ● 1 cup chopped kale (or other sturdy green) (optional) For Serving (optional): ● Rice or quinoa ● Fresh chopped cilantro or parsley ● Avocado Directions: 1. Heat a large pot over medium heat. Once hot, add oil (or water), onion, and jalapeño pepper. Season with a healthy pinch each salt and pepper and stir. Sauté for 3-4 minutes, stirring frequently. 2. Add garlic and sauté (stirring occasionally) for 2-3 minutes more, or until onion, pepper, and garlic are softened and slightly browned. 3. Add butternut squash, 2/3 of the chili powder (2 Tbsp as original recipe is written), half the cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), smoked paprika and stir to coat. Cook for 3 minutes. 4. Add diced tomatoes, tomato paste, and vegetable broth and stir to combine. Bring to a low boil over medium-high heat. 5. Once boiling, add quinoa (see photo) and reduce heat to medium-low or low, so it's at a gentle simmer. You want to see bubbles, but you don't want it boiling. Cover and cook for 12-15 minutes, or until quinoa is mostly tender. As it's cooking you may need to add more vegetable broth or water if it's looking too dry and the quinoa isn't submerged (I didn't find that necessary). 6. Next add kidney beans, black beans, 1/4 tsp each salt and pepper, and remaining cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written) and chili powder (1 Tbsp as original  44 recipe is written), coconut sugar, and stir to combine. If adding the chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (optional), add now. 7. Bring to a simmer over medium heat, then reduce heat slightly to low (or medium-low), cover, and gently simmer for 15-20 minutes to meld the flavors together. Stir occasionally. 8. Taste and adjust seasonings as needed, adding more chili powder or cumin for smokiness, salt for saltiness, or a little coconut sugar to balance the heat and draw out the other flavors. 9. Add kale (optional), cover, and cook for 2-3 minutes more. Serve as is, or garnished with lime, fresh jalapeño, cilantro, red onion, and/or avocado (all optional). 10. Store leftovers in the refrigerator up to 5-6 days, or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop or in the microwave until hot. vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/caramelized-shiitake-mushroom-risotto/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 20 minutes   Ingredients:  Broth: ● 3 1/2 - 4 cups vegetable broth (or store-bought) Risotto: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or olive oil (if avoiding oil, sub water) ● 3/4 cup thinly sliced shallot ● 1/4 tsp each sea salt and black pepper ● 2 cups sliced Shiitake mushrooms (or other similar mushroom) ● 1 Tbsp coconut aminos (or tamari // soy sauce) ● 1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme (or sub dried) ● 1 cup arborio rice (works best here - we recommend not subbing other grains) ● 1/4 cup dry white wine (or omit) ● 1/4 cup vegan parmesan cheese (plus more for serving // or sub nutritional yeast) For Serving (optional): ● Fresh chopped parsley  Directions:  45 1. In a medium saucepan, heat vegetable broth over medium heat. Once simmering, reduce heat to low to keep warm. 2. In the meantime, heat a large pan* over medium heat. Once hot, add oil and shallot and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. Sauté for 3-4 minutes - stirring frequently. Then add mushrooms and coconut aminos and continue sautéing until the mushrooms are golden brown and caramelized. Optional: remove some of the shiitake mushrooms from the pan and reserve for serving - not necessary, but it makes a nice garnish. 3. Add the thyme and arborio rice and cook for 1 minute, stirring occasionally. Then add dry white wine and stir gently. Cook for 2 minutes or until the liquid is mostly absorbed. 4. Using a ladle, add warmed vegetable stock 1/2 cup (120 ml) at a time, stirring almost constantly, giving the risotto little breaks to come back to a simmer. The heat should be medium, and there should always be a slight simmer (adjust heat as needed). You want the mixture to be cooking consistently but not boiling or it can get gummy and cook too quickly. 5. Continue to add vegetable stock 1 ladle at a time, stirring to incorporate, until the rice is 'al dente' - cooked through but still has a slight bite. This whole process should take about 15-20 minutes. 6. Once the rice is cooked through and al dente, remove from heat and add vegan parmesan cheese. Stir to coat (see photo). Taste and adjust flavor as needed, adding sea salt and pepper to taste or more vegan parmesan to enhance the cheesiness. If dry at this point, add a little more warmed broth. 7. To serve, divide between serving bowls and top with reserved mushrooms, additional vegan parmesan cheese, and a sprinkle of fresh parsley (all optional). 8. Best when fresh, though leftovers will keep covered in the refrigerator for 4-5 days or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop with additional (warmed) vegetable broth until hot.  viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) https://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipe/pasta-with-mushrooms-herbs-and-beet-greens/9470/  Ingredients: ● 4 oz dried gluten-free pasta  ● 2 cup mushrooms (cremini or a combination of cremini, oyster and shitake), sliced ● 1 medium onion, coarsely chopped ● extra virgin olive oil (just enough to sauté the mushrooms and onions) ● 2 large cloves garlic, minced  46 ● 1 Tbsp fresh thyme leaves (or 1 tsp dried) You can mix herbs, or choose your favourite ● 1 bunch baby beet greens (save the roots for another dish), well washed, dried and coarsely chopped ● Chili pepper flakes – amount is up to you ● 2-3 tbsp balsamic vinegar ● Vegan cheese to sprinkle over the pasta just before serving…again, amount is up to you  Directions: 1. Bring a large pot of well-salted water to a boil. Add the gluten-free pasta and cook until al dente (8-10 minutes depending on the type of pasta). Set aside 1 cup cooking water. (Sometimes I need it, sometimes not, but it’s best to have some handy.) Drain and place in a large serving bowl. 2. In the meantime, in a large non-stick skillet, over medium high heat, add a little olive oil and sauté the onions and mushrooms until the onions are translucent and the mushrooms golden (about 5 minutes). Add the garlic and toss once or twice, then add the baby beet greens and toss until wilted (2-3 minutes). 3. Just before adding to the pasta, add balsamic vinegar, chili pepper flakes and toss. Taste for seasoning and add to the serving bowl. (Here's where you might want to add some cooking water or some olive oil. Toss and add coarsely grated vegan cheese and serve.   ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/white-bean-fettuccine-alfredo/  Ingredients: ● 2 Tbsp. vegan butter ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● 1/4 cup chopped broccoli florets ● 1/4 cup sliced mushrooms ● 1 15-oz. can white beans (also known as Great Northern beans), drained and rinsed ● 1 tsp. lemon juice ● 1 Tbsp. nutritional yeast ● 1/2 cup almond milk ● 2 oz. dried fettuccine ● 1 tomato, chopped  Directions: ● Melt the vegan butter in a large pan. Add the garlic, broccoli, and sliced mushrooms. Cook over medium heat for 2 to 3 minutes.  47 ● Remove the broccoli and mushrooms, then set aside. Pour the melted butter and garlic into a blender. Add the white beans and blend for 5 seconds. Add the lemon juice, nutritional yeast, and almond milk and blend until completely smooth. Transfer to the large pan and cook over medium heat until warm. ● Bring a large pot of water to a boil and cook the fettuccine according to the package directions. Drain the pasta, then return to the pot. Pour the white-bean Alfredo sauce over the pasta and add the broccoli, mushroom slices, and tomato. x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/black-eyed-peas-veggie-medley/  Ingredients: ● 1/2 pkg. of 14 oz. extra firm tofu ● 2 Tbsp. oil ● 1/4 onion, chopped ● 1 1/2 cups rice, cooked (a microwavable bag of rice works fine) ● 1 can black-eyed peas ● 2 cups collard greens, chopped (frozen works fine) ● 1 pkg. smoked tofu, cubed ● 1 tsp. salt ● Hot sauce, to taste  ● Cooking spray, for tofu   Instructions: ● Use a tofu press to drain the tofu. Alternatively, wrap in a kitchen towel and place between two plates with a heavy book on top for 30 minutes, replace the towel with a fresh one, and repeat. ● Preheat the oven to 400°F. ● Cut the tofu into 1-inch cubes and arrange in a single layer on a large parchment-lined baking sheet. Lightly spray with cooking oil. Bake for 20 minutes, flip, then continue baking until golden brown and crisp, about 20 more minutes. ● Add the oil to a pan over medium heat. Add the onion and stir for 1 minute. ● Add the rice and black-eyed peas. Sauté for 3 minutes, stirring often. ● Add the collard greens and salt and stir for a few minutes, until cooked through. Top with baked tofu.      48 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages EXAMPLES OF MARKETABLE NUTRITIONAL MESSAGES 1. Protein sufficient a. Substitutions of meat as a protein source in the foods, such as, vegan cheese, legumes, lentils, and/or eggs, to fulfill nutritional needs. b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Chickpea Salad, Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls, Spiced Lentil Soup, and Creamy White Bean Soup.  2. Energy sufficient  a. For each recipe provided, the average calorie content per serving is between 500-800 kcal, which is sufficient for an individual to consume and provides satiety.  b. This can be applied to any recipe chosen from the recipe list, specific calorie numbers can be listed beside the selection on the menu. 3. Promotes digestive health a. Increase in fibre consumption, which promotes the motility of the digestive tract (Karunaratne, 2018). b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach, and Sweet Potato Carrot Dal with Coconut Leeks. 4. Rich in antioxidants  a. Reduced oxidative stress in functional parts of the body and potential decreased risk against the development of age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases (Yoshihara, 2010). b. Example of recipe that can use this message Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto.  MARKETABLE NUTRITIONAL MESSAGES 1. Protein sufficient a. Substitutions of meat as a protein source in the foods, such as, vegan cheese, legumes, lentils, and/or eggs, to fulfill nutritional needs. b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Chickpea Salad, Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls, Spiced Lentil Soup, and Creamy White Bean Soup.  2. Energy sufficient  a. For each recipe provided, the average calorie content per serving is between 500-800 kcal, which is sufficient for an individual to consume and provides satiety.  b. This can be applied to any recipe chosen from the recipe list, specific calorie numbers can be listed beside the selection on the menu. 3. Promotes digestive health a. Increase in fibre consumption, which promotes the motility of the digestive tract (Karunaratne, 2018). b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach, and Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks. 4. Rich in antioxidants  a. Reduced oxidative stress in functional parts of the body and potential decreased risk against the development of age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases (Yoshihara, 2010). b. Example of recipe that can use this message Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto.   Nest Catering Vegan, Gluten-Free Recipes   Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF) iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF) v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF) iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF)          Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2015/07/21/chickpea-salad/  Yields:​ 3 servings Prep Time:​ 15 min Cook Time:​ 0 min  Ingredients: ● 1 (15-ounce/425 grams) can chickpeas, drained and rinsed ● 2 stalks celery, finely chopped ● 3 green onions, thinly sliced ● 1/4 cup finely chopped dill pickle ● 1/4 cup finely chopped red bell pepper ● 3 tablespoons store-bought or homemade vegan mayonnaise ● 1 clove garlic, minced ● 1 1/2 teaspoons yellow mustard ● 2 teaspoons minced fresh dill (optional) ● 1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons fresh lemon juice, to taste ● 1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. In a large bowl, mash the chickpeas with a potato masher until flaked in texture. 2. Stir in the celery, green onions, pickles, bell peppers, mayonnaise, and garlic until combined. 3. Now, stir in the mustard and dill, and season with the lemon juice, salt, and pepper, adjusting the quantities to taste. 4. Serve with toasted bread, on crackers, wraps, or on top of a basic leafy green salad. Or just enjoy it all on its own!  ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/11/28/vegan-grain-free-sticky-crispy-sesame-cauliflower/   Yields:​ 4 servings  Ingredients:  Cauliflower: ● 1 head of cauliflower (about 2 ½ lbs) ● 1 cup cassava flour ● 1 ½ cups water, plus extra ● ½ teaspoon garlic powder ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds ● sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste Sticky Sesame Sauce: ● ¼ cup tamari soy sauce ● 2 tablespoons maple syrup ● 1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil ● 1 tablespoon rice vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● 1 tablespoon chili paste (optional) ● 2 cloves garlic, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 2-inch piece fresh ginger, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. 2. Cut the cauliflower into small florets. In a large bowl, combine the cassava flour, water, garlic powder, sesame seeds, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. The resulting batter should be fluid but thick–thick enough to coat a piece of cauliflower and pool only slightly once set on the baking sheet. If the batter is too thick/pasty, add water by the tablespoon until you reach the proper consistency. 3. Drop the cauliflower florets into the batter and stir until all pieces are coated. Using a fork, carefully transfer battered cauliflower to the baking sheets, leaving 1 inch of space around each floret. 4. Bake the battered cauliflower for 20 minutes. While the cauliflower is baking, make the sauce. In a small saucepan combine the tamari, maple syrup, sesame oil, rice vinegar, tomato paste, chili paste, garlic, ginger, and sesame seeds. Bring the sauce to a boil on the stove over medium heat. Simmer for 5 minutes or until slightly reduced. Set aside. 5. After cauliflower has baked for 20 minutes, remove and let cool slightly. Once it’s cool enough to handle, transfer the par-baked cauliflower to a large bowl. Cover the cauliflower with all but 3 tablespoons of the sesame sauce. Toss to thoroughly coat the cauliflower. 6. Bake the cauliflower for another 20 minutes, or until the edges are starting to darken. Remove the crispy sesame cauliflower and let it sit for a full 5 minutes before serving in lettuce wraps, on rice etc., drizzled with remaining sauce and topped with extra sesame seeds, and chopped green onions.  Notes:  If you don’t want to use cassava flour, you can substitute brown rice, chickpea or regular wheat flour. Lower the amount of water to 1 cup if you’re making this substitution (and add more if necessary)! -It’s important to really keep an eye on these towards the end of the cooking process. They can go from perfect to burnt in what feels like seconds.  -I use a Microplane to get the garlic and ginger nice and fine for the sauce -The sauce is light here! Double the batch if you like it saucy. iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF)  https://minimalistbaker.com/spicy-buffalo-chickpea-wraps/  Yields:​ 4 servings  Prep Time:​ 20 minutes Cook Time:​ 10 minutes   Ingredients:  Dressing and Salad: ● 1/3 cup hummus (or store-bought) ● 1 1/2 - 2 Tbsp maple syrup (plus more to taste) ● 1 small lemon, juiced (1 small lemon yields ~2 Tbsp or 30 ml) ● 1-2 Tbsp hot water (to thin) ● 1 head romaine lettuce (or sub 1 bundle kale per 1 head romaine // cleaned, large stems removed, roughly chopped) Buffalo Chickpeas: ● 1 15-ounce can chickpeas (rinsed, drained and dried // ~ 1 1/4 cups per can when drained) ● 1 Tbsp coconut oil (or sub grape seed or olive oil) ● 4 Tbsp hot sauce (divided) ● 1/4 tsp garlic powder (or sub 1 minced garlic clove per 1/4 tsp powder) ● 1 pinch sea salt For Serving: ● 3-4 vegan-friendly flour tortillas, pita, or flatbread ● 1/4 cup red onion, diced (​optional​) ● 1/4 cup baby tomato, diced (​optional​) ● 1/4 ripe avocado, thinly sliced (​optional​)  Directions:  1. Make dressing by adding hummus, maple syrup, and lemon juice to a mixing bowl and whisking to combine. Add hot water until thick but pourable. 2. Taste and adjust flavor as needed, then add romaine lettuce or kale, and toss. Set aside. 3. To make chickpeas, add drained, dried chickpeas to a separate mixing bowl. Add coconut oil, 3 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size), garlic powder, and a pinch of salt - toss to combine/coat. 4. Heat a metal or cast-iron skillet over medium heat. Once hot, add chickpeas and sauté for 3-5 minutes, mashing a few chickpeas gently with a spoon to create texture (see photo). 5. Once chickpeas are hot and slightly dried out, remove from heat and add remaining 1 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size). Stir to combine. Set aside. 6. To assemble, top each wrap with a generous portion of the dressed romaine salad, and top with 1/4 cup buffalo chickpeas and a sprinkle of diced tomatoes, avocado, and/or onion (optional). 7. Serve immediately. Store leftovers separately in the refrigerator up to 3 days, though best when fresh. You can enjoy the buffalo chickpeas cold, room temperature or heated up. iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF)  https://nutritionstripped.com/open-faced-sprout-sandwich/  Yields:​ 1 serving Prep Time:​ 5 minutes  Cook Time:​ 0 minutes   Ingredients:  ● 2 slices of grain-free bread ● 1 teaspoon dijon mustard ● 2 tablespoons hummus  ● Sliced vegetables: thinly sliced red onion, tomato, cucumber, 2 romaine lettuce leafs ● Protein of your choice: eggs (scrambled, sliced hard boiled, or poached), thinly sliced tempeh, thinly sliced tofu, chicken, etc. ● 1/2 avocado, sliced or mashed on the vegetables ● 1 handful of sprouts ● Sea salt ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the bread until desired firmness, then simply spread mustard, followed by hummus, layer sliced cucumber, then tomato, then the protein of your choice, then sliced avocado, followed by the lettuce and sprouts. 2. Top with fresh black pepper and a pinch of sea salt. 3. Enjoy immediately or place in an airtight glass container for lunch on the go! v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) https://theminimalistvegan.com/spiced-quinoa-and-eggplant-rolls/ Yields:​ 15 rolls  Ingredients: ● ½ cup of washed quinoa ● 1 cup of water (to cook the quinoa in) ● 2 tbsp rice bran oil ● 1 small onion diced ● 1 tsp garam masala ● ¼ tsp turmeric powder ● 1 tbsp finely grated fresh ginger ● Pinch of hot chilli powder (or more if you like spicy food) ● Half a medium sized capsicum chopped ● 3 medium sized eggplants, cut into ½ inch thin slices ● ½ cup olive oil ● Salt for seasoning ● A handful of parsley for dressing, finely chopped  Directions: 1. Bring quinoa and water to a boil in a small saucepan. Reduce heat to low, cover and simmer until tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed. This typically takes 15 to 20 minutes. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, add the rice bran oil and onion to a medium sized saucepan on medium heat. 3. Once the onion starts to brown, add in the garam masala, turmeric, ginger, chilli stirring to coat the onions in the spices well. Let it cook for about 2-3 minutes. 4. Add in the capsicum and stir to combine all ingredients well. Reduce heat to low and cook until the capsiucum is soft. Season to taste. 5. Combine the cooked quinoa and spicy onion and capsicum and mix well. Set aside. 6. For the eggplant, preheat a medium-high charcoal grill on a barbecue or stove grill. Brush both sides of the eggplant slices with olive oil and season with salt. Grill until golden-brown grill marks form, which should take around 3 to 4 minutes on one side. Turn the eggplant and repeat the same process. You can also do this in a frying pan. 7. Once all the eggplants are done. Start adding 1-2 tbsp of quinoa mixture at the bottom of each eggplant piece and roll tightly. You can use toothpicks to keep together if they are coming undone easily. I find that placing the end of the eggplant facing the plate helps to keep it in place. Roll all the eggplant pieces and sprinkle the stack with some fresh parsley and a little more olive oil drizzled over the top. 8. You can serve this warm or cold on its own or with some hummus. vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) https://www.emilieeats.com/easy-quinoa-salad-tomatoes-spinach/  Yields:​ 4-6 Prep Time:​ 10 minutes Cook Time: ​15 minutes   Ingredients: ● 1/2 cup dry quinoa ● 2 cups cherry or grape tomatoes, halved ● 2 1/2 cups spinach, chopped ● 1 15-ounce can white beans, drained and rinsed ● 1/3 cup slivered almonds ● 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar ● 1/2 tablespoon maple syrup ● 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder ● 1/4 teaspoon salt ● 1/4 ​teaspoon​ pepper  Directions​: 1. In a medium saucepan over high heat, add quinoa and 1 cup water; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for 13-15 minutes. When done, fluff quinoa with a fork. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, heat a little water or oil (if using) in a skillet over medium heat. Add tomatoes; cook for 5 minutes, until tomatoes begin to burst. Add spinach; cook until wilted, about 5-7 more minutes, stirring continuously. 3. In a large bowl, add quinoa, vegetables, beans, and almonds. Stir to combine. 4. In a small bowl, add vinegar, maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. 5. Pour dressing over the other ingredients. Stir to combine. vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) https://www.thefullhelping.com/falafel-fattoush-real-food-really-fast/  Yields:  Prep Time:​ 5 minutes Cook Time:​ 10 minutes   Ingredients: ● 4 2-ounce pita breads ● 1 pint cherry tomatoes halved if large ● 1 cup sliced Persian cucumber or diced English cucumber ● 1 15- ounce can chickpeas rinsed and drained ● 2 scallions thinly sliced ● 1 cup fresh parsley leaves ● 1 clove garlic finely minced ● 1/4-1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes ● 2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 2 teaspoons ground coriander ● 1/2-1 teaspoon salt ● 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper ● 1 tablespoon lemon juice ● 2 tablespoons olive oil ● 2 tablespoons sesame seeds toasted  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the pita bread and chop it into bite-sized squares, about 1/2-inch each. Place the bread in a large bowl along with the tomatoes, cucumber, chickpeas, scallions, and parsley. Mix the vegetables around lightly to combine. Sprinkle in the minced garlic, red pepper flakes, cumin, coriander, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and pepper. Toss everything together until the vegetables are well distributed and evenly coated with the spices.  2. Right before serving, drizzle in the lemon juice and olive oil, tossing once more to incorporate. Add more salt to taste, if needed, and finish with a sprinkle of sesame seeds over the top. viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) http://www.onegreenplanet.org/vegan-recipe/the-vegan-eggplant-crunchburger/ Calories: ​754 Yields: ​4 burgers  Ingredients:  Horseradish Mustard Mayo ● 1/4 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbs. Dijon mustard ● 2 Tbs. prepared horseradish ● A pinch of dried tarragon ● Kosher salt and black pepper to taste Eggplant Burgers ● 1 large or 2 medium eggplants, peeled and cubed ● 2 Tbs. extra-virgin olive oil, divided ● 1 shallot, finely minced ● 1 cup vegan cheese shreds, any flavor ● 1 clove garlic, minced or grated ● ½ tsp. Kosher salt ● ¼ tsp. black pepper ● 1 Tbs. fresh parsley, chopped ● 1 cup gluten-free bread crumbs Toppings ● 1 cup vegan cheese, either slices or shreds (as long as it melts) ● 4 gluten-free buns ● 4 slices beefsteak tomato ● 4 leaves romaine lettuce ● 4 slices red onion ● Horseradish Mustard Mayonnaise (recipe above) ● 4 handfuls of potato chips  Directions:  For the Horseradish Mustard Mayo 1. Whisk together the mayonnaise, mustard, and horseradish in a small bowl and season with salt and pepper. 2. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes to allow the flavors to meld. 3. The sauce can be prepared 1 day in advance and kept covered in the refrigerator. To make the Eggplant Burgers 1. In a large skillet, heat 1 Tbs. of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the eggplant cubes and sauté until they are browned and very soft, about 10-12 minutes. Make sure they are super-soft because they need to be mashed. You could also roast the eggplant to make it soft. 2. Transfer the eggplant to a large bowl. Mash the eggplant up until there are no whole pieces left. I use a potato masher to do this. Once you have a big bowl of mush, add the shallot, cheese, garlic, salt, pepper and parsley. Mix it into the eggplant. Add the breadcrumbs. Don’t add them all at once; you want to feel the mix and see whether you need a whole cup. I add ½ cup of bread crumbs and mix it. 3. The best way to mix it is wet your hands and use one hand (keep the other hand clean) to gently mix the crumbs into the eggplant. You will probably need more crumbs so add another ¼ cup and mix it again. You want the consistency to feel firm, like it will hold up as a burger. If it feels too moist, add the last ¼ cup of bread crumbs. Usually, I end up using the whole cup of crumbs. 4. Put the eggplant mixture into the fridge for about 30 minutes. Take the bowl out of the fridge and with your hand, divide the mixture into 4 parts. To form the burgers, I use a 3 ½ inch cookie cutter. I spray it with a bit of cooking oil spray and then pack the eggplant mixture into the cookie cutter. Pat it down, let it sit for about 20 seconds and then gently lift the cookie cutter off. Let your perfect burger sit for a few minutes undisturbed while you make the other 3 burgers. 5. In the same skillet that you sautéed the eggplant in (but cleaned), heat the other Tbs. of oil over medium-high heat and add the burgers to the pan. Let cook until slightly browned on one side and (this is very important), you can lift the burger with a spatula without breaking it. I use 2 spatulas to gently turn the burgers. Flip them and let them cook on the other side. When the 2nd side gets golden brown, flip them back over and let the first side cook until golden brown. To make the Vegan Crunch Burgers 1. Top the burgers with either 2 slices or ¼ cup of vegan cheese. Add about a Tbs. of water to the pan and cover it. This will create steam and allow the cheese to melt and get ooey-gooey. 2. If you want your buns toasty, put on some pants. If you want your burger buns toasty, preheat the broiler while you are cooking the burgers. Split the buns and put the halves, cut side up, on a baking sheet and cook them until they are lightly golden brown, about 30 seconds. Don’t burn them!! 3. Place the burgers on the bun bottoms and, if desired, top with tomato, lettuce, onion, and a dollop of horseradish mustard mayonnaise. Pile on the potato chips, top with the bun tops, and serve immediately. Make sure you have tons of napkins because it’s going to be messy.  Nutritional Information Per Serving: Calories: 754 ● Carbs: 104 g ● Fat: 36 g ● Protein: 15 g ● Sodium: 1,245 mg ● Sugar: 9 g ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/delicious-deviled-eggs/  Ingredients ● 10 small potatoes, halved lengthwise ● 2 Tbsp. refined coconut oil ● 1/2 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard ● 1/2 tsp. Kala Namak (for an egg-like taste) (optional) ● Salt and pepper, to taste ● Smoked paprika, for garnish ● Fresh dill sprigs, for garnish  Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 425ºF. Place the potatoes on a baking sheet, drizzle with the coconut oil, and bake for 30 minutes, or until tender. 2. Let cool, then scoop out the insides of the potatoes with a melon baller or spoon and place in a large bowl. Add the vegan mayonnaise, mustard, and kala namak and season with salt and pepper. Stir until well combined. 3. Fill the potatoes skins with the mixture and garnish with smoked paprika and dill sprigs.  Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2016/04/03/glowing-spiced-lentil-soup/   Yields: ​7 cups (1.65 litres)  Prep time:​ 15 Minutes  Cook time:​ 20 Minutes  Ingredients: ● 1 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil ● 2 cups (280 grams) diced onion (1 medium/large) ● 2 large garlic cloves, minced ● 2 teaspoons ground turmeric ● 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon ● 1/4 teaspoon ground cardamom ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can diced tomatoes, with juices ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can full-fat coconut milk ● 3/4 cup (140 grams) uncooked red lentils, rinsed and drained ● 3 1/2 cups (875 mL) low-sodium vegetable broth ● 1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper, to taste ● Red pepper flakes or cayenne pepper, to taste (for a kick of heat!) ● 1 (5-ounce/140-gram) package baby spinach ● 2 teaspoons fresh lime juice, or more to taste  Directions: 1. In a large pot, add the oil, onion, and garlic. Add a pinch of salt, stir, and sauté over medium heat for 4 to 5 minutes until the onion softens. 2. Stir in the turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and cardamom until combined. Continue cooking for about 1 minute, until fragrant. 3. Add the diced tomatoes (with juices), entire can of coconut milk, red lentils, broth, salt, and plenty of pepper. Add red pepper flakes or cayenne, if desired, to taste. Stir to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a low boil. 4. Once it boils, reduce the heat to medium-high, and simmer, uncovered, for about 18 to 22 minutes, until the lentils are fluffy and tender. 5. Turn off the heat and stir in the spinach until wilted. Add the lime juice to taste. Taste and add more salt and pepper, if desired. Ladle into bowls and serve with toasted bread and lime wedges.  ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF)  http://thefirstmess.com/2018/08/01/braised-harissa-eggplant-chickpeas/ Yields:​ 4 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 large eggplant ● 1 tablespoon sea salt + extra ● 3 tablespoons heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado (plus extra if necessary) ● 1 medium cooking onion, small dice ● 1 small chili, such as cayenne or fresno, seeded and minced ● 3 cloves of garlic, minced ● ½ teaspoon ground cumin ● ½ teaspoon ground caraway ● ½ teaspoon ground coriander ● 1 ½ cups cooked chickpeas ● Ground black pepper, to taste ● 2 cups crushed tomatoes ● 1 cup vegetable stock ● 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice ● ¼ cup chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Remove the stem of the eggplant and chop into 1-inch cubes. Place the cubes in a colander and toss them with the tablespoon of salt. Set aside for an hour in the sink. 2. After an hour, rinse the eggplant (to remove excess salt) and thoroughly pat the cubes dry with paper towel or clean kitchen towels. 3. Set up a dinner plate with a couple paper towels on top. In a wide, deep braiser-style pot, heat the oil over medium-high heat. In batches, sear the eggplant until it’s golden brown on all sides and softened. As the eggplant finishes, remove it from the pot with a slotted spoon and place it on the paper towel-lined plate. Set aside. 4. Add more oil to the pot of necessary and lower the heat to medium. Add the onions and hot pepper to the pot and sauté until onion is translucent, about 4 minutes. Add the garlic, cumin, caraway, and coriander to the pot and stir until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the chickpeas, some salt and black pepper to taste, and then stir to coat the chickpeas in spices. Add the tomatoes and vegetable stock to the pot. 5. Bring the braise to a boil and simmer, uncovered and stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes. Add the eggplant back into the pot and bring the braise up to a boil once more. Stir in the lemon juice and parsley. Serve the braised harissa eggplant hot over millet or rice (or any other starch of choice).  iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2017/07/12/vegan-stuffed-eggplant-sunflower-romesco-recipe/  Yields: ​4 servings  Ingredients:  Sunflower Romesco (makes extra): ● ½ cup toasted sunflower seeds ● 2 roasted red peppers (homemade or from a jar) ● 2 cloves of garlic, chopped ● 1 teaspoon smoked paprika ● ½ teaspoon aleppo pepper, or a pinch of cayenne ● 2 tablespoons sherry OR apple cider vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● small handful flat parsley leaves ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● scant ½ cup virgin olive oil Stuffed Eggplant: ● 2 small-medium eggplants ● olive oil ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● 1 small shallot, chopped ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● ¼ cup romesco ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice 2 tablespoons tahini ● 4 servings cooked grain of choice (I used quinoa) ● big handful of fresh and leafy herbs, chopped (I used cilantro, parsley & a bit of dill) ● toasted sunflower seeds or ​dukkah​, for topping Directions: 1. Make the sunflower romesco: In the bowl of a food processor, combine the sunflower seeds, roasted red peppers, garlic, paprika, aleppo pepper, vinegar, tomato paste, parsley, salt, and pepper. Pulse the mixture until all ingredients are finely chopped and lightly pasty. Scrape the bowl down. Then, with the motor on low, drizzle the olive oil in through the feed tube until fully incorporated. Check the sauce for seasoning. Transfer sauce to a sealable jar, and set aside in the fridge until ready to use.  2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. Cut the eggplants in half lengthwise, right through the stem. Using a paring knife, carve into the eggplant flesh all the way around the perimeter. Pry the eggplant flesh out of the eggplant halves with your fingers or a spoon and set it aside. Place eggplant halves on a baking sheet, facing up. Brush the eggplant halves with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Bake eggplant for 20 minutes, or until golden brown and lightly tender. 4. Roughly chop the scooped out eggplant. Heat a bit of oil in a medium-large saute pan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic to the pan and saute until fragrant and slightly soft, about 2 minutes. Add the chopped eggplant, and season with salt and pepper. Stir. Saute the eggplant, stirring occasionally, until tender, browned, and slightly reduced in size, about 4 minutes. 5. Carefully transfer eggplant to the food processor. Add the ¼ cup of romesco, lemon juice, and tahini to the food processor as well. Pulse the mixture until you have a chunky paste. 6. To serve, divide the warm eggplant filling evenly among the eggplant “boats.” Then, spoon your cooked grain of choice on top along with a sprinkle of chopped herbs. Garnish the tops of the stuffed eggplants with more romesco and toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah. Enjoy warm. iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/01/03/creamy-white-bean-soup-vegan-recipe/  Yields:​ 4-5 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 tablespoon heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado or refined coconut oil ● 1 medium yellow onion, small dice ● 1 medium carrot, small dice ● 1 celery stalk, small dice ● 2 cloves garlic, minced ● chili flakes or aleppo pepper, to taste ● 1 sprig fresh rosemary, minced ● 4 cups cooked navy beans (about 2 15-ounce cans, drained) ● 4 cups vegetable stock ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice ● sea salt & ground black pepper, to taste ● 3 cups packed chopped lacinato kale (roughly 1 small bunch) big handful finely chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Heat the oil in a medium-large soup pot over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, and celery to the pot and stir. Saute the vegetables until slightly softened and translucent, about 5 minutes. 2. To the pot, add the garlic, chili flakes, and rosemary. Stir and cook until garlic is fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the navy beans to the pot and stir. Add the vegetable stock to the pot and stir once more. Bring the soup to a boil. 3. Once boiling, ladle half of the soup into an upright blender. Add the lemon juice to the blender as well. Carefully bring the speed of the blender up to high and blend until this portion of the soup is totally liquified. Pour this liquified portion back into the pot. Season the soup with salt and pepper. 4. Add the kale to the pot and bring the soup to a boil. Once the kale is slightly wilted and bright green, season the soup once more with salt and pepper, if you find it necessary. Stir in the chopped parsley as well. Serve the soup hot. v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2014/12/11/sweet-potato-carrot-dal-with-coconut-leeks-and-a-wine-country-ontario-giveaway/   Yields: ​ 4 servings  Ingredients:  Dal: ● 2-3 tsp coconut oil ● 1 tsp ground coriander ● 1/2 tsp mustard seeds ● pinch of chili flakes ● 1 cup red lentils ● 1 sweet potato, peeled and diced small ● 1 two inch piece of ginger, peeled + minced ● 1 one inch piece of fresh turmeric, peeled + minced (or substitute 1 tsp dried turmeric powder) ● 3 ½  cups filtered water + extra if necessary ● 1.5 tsp garam masala ● salt to taste Coconut Leeks: ● 1 tbsp extra virgin coconut oil ● 1 leek, white and light green part julienned ● squeeze of lime juice ● pinch of salt To serve: ● Cooked, warm rice ● Chopped parsley, cilantro or mint (or a combination)  Directions: 1. Place a large pot over medium heat. Heat up the coconut oil in the pot and add the ground coriander, mustard seeds and chili flakes. Stir about until the mustard seeds start to pop just a little bit. 2. Add the lentils, diced sweet potato, carrots, ginger, turmeric, and a pinch of salt. Stir to mix and coat everything in the oil and spice. Add the filtered water to the pot. Bring mixture to a boil and simmer until the mixture is creamy and soupy, stirring occasionally. The sweet potato pieces should still be intact with a tiny bit of bite. The lentils will be broken down, filling out the mixture. Keep it warm while you sauté the leeks. 3. Heat the coconut oil in a small sauté pan over medium heat. Add the leeks to the pan and sauté until leeks are soft and very fragrant. Season with salt. Add a squeeze of lime if you like at the end. Remove from the heat. 4. To serve: divide the hot dal over 4 portions of rice. Top the dal with sautéed leeks and a few dribbles of the coconut oil left in the pan. Garnish each serving with the chopped herbs and black sesame seeds. vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/1-pot-butternut-squash-quinoa-chili/  Yields:​ 6 servings Prep Time:​ 10 minutes Cook Time:​ 50 minutes  Ingredients:  Chili: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or coconut oil (sub water if avoiding oil) ● 1 small white or yellow onion (diced) ● 1 jalapeño (minced // remove seeds for less heat) ● 1/2 tsp each sea salt and black pepper (​DIVIDED​ // plus more to taste) ● 4 cloves garlic ● 4 cups diced butternut squash ● 3 Tbsp chili powder ​(DIVIDED) ● 2 Tbsp ground cumin ​(DIVIDED) ● 2 tsp smoked paprika ● 2 15- ounce cans fire-roasted (or regular) diced tomatoes (if unsalted, add more sea salt to taste) ● 1/4 cup tomato paste ● 3 cups ​vegetable broth ​(sub up to half with water for lower sodium // plus more as needed) ● 1/4 cup quinoa, rinsed ● 1 15- ounce can kidney beans (slightly drained) ● 1 15- ounce can black beans (slightly drained) ● 1-2 Tbsp coconut sugar (or maple syrup) ● 1 small chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (for heat) (​optional​) ● 1 cup chopped kale (or other sturdy green) (​optional​) For Serving (optional): ● Rice or quinoa ● Fresh chopped cilantro or parsley ● Avocado Directions: 1. Heat a large pot over medium heat. Once hot, add oil (or water), onion, and jalapeño pepper. Season with a healthy pinch each salt and pepper and stir. Sauté for 3-4 minutes, stirring frequently. 2. Add garlic and sauté (stirring occasionally) for 2-3 minutes more, or until onion, pepper, and garlic are softened and slightly browned. 3. Add butternut squash, 2/3 of the chili powder (2 Tbsp as original recipe is written), half the cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), smoked paprika and stir to coat. Cook for 3 minutes. 4. Add diced tomatoes, tomato paste, and vegetable broth and stir to combine. Bring to a low boil over medium-high heat. 5. Once boiling, add quinoa (see photo) and reduce heat to medium-low or low, so it's at a gentle simmer. You want to see bubbles, but you don't want it boiling. ​Cover and cook for 12-15 minutes, or until quinoa is mostly tender. As it's cooking you may need to add more vegetable broth or water if it's looking too dry and the quinoa isn't submerged (I didn't find that necessary). 6. Next add kidney beans, black beans, 1/4 tsp each salt and pepper, and remaining cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written) and chili powder (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), coconut sugar, and stir to combine. If adding the chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (optional), add now. 7. Bring to a simmer over medium heat, then reduce heat slightly to low (or medium-low), cover, and gently simmer for 15-20 minutes to meld the flavors together. Stir occasionally. 8. Taste and adjust seasonings as needed, adding more chili powder or cumin for smokiness, salt for saltiness, or a little coconut sugar to balance the heat and draw out the other flavors. 9. Add kale (optional), cover, and cook for 2-3 minutes more. Serve as is, or garnished with lime, fresh jalapeño, cilantro, red onion, and/or avocado (all optional). 10. Store leftovers in the refrigerator up to 5-6 days, or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop or in the microwave until hot. vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/caramelized-shiitake-mushroom-risotto/  Yields:​ 4 servings  Prep Time:​ 10 minutes Cook Time:​ 20 minutes   Ingredients:  Broth: ● 3 1/2 - 4 cups ​vegetable broth ​(or store-bought) Risotto: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or olive oil (if avoiding oil, sub water) ● 3/4 cup thinly sliced shallot ● 1/4 tsp each sea salt and black pepper ● 2 cups sliced Shiitake mushrooms (or other similar mushroom) ● 1 Tbsp ​coconut aminos​ (or tamari // soy sauce) ● 1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme (or sub dried) ● 1 cup arborio rice (works best here - we recommend not subbing other grains) ● 1/4 cup dry white wine (or omit) ● 1/4 cup ​vegan parmesan cheese​ (plus more for serving // or sub nutritional yeast) For Serving (optional): ● Fresh chopped parsley  Directions: 1. In a medium saucepan, heat vegetable broth over medium heat. Once simmering, reduce heat to low to keep warm. 2. In the meantime, heat a large pan* over medium heat. Once hot, add oil and shallot and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. Sauté for 3-4 minutes - stirring frequently. Then add mushrooms and coconut aminos and continue sautéing until the mushrooms are golden brown and caramelized. ​Optional​: remove some of the shiitake mushrooms from the pan and reserve for serving - not necessary, but it makes a nice garnish. 