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Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques : Programs & Classes : Cardio,… Hanson, Jess; Huang, David; Pestoni, Daniele; Tenisch, Lara; Wang, Hank 2019-04-02

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report          Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques Jess Hanson, David Huang, Daniele Pestoni, Lara Tenisch, Hank Wang University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Community, Wellbeing April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.        Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques  Programs & Classes |  Cardio, Conditioning & Strength   2019    KIN 464 Authored by: Jess Hanson, David Huang, Daniele Pestoni, Lara Tenisch, Hank Wang     Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   2   Table of Contents Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Methods ............................................................................................................................................................... 3 Results ................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction and Literature Review .............................................................................. 4 Methods and Rationale .................................................................................................... 6 Data Collection.................................................................................................................................................... 7 Data Analysis ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Results and Findings ........................................................................................................ 8 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 11 Findings Relating to Goal ................................................................................................................................. 11 Challenges and Limitations ............................................................................................................................... 11 Recommendations for Clients ....................................................................................... 12 Richness ............................................................................................................................................................ 12 Attractiveness .................................................................................................................................................... 13 Awareness ......................................................................................................................................................... 13 Concluding Remarks ......................................................................................................................................... 14 References ....................................................................................................................... 15 Appendices ...................................................................................................................... 16 Appendix A – Sample Consent Form for Interviewees .................................................................................... 16 Appendix B – Interview Questions ................................................................................................................... 18 Appendix C – Results ........................................................................................................................................ 21  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   3   Executive Summary Introduction The purpose of this project was to analyze the University of British Columbia (UBC) Recreation Fitness & Classes website, specifically the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage, and to provide UBC Recreation with recommendations on their digital media and messaging to help improve physical activity participation across campus. Physical activity tends to decline rapidly from transitioning from high-school to university (Science Daily, 2018). Therefore, our research aims to provide strategies and recommendations, if necessary, for the UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage in an effort to make physical activity a daily regime for the members of the UBC community and for undergraduate students in particular. Methods Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the collected data from 17 undergraduate students ranging from year two to four with seven different ethnic backgrounds and from 12 different programs was conducted using Microsoft Excel. Statistical data from ordinal scale questions was analyzed by calculating the mean value and standard deviation. Close-ended questions which could either be answered with “Yes” or “No” were analyzed and visualized in pie charts. Answers of open-ended questions were grouped into recurring themes. In addition, a content analysis was performed by sorting the participants’ responses and counting the number of times certain barriers or resources were mentioned and identified. Results The quantitative data revealed that the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage scored worst in its social media presence (mean = 2.06, SD = 1.11), visual attractiveness (mean = 2.71, SD = 1.02) and interactivity (mean = 3.09, SD = 0.97). The website achieved better scores in the domains of initial thoughts (mean = 3.42, SD = 0.70), language (mean = 3.56, SD = 0.76) and richness (mean = 3.68, SD = 0.73). Analysis of the qualitative data exposed that photos and/or videos, color and a calendar function would add most to the webpage. Furthermore, participants mentioned they felt pictures and footage of the classes were missing the most from the website. Conclusion The lack of social media presence, visual attractiveness, and interactivity seem to be the limitation within the UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage. It is our hope that our recommendations will help improve the UBC Recreation website to encourage the UBC community to engage with recreation programs and make physical activity a priority in their day.  An enhancement to the website and its engagement on social media platforms through new images and videos, in-depth descriptions of the programs, and networking with UBC students will create a more diverse recreation image and therefore promote physical activity.  Future research should be conducted among more students in various programs, around all areas of campus to gather more data to further investigate the limitations within digital media platforms and how they can affect physical activity participation. Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   4   Introduction and Literature Review UBC Vancouver campus is home to roughly 55,887 students and 14,934 faculty and staff members (University of British Columbia, 2018). Within this population, it is our goal to increase involvement in fitness programs on campus and in doing so, to help make UBC Vancouver one of the healthiest campuses in Canada. Therefore, we chose to examine digital media techniques used by the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes website and look at how it communicates with the surrounding UBC community. More specifically, we conducted a website audit on the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength page and explored how well it reaches to UBC undergraduate students, in particular, by examining the health promotion strategies used. It was our hope that through our findings. in the audit, we would be able to provide various recommendations on how the website can be improved to increase participation of UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength programs. Thus, making physical activity a daily regime for members in the UBC community.  For example, North Carolina State University (NCSU) is a Division 1 school that implements on campus recreation for its students through digital media (NCSU, 2015). Through their annual recreation report, the university found that over 66% of its students participate in student recreation activities and programs (NCSU, 2015). The university successfully implemented their marketing strategies through redesigning the recreation website and providing online registration, developing an automated hours of operation widget, completing 134 marketing projects with 323 individual creative pieces and implementing a university recreation marketing and communication council (NCSU, 2015). Their digital media strategy showed great result with a total of 828,752 web pages viewed on their Recreation website, yielding 2.74 web pages viewed per visitor (NCSU, 2015). More specifically, social media platforms attracted many students as Facebook users viewed university recreation content 389,854 times with a total of 5,468 views on the actual university recreation Facebook page as well as accumulating a total of 632 Twitter followers. (NCSU, 2015). Through this, we can see that digital media has shown to be a useful tool to connect with university students in regard to the student recreation programs. Additionally, the University of Maryland Recreation & Wellness division (UMD RecWell) applied various digital communication strategies that aimed at a consolidation of the community through involvement and inclusion of students, faculty and staff. Examples of these initiatives include: 264 design requests filled, an introductory video to their recreation programs titled “You Belong at RecWell”, a wellness blog created in collaboration with the university’s Health Center (which averaged 1,122 visitors monthly), an e-newsletter, and an online wellness magazine (RecWell, 2017). Overall, the recreation department found that social media outlets are the central line of communication between them and the student population (RecWell, 2017).  Moreover, Grand Valley State University, an institution with approximately 24,677 students and 3,771 faculty & staff members (GVSU, 2019), published their Recreation 2017-2018 Annual Report. Two of the strategies highlighted within it were digital presence on social media, and inclusive experiences (GVSU, 2018). In respect to experiencing inclusivity, it includes providing adaptive and inclusive resources and creating a more accessible web presence (GVSU, 2018). These plans were practiced through the “WHY DO YOU REC?” campaign that had the goal to gather and share participant Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   5   testimonials and success stories (GVSU, 2018). Likewise, the “Live Eat Rec” campaign, which aimed at promoting the positive effects and convenience of living, eating, and participating in recreation on campus (GVSU, 2018). As a result, the campus recreation website was visited more than 72,000 times throughout the year and the social media community is constituted by more than 10,000 members (GVSU, 2018). Furthermore, a study about the user’s perspective, and how social media can be customized and tailored to the needs and preferences of different audiences found that the technologies and functions of social media have significantly changed interactions through the Internet (Wirtz, Piehler, & Ullrich, 2013).  