3. Add the thyme and arborio rice and cook for 1 minute, stirring occasionally. Then add dry white wine and stir gently. Cook for 2 minutes or until the liquid is mostly absorbed. 4. Using a ladle, add warmed vegetable stock 1/2 cup (120 ml) at a time, stirring almost constantly, giving the risotto little breaks to come back to a simmer. The heat should be medium, and there should always be a slight simmer (adjust heat as needed). You want the mixture to be cooking consistently but ​not boiling​ or it can get gummy and cook too quickly. 5. Continue to add vegetable stock 1 ladle at a time, stirring to incorporate, until the rice is 'al dente' - cooked through but still has a slight bite. This whole process should take about 15-20 minutes. 6. Once the rice is cooked through and al dente, remove from heat and add vegan parmesan cheese. Stir to coat (see photo). Taste and adjust flavor as needed, adding sea salt and pepper to taste or more vegan parmesan to enhance the cheesiness. If dry at this point, add a little more warmed broth. 7. To serve, divide between serving bowls and top with reserved mushrooms, additional vegan parmesan cheese, and a sprinkle of fresh parsley (all optional). 8. Best when fresh, though leftovers will keep covered in the refrigerator for 4-5 days or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop with additional (warmed) vegetable broth until hot.  viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) https://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipe/pasta-with-mushrooms-herbs-and-beet-greens/9470/  Ingredients: ● 4 oz dried gluten-free pasta  ● 2 cup mushrooms (cremini or a combination of cremini, oyster and shitake), sliced ● 1 medium onion, coarsely chopped ● extra virgin olive oil (just enough to sauté the mushrooms and onions) ● 2 large cloves garlic, minced ● 1 Tbsp fresh thyme leaves (or 1 tsp dried) You can mix herbs, or choose your favourite ● 1 bunch baby beet greens (save the roots for another dish), well washed, dried and coarsely chopped ● Chili pepper flakes – amount is up to you ● 2-3 tbsp balsamic vinegar ● Vegan cheese to sprinkle over the pasta just before serving…again, amount is up to you  Directions: 1. Bring a large pot of well-salted water to a boil. Add the gluten-free pasta and cook until al dente (8-10 minutes depending on the type of pasta). Set aside 1 cup cooking water. (Sometimes I need it, sometimes not, but it’s best to have some handy.) Drain and place in a large serving bowl. 2. In the meantime, in a large non-stick skillet, over medium high heat, add a little olive oil and sauté the onions and mushrooms until the onions are translucent and the mushrooms golden (about 5 minutes). Add the garlic and toss once or twice, then add the baby beet greens and toss until wilted (2-3 minutes). 3. Just before adding to the pasta, add balsamic vinegar, chili pepper flakes and toss. Taste for seasoning and add to the serving bowl. (Here's where you might want to add some cooking water or some olive oil. Toss and add coarsely grated vegan cheese and serve.   ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/white-bean-fettuccine-alfredo/  Ingredients: ● 2 Tbsp. vegan butter ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● 1/4 cup chopped broccoli florets ● 1/4 cup sliced mushrooms ● 1 15-oz. can white beans (also known as Great Northern beans), drained and rinsed ● 1 tsp. lemon juice ● 1 Tbsp. nutritional yeast ● 1/2 cup almond milk ● 2 oz. dried fettuccine ● 1 tomato, chopped  Directions: ● Melt the vegan butter in a large pan. Add the garlic, broccoli, and sliced mushrooms. Cook over medium heat for 2 to 3 minutes. ● Remove the broccoli and mushrooms, then set aside. Pour the melted butter and garlic into a blender. Add the white beans and blend for 5 seconds. Add the lemon juice, nutritional yeast, and almond milk and blend until completely smooth. Transfer to the large pan and cook over medium heat until warm. ● Bring a large pot of water to a boil and cook the fettuccine according to the package directions. Drain the pasta, then return to the pot. Pour the white-bean Alfredo sauce over the pasta and add the broccoli, mushroom slices, and tomato. x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/black-eyed-peas-veggie-medley/  Ingredients: ● 1/2 pkg. of 14 oz. extra firm tofu ● 2 Tbsp. oil ● 1/4 onion, chopped ● 1 1/2 cups rice, cooked (a microwavable bag of rice works fine) ● 1 can black-eyed peas ● 2 cups collard greens, chopped (frozen works fine) ● 1 pkg. smoked tofu, cubed ● 1 tsp. salt ● Hot sauce, to taste  ● Cooking spray, for tofu   Instructions: ● Use a tofu press to drain the tofu. Alternatively, wrap in a kitchen towel and place between two plates with a heavy book on top for 30 minutes, replace the towel with a fresh one, and repeat. ● Preheat the oven to 400°F. ● Cut the tofu into 1-inch cubes and arrange in a single layer on a large parchment-lined baking sheet. Lightly spray with cooking oil. Bake for 20 minutes, flip, then continue baking until golden brown and crisp, about 20 more minutes. ● Add the oil to a pan over medium heat. Add the onion and stir for 1 minute. ● Add the rice and black-eyed peas. Sauté for 3 minutes, stirring often. ● Add the collard greens and salt and stir for a few minutes, until cooked through. Top with baked tofu.       UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report        Plant-Based Food Offerings for the AMS Celine Koppenaal, Daniele Pestoni, Louise Dong, Celeste Cardoz, Bethany Del Begio University of British Columbia FNH 473 Themes: Food, Climate, Procurement April 8, 2019         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1 Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Situational Assessment and Planning Framework 3 i. Issues relevant to the target population 3 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population 4 iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels 5 iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice 7 Project Goal and Objectives 9 Description of Project Outputs 10 i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations 10 ii. Introduction of Recipes 11 iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages 12 Evaluation Plan 12 Conclusion 15 Authors’ Contributions 16 References 19 Appendices 21 Appendix A: Logic Model 21 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report 22 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations 23 Appendix D: Recipes 27 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages 48               2 Executive Summary Introduction The relationship between food and the environment has been steadily and increasingly endorsed in recent years, and it is at this junction where the potential for human intervention is substantial (Willett et al., 2019). The statement “feeding nine billion” is frequently included in discourse concerning future physical, environmental and social health, this statement aptly encompasses the importance of food in terms of sufficient nutrition, but also the immense demand for resources required to achieve this goal. There is already disparity in the health of the global population, with millions individuals lacking sufficient nutrition, and millions more affected by chronic diseases associated with overnutrition and poor diet, and it is likely that the current patterns of food consumption and production will not amend these obstacles, if left unchanged (Lindgren et al., 2018).  Furthermore, the EAT Lancet Commission (2019) encompasses the importance of food within the context of climate change, stating, “Food is the single strongest lever to optimize human health and environmental sustainability of Earth”. Despite a somewhat dismal outlook at the fate of the planet, this statement can inspire and encourage individuals to make changes, no matter how small, in efforts to live sustainably for environmental and health benefits. The overarching recommendation in order to positively modify the environmental impacts of food consumption and production require switching to primarily plant-based diets (Mertens et al, 2017; Shepon et al., 2018; Tilman & Clark, 2014). These dietary changes are said to promote the greatest improvement in population health but also the greatest reduction in the impact of diet upon resources. It is through these recommendations that food can be seen as a vehicle for change, thus supporting integration of more plant-based options into the Nest Catering menu.  3 This partnership with Nest Catering will increase the prevalence and marketing of plant-based meal options, through which perceptions of those who use AMS catering services, can shift toward sustainable food options.  Situational Assessment and Planning Framework i. Issues relevant to the target population  The target population for this project is the general public who are using Nest Catering services. This includes a wide range of individuals such as UBC faculty, domestic and international students, family of students, and many others. As expressed by the Nest Catering, the clients using their services have various goals for the food that they eat. The clients would like the food provided by nest catering to be “tasty, sustainable, and ethical” (University of British Columbia, 2019).  The current catering menu lacks a diverse selection of tasty, plant-based, sustainable food options that draw on a variety of cultural cuisines (Nest Catering & Conferences, 2019). Because individuals using the catering services are generally ‘single time users’, this is not a major issue of food security. Still, using the lens of food security to look at the current situation brings up issues such as acceptability for those using the catering services. Food security is achieved when all people at all times have access to safe, nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences (Food and Agricultural Organization). Drawing on this definition, in order to increase food security for their clients, Nest Catering must increase the availability of items on their menu that meet their client’s goals. Transitioning the menu to be more plant-forward is also a meaningful step towards increasing the overall sustainability of the Nest Catering and in fulfilling a social responsibility of moving towards global sustainability (Willett et al., 2019).   4 ii. Behaviours that contribute to the problems identified within the target population Diet choice is a consumer behaviour that contributes to the issues identified mentioned in section (i).  The greatest barrier to adopting a plant-based diet is the enjoyment and pleasure of eating meat (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Additionally, some of our consumer audience may be unwilling to try eating sustainable, vegan food if they have a bias against vegan food (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017). For example, many consumers may be deterred from selecting plant-based menu items due to their negative perceptions regarding nutritional values (i.e. insufficient protein or iron content) (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017; Pohjolainen, Vinnari, & Jokinen, 2015 ). Furthermore, plant-based diets are perceived as less nutritionally balanced as well as tasting bland and boring (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). These factors may deter consumers from choosing plant-based menu items. These behaviours presents an issue for Nest Catering who would like to increase the presence of plant based items on the menu. Moreover, a lack of plant-based options when eating out is also a barrier for not consuming plant-based menu items (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). For example, some consumers may have food allergies and food preferences and if these consumers do not request for more sustainable, plant-based and allergen-free meals from Nest Catering, this could lead to limited choices of plant-based and gluten-free food options. In addition, limited experience cooking and producing sustainable, plant-based and gluten-free foods is a behaviour from Nest Catering that contributes to their lack of plant-based food options on the Nest Catering menu. As well, convenience is a barrier to adopting a plant-based diet due to difficulty preparing plant-based foods (Corrin & Papadopoulos, 2017). Chefs lacking experience developing a diverse menu featuring a variety of plant-based recipes and cooking plant-based meals may find it more difficult to prepare these foods. Furthermore, our situational  5 analysis is limited in that there is insufficient data on the behaviours of the event organizers such as the catering manager, who are the decision makers for selection, ordering and implementation of plant-based menu items. iii. Mediating factors relating to the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels Individual Personal preferences Observationally, it can be said that food choices are often a matter of consumer preference. During events, plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free food choices may be less popular among guests, which makes these meal options of a low priority for event organizers. A key reason for this is personal preference towards plant-based foods; which may be based on appearance, taste, and quality of the foods. Many individuals may have a biased perception of vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free as less satiable foods, which results being an unpopular selection (Douglas et al., 2015). Unless an individual has a strict diet or religious restrictions, his or her choice of food does not limit them to solely plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. Moreover, many plant-based recipes include nuts in their ingredients in order to create texture but also to contribute protein; however, in Canada, nut allergy is very common among the general public and comes with life-threatening repercussions for some individuals (Ben-Shoshan et al., 2012). Thus, event organizers may tend to order less of the vegan, plant-based, or gluten-free foods in order to reduce the presence of food allergens in their event menus.  Cost It is to no surprise that cost is one of the primary considerations when producing food both for events or at the individual level. Cost not only dictates what is feasible from an economic standpoint, but is also subject to seasonal and other fluctuation, which further  6 complicates the process of implementing a plant-based menu. Plant foods that are not in season may result in a higher price (McLaughlin, 2004). When choosing between being sustainable or being cost-friendly, the general public may be faced with a dilemma, and often affordability is the prevailing factor. For events where food is provided by organizers, cost-effectiveness is typically of high priority to ensure that the event is economically beneficial. For individuals who are paying for their own meal at events, more expensive options may become last preference.   Interpersonal Awareness of consuming plant-based foods Although plant-based, vegan and gluten free foods appear to be very popular in the city of Vancouver, the majority of the population may be lagging behind on this trend. In addition, the definition of eating healthy is very vague and cannot be limited to solely consuming plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods. Furthermore, the general public may not be aware of what exactly if plant-based, vegan, or gluten-free foods. They are less aware of what is available in the market for them to choose, thus many people may not event have tried these options before (Horta, 2018).  Social influence There has been reports, media coverage, as well as celebrity advocacy for consumption of vegan, plant-based, gluten-free foods. The general public may be influenced by these factors when it comes to foods choices in flavour of plant-based meals or alternatives. On the other hand, there may be people who make negative comments on individuals who consume these types of food, which may create social pressure which dissuades individuals from consuming plant-based meals or foods (Ensaff, 2015).   7  Environmental  Storage and preservation The storage and preservation of the plant-based, vegan, and or gluten-free foods may increase the difficulty of the storage and preservation. Once cooked or semi-prepared, they cannot be stored longer than a day unlike meats and other preservatives. In addition, the plant-based foods, tends to decrease in appearance as time progresses. Though some foods such as nuts and beans have longer shelf-life, for most to the plant-based foods, more care and preservation methods are needed (Karunaratne, 2018). iv. Health behaviour theory used in project planning and rationale for choice The theoretical framework for the planning process of this project relies mainly on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. This theoretical model considers the community level of influence on health, and provides insight on how it would be possible to diffuse this novel trend of healthy and sustainable food in the context of catering services, in which our partner intends to assume a leadership role. The five main characteristics of an innovation that maximize its appeal are the following: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005).  Relative advantage refers to the superiority to what the innovation replaces. In the context of sustainable catering practices, the emphasis is precisely on the environmental-friendly and healthy alternative presented by a plant-based alternative. Compatibility describes how the novelty is appropriate to the target audience. Applied to this project, this feature is tackled from different angles: tasty menu options, vegan and gluten-free alternatives, recipes from different  8 cultures all contribute to making the offer compatible with a broad population. Complexity, or the ease of implementation, is in this case related to how difficult it is to reproduce new recipes, both for catering services and individuals that encounter these recipes at events. Trialability indicates whether new items can be tried before deciding to adapt them for use, and this occurs naturally in our context, since food is consumed. The last point, observability, can be less perceptible than the others, because the adoption of environmental-friendly practices are part of a much larger system of measures that aim to mitigate climate change. However, if the focus is on other catering companies, the estimation of how many of them adapt this trend should be less difficult to perform (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2005). The rationale for choosing this theoretical framework lies in the nature of influences a catering service can have: the fact that catering services offer whole-food, plant-based delicacies and expose different demographics to them represents an opportunity to provoke a sense of novelty in the target audience. Florea (2015) suggests that “consuming or using a product innovation in social context is a premise for behavior social exchange and social learning, which includes brand related information and inferences”. As such, since catering events occur in social circumstances, this finding supports the introduction and promotion of novel environmentally-friendly menu options aimed at enhancing the recognition of our partner’s brand as part of the sustainability trend.  9 Project Goal and Objectives Our project goal is to provide healthy, tasty, and sustainable plant-based and gluten-free recipes and resources that are feasible for AMS catering to implement so that they can become a leader in sustainable catering.  Project Objectives: ● Short Term Objectives: ○ Implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the catering menu by April 2021. ● Medium Term Objectives: ○ 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by April 2021. ○ Implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations by April 2023. ● Long Term Objectives: ○ Adoption of plant-based menu items in 75% of catering companies in Vancouver by April 2025. ○ Increased selection for plant-based menu items by 20% in the year 2025 as compared to the year of implementation.  10 Description of Project Outputs i. Sustainable Practice Recommendations Nest Catering is in the early majority of catering companies looking to innovate and go green. Social trends in environmental sustainability and eating foods that have been ethically and sustainably sourced has increased many catering company’s incentive to go green. Catering companies want to provide products that meet their customers values. In order to support Nest Catering with implementing sustainable practices we have included recommendations for future company use. These recommendations are based on a review of sustainable catering companies across the globe and highlight the qualities of leaders in this area.  