Within this study, researchers explored the determinants of these changes that affect the perceived attractiveness of websites (Wirtz, et al., 2013). First, interaction is a crucial element of social media (Wirtz et al., 2013). For instance, some social media managers treat interactions in the form of Hashtags, Likes, or Shares as success measures. Interaction orientation covers a user’s need for interactive content and the corresponding expectations regarding the provider of these offers (Wirtz et al. 2013). In this article, a positive correlation was assumed in regard to the effect of interaction orientation on social media website attractiveness (Wirtz et al., 2013). Thus, an Internet user, who has a high orientation on individual customer interactions, should also show a high level of perceived attractiveness of social media websites (Wirtz et al., 2013). Moreover, a positive correlation to social media website attractiveness was presented for perceptions regarding user-added value (Wirtz et al., 2013). Hence, an Internet user who shows a high appreciation of customer integration into the value-added process should also show a high degree of social media website attractiveness (Wirtz et al., 2013). Overall, the results of key aspects of users’ expectations towards the integrity of a website’s attractiveness is determined by the interaction orientation and user-added value (Wirtz et al., 2013). In which case, perhaps students may engage more with physical activity if they find the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength page on the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes website more attractive. A different study assessed what makes some websites more effective than others in regard to the promotion of physical activity among college students (Yu, Youjeong, Xue, & Sonali, 2014). For this purpose, an existing website for a fitness center at a southern American university was transformed to represent four different websites, with either high or low richness and high or low interactivity. Richness of a website refers to the amount of content that is transmitted and interactivity determines how much the user can influence the content on the website (Yu et al., 2014). Richness was adjusted by either using stationary images (low level) or 360-degree videos (high level). Interactivity was modified by either using fixed images (low level) or allowing the subject to control the images (high level). The researchers found that media richness and interactivity both have positive effects on behavioral intentions of the students, while media richness in particular influences the student’s intention to visit the fitness center and interactivity has a bigger effect on the likelihood that students would recommend the fitness center to their friends (Yu et al., 2014). Overall, the effect of media richness can be considered more important than the effect of interactivity, since rich media also led to higher recommendation even if the interactivity level was low (Yu et al. 2014). Furthermore, the study investigated which factors mediated the effects of media richness and interactivity, these were: knowledge, attitude and trustworthiness. These factors are based on a model by Sundar, where he implies, that a better knowledge, a more positive Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   6   attitude and more trustworthiness of a product will increase the intention of buying that particular product. Additionally, media richness was found to be significantly mediated by knowledge, attitude and trustworthiness while interactivity is significantly mediated by only knowledge and trustworthiness (Yu et al., 2014). The findings of the study imply, that in order to promote physical activity among college students, the design of a website should focus on applying technology with high media richness, like videos and 360°-pictures in order to increase knowledge, attitude and trustworthiness of the fitness center and thereby enhance the behavioral intention towards going to the fitness center (Yu et al., 2014). Furthermore, increasing the interactivity of the website by allowing the user to operate certain tools will increase people’s intentions to recommend the fitness center to their friends, which in the end can contribute to the friends getting more physical activity (Yu et al., 2014).  In summary, it is evident that digital media technologies and strategies can and will have an impact on the participation of recreation programs on campus and in turn, will have an impact on our goal: making physical activity a daily regime for members in the UBC community. Findings showed that the use of digital media and social media outlets are a central line of communication and connection between recreation programs and the student population (NCSU, 2015; RecWell, 2017).  Therefore, by improving the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes website, particularly the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength page, it is our hope that this will also increase physical activity and participation across campus. Other institutions have seen positive effects and improvement among participation of recreation programs and physical activity on campus by looking at their website’s inclusivity and the relationship between attractiveness and interaction of their webpages (GVSU, 2018; Wirtz et al., 2013). In addition to this, it is also important to look at the design of a website and to create high media richness technologies with interactivity that enhance people’s intentions to actually participate in recreation programs and to recommend programs to their friends, respectively (Yu et al., 2014). Accordingly, our website audit was focused on the collection of data mainly through the areas of: inclusivity, attractiveness, interactivity, and media richness.  Methods and Rationale We chose to analyze the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage under ‘Programs & Classes’ within the UBC Recreation website (UBC Recreation, n.d.). The fact that various aspects of training, such as conditioning, strength, flexibility, and balance are addressed makes the classes appealing to individuals of different age, gender, interests, and fitness goals. Therefore, due to the promising nature of these programs, it is important that what is offered is communicated in a way that allows students to effectively navigate through the webpage and to be informed about the recreational opportunities available to them, so that they feel encouraged and enthusiastic to participate in health promoting activities. The target demographic group was the UBC undergraduate student population as physical activity tends to decline rapidly from transitioning from high-school to university (Science Daily, 2018). In addition, physical activity is good for health, has cognitive benefits, stimulates creativity and also Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   7   reduces stress and studies have shown that students who are inactive in university tend to be inactive later in life which can be detrimental to one’s overall health (Science Daily, 2018). The rationale for our selection is to help introduce undergraduate students to both basic and advanced forms of physical activity (Cardio, Conditioning & Strength) that can act as stress relief and as a way to improve physical and mental health and that they can continue to utilize once they leave university. In summary, participation in these programs will contribute to the cultivation and development of a health-promoting community, where participants feel confident to invite their peers. In order to facilitate this participation, it was our goal to analyze the website and gather feedback from the targeted UBC undergraduate student demographic to see if the programs are inclusive to all levels of participants, to examine the language used, and to explore digital media/content that could help to improve the webpage like richness, interactivity, and attractiveness.    Data Collection Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected through surveys that were done in person and we gathered a total of seventeen surveys. It is important to note that before the participants filled out the surveys, they were asked to read and sign our consent form (refer to Appendix A).  If participants had not seen the website, in regard to question 1 on the survey (refer to Appendix B), we showed them a screenshot of the website on a laptop. The purpose of showing them a screenshot was that all participants saw the exact same page and to account for the fact that the mobile site is different from the desktop version. All surveys were done individually and although a survey generally cannot provide an in-depth analyze of the participant’s mind, we have constructed our survey to provide a better understanding of how the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength website has communicated to our participants. It is important to note that filling out the last question of the survey was required in order for the survey to be counted.  Our data was collected during the second week of March 2019 in the Nest and in the Irving K. Barber Learning Center (IKB) on UBC campus, from 12-2pm in the middle of the day. This time frame was utilized in hopes that it would be the busiest time on campus and, therefore, provide us with an opportunity to have the most students oblige to take our survey. The Nest is defined as the Student Union Building, where all UBC students are able to gather, socialize, study, and eat (UBC AMS, 2018). In addition, IKB is not only a library but a center dedicated to the development of intellectual, social, cultural, and economic aspects for the students of UBC (University of British Columbia, 2019).  Data Analysis  The data from all interviews was transferred into a Microsoft Excel document which was used to conduct the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The statistical data from ordinal scale questions with a range of 1 to 5 with 1 being the worst and 5 being the best were analyzed using bar charts in order for the reader to easily and visually see the frequency with which each scale had been chosen (refer to Appendix C). This procedure was conducted separately for each of the ordinal scale questions. Afterwards, the mean value and standard deviation for each ordinal scale question were calculated and Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   8   visualized in one graph (Figure 1), so that the reader can easily compare the scores of the different questions. The close-ended questions which could either be answered with “Yes” or “No” were analyzed in a pie chart that gives the reader a clear overview by visually presenting the proportions that correspond to the percentage of every given response (refer to Appendix C). Answers of open-ended question were grouped into recurring themes. Additionally, a content analysis was performed by sorting the participants’ responses and counting the number of times certain barriers or resources had been mentioned and identified. These themes were then presented in a pie chart with their relative percentages (refer to Appendix C). This allows for the reader to see at a glance which themes are most important to the subjects and which improvements to the website would reach the most people.  Results and Findings The data was collected from n = 17 students (53% male, 47% female) through interviews. The recruited participants were in years two to four and were from seven different ethnic backgrounds and from 12 different programs. The frequency with which the participants engage in physical activity ranged from once per week to eight times per week with a mean value of 3.59 times per week. The interviews provided input from the interviewees in regard to their experience and opinion with the website of the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program. Of the 17 participants, 13 have never been to the UBC Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage prior to taking the survey. Depending on their experience with the website they either had to answer why they had never visited the website before and what their initial thoughts of the website were, or they could skip these two questions. The rest of the survey was the same set of questions for both groups. Out of the thirteen students who had never visited the website before taking the survey seven students stated that they had never visited it because they had never heard about this class and three students said that they were not looking for that kind of sport. Overall after being shown the website for the first time, the students scored the website 3.42 out of 5 (SD = 0.70) regarding initial thoughts on the website. When asked whether the participants would attend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program class twelve students denied, four students approved, and one student did not answer. The most common reason for denying was that they already had their own sport program and preferred to work out on their own. When asked whether they would recommend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program class to a friend 10 students denied, and seven students approved. Out of the 10 students who would not recommend the class to a friend seven justified their decision with the argument that they would not recommend something they had never tried before themselves. Out of the four students who had participated in a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program class three students said that they would recommend the class to a friend. I prefer to do my own training since I think it’s more effective - Participant Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   9   In terms of richness of the website the participants scored the website 3.68 out of 5 (SD = 0.73) and as the recurring themes when the students were asked about missing content on the website three participants stated pictures and footage of the classes, further answers were a help forum, more information about classes and a classification of the different classes. Regarding interactivity the participants scored the website 3.09 out of 5 (SD = 0.97) and the visual pleasantness of the website was rated as a 2.71 out of 5 (SD = 1.02). When the students were asked what digital media or content they would add to the website eight participants said pictures and videos each, two participants wanted the website to use more color and two other participants would have liked to have a calendar function (Figure 2). Further feedback mentioned was more creativity, a help forum, a facility tour in the form of a video, and reviews. The participants rated the UBC Recreations Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength program social media presence as 2.06 out of 5 (SD = 1.11). As in terms of the inclusiveness of all fitness levels of the website’s language the participants scored the website 3.56 out of 5 (SD = 0.76). In addition, 14 participants stated that the wording on the website was appropriate and inclusive to anyone who might visit the website, two participants denied, and one did not answer. The participants who did not find the language inclusive to anyone who might visit the website said that the website was missing text that addresses beginners, specifically.  