The recommendations are sub-categorized to focus on six different areas of sustainability including locally grown food, plant-based options, ethical and sustainable sourcing, organic foods, reducing food waste, and green facilities. Each category has a set of recommendations, some that may be implemented in the future or some that should be continued based on current practices. For example, we recommend that the nest catering continue to serve only 100% Oceanwise Certified fish and additionally, to implement a policy to use only cage free eggs. Some recommendations will be easier to attain in the short term, where as some require more resources and will take longer to adopt as a result. For example, adjusting the menu to allow for seasonal features requires more resources than removing bottled beverages such as water and juice from the menu, and will therefore take a longer time period to adopt. The sustainable practice recommendations can be found in Appendix C.  11 ii. Introduction of Recipes One of the primary outputs of the project consists of the collection of 19 vegan, gluten-free recipes to provide ideas for Nest Catering to integrate into the catering service menu for lunch and dinner. We provide a complete list of ingredients, with specified serving sizes per recipe, estimated preparation time, estimated cook time, as well as the detailed directions for both preparation and cooking. We also include the indication of gluten presence and possible gluten-free alternatives throughout the collection of recipes, where necessary. The selection of new recipes was based on the current menu options from Nest Catering, and the respective ingredients available to the kitchen, which were made partially accessible by our partner. The purpose the list of recipes is meant to serve is to offer Nest Catering novel and practical examples that can be implemented to support the pursuit of its goal of becoming a recognized sustainable leader in the catering companies context. The collection of recipes can be found in Appendix D.  To highlight the importance of this project output, it is useful to refer back to the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, especially to some features of innovations that make them more likely to spread across the population. For instance, one of our partner’s priorities was to be able to provide meals options that would be compatible and appealing to a broader range of clients, that is, meals that are appetizing, tasteful, as well as being gluten-free and vegan. This last point reflects the tendency of adopting plant-based diets and consuming meat less frequently, both as a social trend, but also as reflected by recent public health messaging, such as Canada’s Food Guide 2019. This also represents the relative advantage of the sustainable catering offer, an additional factor that contributes to the diffusion of an innovation. Lastly, we considered how  12 complex the recipes are to reproduce, and in order to facilitate their introduction into the catering menu, we looked for dishes that did not require special skills nor uncommon ingredients. iii. Marketable Nutritional Messages The two aspects of the Diffusion of Innovations theoretical framework that relate are Adopters and Communication Channels. In the context of this CBEL project, Nest Catering is an early adopter pursuing to be the leader of plant-based catering in Vancouver. Additionally, Nest Catering hopes to influence other catering companies from the city of Vancouver, who can be described as early majorities. The broad public are also considered early majorities, as they may be influenced by the possible implementations by catering companies. Seeing an increase in plant-based food offerings, the early majorities in the broad public will soon join the early adopters to choose more of these “innovative” options. Nest Catering can be seen as a communication channel, which diffuses the innovation into the general public. Increasing plant-based food options in the catering services, subsequently influences the public’s food choice. In addition, the Nest Catering should utilize some of the suggested marketable nutritional messages to persuade the public into choosing these new plant-based food options in their menu, subsequently contributing to a shift in the consumer choice toward the new innovation provided by Nest Catering. Examples of Marketable Nutritional Messages and appropriate recipe pairings can be found in Appendix E.  Evaluation Plan  Short Term Outcomes:  The implementation of 8 new plant-based menu items on the AMS catering menu by  13 April 2020 is the sole short-term outcome for this project. The outcome indicator for the short term is the number of plant-based menu items present on the Nest Catering menu. An example for the evaluation of this indicator could be a comparison of the Nest Catering menu from 2020 and 2019; where the number of plant-based items on each menu is counted and contrasted, ideally to show an increase in prevalence of plant-based menu items.  Medium Term Outcomes: The first medium term outcome for this project is a 15% increase selection of plant-based menu items by consumers by December 2021. The outcome indicator for this is the percentage of customers selecting plant-based menu items, which then infers the percentage of those who consume plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this indicator is through comparison of sales details from the 2018-2019 as compared to the sales details from 2020-2010, to determine what percentage of annual sales come from plant-based menu items. Another example of an evaluation for this indicator is the use of a survey to assess the percentage increase or decrease in selection for plant-based menu items. One survey would be done in the year 2019 (or year of implementation of new recipes to the menu), and a follow up survey would be conducted in the year 2021. Example questions include: Did you select/consume a plant-based menu item from Nest Catering? Answer: Yes/No. However, the survey method is limited as not all consumers are guaranteed to take part, and this would generate data that is not fully representative.    The second medium term outcome for this project is the implementation of 5 sustainable practices as found in our sustainable practice recommendations, by April 2023. The outcome indicator for this is determined by what, and how many sustainable practices Nest Catering has implemented into their production, preparation or other practices. An example of the evaluation  14 for this outcome is discussion with the Nest Catering management to identify what changes from our sustainable practice recommendations, specifically, have been incorporated by Nest Catering.  Long Term Outcomes: The first long term outcome for this project is the adoption of plant-based menu items by 75% of the licensed catering companies within the city of Vancouver, by April 2025. The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of licensed catering companies within Vancouver that offer plant-based menu items. An example of the evaluation for this outcome could be done through a scoping review of the menus provided by all the licensed catering companies in Vancouver, and determination of how many caterers provide plant-based items on their menus. This information would then be used to determine the percentage of catering companies that provide plant-based menu items. These long-term outcomes specifically relate to the Diffusion of Innovations theory, as they are representative of the percentage of catering companies that are responsive to Nest Catering’s changes to become more sustainable and plant-forward in food offerings. Thus, caterers within Vancouver can be identified as early majorities as they are responding to the innovation of sustainable catering.    The second long-term outcome is a 20% increased selection for plant-based menu items in the year 2025 as compared to the year 2019.  The outcome indicator for this is determined by the percentage of individuals who consume plant-based meals from Nest Catering. An example of evaluation for this outcome is through analysis and comparison of sales data from the year 2025 as compared to 2019, to indicate if selection for plant-based items has changed and by what percentage.   15 Conclusion  Upon completion of this project, sustainable practice recommendations, plant-based recipes, and marketable nutritional messages were produced in order to potentially increase the selection and consumption of plant-based meals from Nest Catering. In addition, the sustainable practice recommendations provide a resource for Nest Catering to become a leader in sustainability, furthermore increasing potential to align company practices with consumer values.  The main lessons learned during this process encompass theoretical understanding, self-efficacy and practical experience within the public health context. Specifically, our group was able to understand the difference between theoretical frameworks and utilize critical thinking and collaboration to determine the health behaviour theory best suited to our project. Furthermore, we were able to expand upon this understanding thorough application of the Diffusion of Innovations theory within the context of the CBEL project. Due to the self-facilitated nature of this project, self-efficacy was developed as each group member participated in the assessment of future obstacles and goals, and required steps to overcome and achieve them. Finally, and arguably most importantly, the process of planning and preparing for implementation of the project outcomes led to a realistic conclusion; implementation of policies or plans takes time. This conclusion is reflective of the challenges that exist when planning for an initiative in practice as compared to in theory.  Unfortunately, due to the nature of this project, the completion of project objectives is not an area of complete control. The combination of sustainable practice recommendations, recipes, and marketable nutritional messages are intended to facilitate the completion of the project goal and objectives, however the implementation of these and community response to these changes are beyond the scope of this project.  16 Authors’ Contributions All group members contributed toward the generation of the recipe list provided to Nest Catering. Each member researched available plant-based recipes through online sources, blogs, or recipe boards in order to contribute between 2-4 recipes each, for both lunch and dinner. In addition, all group members were involved in the discussions to decide upon the project goal and objectives, as well as formation of each objective into the SMART format. Each member of the group also contributed to the creation of the Google Slides for the presentation of this CBEL project; each individual’s specific contributions to the presentation and written report are detailed below.   Celine Koppenaal (C.K.) contributed to the development of the group logic model and presentation of the logic model, as well as development of the project evaluation plan and outcome indicators. As well, C.K. completed research regarding the behaviours that contribute to issues with respect to our target population (Section ii of Situational Assessment), and grey literature research regarding sustainable catering practices. C.K. contributed to the production and designing of the newsletter using the online platform, Canva. C.K. reviewed and formatted the reference section for the written report. For the presentation, C.K. contributed to sections pertaining to behaviours of the target population, as well as the evaluation plan, and presented the information on slides 7, 16, 17 of the presentation.  Daniele Pestoni (D.P.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs. D.P. also contributed to grey literature research for the sustainable catering recommendations. Independently, D.P. investigated the Diffusions of Innovation theoretical framework in depth to synthesize the information contained in the Situational Assessment (section iv). For the presentation, D.P. contributed to the sections  17 pertaining to the project goal, objectives, theoretical framework and recipe collection; as well, D.P. presented the information on slides 9-13 of the presentation.  Louise Dong (L.D.) contributed to the development and presentation of the logic model, as well as the description of project outputs; specifically, section iii “Marketable Nutritional Messages”. L.D. researched the mediating factors related to the target population (section iii of the Situational Assessment). L.D. also contributed to the generation of the newsletter content and the formatting and editing of the written report reference list. For the presentation, L.D. contributed to the sections pertaining to mediating factors and marketable nutritional messages, and presented slides 1, 2, 15, and 18.  Celeste Cardoz (C.C.) contributed to the development of the proposed evaluation and outcome indicators. C.C. completed background research regarding sustainability food systems, sustainable diets, and global trends in food consumption and production for the introduction of the report. In addition, C.C. completed the conclusion and author’s contributions sections of the written report. As well, C.C. was involved in editing of the written report for sentence structure, spelling, grammar, and continuity. For the presentation, C.C. contributed to the sections pertaining to the introduction, evaluation plan and outcome indicators, lessons learned and future recommendations; specifically, C.C. presented slides 3-5, 18-20.  Bethany Del Begio (B.D.B.) conducted research to complete the sections of the report which discuss issues relevant to the target population and behaviours contributing to these issues (sections i and ii of situational assessment). In addition, B.D.B. contributed to the generation of the sustainable catering guideline resource for Nest Catering. B.D.B was also involved in the generation of the content for the Newsletter. For the presentation, B.D.B. contributed to the  18 sections pertaining to sustainable catering recommendations and barriers within the target population; specifically, B.D.B. presented slides 6 and 14.     19 References  Ben-Shoshan, M., Harrington, D. W., Soller, L., Fragapane, J., Joseph, L., Pierre, Y. S., Clarke, A. E. (2012). Demographic predictors of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in canada. Journal of Allergy, 2012, 858306-6. doi:10.1155/2012/858306  Corrin, T., & Papadopoulos, A. (2017). Understanding the attitudes and perceptions of vegetarian   and plant-based diets to shape future health promotion programs. Appetite, 109, 40-47.   doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.018  Douglas, S. M., Lasley, T. R., & Leidy, H. J. (2015). Consuming beef vs. soy protein has little effect on appetite, satiety, and food intake in healthy adults 1,2. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(5), 1010.  Ensaff, H., Coan, S., Sahota, P., Braybrook, D., Akter, H., & McLeod, H. (2015). Adolescents' food choice and the place of plant-based foods. Nutrients, 7(6), 4619-4637. doi:10.3390/nu7064619  Florea, D. (2015). The Relationship between Branding and Diffusion of Innovation: A   Systematic Review. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 1527-1534.   https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00407-4   Food and Agricultural Organization. Chapter 2. Food Security: concepts and measurement. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/y4671e/y4671e06.htm   Horta, O. (2018). Discrimination against vegans. Res Publica, 24(3), 359-373. doi:10.1007/s11158-017-9356-3  Karunaratne, A. M. (2018). A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods, for enhanced benefits to be reaped at a global level: A multifaceted approach to harness probiotics as antagonists on plant based foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(14), 5189-5196. doi:10.1002/jsfa.9215  Lindgren, E., Harris, F., Dangour, A. D., Gasparatos, A., Hiramatsu, M., Javadi, F., . . .   Stockholm Resilience Centre. (2018). Sustainable food systems-a health   perspective.Sustainability Science, 13(6), 1505.  MacInnis, C. C., & Hodson, G. (2017). It ain’t easy eating greens: Evidence of bias toward   vegetarians and vegans from both source and target. Group Processes & Intergroup   Relations, 20(6), 721–744. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430215618253  McLaughlin, E. W. (2004). The dynamics of fresh fruit and vegetable pricing in the supermarket channel. Preventive Medicine, 39, 81-87. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.12.026   20 Mertens, E., Van't Veer, P., Hiddink, G. J., Steijns, J. M., & Kuijsten, A. (2017). Operationalising   the health aspects of sustainable diets: A review. Public Health Nutrition, 20(4), 739-757.   doi:10.1017/S1368980016002664  Nest Catering & Conferences. (2019). Catering menu. Retrieved from https://www.nestcatering.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Nest-Catering-and-Conferenc  es-Menu-2019.pdf  Pohjolainen, P., Vinnari, M., & Jokinen, P. (2015). Consumers’ perceived barriers to following a   plant-based diet. British Food Journal, 117(3), 1150-1167.   doi:10.1108/BFJ-09-2013-0252  Shepon, A., Eshel, G., Noor, E., & Milo, R. (2018). The opportunity cost of animal based diets   exceeds all food losses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United   States of America, 115(15), 3804-3809. doi:10.1073/pnas.1713820115  Tilman, D., & Clark, M. (2014). Global diets link environmental sustainability and human   health. Nature, 515(7528), 518-522. doi:10.1038/nature13959  University of British Columbia. (2019). FNH 473: January-April, 2019 CBEL Projects.   US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (2005). Theory at a   Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. Retrieved from  https://www.sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/The ory-at-a-Glance-A-Guide-For-Health-Promotion-Practice.pdf  Willett, W., Rockstrom, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., … Murray,   C.J.L.  (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets   from sustainable food systems, The Lancet. 393(10170), 447-492. doi:   https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4  Yoshihara, D., Fujiwara, N., & Suzuki, K. (2010). Antioxidants: Benefits and risks for long-term health. Maturitas, 67(2), 103-107. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.05.001    21 Appendices  Appendix A: Logic Model           22 Appendix B: Newsletter Style Report   23 Appendix C: Sustainable Practice Recommendations SUSTAINABLE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEST CATERING  Practices to continue or implement:  1. Locally produced food a. Continue partnership with UBC farm b. Continue to purchase produce and dry goods locally when possible  c. Source local proteins such as chicken and beef (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats d. Adjust menu to allow for seasonal foods (i.e. side of local, seasonal greens, topped with local, seasonal fruit) (2)  2. Plant-based options a. Incorporate more plant-based menu items  i. see Appendix D: Recipes b. Menu is labelled for menu choices such as “vegan”, “vegetarian”, etc.  3. Ethically and sustainably produced a. Continue to serve only 100% Ocean Wise certified fish b. Continue to serve organic, fair trade coffee c. Aim to use grass fed chicken and beef (2) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC d. Seek out fair trade certification for items such as bananas, chocolate, sugar (3) e. Source cage free, certified humane eggs (3) i. Rabbit River Farms, Richmond BC f. Aim to source SPCA certified, Certified Humane approved meats (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC g. Menu communicates sustainable and/or ethical products to customers  4. Organic  a. Aim to source meat that comes from animals raised without hormones, antibiotics, or chemical feed additives (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats, North Vancouver BC b. Purchase organic foods when possible, but focus on local over organic (1)  5. Reduce food waste  24 a. Donate leftover food to shelters in Vancouver (2) i. Vancouver Food Bank Food Rescue Program ii. Vancouver Covenant House b. Compost all food waste in kitchen and dining hall (5) c. Recycle leftover cooking oil for future biofuel use (3) i. recycle used cooking oil at Vancouver Zero Waste Center ii. use service such as Redux to pick up and recycle used cooking oil  6. Green facilities a. Continue using 100% recyclable or compostable containers b. Recycling program for plastics, cardboard, metal and mixed media (6) c. Removal of water, juice and other beverages in plastic bottles from the menu (4) d. Papers towels made from 100% recycled paper (3) e. Cleaning products are biodegradable (8)  i. Eco-max commercial products f. Bulbs and lighting are Energy Star rated (3) g. Install low-temp drying dishwasher - uses less power and water (4) h. Install low-flow sink sprayers and taps to reduce water consumption (8) i. Install high efficient water tank and recirculating pump (5) j. Combine delivery trips and use smaller vans when possible (3)   Additional Next Steps: Adapted from WWF-UK’s Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability  ● In your business: ○ Pilot sustainable menus and, if successful, roll them out across all outlets. ○ ‘Bundle’ costs: calculate the overall costs and benefits of introducing a sustainable menu, not the cost of individual products. ○ Develop staff who are passionate about delivering sustainability: provide them with the space, tools and training to deliver sustainable diets. ○ Remove worst offenders: Rule out ingredients that are unsustainably sourced   ● Across your stakeholders: ○ Educate and build demand: tell customers, clients and suppliers why sustainable diets are important. ○ Invest in sustainable supply chains. ○ Ask ‘would customers eat your food if they knew where it came from, how it was made, and what its health and sustainability credentials were?’. ○ Promote your values: tell stakeholders why sustainable diets matter to you.  25  ● Across your industry: ○ Share best practice, including noncommercially-competitive information about what has worked for you. ○ Agree on a shared definition (or common principles) for sustainable diets to create a level playing field when implementing them. ○ Advocate (to national governments) for a level playing fields; a change to competition law; and agree an industry-wide definition of sustainable diets.” Resources  Sustainable catering companies:  1. Savoury Chef. Vancouver, BC https://www.savourychef.com/vancouver-caterers/green-sustainability-practices/  2. Chef Laura. Vancouver, BC https://www.cheflaura.ca/about/sustainability/   3. Basil Tree Catering. Boston, MA https://www.basiltree.com/practices/  4. Pomona Dining. Claremont, CA https://www.pomona.edu/administration/dining/sustainability  5. Culinary Capers. Vancouver BC https://www.culinarycapers.com/about-us/sustainability/  6. Truffles Catering. Victoria, BC https://www.trufflescatering.net/culture  7. Drew’s Catering. Vancouver, BC https://drewscatering.com/about/sustainability/  8. Windows Catering. Alexandria, VA https://www.catering.com/company/about-us/green-initiatives/   Grey Literature:   26 Berkeley Food Institute. (2018). A Guide for UC Berkeley Departments on Sustainable and Just Catering. Retrieved from  http://food.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Sustainable-and-Just-Catering.pdf  Monash University Office of Environmental Sustainability. (2009). Sustainable Catering Guide. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54dd5ffce4b0cc2d46391991/t/594d1039b11be14d41a42967/1498222659822/Monash-Sustainable-Catering-Guide-2.pdf  World Wide Fund for Nature UK (WWF). (2016). Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability. Retrieved from http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/wwf_catering_summary_report_signoff.pdf?_ga=1.172826020.629931605.1470744313    Additional Resources:  Sumas Mountain Farms http://www.sumasmountainfarms.ca/  Two Rivers Farms https://tworiversmeats.ca/farms/  Rabbit River Farms http://www.rabbitriverfarms.com/  SPCA Certified standards https://spca.bc.ca/programs-services/certifications-accreditation/spca-certified/  Redux cooking oil recycling program http://www.reduxprogram.com/used-cooking-oil.php  Vancouver Food Bank food recovery program https://foodbank.bc.ca/our-programs/food-recovery/  Covenant House Vancouver food donations https://www.covenanthousebc.org/ways-to-give/other-ways-to-give-2/donate-items/  Eco-max biodegradable cleaning products  https://www.eco-max.ca/commercial-products/  27 Appendix D: Recipes NEST CATERING VEGAN, GLUTEN-FREE RECIPES  Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF) iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF) v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF) iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2015/07/21/chickpea-salad/  Yields: 3 servings Prep Time: 15 min Cook Time: 0 min  Ingredients: ● 1 (15-ounce/425 grams) can chickpeas, drained and rinsed ● 2 stalks celery, finely chopped ● 3 green onions, thinly sliced  28 ● 1/4 cup finely chopped dill pickle ● 1/4 cup finely chopped red bell pepper ● 3 tablespoons store-bought or homemade vegan mayonnaise ● 1 clove garlic, minced ● 1 1/2 teaspoons yellow mustard ● 2 teaspoons minced fresh dill (optional) ● 1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons fresh lemon juice, to taste ● 1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. In a large bowl, mash the chickpeas with a potato masher until flaked in texture. 2. Stir in the celery, green onions, pickles, bell peppers, mayonnaise, and garlic until combined. 3. Now, stir in the mustard and dill, and season with the lemon juice, salt, and pepper, adjusting the quantities to taste. 4. Serve with toasted bread, on crackers, wraps, or on top of a basic leafy green salad. Or just enjoy it all on its own! ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/11/28/vegan-grain-free-sticky-crispy-sesame-cauliflower/   Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Cauliflower: ● 1 head of cauliflower (about 2 ½ lbs) ● 1 cup cassava flour ● 1 ½ cups water, plus extra ● ½ teaspoon garlic powder ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds ● sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste Sticky Sesame Sauce: ● ¼ cup tamari soy sauce ● 2 tablespoons maple syrup ● 1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil  29 ● 1 tablespoon rice vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● 1 tablespoon chili paste (optional) ● 2 cloves garlic, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 2-inch piece fresh ginger, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. 2. Cut the cauliflower into small florets. In a large bowl, combine the cassava flour, water, garlic powder, sesame seeds, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. The resulting batter should be fluid but thick–thick enough to coat a piece of cauliflower and pool only slightly once set on the baking sheet. If the batter is too thick/pasty, add water by the tablespoon until you reach the proper consistency. 3. Drop the cauliflower florets into the batter and stir until all pieces are coated. Using a fork, carefully transfer battered cauliflower to the baking sheets, leaving 1 inch of space around each floret. 4. Bake the battered cauliflower for 20 minutes. While the cauliflower is baking, make the sauce. In a small saucepan combine the tamari, maple syrup, sesame oil, rice vinegar, tomato paste, chili paste, garlic, ginger, and sesame seeds. Bring the sauce to a boil on the stove over medium heat. Simmer for 5 minutes or until slightly reduced. Set aside. 5. After cauliflower has baked for 20 minutes, remove and let cool slightly. Once it’s cool enough to handle, transfer the par-baked cauliflower to a large bowl. Cover the cauliflower with all but 3 tablespoons of the sesame sauce. Toss to thoroughly coat the cauliflower. 6. Bake the cauliflower for another 20 minutes, or until the edges are starting to darken. Remove the crispy sesame cauliflower and let it sit for a full 5 minutes before serving in lettuce wraps, on rice etc., drizzled with remaining sauce and topped with extra sesame seeds, and chopped green onions.  Notes:  If you don’t want to use cassava flour, you can substitute brown rice, chickpea or regular wheat flour. Lower the amount of water to 1 cup if you’re making this substitution (and add more if necessary)! -It’s important to really keep an eye on these towards the end of the cooking process. They can go from perfect to burnt in what feels like seconds.  -I use a Microplane to get the garlic and ginger nice and fine for the sauce -The sauce is light here! Double the batch if you like it saucy.  30 iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF)  https://minimalistbaker.com/spicy-buffalo-chickpea-wraps/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 20 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients:  Dressing and Salad: ● 1/3 cup hummus (or store-bought) ● 1 1/2 - 2 Tbsp maple syrup (plus more to taste) ● 1 small lemon, juiced (1 small lemon yields ~2 Tbsp or 30 ml) ● 1-2 Tbsp hot water (to thin) ● 1 head romaine lettuce (or sub 1 bundle kale per 1 head romaine // cleaned, large stems removed, roughly chopped) Buffalo Chickpeas: ● 1 15-ounce can chickpeas (rinsed, drained and dried // ~ 1 1/4 cups per can when drained) ● 1 Tbsp coconut oil (or sub grape seed or olive oil) ● 4 Tbsp hot sauce (divided) ● 1/4 tsp garlic powder (or sub 1 minced garlic clove per 1/4 tsp powder) ● 1 pinch sea salt For Serving: ● 3-4 vegan-friendly flour tortillas, pita, or flatbread ● 1/4 cup red onion, diced (optional) ● 1/4 cup baby tomato, diced (optional) ● 1/4 ripe avocado, thinly sliced (optional)  Directions:  1. Make dressing by adding hummus, maple syrup, and lemon juice to a mixing bowl and whisking to combine. Add hot water until thick but pourable. 2. Taste and adjust flavor as needed, then add romaine lettuce or kale, and toss. Set aside. 3. To make chickpeas, add drained, dried chickpeas to a separate mixing bowl. Add coconut oil, 3 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size), garlic powder, and a pinch of salt - toss to combine/coat.  31 4. Heat a metal or cast-iron skillet over medium heat. Once hot, add chickpeas and sauté for 3-5 minutes, mashing a few chickpeas gently with a spoon to create texture (see photo). 5. Once chickpeas are hot and slightly dried out, remove from heat and add remaining 1 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size). Stir to combine. Set aside. 6. To assemble, top each wrap with a generous portion of the dressed romaine salad, and top with 1/4 cup buffalo chickpeas and a sprinkle of diced tomatoes, avocado, and/or onion (optional). 7. Serve immediately. Store leftovers separately in the refrigerator up to 3 days, though best when fresh. You can enjoy the buffalo chickpeas cold, room temperature or heated up. iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF)  https://nutritionstripped.com/open-faced-sprout-sandwich/  Yields: 1 serving Prep Time: 5 minutes  Cook Time: 0 minutes   Ingredients:  ● 2 slices of grain-free bread ● 1 teaspoon dijon mustard ● 2 tablespoons hummus  ● Sliced vegetables: thinly sliced red onion, tomato, cucumber, 2 romaine lettuce leafs ● Protein of your choice: eggs (scrambled, sliced hard boiled, or poached), thinly sliced tempeh, thinly sliced tofu, chicken, etc. ● 1/2 avocado, sliced or mashed on the vegetables ● 1 handful of sprouts ● Sea salt ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions:  32 1. Lightly toast the bread until desired firmness, then simply spread mustard, followed by hummus, layer sliced cucumber, then tomato, then the protein of your choice, then sliced avocado, followed by the lettuce and sprouts. 2. Top with fresh black pepper and a pinch of sea salt. 3. Enjoy immediately or place in an airtight glass container for lunch on the go! v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) https://theminimalistvegan.com/spiced-quinoa-and-eggplant-rolls/ Yields: 15 rolls  Ingredients: ● ½ cup of washed quinoa ● 1 cup of water (to cook the quinoa in) ● 2 tbsp rice bran oil ● 1 small onion diced ● 1 tsp garam masala ● ¼ tsp turmeric powder ● 1 tbsp finely grated fresh ginger ● Pinch of hot chilli powder (or more if you like spicy food) ● Half a medium sized capsicum chopped ● 3 medium sized eggplants, cut into ½ inch thin slices ● ½ cup olive oil ● Salt for seasoning ● A handful of parsley for dressing, finely chopped  Directions: 1. Bring quinoa and water to a boil in a small saucepan. Reduce heat to low, cover and simmer until tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed. This typically takes 15 to 20 minutes. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, add the rice bran oil and onion to a medium sized saucepan on medium heat. 3. Once the onion starts to brown, add in the garam masala, turmeric, ginger, chilli stirring to coat the onions in the spices well. Let it cook for about 2-3 minutes. 4. Add in the capsicum and stir to combine all ingredients well. Reduce heat to low and cook until the capsiucum is soft. Season to taste. 5. Combine the cooked quinoa and spicy onion and capsicum and mix well. Set aside. 6. For the eggplant, preheat a medium-high charcoal grill on a barbecue or stove grill. Brush both sides of the eggplant slices with olive oil and season with salt. Grill until golden- 33 brown grill marks form, which should take around 3 to 4 minutes on one side. Turn the eggplant and repeat the same process. You can also do this in a frying pan. 7. Once all the eggplants are done. Start adding 1-2 tbsp of quinoa mixture at the bottom of each eggplant piece and roll tightly. You can use toothpicks to keep together if they are coming undone easily. I find that placing the end of the eggplant facing the plate helps to keep it in place. Roll all the eggplant pieces and sprinkle the stack with some fresh parsley and a little more olive oil drizzled over the top. 8. You can serve this warm or cold on its own or with some hummus. vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) https://www.emilieeats.com/easy-quinoa-salad-tomatoes-spinach/  Yields: 4-6 Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 15 minutes   Ingredients: ● 1/2 cup dry quinoa ● 2 cups cherry or grape tomatoes, halved ● 2 1/2 cups spinach, chopped ● 1 15-ounce can white beans, drained and rinsed ● 1/3 cup slivered almonds ● 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar ● 1/2 tablespoon maple syrup ● 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder ● 1/4 teaspoon salt ● 1/4 teaspoon pepper  Directions: 1. In a medium saucepan over high heat, add quinoa and 1 cup water; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for 13-15 minutes. When done, fluff quinoa with a fork. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, heat a little water or oil (if using) in a skillet over medium heat. Add tomatoes; cook for 5 minutes, until tomatoes begin to burst. Add spinach; cook until wilted, about 5-7 more minutes, stirring continuously. 3. In a large bowl, add quinoa, vegetables, beans, and almonds. Stir to combine. 4. In a small bowl, add vinegar, maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. 5. Pour dressing over the other ingredients. Stir to combine.  34 vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) https://www.thefullhelping.com/falafel-fattoush-real-food-really-fast/  Yields:  Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 10 minutes   Ingredients: ● 4 2-ounce pita breads ● 1 pint cherry tomatoes halved if large ● 1 cup sliced Persian cucumber or diced English cucumber ● 1 15- ounce can chickpeas rinsed and drained ● 2 scallions thinly sliced ● 1 cup fresh parsley leaves ● 1 clove garlic finely minced ● 1/4-1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes ● 2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 2 teaspoons ground coriander ● 1/2-1 teaspoon salt ● 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper ● 1 tablespoon lemon juice ● 2 tablespoons olive oil ● 2 tablespoons sesame seeds toasted  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the pita bread and chop it into bite-sized squares, about 1/2-inch each. Place the bread in a large bowl along with the tomatoes, cucumber, chickpeas, scallions, and parsley. Mix the vegetables around lightly to combine. Sprinkle in the minced garlic, red pepper flakes, cumin, coriander, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and pepper. Toss everything together until the vegetables are well distributed and evenly coated with the spices.  2. Right before serving, drizzle in the lemon juice and olive oil, tossing once more to incorporate. Add more salt to taste, if needed, and finish with a sprinkle of sesame seeds over the top. viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) http://www.onegreenplanet.org/vegan-recipe/the-vegan-eggplant-crunchburger/ Calories: 754  35 Yields: 4 burgers  Ingredients:  Horseradish Mustard Mayo ● 1/4 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbs. Dijon mustard ● 2 Tbs. prepared horseradish ● A pinch of dried tarragon ● Kosher salt and black pepper to taste Eggplant Burgers ● 1 large or 2 medium eggplants, peeled and cubed ● 2 Tbs. extra-virgin olive oil, divided ● 1 shallot, finely minced ● 1 cup vegan cheese shreds, any flavor ● 1 clove garlic, minced or grated ● ½ tsp. Kosher salt ● ¼ tsp. black pepper ● 1 Tbs. fresh parsley, chopped ● 1 cup gluten-free bread crumbs Toppings ● 1 cup vegan cheese, either slices or shreds (as long as it melts) ● 4 gluten-free buns ● 4 slices beefsteak tomato ● 4 leaves romaine lettuce ● 4 slices red onion ● Horseradish Mustard Mayonnaise (recipe above) ● 4 handfuls of potato chips  Directions:  For the Horseradish Mustard Mayo 1. Whisk together the mayonnaise, mustard, and horseradish in a small bowl and season with salt and pepper. 2. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes to allow the flavors to meld. 3. The sauce can be prepared 1 day in advance and kept covered in the refrigerator. To make the Eggplant Burgers 1. In a large skillet, heat 1 Tbs. of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the eggplant cubes and sauté until they are browned and very soft, about 10-12 minutes. Make sure they are  36 super-soft because they need to be mashed. You could also roast the eggplant to make it soft. 2. Transfer the eggplant to a large bowl. Mash the eggplant up until there are no whole pieces left. I use a potato masher to do this. Once you have a big bowl of mush, add the shallot, cheese, garlic, salt, pepper and parsley. Mix it into the eggplant. Add the breadcrumbs. Don’t add them all at once; you want to feel the mix and see whether you need a whole cup. I add ½ cup of bread crumbs and mix it. 3. The best way to mix it is wet your hands and use one hand (keep the other hand clean) to gently mix the crumbs into the eggplant. You will probably need more crumbs so add another ¼ cup and mix it again. You want the consistency to feel firm, like it will hold up as a burger. If it feels too moist, add the last ¼ cup of bread crumbs. Usually, I end up using the whole cup of crumbs. 4. Put the eggplant mixture into the fridge for about 30 minutes. Take the bowl out of the fridge and with your hand, divide the mixture into 4 parts. To form the burgers, I use a 3 ½ inch cookie cutter. I spray it with a bit of cooking oil spray and then pack the eggplant mixture into the cookie cutter. Pat it down, let it sit for about 20 seconds and then gently lift the cookie cutter off. Let your perfect burger sit for a few minutes undisturbed while you make the other 3 burgers. 5. In the same skillet that you sautéed the eggplant in (but cleaned), heat the other Tbs. of oil over medium-high heat and add the burgers to the pan. Let cook until slightly browned on one side and (this is very important), you can lift the burger with a spatula without breaking it. I use 2 spatulas to gently turn the burgers. Flip them and let them cook on the other side. When the 2nd side gets golden brown, flip them back over and let the first side cook until golden brown. To make the Vegan Crunch Burgers 1. Top the burgers with either 2 slices or ¼ cup of vegan cheese. Add about a Tbs. of water to the pan and cover it. This will create steam and allow the cheese to melt and get ooey-gooey. 2. If you want your buns toasty, put on some pants. If you want your burger buns toasty, preheat the broiler while you are cooking the burgers. Split the buns and put the halves, cut side up, on a baking sheet and cook them until they are lightly golden brown, about 30 seconds. Don’t burn them!! 3. Place the burgers on the bun bottoms and, if desired, top with tomato, lettuce, onion, and a dollop of horseradish mustard mayonnaise. Pile on the potato chips, top with the bun tops, and serve immediately. Make sure you have tons of napkins because it’s going to be messy.  Nutritional Information Per Serving: Calories: 754 ● Carbs: 104 g  37 ● Fat: 36 g ● Protein: 15 g ● Sodium: 1,245 mg ● Sugar: 9 g ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/delicious-deviled-eggs/  Ingredients ● 10 small potatoes, halved lengthwise ● 2 Tbsp. refined coconut oil ● 1/2 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard ● 1/2 tsp. Kala Namak (for an egg-like taste) (optional) ● Salt and pepper, to taste ● Smoked paprika, for garnish ● Fresh dill sprigs, for garnish  Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 425ºF. Place the potatoes on a baking sheet, drizzle with the coconut oil, and bake for 30 minutes, or until tender. 2. Let cool, then scoop out the insides of the potatoes with a melon baller or spoon and place in a large bowl. Add the vegan mayonnaise, mustard, and kala namak and season with salt and pepper. Stir until well combined. 3. Fill the potatoes skins with the mixture and garnish with smoked paprika and dill sprigs.  Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2016/04/03/glowing-spiced-lentil-soup/   Yields: 7 cups (1.65 litres)  Prep time: 15 Minutes   Cook time: 20 Minutes  Ingredients: ● 1 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil ● 2 cups (280 grams) diced onion (1 medium/large) ● 2 large garlic cloves, minced  38 ● 2 teaspoons ground turmeric ● 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon ● 1/4 teaspoon ground cardamom ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can diced tomatoes, with juices ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can full-fat coconut milk ● 3/4 cup (140 grams) uncooked red lentils, rinsed and drained ● 3 1/2 cups (875 mL) low-sodium vegetable broth ● 1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper, to taste ● Red pepper flakes or cayenne pepper, to taste (for a kick of heat!) ● 1 (5-ounce/140-gram) package baby spinach ● 2 teaspoons fresh lime juice, or more to taste  Directions: 1. In a large pot, add the oil, onion, and garlic. Add a pinch of salt, stir, and sauté over medium heat for 4 to 5 minutes until the onion softens. 2. Stir in the turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and cardamom until combined. Continue cooking for about 1 minute, until fragrant. 3. Add the diced tomatoes (with juices), entire can of coconut milk, red lentils, broth, salt, and plenty of pepper. Add red pepper flakes or cayenne, if desired, to taste. Stir to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a low boil. 4. Once it boils, reduce the heat to medium-high, and simmer, uncovered, for about 18 to 22 minutes, until the lentils are fluffy and tender. 5. Turn off the heat and stir in the spinach until wilted. Add the lime juice to taste. Taste and add more salt and pepper, if desired. Ladle into bowls and serve with toasted bread and lime wedges.  ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF)  http://thefirstmess.com/2018/08/01/braised-harissa-eggplant-chickpeas/ Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 large eggplant ● 1 tablespoon sea salt + extra ● 3 tablespoons heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado (plus extra if necessary) ● 1 medium cooking onion, small dice ● 1 small chili, such as cayenne or fresno, seeded and minced ● 3 cloves of garlic, minced  39 ● ½ teaspoon ground cumin ● ½ teaspoon ground caraway ● ½ teaspoon ground coriander ● 1 ½ cups cooked chickpeas ● Ground black pepper, to taste ● 2 cups crushed tomatoes ● 1 cup vegetable stock ● 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice ● ¼ cup chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Remove the stem of the eggplant and chop into 1-inch cubes. Place the cubes in a colander and toss them with the tablespoon of salt. Set aside for an hour in the sink. 2. After an hour, rinse the eggplant (to remove excess salt) and thoroughly pat the cubes dry with paper towel or clean kitchen towels. 3. Set up a dinner plate with a couple paper towels on top. In a wide, deep braiser-style pot, heat the oil over medium-high heat. In batches, sear the eggplant until it’s golden brown on all sides and softened. As the eggplant finishes, remove it from the pot with a slotted spoon and place it on the paper towel-lined plate. Set aside. 4. Add more oil to the pot of necessary and lower the heat to medium. Add the onions and hot pepper to the pot and sauté until onion is translucent, about 4 minutes. Add the garlic, cumin, caraway, and coriander to the pot and stir until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the chickpeas, some salt and black pepper to taste, and then stir to coat the chickpeas in spices. Add the tomatoes and vegetable stock to the pot. 5. Bring the braise to a boil and simmer, uncovered and stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes. Add the eggplant back into the pot and bring the braise up to a boil once more. Stir in the lemon juice and parsley. Serve the braised harissa eggplant hot over millet or rice (or any other starch of choice).  iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2017/07/12/vegan-stuffed-eggplant-sunflower-romesco-recipe/  Yields: 4 servings  Ingredients:  Sunflower Romesco (makes extra): ● ½ cup toasted sunflower seeds ● 2 roasted red peppers (homemade or from a jar) ● 2 cloves of garlic, chopped ● 1 teaspoon smoked paprika ● ½ teaspoon aleppo pepper, or a pinch of cayenne ● 2 tablespoons sherry OR apple cider vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● small handful flat parsley leaves  40 ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● scant ½ cup virgin olive oil Stuffed Eggplant: ● 2 small-medium eggplants ● olive oil ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● 1 small shallot, chopped ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● ¼ cup romesco ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice 2 tablespoons tahini ● 4 servings cooked grain of choice (I used quinoa) ● big handful of fresh and leafy herbs, chopped (I used cilantro, parsley & a bit of dill) ● toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah, for topping Directions: 1. Make the sunflower romesco: In the bowl of a food processor, combine the sunflower seeds, roasted red peppers, garlic, paprika, aleppo pepper, vinegar, tomato paste, parsley, salt, and pepper. Pulse the mixture until all ingredients are finely chopped and lightly pasty. Scrape the bowl down. Then, with the motor on low, drizzle the olive oil in through the feed tube until fully incorporated. Check the sauce for seasoning. Transfer sauce to a sealable jar, and set aside in the fridge until ready to use.  2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. Cut the eggplants in half lengthwise, right through the stem. Using a paring knife, carve into the eggplant flesh all the way around the perimeter. Pry the eggplant flesh out of the eggplant halves with your fingers or a spoon and set it aside. Place eggplant halves on a baking sheet, facing up. Brush the eggplant halves with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Bake eggplant for 20 minutes, or until golden brown and lightly tender. 4. Roughly chop the scooped out eggplant. Heat a bit of oil in a medium-large saute pan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic to the pan and saute until fragrant and slightly soft, about 2 minutes. Add the chopped eggplant, and season with salt and pepper. Stir. Saute the eggplant, stirring occasionally, until tender, browned, and slightly reduced in size, about 4 minutes. 5. Carefully transfer eggplant to the food processor. Add the ¼ cup of romesco, lemon juice, and tahini to the food processor as well. Pulse the mixture until you have a chunky paste. 6. To serve, divide the warm eggplant filling evenly among the eggplant “boats.” Then, spoon your cooked grain of choice on top along with a sprinkle of chopped herbs. Garnish the tops of the stuffed eggplants with more romesco and toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah. Enjoy warm. iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/01/03/creamy-white-bean-soup-vegan-recipe/  Yields: 4-5 servings  Ingredients:  41 ● 1 tablespoon heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado or refined coconut oil ● 1 medium yellow onion, small dice ● 1 medium carrot, small dice ● 1 celery stalk, small dice ● 2 cloves garlic, minced ● chili flakes or aleppo pepper, to taste ● 1 sprig fresh rosemary, minced ● 4 cups cooked navy beans (about 2 15-ounce cans, drained) ● 4 cups vegetable stock ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice ● sea salt & ground black pepper, to taste ● 3 cups packed chopped lacinato kale (roughly 1 small bunch) big handful finely chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Heat the oil in a medium-large soup pot over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, and celery to the pot and stir. Saute the vegetables until slightly softened and translucent, about 5 minutes. 2. To the pot, add the garlic, chili flakes, and rosemary. Stir and cook until garlic is fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the navy beans to the pot and stir. Add the vegetable stock to the pot and stir once more. Bring the soup to a boil. 3. Once boiling, ladle half of the soup into an upright blender. Add the lemon juice to the blender as well. Carefully bring the speed of the blender up to high and blend until this portion of the soup is totally liquified. Pour this liquified portion back into the pot. Season the soup with salt and pepper. 4. Add the kale to the pot and bring the soup to a boil. Once the kale is slightly wilted and bright green, season the soup once more with salt and pepper, if you find it necessary. Stir in the chopped parsley as well. Serve the soup hot. v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2014/12/11/sweet-potato-carrot-dal-with-coconut-leeks-and-a-wine-country-ontario-giveaway/   Yields:  4 servings  Ingredients:  Dal: ● 2-3 tsp coconut oil ● 1 tsp ground coriander ● 1/2 tsp mustard seeds ● pinch of chili flakes ● 1 cup red lentils ● 1 sweet potato, peeled and diced small ● 1 two inch piece of ginger, peeled + minced  42 ● 1 one inch piece of fresh turmeric, peeled + minced (or substitute 1 tsp dried turmeric powder) ● 3 ½  cups filtered water + extra if necessary ● 1.5 tsp garam masala ● salt to taste Coconut Leeks: ● 1 tbsp extra virgin coconut oil ● 1 leek, white and light green part julienned ● squeeze of lime juice ● pinch of salt To serve: ● Cooked, warm rice ● Chopped parsley, cilantro or mint (or a combination)  Directions: 1. Place a large pot over medium heat. Heat up the coconut oil in the pot and add the ground coriander, mustard seeds and chili flakes. Stir about until the mustard seeds start to pop just a little bit. 2. Add the lentils, diced sweet potato, carrots, ginger, turmeric, and a pinch of salt. Stir to mix and coat everything in the oil and spice. Add the filtered water to the pot. Bring mixture to a boil and simmer until the mixture is creamy and soupy, stirring occasionally. The sweet potato pieces should still be intact with a tiny bit of bite. The lentils will be broken down, filling out the mixture. Keep it warm while you sauté the leeks. 3. Heat the coconut oil in a small sauté pan over medium heat. Add the leeks to the pan and sauté until leeks are soft and very fragrant. Season with salt. Add a squeeze of lime if you like at the end. Remove from the heat. 4. To serve: divide the hot dal over 4 portions of rice. Top the dal with sautéed leeks and a few dribbles of the coconut oil left in the pan. Garnish each serving with the chopped herbs and black sesame seeds. vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/1-pot-butternut-squash-quinoa-chili/  Yields: 6 servings Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 50 minutes  Ingredients:  Chili: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or coconut oil (sub water if avoiding oil) ● 1 small white or yellow onion (diced) ● 1 jalapeño (minced // remove seeds for less heat) ● 1/2 tsp each sea salt and black pepper (DIVIDED // plus more to taste)  43 ● 4 cloves garlic ● 4 cups diced butternut squash ● 3 Tbsp chili powder (DIVIDED) ● 2 Tbsp ground cumin (DIVIDED) ● 2 tsp smoked paprika ● 2 15- ounce cans fire-roasted (or regular) diced tomatoes (if unsalted, add more sea salt to taste) ● 1/4 cup tomato paste ● 3 cups vegetable broth (sub up to half with water for lower sodium // plus more as needed) ● 1/4 cup quinoa, rinsed ● 1 15- ounce can kidney beans (slightly drained) ● 1 15- ounce can black beans (slightly drained) ● 1-2 Tbsp coconut sugar (or maple syrup) ● 1 small chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (for heat) (optional) ● 1 cup chopped kale (or other sturdy green) (optional) For Serving (optional): ● Rice or quinoa ● Fresh chopped cilantro or parsley ● Avocado Directions: 1. Heat a large pot over medium heat. Once hot, add oil (or water), onion, and jalapeño pepper. Season with a healthy pinch each salt and pepper and stir. Sauté for 3-4 minutes, stirring frequently. 2. Add garlic and sauté (stirring occasionally) for 2-3 minutes more, or until onion, pepper, and garlic are softened and slightly browned. 3. Add butternut squash, 2/3 of the chili powder (2 Tbsp as original recipe is written), half the cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), smoked paprika and stir to coat. Cook for 3 minutes. 4. Add diced tomatoes, tomato paste, and vegetable broth and stir to combine. Bring to a low boil over medium-high heat. 5. Once boiling, add quinoa (see photo) and reduce heat to medium-low or low, so it's at a gentle simmer. You want to see bubbles, but you don't want it boiling. Cover and cook for 12-15 minutes, or until quinoa is mostly tender. As it's cooking you may need to add more vegetable broth or water if it's looking too dry and the quinoa isn't submerged (I didn't find that necessary). 6. Next add kidney beans, black beans, 1/4 tsp each salt and pepper, and remaining cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written) and chili powder (1 Tbsp as original  44 recipe is written), coconut sugar, and stir to combine. If adding the chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (optional), add now. 7. Bring to a simmer over medium heat, then reduce heat slightly to low (or medium-low), cover, and gently simmer for 15-20 minutes to meld the flavors together. Stir occasionally. 8. Taste and adjust seasonings as needed, adding more chili powder or cumin for smokiness, salt for saltiness, or a little coconut sugar to balance the heat and draw out the other flavors. 9. Add kale (optional), cover, and cook for 2-3 minutes more. Serve as is, or garnished with lime, fresh jalapeño, cilantro, red onion, and/or avocado (all optional). 10. Store leftovers in the refrigerator up to 5-6 days, or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop or in the microwave until hot. vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/caramelized-shiitake-mushroom-risotto/  Yields: 4 servings  Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 20 minutes   Ingredients:  Broth: ● 3 1/2 - 4 cups vegetable broth (or store-bought) Risotto: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or olive oil (if avoiding oil, sub water) ● 3/4 cup thinly sliced shallot ● 1/4 tsp each sea salt and black pepper ● 2 cups sliced Shiitake mushrooms (or other similar mushroom) ● 1 Tbsp coconut aminos (or tamari // soy sauce) ● 1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme (or sub dried) ● 1 cup arborio rice (works best here - we recommend not subbing other grains) ● 1/4 cup dry white wine (or omit) ● 1/4 cup vegan parmesan cheese (plus more for serving // or sub nutritional yeast) For Serving (optional): ● Fresh chopped parsley  Directions:  45 1. In a medium saucepan, heat vegetable broth over medium heat. Once simmering, reduce heat to low to keep warm. 2. In the meantime, heat a large pan* over medium heat. Once hot, add oil and shallot and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. Sauté for 3-4 minutes - stirring frequently. Then add mushrooms and coconut aminos and continue sautéing until the mushrooms are golden brown and caramelized. Optional: remove some of the shiitake mushrooms from the pan and reserve for serving - not necessary, but it makes a nice garnish. 3. Add the thyme and arborio rice and cook for 1 minute, stirring occasionally. Then add dry white wine and stir gently. Cook for 2 minutes or until the liquid is mostly absorbed. 4. Using a ladle, add warmed vegetable stock 1/2 cup (120 ml) at a time, stirring almost constantly, giving the risotto little breaks to come back to a simmer. The heat should be medium, and there should always be a slight simmer (adjust heat as needed). You want the mixture to be cooking consistently but not boiling or it can get gummy and cook too quickly. 5. Continue to add vegetable stock 1 ladle at a time, stirring to incorporate, until the rice is 'al dente' - cooked through but still has a slight bite. This whole process should take about 15-20 minutes. 6. Once the rice is cooked through and al dente, remove from heat and add vegan parmesan cheese. Stir to coat (see photo). Taste and adjust flavor as needed, adding sea salt and pepper to taste or more vegan parmesan to enhance the cheesiness. If dry at this point, add a little more warmed broth. 7. To serve, divide between serving bowls and top with reserved mushrooms, additional vegan parmesan cheese, and a sprinkle of fresh parsley (all optional). 8. Best when fresh, though leftovers will keep covered in the refrigerator for 4-5 days or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop with additional (warmed) vegetable broth until hot.  viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) https://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipe/pasta-with-mushrooms-herbs-and-beet-greens/9470/  Ingredients: ● 4 oz dried gluten-free pasta  ● 2 cup mushrooms (cremini or a combination of cremini, oyster and shitake), sliced ● 1 medium onion, coarsely chopped ● extra virgin olive oil (just enough to sauté the mushrooms and onions) ● 2 large cloves garlic, minced  46 ● 1 Tbsp fresh thyme leaves (or 1 tsp dried) You can mix herbs, or choose your favourite ● 1 bunch baby beet greens (save the roots for another dish), well washed, dried and coarsely chopped ● Chili pepper flakes – amount is up to you ● 2-3 tbsp balsamic vinegar ● Vegan cheese to sprinkle over the pasta just before serving…again, amount is up to you  Directions: 1. Bring a large pot of well-salted water to a boil. Add the gluten-free pasta and cook until al dente (8-10 minutes depending on the type of pasta). Set aside 1 cup cooking water. (Sometimes I need it, sometimes not, but it’s best to have some handy.) Drain and place in a large serving bowl. 2. In the meantime, in a large non-stick skillet, over medium high heat, add a little olive oil and sauté the onions and mushrooms until the onions are translucent and the mushrooms golden (about 5 minutes). Add the garlic and toss once or twice, then add the baby beet greens and toss until wilted (2-3 minutes). 3. Just before adding to the pasta, add balsamic vinegar, chili pepper flakes and toss. Taste for seasoning and add to the serving bowl. (Here's where you might want to add some cooking water or some olive oil. Toss and add coarsely grated vegan cheese and serve.   ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/white-bean-fettuccine-alfredo/  Ingredients: ● 2 Tbsp. vegan butter ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● 1/4 cup chopped broccoli florets ● 1/4 cup sliced mushrooms ● 1 15-oz. can white beans (also known as Great Northern beans), drained and rinsed ● 1 tsp. lemon juice ● 1 Tbsp. nutritional yeast ● 1/2 cup almond milk ● 2 oz. dried fettuccine ● 1 tomato, chopped  Directions: ● Melt the vegan butter in a large pan. Add the garlic, broccoli, and sliced mushrooms. Cook over medium heat for 2 to 3 minutes.  47 ● Remove the broccoli and mushrooms, then set aside. Pour the melted butter and garlic into a blender. Add the white beans and blend for 5 seconds. Add the lemon juice, nutritional yeast, and almond milk and blend until completely smooth. Transfer to the large pan and cook over medium heat until warm. ● Bring a large pot of water to a boil and cook the fettuccine according to the package directions. Drain the pasta, then return to the pot. Pour the white-bean Alfredo sauce over the pasta and add the broccoli, mushroom slices, and tomato. x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/black-eyed-peas-veggie-medley/  Ingredients: ● 1/2 pkg. of 14 oz. extra firm tofu ● 2 Tbsp. oil ● 1/4 onion, chopped ● 1 1/2 cups rice, cooked (a microwavable bag of rice works fine) ● 1 can black-eyed peas ● 2 cups collard greens, chopped (frozen works fine) ● 1 pkg. smoked tofu, cubed ● 1 tsp. salt ● Hot sauce, to taste  ● Cooking spray, for tofu   Instructions: ● Use a tofu press to drain the tofu. Alternatively, wrap in a kitchen towel and place between two plates with a heavy book on top for 30 minutes, replace the towel with a fresh one, and repeat. ● Preheat the oven to 400°F. ● Cut the tofu into 1-inch cubes and arrange in a single layer on a large parchment-lined baking sheet. Lightly spray with cooking oil. Bake for 20 minutes, flip, then continue baking until golden brown and crisp, about 20 more minutes. ● Add the oil to a pan over medium heat. Add the onion and stir for 1 minute. ● Add the rice and black-eyed peas. Sauté for 3 minutes, stirring often. ● Add the collard greens and salt and stir for a few minutes, until cooked through. Top with baked tofu.      48 Appendix E: Marketable Nutrition Messages EXAMPLES OF MARKETABLE NUTRITIONAL MESSAGES 1. Protein sufficient a. Substitutions of meat as a protein source in the foods, such as, vegan cheese, legumes, lentils, and/or eggs, to fulfill nutritional needs. b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Chickpea Salad, Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls, Spiced Lentil Soup, and Creamy White Bean Soup.  2. Energy sufficient  a. For each recipe provided, the average calorie content per serving is between 500-800 kcal, which is sufficient for an individual to consume and provides satiety.  b. This can be applied to any recipe chosen from the recipe list, specific calorie numbers can be listed beside the selection on the menu. 3. Promotes digestive health a. Increase in fibre consumption, which promotes the motility of the digestive tract (Karunaratne, 2018). b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach, and Sweet Potato Carrot Dal with Coconut Leeks. 4. Rich in antioxidants  a. Reduced oxidative stress in functional parts of the body and potential decreased risk against the development of age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases (Yoshihara, 2010). b. Example of recipe that can use this message Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto.  MARKETABLE NUTRITIONAL MESSAGES 1. Protein sufficient a. Substitutions of meat as a protein source in the foods, such as, vegan cheese, legumes, lentils, and/or eggs, to fulfill nutritional needs. b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Chickpea Salad, Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls, Spiced Lentil Soup, and Creamy White Bean Soup.  2. Energy sufficient  a. For each recipe provided, the average calorie content per serving is between 500-800 kcal, which is sufficient for an individual to consume and provides satiety.  b. This can be applied to any recipe chosen from the recipe list, specific calorie numbers can be listed beside the selection on the menu. 3. Promotes digestive health a. Increase in fibre consumption, which promotes the motility of the digestive tract (Karunaratne, 2018). b. Examples of recipes that can use this message are Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach, and Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks. 4. Rich in antioxidants  a. Reduced oxidative stress in functional parts of the body and potential decreased risk against the development of age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases (Yoshihara, 2010). b. Example of recipe that can use this message Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto.   Nest Catering Vegan, Gluten-Free Recipes   Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF) iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF) v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF) iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF)          Lunch i. Chickpea Salad (Vegan, GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2015/07/21/chickpea-salad/  Yields:​ 3 servings Prep Time:​ 15 min Cook Time:​ 0 min  Ingredients: ● 1 (15-ounce/425 grams) can chickpeas, drained and rinsed ● 2 stalks celery, finely chopped ● 3 green onions, thinly sliced ● 1/4 cup finely chopped dill pickle ● 1/4 cup finely chopped red bell pepper ● 3 tablespoons store-bought or homemade vegan mayonnaise ● 1 clove garlic, minced ● 1 1/2 teaspoons yellow mustard ● 2 teaspoons minced fresh dill (optional) ● 1 1/2 to 3 teaspoons fresh lemon juice, to taste ● 1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. In a large bowl, mash the chickpeas with a potato masher until flaked in texture. 