Overall 12 participants thought that the pictures on the website were representative of the target population, four participants denied, and one participant did not answer. Some of the reasons for thinking that the webpage’s pictures are not inclusive was that they do not show staff in the pictures and that they only show people who already seem to be fit and active. At the end of the survey participants were given the chance to state any other feedback they would like to give to improve the website in order to increase awareness and participation within the UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength programs. Participants mentioned that they would like to see more content of the classes in the form of pictures and/or videos and that the website lacks excitement and does not look appealing. Furthermore, one student would like the website to be written in a more encouraging manner so that shy individuals who may be afraid to try something new would feel more reassured, and one student also mentioned that they would like to see a daily motivational quote to promote self-confidence.   [The website] needs better organization / classification. Divide the various activities into groups. - Participant Make [the website] more fun / engaging. It lacks excitement. - Participant Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   10    Figure 1 Mean Values of all Participants Figure 2 Missing digital media or content that would add to the webpage Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   11   Discussion Findings Relating to Goal Our overall goal of the project was to come up with recommendations based on our findings as to how the website communicates to UBC undergraduate students. Overall, our findings were not homologous throughout all categories. For instance, 59% of our participants would not recommend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program to a friend; however, the majority of the participants gave the website’s richness a four out of five. Therefore, we can assume that the website’s richness does not correlate to a participant’s willingness to recommend a program to their peers. Because of our subgoal of increasing participation, recommending programs to others will greatly increase the likelihood of this goal to be accomplished. For participants that have not partook in any UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program, an astounding 71% answered “No”. Of the 71%, 70% provided the reason that they have not tried any programs themselves, so they would not recommend it to their friends. When asked what content they felt was missing from the website, the majority of participants did not reply and 18% stated that there is a lack of diverse photos and videos. Rather than to read upon a topic, people prefer to look at pictures or watch a quick 30-60 second video. Promoting the programs as it is right now, will not see growth in the future. Our findings point in the direction that the majority of the resources should be focused on aesthetics of the webpage instead of the richness. Finally, of the 76% of the participants that did not visit the website, 54% of them stated it was because they were never even aware about its existence. Even if resources are pooled into the creation of an attractive website, people have to visit it in order for them to be interested in what the site is all about. With our main objective in mind, perhaps a goal to provide more website viewing opportunities would be most beneficial, and/or compliment an improved webpage. Therefore, by increasing the awareness of what UBC has to offer in terms of their physical activity programs, perhaps it would increase the viewings on the website and thus increase the participation in UBC Recreation programs.   Challenges and Limitations There were several potential challenges that we foresaw happening while carrying out our data collection that we tried our best to mitigate, however we do recognize that there are still limitations that could be improved upon.  Firstly, according to the University of British Columbia (UBC) Annual Report from 2014, 40.87% of the UBC Vancouver population engages in UBC Recreation activities (UBC Rec, 2014). The goal of our study was to include a diverse population of students: those who have already participated in UBC Recreation programs, and those who have not. To try and mitigate this challenge we conducted our surveys at the Nest and at IKB on campus - two locations in which a wide range of the UBC student population will come and go.  We hope that by conducting our surveys at these two buildings, our data better reflects the diversity of UBC’s undergraduate population. We were also wary of the risks of randomly selecting students as they walk by because human error is a challenge on its own. Picking a specific type of personale, for instance, is a challenge that we tried our best to avoid as individuals tend Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   12   to prefer interactions with those who are similar to them, therefore, we tried to include all individuals and not just those who are of the same ethnicity as we are (Jenkings & Mitchell, 2011). To mitigate this challenge, we also found several spots within the Nest and IKB, in order to help us avoid such bias. For example, standing in the passageway near the North entrance/exit of the Nest, that connects the Nest to the Activities and Recreation Center (ARC) in the UBC Life Building, might lead to having more athletes than non-athletes fill out the survey, since this passage is often used by people who are on their way to work out at the ARC.  With that being said, we do recognize that this could still be a limiting factor and not provide us with the most diverse population. We tried our best to find areas within the Nest and IKB, that were as neutral as possible, and we were open to changing our spot over time in order to have the most random sample to best represent the entire undergraduate population. However, only going to two buildings to gather data was a limitation which could have been improved by expanding to more places, such as the Engineering Student Center or the Forest Sciences Centre. In addition to that and in hindsight, sending out surveys online through a confidential survey tool such as Qualtrics, would have heightened our abilities and chances of reaching a larger population of undergraduate students at UBC rather than solely standing in buildings across campus. By using a tool like Qualtrics and having the ability to extend our data collection through a presence on social media, would have possibly given us more data to analyze, as only gathering a total of 17 surveys is definitely a limitation in our research project. In addition, for the purposes of our website audit we were only examining the desktop version of the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage. Therefore, there was a possibility that participants may have only seen the website on a mobile device. In this case, prior to participants filling out surveys, we were sure to specify that we were analyzing details about how the website looks on a desktop/laptop, not on a mobile device, and we also specified this on our actual surveys.  Lastly, there is a challenge of confidentiality and that participants may not be comfortable answering all of the questions in the survey. We did our best to mitigate this by making sure each participant had read and signed a consent form. This consent form gave them all the information about the research that we were conducting as well as let them know that (a) no personal information or information that could identify them as participants will be shared with anyone, (b) they can withdraw from filling out the survey at any time. By requiring them to read and sign this consent form it was our hope that they felt comfortable participating in the survey. Recommendations for Clients Based on our literature review and our findings, we have decided to organize our recommendations on three focus areas: richness, attractiveness, and awareness.  Richness Improving the richness of the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage does not seem necessary based on the feedback from participants. Despite the statistic from our finding, increasing  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   13   knowledge, attitude, and trustworthiness of the webpage should still be an objective the webpage creator(s) should strive for. For instance, adding a different photo of specific activities in each sublink should create a more specific knowledge base of the program offered. Furthermore, creating a promotion video of participants attending the classes with their positive feedback through interviews in the video could be beneficial to users visiting the site. In addition to that, creating a video as a tour of the facilities could be beneficial as well  Attractiveness Based on the feedback from participants from the survey, there are many recommendations to be considered here. The majority of participants (70%) mentioned that they would like to see more content of the classes in pictures and videos and that the website lacks excitement and does not look appealing. This seems to be a common theme among most of the participants. There is currently only one picture on the main page. The webpage could improve this by introducing images of the individual classes, which could give a clearer idea of what each class entails, and by creating promotional videos that not only include the activities themselves, but also testimonials and positive feedback from participants. This could bring more value to users visiting the website and increase the attractiveness of the programs. For instance, H.I.I.T, is described with the following words: “High Intensity Interval Training incorporates short, intense bursts of activity with rest intervals. This training protocol is considered to be the most efficient way to develop your aerobic capacity and burn calories” (UBC Recreation, n.d.).  For someone who is not familiar with fitness training, this may be unappealing. However, with a broader description or client feedback, it would create a more welcoming environment and attract more undergraduate students of all skill levels.  Awareness Around 50% of the participants indicated they had never heard of these programs or visited the UBC Recreation website. As mentioned above, a more appealing website could contribute to increasing the participation in their classes and programs, however there still seem to be issues with drawing attention to the program as a whole. UBC Recreation can increase exposure but utilizing social media platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat. Utilizing social media platforms could help expose the programs and classes to a wide range of the undergraduate student audience, as they are frequent users of social media. Another recommendation can include doing giveaways, producing short videos, offering more information, providing motivational quotes, featuring clients and their inspiring transformational stories, and providing client feedback through these platforms. Not only could this bring awareness to the program itself, but it could also give the organization the opportunity to build a new image for UBC Recreation and create a more exciting and vibrant community that’s more appealing to the university population. On top of the giveaways on social media, they can also do giveaways in person at busy places on campus such as the Nest. In person interaction will also help building a better image for the organization and bring more exposure.  