2. Stir in the celery, green onions, pickles, bell peppers, mayonnaise, and garlic until combined. 3. Now, stir in the mustard and dill, and season with the lemon juice, salt, and pepper, adjusting the quantities to taste. 4. Serve with toasted bread, on crackers, wraps, or on top of a basic leafy green salad. Or just enjoy it all on its own!  ii. Grain-Free Crispy Sesame Cauliflower (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/11/28/vegan-grain-free-sticky-crispy-sesame-cauliflower/   Yields:​ 4 servings  Ingredients:  Cauliflower: ● 1 head of cauliflower (about 2 ½ lbs) ● 1 cup cassava flour ● 1 ½ cups water, plus extra ● ½ teaspoon garlic powder ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds ● sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste Sticky Sesame Sauce: ● ¼ cup tamari soy sauce ● 2 tablespoons maple syrup ● 1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil ● 1 tablespoon rice vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● 1 tablespoon chili paste (optional) ● 2 cloves garlic, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 2-inch piece fresh ginger, peeled and finely grated/minced ● 1 tablespoon sesame seeds Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. 2. Cut the cauliflower into small florets. In a large bowl, combine the cassava flour, water, garlic powder, sesame seeds, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. The resulting batter should be fluid but thick–thick enough to coat a piece of cauliflower and pool only slightly once set on the baking sheet. If the batter is too thick/pasty, add water by the tablespoon until you reach the proper consistency. 3. Drop the cauliflower florets into the batter and stir until all pieces are coated. Using a fork, carefully transfer battered cauliflower to the baking sheets, leaving 1 inch of space around each floret. 4. Bake the battered cauliflower for 20 minutes. While the cauliflower is baking, make the sauce. In a small saucepan combine the tamari, maple syrup, sesame oil, rice vinegar, tomato paste, chili paste, garlic, ginger, and sesame seeds. Bring the sauce to a boil on the stove over medium heat. Simmer for 5 minutes or until slightly reduced. Set aside. 5. After cauliflower has baked for 20 minutes, remove and let cool slightly. Once it’s cool enough to handle, transfer the par-baked cauliflower to a large bowl. Cover the cauliflower with all but 3 tablespoons of the sesame sauce. Toss to thoroughly coat the cauliflower. 6. Bake the cauliflower for another 20 minutes, or until the edges are starting to darken. Remove the crispy sesame cauliflower and let it sit for a full 5 minutes before serving in lettuce wraps, on rice etc., drizzled with remaining sauce and topped with extra sesame seeds, and chopped green onions.  Notes:  If you don’t want to use cassava flour, you can substitute brown rice, chickpea or regular wheat flour. Lower the amount of water to 1 cup if you’re making this substitution (and add more if necessary)! -It’s important to really keep an eye on these towards the end of the cooking process. They can go from perfect to burnt in what feels like seconds.  -I use a Microplane to get the garlic and ginger nice and fine for the sauce -The sauce is light here! Double the batch if you like it saucy. iii. Buffalo Chickpea Wraps (Vegan, can be made GF)  https://minimalistbaker.com/spicy-buffalo-chickpea-wraps/  Yields:​ 4 servings  Prep Time:​ 20 minutes Cook Time:​ 10 minutes   Ingredients:  Dressing and Salad: ● 1/3 cup hummus (or store-bought) ● 1 1/2 - 2 Tbsp maple syrup (plus more to taste) ● 1 small lemon, juiced (1 small lemon yields ~2 Tbsp or 30 ml) ● 1-2 Tbsp hot water (to thin) ● 1 head romaine lettuce (or sub 1 bundle kale per 1 head romaine // cleaned, large stems removed, roughly chopped) Buffalo Chickpeas: ● 1 15-ounce can chickpeas (rinsed, drained and dried // ~ 1 1/4 cups per can when drained) ● 1 Tbsp coconut oil (or sub grape seed or olive oil) ● 4 Tbsp hot sauce (divided) ● 1/4 tsp garlic powder (or sub 1 minced garlic clove per 1/4 tsp powder) ● 1 pinch sea salt For Serving: ● 3-4 vegan-friendly flour tortillas, pita, or flatbread ● 1/4 cup red onion, diced (​optional​) ● 1/4 cup baby tomato, diced (​optional​) ● 1/4 ripe avocado, thinly sliced (​optional​)  Directions:  1. Make dressing by adding hummus, maple syrup, and lemon juice to a mixing bowl and whisking to combine. Add hot water until thick but pourable. 2. Taste and adjust flavor as needed, then add romaine lettuce or kale, and toss. Set aside. 3. To make chickpeas, add drained, dried chickpeas to a separate mixing bowl. Add coconut oil, 3 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size), garlic powder, and a pinch of salt - toss to combine/coat. 4. Heat a metal or cast-iron skillet over medium heat. Once hot, add chickpeas and sauté for 3-5 minutes, mashing a few chickpeas gently with a spoon to create texture (see photo). 5. Once chickpeas are hot and slightly dried out, remove from heat and add remaining 1 Tbsp hot sauce (amount as original recipe is written // adjust if altering batch size). Stir to combine. Set aside. 6. To assemble, top each wrap with a generous portion of the dressed romaine salad, and top with 1/4 cup buffalo chickpeas and a sprinkle of diced tomatoes, avocado, and/or onion (optional). 7. Serve immediately. Store leftovers separately in the refrigerator up to 3 days, though best when fresh. You can enjoy the buffalo chickpeas cold, room temperature or heated up. iv. Open-Faced Sprout Sandwich (Vegan, GF)  https://nutritionstripped.com/open-faced-sprout-sandwich/  Yields:​ 1 serving Prep Time:​ 5 minutes  Cook Time:​ 0 minutes   Ingredients:  ● 2 slices of grain-free bread ● 1 teaspoon dijon mustard ● 2 tablespoons hummus  ● Sliced vegetables: thinly sliced red onion, tomato, cucumber, 2 romaine lettuce leafs ● Protein of your choice: eggs (scrambled, sliced hard boiled, or poached), thinly sliced tempeh, thinly sliced tofu, chicken, etc. ● 1/2 avocado, sliced or mashed on the vegetables ● 1 handful of sprouts ● Sea salt ● Freshly ground black pepper  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the bread until desired firmness, then simply spread mustard, followed by hummus, layer sliced cucumber, then tomato, then the protein of your choice, then sliced avocado, followed by the lettuce and sprouts. 2. Top with fresh black pepper and a pinch of sea salt. 3. Enjoy immediately or place in an airtight glass container for lunch on the go! v. Spiced quinoa and eggplant rolls (Vegan, GF) https://theminimalistvegan.com/spiced-quinoa-and-eggplant-rolls/ Yields:​ 15 rolls  Ingredients: ● ½ cup of washed quinoa ● 1 cup of water (to cook the quinoa in) ● 2 tbsp rice bran oil ● 1 small onion diced ● 1 tsp garam masala ● ¼ tsp turmeric powder ● 1 tbsp finely grated fresh ginger ● Pinch of hot chilli powder (or more if you like spicy food) ● Half a medium sized capsicum chopped ● 3 medium sized eggplants, cut into ½ inch thin slices ● ½ cup olive oil ● Salt for seasoning ● A handful of parsley for dressing, finely chopped  Directions: 1. Bring quinoa and water to a boil in a small saucepan. Reduce heat to low, cover and simmer until tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed. This typically takes 15 to 20 minutes. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, add the rice bran oil and onion to a medium sized saucepan on medium heat. 3. Once the onion starts to brown, add in the garam masala, turmeric, ginger, chilli stirring to coat the onions in the spices well. Let it cook for about 2-3 minutes. 4. Add in the capsicum and stir to combine all ingredients well. Reduce heat to low and cook until the capsiucum is soft. Season to taste. 5. Combine the cooked quinoa and spicy onion and capsicum and mix well. Set aside. 6. For the eggplant, preheat a medium-high charcoal grill on a barbecue or stove grill. Brush both sides of the eggplant slices with olive oil and season with salt. Grill until golden-brown grill marks form, which should take around 3 to 4 minutes on one side. Turn the eggplant and repeat the same process. You can also do this in a frying pan. 7. Once all the eggplants are done. Start adding 1-2 tbsp of quinoa mixture at the bottom of each eggplant piece and roll tightly. You can use toothpicks to keep together if they are coming undone easily. I find that placing the end of the eggplant facing the plate helps to keep it in place. Roll all the eggplant pieces and sprinkle the stack with some fresh parsley and a little more olive oil drizzled over the top. 8. You can serve this warm or cold on its own or with some hummus. vi. Quinoa salad with tomatoes and spinach (Vegan, GF) https://www.emilieeats.com/easy-quinoa-salad-tomatoes-spinach/  Yields:​ 4-6 Prep Time:​ 10 minutes Cook Time: ​15 minutes   Ingredients: ● 1/2 cup dry quinoa ● 2 cups cherry or grape tomatoes, halved ● 2 1/2 cups spinach, chopped ● 1 15-ounce can white beans, drained and rinsed ● 1/3 cup slivered almonds ● 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar ● 1/2 tablespoon maple syrup ● 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder ● 1/4 teaspoon salt ● 1/4 ​teaspoon​ pepper  Directions​: 1. In a medium saucepan over high heat, add quinoa and 1 cup water; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat to low, and simmer for 13-15 minutes. When done, fluff quinoa with a fork. 2. While the quinoa is cooking, heat a little water or oil (if using) in a skillet over medium heat. Add tomatoes; cook for 5 minutes, until tomatoes begin to burst. Add spinach; cook until wilted, about 5-7 more minutes, stirring continuously. 3. In a large bowl, add quinoa, vegetables, beans, and almonds. Stir to combine. 4. In a small bowl, add vinegar, maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper. Whisk to combine. 5. Pour dressing over the other ingredients. Stir to combine. vii. Falafel fattoush (Vegan, can be made GF) https://www.thefullhelping.com/falafel-fattoush-real-food-really-fast/  Yields:  Prep Time:​ 5 minutes Cook Time:​ 10 minutes   Ingredients: ● 4 2-ounce pita breads ● 1 pint cherry tomatoes halved if large ● 1 cup sliced Persian cucumber or diced English cucumber ● 1 15- ounce can chickpeas rinsed and drained ● 2 scallions thinly sliced ● 1 cup fresh parsley leaves ● 1 clove garlic finely minced ● 1/4-1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes ● 2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 2 teaspoons ground coriander ● 1/2-1 teaspoon salt ● 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper ● 1 tablespoon lemon juice ● 2 tablespoons olive oil ● 2 tablespoons sesame seeds toasted  Directions: 1. Lightly toast the pita bread and chop it into bite-sized squares, about 1/2-inch each. Place the bread in a large bowl along with the tomatoes, cucumber, chickpeas, scallions, and parsley. Mix the vegetables around lightly to combine. Sprinkle in the minced garlic, red pepper flakes, cumin, coriander, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and pepper. Toss everything together until the vegetables are well distributed and evenly coated with the spices.  2. Right before serving, drizzle in the lemon juice and olive oil, tossing once more to incorporate. Add more salt to taste, if needed, and finish with a sprinkle of sesame seeds over the top. viii. Vegan Eggplant Crunch Burger (Vegan; GF) http://www.onegreenplanet.org/vegan-recipe/the-vegan-eggplant-crunchburger/ Calories: ​754 Yields: ​4 burgers  Ingredients:  Horseradish Mustard Mayo ● 1/4 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbs. Dijon mustard ● 2 Tbs. prepared horseradish ● A pinch of dried tarragon ● Kosher salt and black pepper to taste Eggplant Burgers ● 1 large or 2 medium eggplants, peeled and cubed ● 2 Tbs. extra-virgin olive oil, divided ● 1 shallot, finely minced ● 1 cup vegan cheese shreds, any flavor ● 1 clove garlic, minced or grated ● ½ tsp. Kosher salt ● ¼ tsp. black pepper ● 1 Tbs. fresh parsley, chopped ● 1 cup gluten-free bread crumbs Toppings ● 1 cup vegan cheese, either slices or shreds (as long as it melts) ● 4 gluten-free buns ● 4 slices beefsteak tomato ● 4 leaves romaine lettuce ● 4 slices red onion ● Horseradish Mustard Mayonnaise (recipe above) ● 4 handfuls of potato chips  Directions:  For the Horseradish Mustard Mayo 1. Whisk together the mayonnaise, mustard, and horseradish in a small bowl and season with salt and pepper. 2. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes to allow the flavors to meld. 3. The sauce can be prepared 1 day in advance and kept covered in the refrigerator. To make the Eggplant Burgers 1. In a large skillet, heat 1 Tbs. of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the eggplant cubes and sauté until they are browned and very soft, about 10-12 minutes. Make sure they are super-soft because they need to be mashed. You could also roast the eggplant to make it soft. 2. Transfer the eggplant to a large bowl. Mash the eggplant up until there are no whole pieces left. I use a potato masher to do this. Once you have a big bowl of mush, add the shallot, cheese, garlic, salt, pepper and parsley. Mix it into the eggplant. Add the breadcrumbs. Don’t add them all at once; you want to feel the mix and see whether you need a whole cup. I add ½ cup of bread crumbs and mix it. 3. The best way to mix it is wet your hands and use one hand (keep the other hand clean) to gently mix the crumbs into the eggplant. You will probably need more crumbs so add another ¼ cup and mix it again. You want the consistency to feel firm, like it will hold up as a burger. If it feels too moist, add the last ¼ cup of bread crumbs. Usually, I end up using the whole cup of crumbs. 4. Put the eggplant mixture into the fridge for about 30 minutes. Take the bowl out of the fridge and with your hand, divide the mixture into 4 parts. To form the burgers, I use a 3 ½ inch cookie cutter. I spray it with a bit of cooking oil spray and then pack the eggplant mixture into the cookie cutter. Pat it down, let it sit for about 20 seconds and then gently lift the cookie cutter off. Let your perfect burger sit for a few minutes undisturbed while you make the other 3 burgers. 5. In the same skillet that you sautéed the eggplant in (but cleaned), heat the other Tbs. of oil over medium-high heat and add the burgers to the pan. Let cook until slightly browned on one side and (this is very important), you can lift the burger with a spatula without breaking it. I use 2 spatulas to gently turn the burgers. Flip them and let them cook on the other side. When the 2nd side gets golden brown, flip them back over and let the first side cook until golden brown. To make the Vegan Crunch Burgers 1. Top the burgers with either 2 slices or ¼ cup of vegan cheese. Add about a Tbs. of water to the pan and cover it. This will create steam and allow the cheese to melt and get ooey-gooey. 2. If you want your buns toasty, put on some pants. If you want your burger buns toasty, preheat the broiler while you are cooking the burgers. Split the buns and put the halves, cut side up, on a baking sheet and cook them until they are lightly golden brown, about 30 seconds. Don’t burn them!! 3. Place the burgers on the bun bottoms and, if desired, top with tomato, lettuce, onion, and a dollop of horseradish mustard mayonnaise. Pile on the potato chips, top with the bun tops, and serve immediately. Make sure you have tons of napkins because it’s going to be messy.  Nutritional Information Per Serving: Calories: 754 ● Carbs: 104 g ● Fat: 36 g ● Protein: 15 g ● Sodium: 1,245 mg ● Sugar: 9 g ix. Delicious Deviled Eggs (Vegan; GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/delicious-deviled-eggs/  Ingredients ● 10 small potatoes, halved lengthwise ● 2 Tbsp. refined coconut oil ● 1/2 cup vegan mayonnaise ● 2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard ● 1/2 tsp. Kala Namak (for an egg-like taste) (optional) ● Salt and pepper, to taste ● Smoked paprika, for garnish ● Fresh dill sprigs, for garnish  Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 425ºF. Place the potatoes on a baking sheet, drizzle with the coconut oil, and bake for 30 minutes, or until tender. 2. Let cool, then scoop out the insides of the potatoes with a melon baller or spoon and place in a large bowl. Add the vegan mayonnaise, mustard, and kala namak and season with salt and pepper. Stir until well combined. 3. Fill the potatoes skins with the mixture and garnish with smoked paprika and dill sprigs.  Dinner i. Spiced Lentil Soup (Vegan; GF) https://ohsheglows.com/2016/04/03/glowing-spiced-lentil-soup/   Yields: ​7 cups (1.65 litres)  Prep time:​ 15 Minutes  Cook time:​ 20 Minutes  Ingredients: ● 1 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil ● 2 cups (280 grams) diced onion (1 medium/large) ● 2 large garlic cloves, minced ● 2 teaspoons ground turmeric ● 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin ● 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon ● 1/4 teaspoon ground cardamom ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can diced tomatoes, with juices ● 1 (15-ounce/398 mL) can full-fat coconut milk ● 3/4 cup (140 grams) uncooked red lentils, rinsed and drained ● 3 1/2 cups (875 mL) low-sodium vegetable broth ● 1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste ● Freshly ground black pepper, to taste ● Red pepper flakes or cayenne pepper, to taste (for a kick of heat!) ● 1 (5-ounce/140-gram) package baby spinach ● 2 teaspoons fresh lime juice, or more to taste  Directions: 1. In a large pot, add the oil, onion, and garlic. Add a pinch of salt, stir, and sauté over medium heat for 4 to 5 minutes until the onion softens. 2. Stir in the turmeric, cumin, cinnamon, and cardamom until combined. Continue cooking for about 1 minute, until fragrant. 3. Add the diced tomatoes (with juices), entire can of coconut milk, red lentils, broth, salt, and plenty of pepper. Add red pepper flakes or cayenne, if desired, to taste. Stir to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a low boil. 4. Once it boils, reduce the heat to medium-high, and simmer, uncovered, for about 18 to 22 minutes, until the lentils are fluffy and tender. 5. Turn off the heat and stir in the spinach until wilted. Add the lime juice to taste. Taste and add more salt and pepper, if desired. Ladle into bowls and serve with toasted bread and lime wedges.  ii. Braised Harissa Eggplant With Chickpeas (Vegan, GF)  http://thefirstmess.com/2018/08/01/braised-harissa-eggplant-chickpeas/ Yields:​ 4 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 large eggplant ● 1 tablespoon sea salt + extra ● 3 tablespoons heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado (plus extra if necessary) ● 1 medium cooking onion, small dice ● 1 small chili, such as cayenne or fresno, seeded and minced ● 3 cloves of garlic, minced ● ½ teaspoon ground cumin ● ½ teaspoon ground caraway ● ½ teaspoon ground coriander ● 1 ½ cups cooked chickpeas ● Ground black pepper, to taste ● 2 cups crushed tomatoes ● 1 cup vegetable stock ● 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice ● ¼ cup chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Remove the stem of the eggplant and chop into 1-inch cubes. Place the cubes in a colander and toss them with the tablespoon of salt. Set aside for an hour in the sink. 2. After an hour, rinse the eggplant (to remove excess salt) and thoroughly pat the cubes dry with paper towel or clean kitchen towels. 3. Set up a dinner plate with a couple paper towels on top. In a wide, deep braiser-style pot, heat the oil over medium-high heat. In batches, sear the eggplant until it’s golden brown on all sides and softened. As the eggplant finishes, remove it from the pot with a slotted spoon and place it on the paper towel-lined plate. Set aside. 4. Add more oil to the pot of necessary and lower the heat to medium. Add the onions and hot pepper to the pot and sauté until onion is translucent, about 4 minutes. Add the garlic, cumin, caraway, and coriander to the pot and stir until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the chickpeas, some salt and black pepper to taste, and then stir to coat the chickpeas in spices. Add the tomatoes and vegetable stock to the pot. 5. Bring the braise to a boil and simmer, uncovered and stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes. Add the eggplant back into the pot and bring the braise up to a boil once more. Stir in the lemon juice and parsley. Serve the braised harissa eggplant hot over millet or rice (or any other starch of choice).  iii. Vegan Stuffed Eggplant With Sunflower Romesco (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2017/07/12/vegan-stuffed-eggplant-sunflower-romesco-recipe/  Yields: ​4 servings  Ingredients:  Sunflower Romesco (makes extra): ● ½ cup toasted sunflower seeds ● 2 roasted red peppers (homemade or from a jar) ● 2 cloves of garlic, chopped ● 1 teaspoon smoked paprika ● ½ teaspoon aleppo pepper, or a pinch of cayenne ● 2 tablespoons sherry OR apple cider vinegar ● 1 tablespoon tomato paste ● small handful flat parsley leaves ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● scant ½ cup virgin olive oil Stuffed Eggplant: ● 2 small-medium eggplants ● olive oil ● sea salt and ground black pepper ● 1 small shallot, chopped ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● ¼ cup romesco ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice 2 tablespoons tahini ● 4 servings cooked grain of choice (I used quinoa) ● big handful of fresh and leafy herbs, chopped (I used cilantro, parsley & a bit of dill) ● toasted sunflower seeds or ​dukkah​, for topping Directions: 1. Make the sunflower romesco: In the bowl of a food processor, combine the sunflower seeds, roasted red peppers, garlic, paprika, aleppo pepper, vinegar, tomato paste, parsley, salt, and pepper. Pulse the mixture until all ingredients are finely chopped and lightly pasty. Scrape the bowl down. Then, with the motor on low, drizzle the olive oil in through the feed tube until fully incorporated. Check the sauce for seasoning. Transfer sauce to a sealable jar, and set aside in the fridge until ready to use.  2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. Cut the eggplants in half lengthwise, right through the stem. Using a paring knife, carve into the eggplant flesh all the way around the perimeter. Pry the eggplant flesh out of the eggplant halves with your fingers or a spoon and set it aside. Place eggplant halves on a baking sheet, facing up. Brush the eggplant halves with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Bake eggplant for 20 minutes, or until golden brown and lightly tender. 4. Roughly chop the scooped out eggplant. Heat a bit of oil in a medium-large saute pan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic to the pan and saute until fragrant and slightly soft, about 2 minutes. Add the chopped eggplant, and season with salt and pepper. Stir. Saute the eggplant, stirring occasionally, until tender, browned, and slightly reduced in size, about 4 minutes. 5. Carefully transfer eggplant to the food processor. Add the ¼ cup of romesco, lemon juice, and tahini to the food processor as well. Pulse the mixture until you have a chunky paste. 6. To serve, divide the warm eggplant filling evenly among the eggplant “boats.” Then, spoon your cooked grain of choice on top along with a sprinkle of chopped herbs. Garnish the tops of the stuffed eggplants with more romesco and toasted sunflower seeds or dukkah. Enjoy warm. iv. Creamy White Bean Soup (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2018/01/03/creamy-white-bean-soup-vegan-recipe/  Yields:​ 4-5 servings  Ingredients: ● 1 tablespoon heat-tolerant oil, such as avocado or refined coconut oil ● 1 medium yellow onion, small dice ● 1 medium carrot, small dice ● 1 celery stalk, small dice ● 2 cloves garlic, minced ● chili flakes or aleppo pepper, to taste ● 1 sprig fresh rosemary, minced ● 4 cups cooked navy beans (about 2 15-ounce cans, drained) ● 4 cups vegetable stock ● 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice ● sea salt & ground black pepper, to taste ● 3 cups packed chopped lacinato kale (roughly 1 small bunch) big handful finely chopped flat leaf parsley  Directions: 1. Heat the oil in a medium-large soup pot over medium heat. Add the onions, carrots, and celery to the pot and stir. Saute the vegetables until slightly softened and translucent, about 5 minutes. 2. To the pot, add the garlic, chili flakes, and rosemary. Stir and cook until garlic is fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add the navy beans to the pot and stir. Add the vegetable stock to the pot and stir once more. Bring the soup to a boil. 3. Once boiling, ladle half of the soup into an upright blender. Add the lemon juice to the blender as well. Carefully bring the speed of the blender up to high and blend until this portion of the soup is totally liquified. Pour this liquified portion back into the pot. Season the soup with salt and pepper. 4. Add the kale to the pot and bring the soup to a boil. Once the kale is slightly wilted and bright green, season the soup once more with salt and pepper, if you find it necessary. Stir in the chopped parsley as well. Serve the soup hot. v. Sweet Potato Carrot Dal With Coconut Leeks (Vegan, GF) http://thefirstmess.com/2014/12/11/sweet-potato-carrot-dal-with-coconut-leeks-and-a-wine-country-ontario-giveaway/   Yields: ​ 4 servings  Ingredients:  Dal: ● 2-3 tsp coconut oil ● 1 tsp ground coriander ● 1/2 tsp mustard seeds ● pinch of chili flakes ● 1 cup red lentils ● 1 sweet potato, peeled and diced small ● 1 two inch piece of ginger, peeled + minced ● 1 one inch piece of fresh turmeric, peeled + minced (or substitute 1 tsp dried turmeric powder) ● 3 ½  cups filtered water + extra if necessary ● 1.5 tsp garam masala ● salt to taste Coconut Leeks: ● 1 tbsp extra virgin coconut oil ● 1 leek, white and light green part julienned ● squeeze of lime juice ● pinch of salt To serve: ● Cooked, warm rice ● Chopped parsley, cilantro or mint (or a combination)  Directions: 1. Place a large pot over medium heat. Heat up the coconut oil in the pot and add the ground coriander, mustard seeds and chili flakes. Stir about until the mustard seeds start to pop just a little bit. 2. Add the lentils, diced sweet potato, carrots, ginger, turmeric, and a pinch of salt. Stir to mix and coat everything in the oil and spice. Add the filtered water to the pot. Bring mixture to a boil and simmer until the mixture is creamy and soupy, stirring occasionally. The sweet potato pieces should still be intact with a tiny bit of bite. The lentils will be broken down, filling out the mixture. Keep it warm while you sauté the leeks. 3. Heat the coconut oil in a small sauté pan over medium heat. Add the leeks to the pan and sauté until leeks are soft and very fragrant. Season with salt. Add a squeeze of lime if you like at the end. Remove from the heat. 4. To serve: divide the hot dal over 4 portions of rice. Top the dal with sautéed leeks and a few dribbles of the coconut oil left in the pan. Garnish each serving with the chopped herbs and black sesame seeds. vi. One-pot butternut squash-quinoa chilli (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/1-pot-butternut-squash-quinoa-chili/  Yields:​ 6 servings Prep Time:​ 10 minutes Cook Time:​ 50 minutes  Ingredients:  Chili: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or coconut oil (sub water if avoiding oil) ● 1 small white or yellow onion (diced) ● 1 jalapeño (minced // remove seeds for less heat) ● 1/2 tsp each sea salt and black pepper (​DIVIDED​ // plus more to taste) ● 4 cloves garlic ● 4 cups diced butternut squash ● 3 Tbsp chili powder ​(DIVIDED) ● 2 Tbsp ground cumin ​(DIVIDED) ● 2 tsp smoked paprika ● 2 15- ounce cans fire-roasted (or regular) diced tomatoes (if unsalted, add more sea salt to taste) ● 1/4 cup tomato paste ● 3 cups ​vegetable broth ​(sub up to half with water for lower sodium // plus more as needed) ● 1/4 cup quinoa, rinsed ● 1 15- ounce can kidney beans (slightly drained) ● 1 15- ounce can black beans (slightly drained) ● 1-2 Tbsp coconut sugar (or maple syrup) ● 1 small chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (for heat) (​optional​) ● 1 cup chopped kale (or other sturdy green) (​optional​) For Serving (optional): ● Rice or quinoa ● Fresh chopped cilantro or parsley ● Avocado Directions: 1. Heat a large pot over medium heat. Once hot, add oil (or water), onion, and jalapeño pepper. Season with a healthy pinch each salt and pepper and stir. Sauté for 3-4 minutes, stirring frequently. 2. Add garlic and sauté (stirring occasionally) for 2-3 minutes more, or until onion, pepper, and garlic are softened and slightly browned. 3. Add butternut squash, 2/3 of the chili powder (2 Tbsp as original recipe is written), half the cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), smoked paprika and stir to coat. Cook for 3 minutes. 4. Add diced tomatoes, tomato paste, and vegetable broth and stir to combine. Bring to a low boil over medium-high heat. 5. Once boiling, add quinoa (see photo) and reduce heat to medium-low or low, so it's at a gentle simmer. You want to see bubbles, but you don't want it boiling. ​Cover and cook for 12-15 minutes, or until quinoa is mostly tender. As it's cooking you may need to add more vegetable broth or water if it's looking too dry and the quinoa isn't submerged (I didn't find that necessary). 6. Next add kidney beans, black beans, 1/4 tsp each salt and pepper, and remaining cumin (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written) and chili powder (1 Tbsp as original recipe is written), coconut sugar, and stir to combine. If adding the chipotle pepper in adobo sauce (optional), add now. 7. Bring to a simmer over medium heat, then reduce heat slightly to low (or medium-low), cover, and gently simmer for 15-20 minutes to meld the flavors together. Stir occasionally. 8. Taste and adjust seasonings as needed, adding more chili powder or cumin for smokiness, salt for saltiness, or a little coconut sugar to balance the heat and draw out the other flavors. 9. Add kale (optional), cover, and cook for 2-3 minutes more. Serve as is, or garnished with lime, fresh jalapeño, cilantro, red onion, and/or avocado (all optional). 10. Store leftovers in the refrigerator up to 5-6 days, or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop or in the microwave until hot. vii. Caramelized Shiitake Mushroom Risotto (Vegan, GF) https://minimalistbaker.com/caramelized-shiitake-mushroom-risotto/  Yields:​ 4 servings  Prep Time:​ 10 minutes Cook Time:​ 20 minutes   Ingredients:  Broth: ● 3 1/2 - 4 cups ​vegetable broth ​(or store-bought) Risotto: ● 2 Tbsp avocado or olive oil (if avoiding oil, sub water) ● 3/4 cup thinly sliced shallot ● 1/4 tsp each sea salt and black pepper ● 2 cups sliced Shiitake mushrooms (or other similar mushroom) ● 1 Tbsp ​coconut aminos​ (or tamari // soy sauce) ● 1 Tbsp chopped fresh thyme (or sub dried) ● 1 cup arborio rice (works best here - we recommend not subbing other grains) ● 1/4 cup dry white wine (or omit) ● 1/4 cup ​vegan parmesan cheese​ (plus more for serving // or sub nutritional yeast) For Serving (optional): ● Fresh chopped parsley  Directions: 1. In a medium saucepan, heat vegetable broth over medium heat. Once simmering, reduce heat to low to keep warm. 2. In the meantime, heat a large pan* over medium heat. Once hot, add oil and shallot and season with a pinch of salt and pepper. Sauté for 3-4 minutes - stirring frequently. Then add mushrooms and coconut aminos and continue sautéing until the mushrooms are golden brown and caramelized. ​Optional​: remove some of the shiitake mushrooms from the pan and reserve for serving - not necessary, but it makes a nice garnish. 3. Add the thyme and arborio rice and cook for 1 minute, stirring occasionally. Then add dry white wine and stir gently. Cook for 2 minutes or until the liquid is mostly absorbed. 4. Using a ladle, add warmed vegetable stock 1/2 cup (120 ml) at a time, stirring almost constantly, giving the risotto little breaks to come back to a simmer. The heat should be medium, and there should always be a slight simmer (adjust heat as needed). You want the mixture to be cooking consistently but ​not boiling​ or it can get gummy and cook too quickly. 5. Continue to add vegetable stock 1 ladle at a time, stirring to incorporate, until the rice is 'al dente' - cooked through but still has a slight bite. This whole process should take about 15-20 minutes. 6. Once the rice is cooked through and al dente, remove from heat and add vegan parmesan cheese. Stir to coat (see photo). Taste and adjust flavor as needed, adding sea salt and pepper to taste or more vegan parmesan to enhance the cheesiness. If dry at this point, add a little more warmed broth. 7. To serve, divide between serving bowls and top with reserved mushrooms, additional vegan parmesan cheese, and a sprinkle of fresh parsley (all optional). 8. Best when fresh, though leftovers will keep covered in the refrigerator for 4-5 days or in the freezer up to 1 month. Reheat on the stovetop with additional (warmed) vegetable broth until hot.  viii. Pasta with mushrooms, herbs and beet greens (Vegan, GF) https://www.foodnetwork.ca/recipe/pasta-with-mushrooms-herbs-and-beet-greens/9470/  Ingredients: ● 4 oz dried gluten-free pasta  ● 2 cup mushrooms (cremini or a combination of cremini, oyster and shitake), sliced ● 1 medium onion, coarsely chopped ● extra virgin olive oil (just enough to sauté the mushrooms and onions) ● 2 large cloves garlic, minced ● 1 Tbsp fresh thyme leaves (or 1 tsp dried) You can mix herbs, or choose your favourite ● 1 bunch baby beet greens (save the roots for another dish), well washed, dried and coarsely chopped ● Chili pepper flakes – amount is up to you ● 2-3 tbsp balsamic vinegar ● Vegan cheese to sprinkle over the pasta just before serving…again, amount is up to you  Directions: 1. Bring a large pot of well-salted water to a boil. Add the gluten-free pasta and cook until al dente (8-10 minutes depending on the type of pasta). Set aside 1 cup cooking water. (Sometimes I need it, sometimes not, but it’s best to have some handy.) Drain and place in a large serving bowl. 2. In the meantime, in a large non-stick skillet, over medium high heat, add a little olive oil and sauté the onions and mushrooms until the onions are translucent and the mushrooms golden (about 5 minutes). Add the garlic and toss once or twice, then add the baby beet greens and toss until wilted (2-3 minutes). 3. Just before adding to the pasta, add balsamic vinegar, chili pepper flakes and toss. Taste for seasoning and add to the serving bowl. (Here's where you might want to add some cooking water or some olive oil. Toss and add coarsely grated vegan cheese and serve.   ix. White Bean Fettuccine Alfredo (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/white-bean-fettuccine-alfredo/  Ingredients: ● 2 Tbsp. vegan butter ● 1 clove garlic, chopped ● 1/4 cup chopped broccoli florets ● 1/4 cup sliced mushrooms ● 1 15-oz. can white beans (also known as Great Northern beans), drained and rinsed ● 1 tsp. lemon juice ● 1 Tbsp. nutritional yeast ● 1/2 cup almond milk ● 2 oz. dried fettuccine ● 1 tomato, chopped  Directions: ● Melt the vegan butter in a large pan. Add the garlic, broccoli, and sliced mushrooms. Cook over medium heat for 2 to 3 minutes. ● Remove the broccoli and mushrooms, then set aside. Pour the melted butter and garlic into a blender. Add the white beans and blend for 5 seconds. Add the lemon juice, nutritional yeast, and almond milk and blend until completely smooth. Transfer to the large pan and cook over medium heat until warm. ● Bring a large pot of water to a boil and cook the fettuccine according to the package directions. Drain the pasta, then return to the pot. Pour the white-bean Alfredo sauce over the pasta and add the broccoli, mushroom slices, and tomato. x. Black Eyed Peas Veggie Medley (Vegan, GF) https://www.peta.org/recipes/black-eyed-peas-veggie-medley/  Ingredients: ● 1/2 pkg. of 14 oz. extra firm tofu ● 2 Tbsp. oil ● 1/4 onion, chopped ● 1 1/2 cups rice, cooked (a microwavable bag of rice works fine) ● 1 can black-eyed peas ● 2 cups collard greens, chopped (frozen works fine) ● 1 pkg. smoked tofu, cubed ● 1 tsp. salt ● Hot sauce, to taste  ● Cooking spray, for tofu   Instructions: ● Use a tofu press to drain the tofu. Alternatively, wrap in a kitchen towel and place between two plates with a heavy book on top for 30 minutes, replace the towel with a fresh one, and repeat. ● Preheat the oven to 400°F. ● Cut the tofu into 1-inch cubes and arrange in a single layer on a large parchment-lined baking sheet. Lightly spray with cooking oil. Bake for 20 minutes, flip, then continue baking until golden brown and crisp, about 20 more minutes. ● Add the oil to a pan over medium heat. Add the onion and stir for 1 minute. ● Add the rice and black-eyed peas. Sauté for 3 minutes, stirring often. ● Add the collard greens and salt and stir for a few minutes, until cooked through. Top with baked tofu.       SUSTAINABLE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEST CATERING   Practices to continue or implement:   1. Locally produced food a. Continue partnership with UBC farm b. Continue to purchase produce and dry goods locally when possible c. Source local proteins such as chicken and beef (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats d. Adjust menu to allow for seasonal foods (i.e. side of local, seasonal greens, topped with local, seasonal fruit) (2)   2. Plant-based options a. Incorporate more plant-based menu items i. see Appendix D: Recipes b. Menu is labelled for menu choices such as “vegan”, “vegetarian”, etc.   3. Ethically and sustainably produced a. Continue to serve only 100% Ocean Wise certified fish b. Continue to serve organic, fair trade coffee c. Aim to use grass fed chicken and beef (2) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC d. Seek out fair trade certification for items such as bananas, chocolate, sugar (3) e. Source cage free, certified humane eggs (3) i. Rabbit River Farms, Richmond BC f. Aim to source SPCA certified, Certified Humane approved meats (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC g. Menu communicates sustainable and/or ethical products to customers  4. Organic a. Aim to source meat that comes from animals raised without hormones, antibiotics, or chemical feed additives (1) i. Sumas Mountain Farms, Abbotsford BC ii. Two Rivers Meats, North Vancouver BC b. Purchase organic foods when possible, but focus on local over organic (1)  5. Reduce food waste a. Donate leftover food to shelters in Vancouver (2) i. Vancouver Food Bank Food Rescue Program ii. Vancouver Covenant House b. Compost all food waste in kitchen and dining hall (5) c. Recycle leftover cooking oil for future biofuel use (3) i. recycle used cooking oil at Vancouver Zero Waste Center ii. use service such as Redux to pick up and recycle used cooking oil   6. Green facilities a. Continue using 100% recyclable or compostable containers b. Recycling program for plastics, cardboard, metal and mixed media (6) c. Removal of water, juice and other beverages in plastic bottles from the menu (4) d. Papers towels made from 100% recycled paper (3) e. Cleaning products are biodegradable (8) i. Eco-max commercial products f. Bulbs and lighting are Energy Star rated (3) g. Install low-temp drying dishwasher - uses less power and water (4) h. Install low-flow sink sprayers and taps to reduce water consumption (8) i. Install high efficient water tank and recirculating pump (5) j. Combine delivery trips and use smaller vans when possible (3)     Additional Next Steps: Adapted from WWF-UK’s Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability   ● In your business: ○ Pilot sustainable menus and, if successful, roll them out across all outlets. ○ ‘Bundle’ costs: calculate the overall costs and benefits of introducing a sustainable menu, not the cost of individual products. ○ Develop staff who are passionate about delivering sustainability: provide them with the space, tools and training to deliver sustainable diets. ○ Remove worst offenders: Rule out ingredients that are unsustainably sourced   ● Across your stakeholders: ○ Educate and build demand: tell customers, clients and suppliers why sustainable diets are important. ○ Invest in sustainable supply chains. ○ Ask ‘would customers eat your food if they knew where it came from, how it was made, and what its health and sustainability credentials were?’. ○ Promote your values: tell stakeholders why sustainable diets matter to you.   ● Across your industry: ○ Share best practice, including non-commercially-competitive information about what has worked for you. ○ Agree on a shared definition (or common principles) for sustainable diets to create a level playing field when implementing them. ○ Advocate (to national governments) for a level playing fields; a change to competition law; and agree an industry-wide definition of sustainable diets.”   Resources   Sustainable catering companies:   1.​ ​Savoury Chef. Vancouver, BC https://www.savourychef.com/vancouver-caterers/green-sustainability-practices/   2. Chef Laura. Vancouver, BC https://www.cheflaura.ca/about/sustainability/   3. Basil Tree Catering. Boston, MA https://www.basiltree.com/practices/   4. Pomona Dining. Claremont, CA https://www.pomona.edu/administration/dining/sustainability   5. Culinary Capers. Vancouver BC https://www.culinarycapers.com/about-us/sustainability/   6. Truffles Catering. Victoria, BC https://www.trufflescatering.net/culture   7. Drew’s Catering. Vancouver, BC https://drewscatering.com/about/sustainability/   8. Windows Catering. Alexandria, VA https://www.catering.com/company/about-us/green-initiatives/     Grey Literature:   Berkeley Food Institute. (2018). A Guide for UC Berkeley Departments on Sustainable and Just Catering. Retrieved from http://food.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Sustainable-and-Just-Catering.pdf   Monash University Office of Environmental Sustainability. (2009). Sustainable Catering Guide. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54dd5ffce4b0cc2d46391991/t/594d1039b11be14d41a42967/1498222659822/Monash-Sustainable-Catering-Guide-2.pdf   World Wide Fund for Nature UK (WWF). (2016). Executive Summary: Catering for Sustainability. Retrieved from http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/wwf_catering_summary_report_signoff.pdf?_ga=1.172826020.629931605.1470744313    Additional Resources:   Sumas Mountain Farms http://www.sumasmountainfarms.ca/   Two Rivers Farms https://tworiversmeats.ca/farms/   Rabbit River Farms http://www.rabbitriverfarms.com/   SPCA Certified standards https://spca.bc.ca/programs-services/certifications-accreditation/spca-certified/   Redux cooking oil recycling program http://www.reduxprogram.com/used-cooking-oil.php   Vancouver Food Bank food recovery program https://foodbank.bc.ca/our-programs/food-recovery/   Covenant House Vancouver food donations https://www.covenanthousebc.org/ways-to-give/other-ways-to-give-2/donate-items/   Eco-max biodegradable cleaning products https://www.eco-max.ca/commercial-products/  

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