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   14   Concluding Remarks Based on our literature review, website audit, data, and recommendations, it is our hope that we have provided appropriate suggestions as to how the UBC Recreation Fitness & Classes Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage can be improved to better help communicate to the undergraduate student population at UBC. Thus, gaining more exposure to UBC Recreation programs, promoting daily physical activity and fitness on campus, and helping to make UBC one of the healthiest campuses in Canada.  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   15   References Bock, T. (2. February 2019). What is Selection Bias? Von Displayr. Abgerufen Jenkings, A. C., & Mitchell, J. P. (June 2011). Medial prefrontal cortex subserves diverse. Social Neuroscience, S. 211-218. Grand Valley State University, Campus Recreation. (2018). 2017-2018 Annual Report. Retrieved from https://www.gvsu.edu/rec/module-news-view.htm?storyId=37E07D77-051C-70E8-D992DF0325748ED3&siteModuleId=D7605AFD-9A80-6249-C9ACCBB68D43D966 Grand Valley State University. (2019). About GVSU 2019.Retrieved fromhttps://www.gvsu.edu/about.htm NCSU Recreation. (2015). Annual Report.Retrieved fromhttps://recreation.dasa.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2016/07/AnnualReport210415.pdf Rimando, M., Brace, A. M., Namageyo-Funa, A., Parr, T. L., Sealy, D., Davis, T. L., Martinez, L. M., & Christiana, R. W. (2015). Data Collection Challenges and Recommendations for Early Career Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 20(12), 2025-2036. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol20/iss12/8 Science Daily (2018). Requiring physical activity classes help sedentary college students be more active. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180912202405.htm The University of British Columbia. (2018). UBC overview & facts. Retrieved from https://www.ubc.ca/about/facts.html UBC AMS. (2018). The Nest. Retrieved from https://www.ams.ubc.ca/the-nest/ UBC Recreation, University of British Columbia. (2014). UBC Athletics & RecreationAnnual Reports. Retrieved from http://www.athleticsandrecreation.ubc.ca/about-ubc-athletics-recreation/annual-report/ UBC Recreation, University of British Columbia. n.d. Programs & Classes | Cardio, Conditioning & Strength.Retrieved from https://recreation.ubc.ca/fitness-classes/programs-classes/cardio-conditioning-strength/programs-classes University of British Columbia. (2019). Irving K. Barber learning center. Retrieved from https://ikblc.ubc.ca University Recreation & Wellness (RecWell), University of Maryland. (2017). Annual Report 16/17. Retrieved from https://recwell.umd.edu/about-us Wirtz, B. W., Piehler, R., & Ullrich, S. (2013). Determinants of Social Media Website Attractiveness. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 14(1), 11. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/1372332742?accountid=14656 Yu, L., Youjeong, K., Xue, D., & Sonali, K. (2014). Promote physical activity among college students: Using media richness and interactivity in web design. Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 40-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.08.012   Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   16   Appendices Appendix A – Sample Consent Form for Interviewees Appendix A Participant Consent Form KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity Participant Consent Form for Class-based Projects – Design 1   Principal Investigator: Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education)   The purpose of the class project: To gather knowledge and expertise from UBC Undergraduate students on topics related to physical activity, recreation, and health promotion.   Study Procedures: With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a survey. Students will take notes during the interview. With the information gathered, students will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting activities or health promotion initiatives.   Project outcomes: The information gathered from interview questions will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library   Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the interview will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting activities or initiatives in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences.   Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in an interview is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course. Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   17   Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, the person you are interviewing is free to share what they would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the interviewand there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed.   Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca   Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca . or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.   Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this study.       Subject signature____________________________________________________     Date: ____________________________________________________  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   18   Appendix B – Interview Questions Survey Questions   Are you Male, Female, or other?     What year of study are you in? (ie. 1, 2…)   What program are you in? (ie. Kin, Forestry….)   What ethnicity are you? (ie. Canadian, German…)   Note: for the following questions we are referring to the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes | Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage as the desktop version, NOT the mobile version.  1.     Have you been to the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes | Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage prior to taking this survey? (If NO, please fill out question 2 and then wait for an interviewer to show you a screenshot of the webpage before you complete the rest of the survey, If YES, continue to question 4)       2.    In brief, why haven’t you visited the UBC Recreation website mentioned above?        3.    (Show participant webpage) After seeing the webpage for the first time, what are your initial thoughts in terms of richness? (defined as: the amount of content that is transmitted).   1 = Very poorly                                                                                                                5 = Extremely well    1                          2                  3                      4                      5     4.   Would you attend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning, and Strength program? If no - why not? (If participant answered YES to Question 1 – begin here)   Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   19         5.    Would you recommend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning, and Strength program to a friend? If no - why not?         6.    In terms of richness (defined as: the amount of content that is transmitted) how well do you think the website does this?  1 = Very poorly 5 = Extremely well    1                      2                     3                      4                      5     7.    What content (if any) do you feel is missing?           8.    In terms of interactivity (defined as: how much the user can influence the content on the website) how well do you think the website does this?  1 = Very poorly 5 = Extremely well    1                      2                     3                      4                      5     9.    How visually pleasing is the website to you? 1 = Not all 5 = Extremely    1                      2                     3                      4                     5     10. What kind of digital media or content would add to the webpage?           11. How strong do you feel UBC Recreations Cardio, Conditioning, and strength program social media presence is? Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   20   1= Not strong at all 5 = Extremely strong presence   1                      2                     3                      4                      5     12. Do you feel the language of the website is inclusive to all fitness levels? (ie. classes for beginners, intermediate, and advanced participants?) 1 = Not at all inclusive 5 = Extremely inclusive, no improvements need to be made 1                      2                     3                      4                     5 13. How many times do you go to the gym or engage in physical activity in a week?        14. Do you think the pictures on their website are representative of the target population? Why or why not?         15. Do you think the wording on their website is appropriate and inclusive to anyone who might visit the website? Why or why not?           16. Please state any other feedback, if any, you would give to improve this website in order to increase awareness and participation within the UBC Recreation Cardio, conditioning, and strength programs?   Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   21   Appendix C – Results                          Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   22                                     Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   23                                     Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   24     UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report          Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques Jess Hanson, David Huang, Daniele Pestoni, Lara Tenisch, Hank Wang University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Health, Community, Wellbeing April 2, 2019        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.        Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques  Programs & Classes |  Cardio, Conditioning & Strength   2019    KIN 464 Authored by: Jess Hanson, David Huang, Daniele Pestoni, Lara Tenisch, Hank Wang     Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   2   Table of Contents Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Methods ............................................................................................................................................................... 3 Results ................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction and Literature Review .............................................................................. 4 Methods and Rationale .................................................................................................... 6 Data Collection.................................................................................................................................................... 7 Data Analysis ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Results and Findings ........................................................................................................ 8 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 11 Findings Relating to Goal ................................................................................................................................. 11 Challenges and Limitations ............................................................................................................................... 11 Recommendations for Clients ....................................................................................... 12 Richness ............................................................................................................................................................ 12 Attractiveness .................................................................................................................................................... 13 Awareness ......................................................................................................................................................... 13 Concluding Remarks ......................................................................................................................................... 14 References ....................................................................................................................... 15 Appendices ...................................................................................................................... 16 Appendix A – Sample Consent Form for Interviewees .................................................................................... 16 Appendix B – Interview Questions ................................................................................................................... 18 Appendix C – Results ........................................................................................................................................ 21  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   3   Executive Summary Introduction The purpose of this project was to analyze the University of British Columbia (UBC) Recreation Fitness & Classes website, specifically the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage, and to provide UBC Recreation with recommendations on their digital media and messaging to help improve physical activity participation across campus. Physical activity tends to decline rapidly from transitioning from high-school to university (Science Daily, 2018). Therefore, our research aims to provide strategies and recommendations, if necessary, for the UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage in an effort to make physical activity a daily regime for the members of the UBC community and for undergraduate students in particular. Methods Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the collected data from 17 undergraduate students ranging from year two to four with seven different ethnic backgrounds and from 12 different programs was conducted using Microsoft Excel. Statistical data from ordinal scale questions was analyzed by calculating the mean value and standard deviation. Close-ended questions which could either be answered with “Yes” or “No” were analyzed and visualized in pie charts. Answers of open-ended questions were grouped into recurring themes. In addition, a content analysis was performed by sorting the participants’ responses and counting the number of times certain barriers or resources were mentioned and identified. Results The quantitative data revealed that the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage scored worst in its social media presence (mean = 2.06, SD = 1.11), visual attractiveness (mean = 2.71, SD = 1.02) and interactivity (mean = 3.09, SD = 0.97). The website achieved better scores in the domains of initial thoughts (mean = 3.42, SD = 0.70), language (mean = 3.56, SD = 0.76) and richness (mean = 3.68, SD = 0.73). Analysis of the qualitative data exposed that photos and/or videos, color and a calendar function would add most to the webpage. Furthermore, participants mentioned they felt pictures and footage of the classes were missing the most from the website. Conclusion The lack of social media presence, visual attractiveness, and interactivity seem to be the limitation within the UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage. It is our hope that our recommendations will help improve the UBC Recreation website to encourage the UBC community to engage with recreation programs and make physical activity a priority in their day.  An enhancement to the website and its engagement on social media platforms through new images and videos, in-depth descriptions of the programs, and networking with UBC students will create a more diverse recreation image and therefore promote physical activity.  Future research should be conducted among more students in various programs, around all areas of campus to gather more data to further investigate the limitations within digital media platforms and how they can affect physical activity participation. Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   4   Introduction and Literature Review UBC Vancouver campus is home to roughly 55,887 students and 14,934 faculty and staff members (University of British Columbia, 2018). Within this population, it is our goal to increase involvement in fitness programs on campus and in doing so, to help make UBC Vancouver one of the healthiest campuses in Canada. Therefore, we chose to examine digital media techniques used by the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes website and look at how it communicates with the surrounding UBC community. More specifically, we conducted a website audit on the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength page and explored how well it reaches to UBC undergraduate students, in particular, by examining the health promotion strategies used. It was our hope that through our findings. in the audit, we would be able to provide various recommendations on how the website can be improved to increase participation of UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength programs. Thus, making physical activity a daily regime for members in the UBC community.  For example, North Carolina State University (NCSU) is a Division 1 school that implements on campus recreation for its students through digital media (NCSU, 2015). Through their annual recreation report, the university found that over 66% of its students participate in student recreation activities and programs (NCSU, 2015). The university successfully implemented their marketing strategies through redesigning the recreation website and providing online registration, developing an automated hours of operation widget, completing 134 marketing projects with 323 individual creative pieces and implementing a university recreation marketing and communication council (NCSU, 2015). Their digital media strategy showed great result with a total of 828,752 web pages viewed on their Recreation website, yielding 2.74 web pages viewed per visitor (NCSU, 2015). More specifically, social media platforms attracted many students as Facebook users viewed university recreation content 389,854 times with a total of 5,468 views on the actual university recreation Facebook page as well as accumulating a total of 632 Twitter followers. (NCSU, 2015). Through this, we can see that digital media has shown to be a useful tool to connect with university students in regard to the student recreation programs. Additionally, the University of Maryland Recreation & Wellness division (UMD RecWell) applied various digital communication strategies that aimed at a consolidation of the community through involvement and inclusion of students, faculty and staff. Examples of these initiatives include: 264 design requests filled, an introductory video to their recreation programs titled “You Belong at RecWell”, a wellness blog created in collaboration with the university’s Health Center (which averaged 1,122 visitors monthly), an e-newsletter, and an online wellness magazine (RecWell, 2017). Overall, the recreation department found that social media outlets are the central line of communication between them and the student population (RecWell, 2017).  Moreover, Grand Valley State University, an institution with approximately 24,677 students and 3,771 faculty & staff members (GVSU, 2019), published their Recreation 2017-2018 Annual Report. Two of the strategies highlighted within it were digital presence on social media, and inclusive experiences (GVSU, 2018). In respect to experiencing inclusivity, it includes providing adaptive and inclusive resources and creating a more accessible web presence (GVSU, 2018). These plans were practiced through the “WHY DO YOU REC?” campaign that had the goal to gather and share participant Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   5   testimonials and success stories (GVSU, 2018). Likewise, the “Live Eat Rec” campaign, which aimed at promoting the positive effects and convenience of living, eating, and participating in recreation on campus (GVSU, 2018). As a result, the campus recreation website was visited more than 72,000 times throughout the year and the social media community is constituted by more than 10,000 members (GVSU, 2018). Furthermore, a study about the user’s perspective, and how social media can be customized and tailored to the needs and preferences of different audiences found that the technologies and functions of social media have significantly changed interactions through the Internet (Wirtz, Piehler, & Ullrich, 2013).  Within this study, researchers explored the determinants of these changes that affect the perceived attractiveness of websites (Wirtz, et al., 2013). First, interaction is a crucial element of social media (Wirtz et al., 2013). For instance, some social media managers treat interactions in the form of Hashtags, Likes, or Shares as success measures. Interaction orientation covers a user’s need for interactive content and the corresponding expectations regarding the provider of these offers (Wirtz et al. 2013). In this article, a positive correlation was assumed in regard to the effect of interaction orientation on social media website attractiveness (Wirtz et al., 2013). Thus, an Internet user, who has a high orientation on individual customer interactions, should also show a high level of perceived attractiveness of social media websites (Wirtz et al., 2013). Moreover, a positive correlation to social media website attractiveness was presented for perceptions regarding user-added value (Wirtz et al., 2013). Hence, an Internet user who shows a high appreciation of customer integration into the value-added process should also show a high degree of social media website attractiveness (Wirtz et al., 2013). Overall, the results of key aspects of users’ expectations towards the integrity of a website’s attractiveness is determined by the interaction orientation and user-added value (Wirtz et al., 2013). In which case, perhaps students may engage more with physical activity if they find the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength page on the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes website more attractive. A different study assessed what makes some websites more effective than others in regard to the promotion of physical activity among college students (Yu, Youjeong, Xue, & Sonali, 2014). For this purpose, an existing website for a fitness center at a southern American university was transformed to represent four different websites, with either high or low richness and high or low interactivity. Richness of a website refers to the amount of content that is transmitted and interactivity determines how much the user can influence the content on the website (Yu et al., 2014). Richness was adjusted by either using stationary images (low level) or 360-degree videos (high level). Interactivity was modified by either using fixed images (low level) or allowing the subject to control the images (high level). The researchers found that media richness and interactivity both have positive effects on behavioral intentions of the students, while media richness in particular influences the student’s intention to visit the fitness center and interactivity has a bigger effect on the likelihood that students would recommend the fitness center to their friends (Yu et al., 2014). Overall, the effect of media richness can be considered more important than the effect of interactivity, since rich media also led to higher recommendation even if the interactivity level was low (Yu et al. 2014). Furthermore, the study investigated which factors mediated the effects of media richness and interactivity, these were: knowledge, attitude and trustworthiness. These factors are based on a model by Sundar, where he implies, that a better knowledge, a more positive Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   6   attitude and more trustworthiness of a product will increase the intention of buying that particular product. Additionally, media richness was found to be significantly mediated by knowledge, attitude and trustworthiness while interactivity is significantly mediated by only knowledge and trustworthiness (Yu et al., 2014). The findings of the study imply, that in order to promote physical activity among college students, the design of a website should focus on applying technology with high media richness, like videos and 360°-pictures in order to increase knowledge, attitude and trustworthiness of the fitness center and thereby enhance the behavioral intention towards going to the fitness center (Yu et al., 2014). Furthermore, increasing the interactivity of the website by allowing the user to operate certain tools will increase people’s intentions to recommend the fitness center to their friends, which in the end can contribute to the friends getting more physical activity (Yu et al., 2014).  In summary, it is evident that digital media technologies and strategies can and will have an impact on the participation of recreation programs on campus and in turn, will have an impact on our goal: making physical activity a daily regime for members in the UBC community. Findings showed that the use of digital media and social media outlets are a central line of communication and connection between recreation programs and the student population (NCSU, 2015; RecWell, 2017).  Therefore, by improving the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes website, particularly the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength page, it is our hope that this will also increase physical activity and participation across campus. Other institutions have seen positive effects and improvement among participation of recreation programs and physical activity on campus by looking at their website’s inclusivity and the relationship between attractiveness and interaction of their webpages (GVSU, 2018; Wirtz et al., 2013). In addition to this, it is also important to look at the design of a website and to create high media richness technologies with interactivity that enhance people’s intentions to actually participate in recreation programs and to recommend programs to their friends, respectively (Yu et al., 2014). Accordingly, our website audit was focused on the collection of data mainly through the areas of: inclusivity, attractiveness, interactivity, and media richness.  Methods and Rationale We chose to analyze the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage under ‘Programs & Classes’ within the UBC Recreation website (UBC Recreation, n.d.). The fact that various aspects of training, such as conditioning, strength, flexibility, and balance are addressed makes the classes appealing to individuals of different age, gender, interests, and fitness goals. Therefore, due to the promising nature of these programs, it is important that what is offered is communicated in a way that allows students to effectively navigate through the webpage and to be informed about the recreational opportunities available to them, so that they feel encouraged and enthusiastic to participate in health promoting activities. The target demographic group was the UBC undergraduate student population as physical activity tends to decline rapidly from transitioning from high-school to university (Science Daily, 2018). In addition, physical activity is good for health, has cognitive benefits, stimulates creativity and also Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   7   reduces stress and studies have shown that students who are inactive in university tend to be inactive later in life which can be detrimental to one’s overall health (Science Daily, 2018). The rationale for our selection is to help introduce undergraduate students to both basic and advanced forms of physical activity (Cardio, Conditioning & Strength) that can act as stress relief and as a way to improve physical and mental health and that they can continue to utilize once they leave university. In summary, participation in these programs will contribute to the cultivation and development of a health-promoting community, where participants feel confident to invite their peers. In order to facilitate this participation, it was our goal to analyze the website and gather feedback from the targeted UBC undergraduate student demographic to see if the programs are inclusive to all levels of participants, to examine the language used, and to explore digital media/content that could help to improve the webpage like richness, interactivity, and attractiveness.    Data Collection Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected through surveys that were done in person and we gathered a total of seventeen surveys. It is important to note that before the participants filled out the surveys, they were asked to read and sign our consent form (refer to Appendix A).  If participants had not seen the website, in regard to question 1 on the survey (refer to Appendix B), we showed them a screenshot of the website on a laptop. The purpose of showing them a screenshot was that all participants saw the exact same page and to account for the fact that the mobile site is different from the desktop version. All surveys were done individually and although a survey generally cannot provide an in-depth analyze of the participant’s mind, we have constructed our survey to provide a better understanding of how the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength website has communicated to our participants. It is important to note that filling out the last question of the survey was required in order for the survey to be counted.  Our data was collected during the second week of March 2019 in the Nest and in the Irving K. Barber Learning Center (IKB) on UBC campus, from 12-2pm in the middle of the day. This time frame was utilized in hopes that it would be the busiest time on campus and, therefore, provide us with an opportunity to have the most students oblige to take our survey. The Nest is defined as the Student Union Building, where all UBC students are able to gather, socialize, study, and eat (UBC AMS, 2018). In addition, IKB is not only a library but a center dedicated to the development of intellectual, social, cultural, and economic aspects for the students of UBC (University of British Columbia, 2019).  Data Analysis  The data from all interviews was transferred into a Microsoft Excel document which was used to conduct the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The statistical data from ordinal scale questions with a range of 1 to 5 with 1 being the worst and 5 being the best were analyzed using bar charts in order for the reader to easily and visually see the frequency with which each scale had been chosen (refer to Appendix C). This procedure was conducted separately for each of the ordinal scale questions. Afterwards, the mean value and standard deviation for each ordinal scale question were calculated and Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   8   visualized in one graph (Figure 1), so that the reader can easily compare the scores of the different questions. The close-ended questions which could either be answered with “Yes” or “No” were analyzed in a pie chart that gives the reader a clear overview by visually presenting the proportions that correspond to the percentage of every given response (refer to Appendix C). Answers of open-ended question were grouped into recurring themes. Additionally, a content analysis was performed by sorting the participants’ responses and counting the number of times certain barriers or resources had been mentioned and identified. These themes were then presented in a pie chart with their relative percentages (refer to Appendix C). This allows for the reader to see at a glance which themes are most important to the subjects and which improvements to the website would reach the most people.  Results and Findings The data was collected from n = 17 students (53% male, 47% female) through interviews. The recruited participants were in years two to four and were from seven different ethnic backgrounds and from 12 different programs. The frequency with which the participants engage in physical activity ranged from once per week to eight times per week with a mean value of 3.59 times per week. The interviews provided input from the interviewees in regard to their experience and opinion with the website of the Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program. Of the 17 participants, 13 have never been to the UBC Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage prior to taking the survey. Depending on their experience with the website they either had to answer why they had never visited the website before and what their initial thoughts of the website were, or they could skip these two questions. The rest of the survey was the same set of questions for both groups. Out of the thirteen students who had never visited the website before taking the survey seven students stated that they had never visited it because they had never heard about this class and three students said that they were not looking for that kind of sport. Overall after being shown the website for the first time, the students scored the website 3.42 out of 5 (SD = 0.70) regarding initial thoughts on the website. When asked whether the participants would attend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program class twelve students denied, four students approved, and one student did not answer. The most common reason for denying was that they already had their own sport program and preferred to work out on their own. When asked whether they would recommend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program class to a friend 10 students denied, and seven students approved. Out of the 10 students who would not recommend the class to a friend seven justified their decision with the argument that they would not recommend something they had never tried before themselves. Out of the four students who had participated in a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program class three students said that they would recommend the class to a friend. I prefer to do my own training since I think it’s more effective - Participant Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   9   In terms of richness of the website the participants scored the website 3.68 out of 5 (SD = 0.73) and as the recurring themes when the students were asked about missing content on the website three participants stated pictures and footage of the classes, further answers were a help forum, more information about classes and a classification of the different classes. Regarding interactivity the participants scored the website 3.09 out of 5 (SD = 0.97) and the visual pleasantness of the website was rated as a 2.71 out of 5 (SD = 1.02). When the students were asked what digital media or content they would add to the website eight participants said pictures and videos each, two participants wanted the website to use more color and two other participants would have liked to have a calendar function (Figure 2). Further feedback mentioned was more creativity, a help forum, a facility tour in the form of a video, and reviews. The participants rated the UBC Recreations Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength program social media presence as 2.06 out of 5 (SD = 1.11). As in terms of the inclusiveness of all fitness levels of the website’s language the participants scored the website 3.56 out of 5 (SD = 0.76). In addition, 14 participants stated that the wording on the website was appropriate and inclusive to anyone who might visit the website, two participants denied, and one did not answer. The participants who did not find the language inclusive to anyone who might visit the website said that the website was missing text that addresses beginners, specifically.  Overall 12 participants thought that the pictures on the website were representative of the target population, four participants denied, and one participant did not answer. Some of the reasons for thinking that the webpage’s pictures are not inclusive was that they do not show staff in the pictures and that they only show people who already seem to be fit and active. At the end of the survey participants were given the chance to state any other feedback they would like to give to improve the website in order to increase awareness and participation within the UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength programs. Participants mentioned that they would like to see more content of the classes in the form of pictures and/or videos and that the website lacks excitement and does not look appealing. Furthermore, one student would like the website to be written in a more encouraging manner so that shy individuals who may be afraid to try something new would feel more reassured, and one student also mentioned that they would like to see a daily motivational quote to promote self-confidence.   [The website] needs better organization / classification. Divide the various activities into groups. - Participant Make [the website] more fun / engaging. It lacks excitement. - Participant Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   10    Figure 1 Mean Values of all Participants Figure 2 Missing digital media or content that would add to the webpage Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   11   Discussion Findings Relating to Goal Our overall goal of the project was to come up with recommendations based on our findings as to how the website communicates to UBC undergraduate students. Overall, our findings were not homologous throughout all categories. For instance, 59% of our participants would not recommend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program to a friend; however, the majority of the participants gave the website’s richness a four out of five. Therefore, we can assume that the website’s richness does not correlate to a participant’s willingness to recommend a program to their peers. Because of our subgoal of increasing participation, recommending programs to others will greatly increase the likelihood of this goal to be accomplished. For participants that have not partook in any UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning & Strength program, an astounding 71% answered “No”. Of the 71%, 70% provided the reason that they have not tried any programs themselves, so they would not recommend it to their friends. When asked what content they felt was missing from the website, the majority of participants did not reply and 18% stated that there is a lack of diverse photos and videos. Rather than to read upon a topic, people prefer to look at pictures or watch a quick 30-60 second video. Promoting the programs as it is right now, will not see growth in the future. Our findings point in the direction that the majority of the resources should be focused on aesthetics of the webpage instead of the richness. Finally, of the 76% of the participants that did not visit the website, 54% of them stated it was because they were never even aware about its existence. Even if resources are pooled into the creation of an attractive website, people have to visit it in order for them to be interested in what the site is all about. With our main objective in mind, perhaps a goal to provide more website viewing opportunities would be most beneficial, and/or compliment an improved webpage. Therefore, by increasing the awareness of what UBC has to offer in terms of their physical activity programs, perhaps it would increase the viewings on the website and thus increase the participation in UBC Recreation programs.   Challenges and Limitations There were several potential challenges that we foresaw happening while carrying out our data collection that we tried our best to mitigate, however we do recognize that there are still limitations that could be improved upon.  Firstly, according to the University of British Columbia (UBC) Annual Report from 2014, 40.87% of the UBC Vancouver population engages in UBC Recreation activities (UBC Rec, 2014). The goal of our study was to include a diverse population of students: those who have already participated in UBC Recreation programs, and those who have not. To try and mitigate this challenge we conducted our surveys at the Nest and at IKB on campus - two locations in which a wide range of the UBC student population will come and go.  We hope that by conducting our surveys at these two buildings, our data better reflects the diversity of UBC’s undergraduate population. We were also wary of the risks of randomly selecting students as they walk by because human error is a challenge on its own. Picking a specific type of personale, for instance, is a challenge that we tried our best to avoid as individuals tend Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   12   to prefer interactions with those who are similar to them, therefore, we tried to include all individuals and not just those who are of the same ethnicity as we are (Jenkings & Mitchell, 2011). To mitigate this challenge, we also found several spots within the Nest and IKB, in order to help us avoid such bias. For example, standing in the passageway near the North entrance/exit of the Nest, that connects the Nest to the Activities and Recreation Center (ARC) in the UBC Life Building, might lead to having more athletes than non-athletes fill out the survey, since this passage is often used by people who are on their way to work out at the ARC.  With that being said, we do recognize that this could still be a limiting factor and not provide us with the most diverse population. We tried our best to find areas within the Nest and IKB, that were as neutral as possible, and we were open to changing our spot over time in order to have the most random sample to best represent the entire undergraduate population. However, only going to two buildings to gather data was a limitation which could have been improved by expanding to more places, such as the Engineering Student Center or the Forest Sciences Centre. In addition to that and in hindsight, sending out surveys online through a confidential survey tool such as Qualtrics, would have heightened our abilities and chances of reaching a larger population of undergraduate students at UBC rather than solely standing in buildings across campus. By using a tool like Qualtrics and having the ability to extend our data collection through a presence on social media, would have possibly given us more data to analyze, as only gathering a total of 17 surveys is definitely a limitation in our research project. In addition, for the purposes of our website audit we were only examining the desktop version of the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage. Therefore, there was a possibility that participants may have only seen the website on a mobile device. In this case, prior to participants filling out surveys, we were sure to specify that we were analyzing details about how the website looks on a desktop/laptop, not on a mobile device, and we also specified this on our actual surveys.  Lastly, there is a challenge of confidentiality and that participants may not be comfortable answering all of the questions in the survey. We did our best to mitigate this by making sure each participant had read and signed a consent form. This consent form gave them all the information about the research that we were conducting as well as let them know that (a) no personal information or information that could identify them as participants will be shared with anyone, (b) they can withdraw from filling out the survey at any time. By requiring them to read and sign this consent form it was our hope that they felt comfortable participating in the survey. Recommendations for Clients Based on our literature review and our findings, we have decided to organize our recommendations on three focus areas: richness, attractiveness, and awareness.  Richness Improving the richness of the Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage does not seem necessary based on the feedback from participants. Despite the statistic from our finding, increasing  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   13   knowledge, attitude, and trustworthiness of the webpage should still be an objective the webpage creator(s) should strive for. For instance, adding a different photo of specific activities in each sublink should create a more specific knowledge base of the program offered. Furthermore, creating a promotion video of participants attending the classes with their positive feedback through interviews in the video could be beneficial to users visiting the site. In addition to that, creating a video as a tour of the facilities could be beneficial as well  Attractiveness Based on the feedback from participants from the survey, there are many recommendations to be considered here. The majority of participants (70%) mentioned that they would like to see more content of the classes in pictures and videos and that the website lacks excitement and does not look appealing. This seems to be a common theme among most of the participants. There is currently only one picture on the main page. The webpage could improve this by introducing images of the individual classes, which could give a clearer idea of what each class entails, and by creating promotional videos that not only include the activities themselves, but also testimonials and positive feedback from participants. This could bring more value to users visiting the website and increase the attractiveness of the programs. For instance, H.I.I.T, is described with the following words: “High Intensity Interval Training incorporates short, intense bursts of activity with rest intervals. This training protocol is considered to be the most efficient way to develop your aerobic capacity and burn calories” (UBC Recreation, n.d.).  For someone who is not familiar with fitness training, this may be unappealing. However, with a broader description or client feedback, it would create a more welcoming environment and attract more undergraduate students of all skill levels.  Awareness Around 50% of the participants indicated they had never heard of these programs or visited the UBC Recreation website. As mentioned above, a more appealing website could contribute to increasing the participation in their classes and programs, however there still seem to be issues with drawing attention to the program as a whole. UBC Recreation can increase exposure but utilizing social media platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat. Utilizing social media platforms could help expose the programs and classes to a wide range of the undergraduate student audience, as they are frequent users of social media. Another recommendation can include doing giveaways, producing short videos, offering more information, providing motivational quotes, featuring clients and their inspiring transformational stories, and providing client feedback through these platforms. Not only could this bring awareness to the program itself, but it could also give the organization the opportunity to build a new image for UBC Recreation and create a more exciting and vibrant community that’s more appealing to the university population. On top of the giveaways on social media, they can also do giveaways in person at busy places on campus such as the Nest. In person interaction will also help building a better image for the organization and bring more exposure.  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   14   Concluding Remarks Based on our literature review, website audit, data, and recommendations, it is our hope that we have provided appropriate suggestions as to how the UBC Recreation Fitness & Classes Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength webpage can be improved to better help communicate to the undergraduate student population at UBC. Thus, gaining more exposure to UBC Recreation programs, promoting daily physical activity and fitness on campus, and helping to make UBC one of the healthiest campuses in Canada.  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   15   References Bock, T. (2. February 2019). What is Selection Bias? Von Displayr. Abgerufen Jenkings, A. C., & Mitchell, J. P. (June 2011). Medial prefrontal cortex subserves diverse. Social Neuroscience, S. 211-218. Grand Valley State University, Campus Recreation. (2018). 2017-2018 Annual Report. Retrieved from https://www.gvsu.edu/rec/module-news-view.htm?storyId=37E07D77-051C-70E8-D992DF0325748ED3&siteModuleId=D7605AFD-9A80-6249-C9ACCBB68D43D966 Grand Valley State University. (2019). About GVSU 2019.Retrieved fromhttps://www.gvsu.edu/about.htm NCSU Recreation. (2015). Annual Report.Retrieved fromhttps://recreation.dasa.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2016/07/AnnualReport210415.pdf Rimando, M., Brace, A. M., Namageyo-Funa, A., Parr, T. L., Sealy, D., Davis, T. L., Martinez, L. M., & Christiana, R. W. (2015). Data Collection Challenges and Recommendations for Early Career Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 20(12), 2025-2036. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol20/iss12/8 Science Daily (2018). Requiring physical activity classes help sedentary college students be more active. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180912202405.htm The University of British Columbia. (2018). UBC overview & facts. Retrieved from https://www.ubc.ca/about/facts.html UBC AMS. (2018). The Nest. Retrieved from https://www.ams.ubc.ca/the-nest/ UBC Recreation, University of British Columbia. (2014). UBC Athletics & RecreationAnnual Reports. Retrieved from http://www.athleticsandrecreation.ubc.ca/about-ubc-athletics-recreation/annual-report/ UBC Recreation, University of British Columbia. n.d. Programs & Classes | Cardio, Conditioning & Strength.Retrieved from https://recreation.ubc.ca/fitness-classes/programs-classes/cardio-conditioning-strength/programs-classes University of British Columbia. (2019). Irving K. Barber learning center. Retrieved from https://ikblc.ubc.ca University Recreation & Wellness (RecWell), University of Maryland. (2017). Annual Report 16/17. Retrieved from https://recwell.umd.edu/about-us Wirtz, B. W., Piehler, R., & Ullrich, S. (2013). Determinants of Social Media Website Attractiveness. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 14(1), 11. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/1372332742?accountid=14656 Yu, L., Youjeong, K., Xue, D., & Sonali, K. (2014). Promote physical activity among college students: Using media richness and interactivity in web design. Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 40-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.08.012   Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   16   Appendices Appendix A – Sample Consent Form for Interviewees Appendix A Participant Consent Form KIN 464: Health Promotion and Physical Activity Participant Consent Form for Class-based Projects – Design 1   Principal Investigator: Negin Riazi (PhD Candidate, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education)   The purpose of the class project: To gather knowledge and expertise from UBC Undergraduate students on topics related to physical activity, recreation, and health promotion.   Study Procedures: With your permission, we are asking you to participate in a survey. Students will take notes during the interview. With the information gathered, students will critically examine how different individuals understand or engage in health promoting activities or health promotion initiatives.   Project outcomes: The information gathered from interview questions will be part of a written report for the class project. The written report will be shared with the community partners involved with the project. Summaries of findings will also be posted on the following websites. No personal information/information that could identify participants will be included in these reports. UBC SEEDS Program Library: https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-degrees/alternative-credit-options/seeds-sustainability-program/seeds-sustainability-library   Potential benefits of class project: There are no explicit benefits to you by taking part in this class project. However, the interview will provide you with the opportunity to voice your opinion on your experiences with health promoting activities or initiatives in a broad sense and will provide the students with an opportunity to learn from your experiences.   Confidentiality: Maintaining the confidentiality of the participants involved in an interview is paramount, and no names will be asked for. At the completion of the course, all data (i.e. notes) and signed consent forms will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in Negin Riazi’s office in the Population Physical Activity Lab (2259 Lower Mall) at the University of British Columbia. All data and consent forms will be destroyed 1 year after completion of the course. Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   17   Risks: The risks associated with participating in this research are minimal. There are no known physical, economic, or social risks associated with participation in this study. Although there is a schedule of questions, the person you are interviewing is free to share what they would like, including refusing to answer specific questions. You should know that your participation is completely voluntary and you are free to withdraw from the interviewand there will not be negative impacts related to your withdrawal. If you withdraw from the study, all of the information you have shared up until that point will be destroyed.   Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions about this class project, you can contact Negin Riazi by phone at 604-822-5288 or by email at negin.riazi@ubc.ca   Research ethics complaints: If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or e-mail RSIL@ors.ubc.ca . or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.   Consent: Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this study.       Subject signature____________________________________________________     Date: ____________________________________________________  Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   18   Appendix B – Interview Questions Survey Questions   Are you Male, Female, or other?     What year of study are you in? (ie. 1, 2…)   What program are you in? (ie. Kin, Forestry….)   What ethnicity are you? (ie. Canadian, German…)   Note: for the following questions we are referring to the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes | Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage as the desktop version, NOT the mobile version.  1.     Have you been to the UBC Recreation Programs & Classes | Cardio, Conditioning & Strength webpage prior to taking this survey? (If NO, please fill out question 2 and then wait for an interviewer to show you a screenshot of the webpage before you complete the rest of the survey, If YES, continue to question 4)       2.    In brief, why haven’t you visited the UBC Recreation website mentioned above?        3.    (Show participant webpage) After seeing the webpage for the first time, what are your initial thoughts in terms of richness? (defined as: the amount of content that is transmitted).   1 = Very poorly                                                                                                                5 = Extremely well    1                          2                  3                      4                      5     4.   Would you attend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning, and Strength program? If no - why not? (If participant answered YES to Question 1 – begin here)   Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   19         5.    Would you recommend a UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning, and Strength program to a friend? If no - why not?         6.    In terms of richness (defined as: the amount of content that is transmitted) how well do you think the website does this?  1 = Very poorly 5 = Extremely well    1                      2                     3                      4                      5     7.    What content (if any) do you feel is missing?           8.    In terms of interactivity (defined as: how much the user can influence the content on the website) how well do you think the website does this?  1 = Very poorly 5 = Extremely well    1                      2                     3                      4                      5     9.    How visually pleasing is the website to you? 1 = Not all 5 = Extremely    1                      2                     3                      4                     5     10. What kind of digital media or content would add to the webpage?           11. How strong do you feel UBC Recreations Cardio, Conditioning, and strength program social media presence is? Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   20   1= Not strong at all 5 = Extremely strong presence   1                      2                     3                      4                      5     12. Do you feel the language of the website is inclusive to all fitness levels? (ie. classes for beginners, intermediate, and advanced participants?) 1 = Not at all inclusive 5 = Extremely inclusive, no improvements need to be made 1                      2                     3                      4                     5 13. How many times do you go to the gym or engage in physical activity in a week?        14. Do you think the pictures on their website are representative of the target population? Why or why not?         15. Do you think the wording on their website is appropriate and inclusive to anyone who might visit the website? Why or why not?           16. Please state any other feedback, if any, you would give to improve this website in order to increase awareness and participation within the UBC Recreation Cardio, conditioning, and strength programs?   Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   21   Appendix C – Results                          Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   22                                     Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   23                                     Targeted Health Promotions through the Use of Digital Media Techniques   24     The University of British Columbia/KIN 464: Health Promotion & Physical ActivityTargeted Health through the Use of Digital Media TechniquesTeam: Jess Hanson, David Huang, Daniele Pestoni, Lara Tenisch, Hank Wang. Professor: Negin Riazi. Project Partner: UBC Recreation• The purpose of this project was to analyze the University of British Columbia (UBC) Recreation Fitness & Classes website, specifically the ‘Cardio, Conditioning, & Strength’ webpage, and to provide UBC Recreation with recommendations on their digital media and messaging to help improve physical activity participation across campus. • Physical activity tends to decline rapidly from transitioning from high-school to University1. Therefore, our research aims to provide strategies and recommendations for UBC Recreation to increase exposure and awareness to their programs thus making physical activity a daily regime in the UBC community.• Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the collected data from 17 undergraduate students ranging from year two to four with seven different ethnic backgrounds and from 12 different programs was conducted using Microsoft Excel.• Statistical data from ordinal scale questions with a range from 1 (worst) to 5 (best) was analyzed. The close-ended questions which could either be answered with “Yes” or “No” were analyzed and visualized in pie charts. Answers of open-ended questions were grouped into recurring themes.• Content analysis was performed by sorting the participants’ responses by question and counting the number of times certain barriers or resources were mentioned and identified.• The quantitative data revealed that theCardio, Conditioning & Strength websitescored worst in its social media presence(mean = 2.06, SD = 1.11), visual pleasantness(mean = 2.71, SD = 1.02) and interactivity(mean = 3.09, SD = 0.97).• The website achieved better scores in thedomains of initial thoughts (mean = 3.42, SD= 0.70), language (mean = 3.56, SD = 0.76)and richness (mean = 3.68, SD = 0.73).• Analysis of the qualitative data exposed thatphotos or videos, color and a calendarfunction would add most to the webpage.• Participants mentioned they felt pictures andfootage of the classes were missing the mostfrom the website.• “Make [the website] more fun/engaging, Itlacks excitement." - Participant• Offer giveaways, produce short videos, provide motivational quotes, feature clients and inspiring stories.Mean values of website feature according to the responses of all participantsMissing digital media or content that would add to the page• The lack of awareness and attractiveness seems to be the limitation within UBC Recreation Cardio, Conditioning and Strength webpage. Open-ended questions revealed that there was a lack of richness.• An enhancement to the website and its engagement on social media platforms through new images and videos, in-depth description of the program, and networking with UBC students will create a more diverse recreation image and therefore promote physical activity.• Introduce images of individual classes to give a clearer idea of what they entail.• Utilize Instagram, Facebook and Twitter to raise awareness around the program.PurposeMethodsResultsConclusionRecommendations for ClientsReferences• Create promotional videos that include activities, testimonial and positive feedback from participants.• Increasing knowledge, attitude, and trustworthiness of the webpage should still be an objective.• More extensive description of classes combined with client feedback would create a more welcoming environment.1 Science Daily (2018). Requiring physical activity classes help sedentary college students be more active. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180912202405.htm

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