UBC Undergraduate Research

UBC Stormwater Detention : Multiple Use Stormwater Detention Adjacent to UBC Centre for Comparative Medicine Arcot, Sandeep; DeSiena, Justin; Ghoul, Tarek; Irish, Chris; Munk, Matthew; Zhang, Jimmy 2019-04-08

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report h^ƚŽƌŵǁĂƚĞƌĞƚĞŶƚŝŽŶ͗DƵůƚŝƉůĞhƐĞ^ƚŽƌŵǁĂƚĞƌĞƚĞŶƚŝŽŶĚũĂĐĞŶƚƚŽhĞŶƚƌĞĨŽƌŽŵƉĂƌĂƚŝǀĞDĞĚŝĐŝŶĞ^ĂŶĚĞĞƉƌĐŽƚ͕:ƵƐƚŝŶĞ^ŝĞŶĂ͕dĂƌĞŬ'ŚŽƵů͕ŚƌŝƐ/ƌŝƐŚ͕DĂƚƚŚĞǁDƵŶŬ͕:ŝŵŵLJŚĂŶŐhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨƌŝƚŝƐŚŽůƵŵďŝĂ/s>ϰϰϱͬϰϰϲdŚĞŵĞƐ͗tĂƚĞƌ͕ůŝŵĂƚĞ͕>ĂŶĚƉƌŝůϴ͕ϮϬϭϵDisclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Multiple Use Stormwater Detention Adjacent to UBC Centre for Comparative Medicine FINAL DESIGN REPORTApril 08th, 2019Team 16 Sandeep Arcot  Justin DeSiena  Tarek Ghoul   Chris Irish  Matthew Munk Jimmy Zhang   1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Final Design Report provides information pertaining to Thunderbird Lake, a proposed stormwater wet pond facility for South UBC in Vancouver. This report consists of a table of contents, overview, introduction, design overview, design criteria, technical considerations, summary of software and standards used, construction planning, project cost estimate and appendices including construction specifications and detailed drawings. Thunderbird Lake was chosen as the preferred design for a number of reasons, namely, the existence of numerous precedent examples to similar systems, the high quality of effluent discharge released into the ocean, and promotion of green space for students, nearby residents, and visitors. Thunderbird Lake will be capable of safely handling a volume of 8,500 m3 in the event of a 1/100 year rainfall event. Thunderbird Lake is a typical wet pond featuring a forebay for sediment settlement and a main pond for stormwater detention, separated by a concrete weir. The pond features continuous orifice flow into an outlet detention tank, as well as a pair of pipes that can be opened with a valve when the pond is to be drained. Other design criteria which were considered include the use of a water recirculation system, biofiltration mechanisms, serviceability, and aesthetics. Construction of the facility is expected to take approximately 8 months, with an anticipated start date of May 2019. Based on preliminary estimates, the total cost of the project is valued at $2,677,000.  2 Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION 5 1.1 SITE DESCRIPTION 5 1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES 5 1.3 TEAM CONTRIBUTION 6 2.0 DESIGN OVERVIEW 6 2.1 STORMWATER COLLECTION & DISCHARGE 7 2.1.1 MARINE 8 2.1.2 WESBROOK 8 2.1.3 POND OUTLET 9 2.2 INLET 10 2.2.1 INLET PROTECTION 10 2.2.2 DEBRIS COLLECTION 10 2.3 FOREBAY 10 2.4 WEIR 11 2.5 POND 12 2.6 OUTLET/ACCESS VAULT 13 2.7 FILL AND SOIL MATERIALS 14 2.7.1 EMBANKMENT FILL 14 2.7.2 ENGINEERED FILL AND GRAVEL 15 2.7.3 CLAY LINER 15 3.0 DESIGN CRITERIA 15 3.1 EXTREME FLOOD EVENT 15 3.2 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 16 3.2.1 CLIFF EROSION 16 3.2.2 GREEN SPACE 16 3.2.3 SEDIMENTATION 16 3.3 DESIGN LIFE 17 3.4 ACCESSIBILITY 17 3.5 AESTHETICS 17 3.6 MULTI-PURPOSE FACILITY 18 3.7 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT 18 4.0 TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS 18 4.1 POND SIZING 18 4.2 EVAPORATION 19 4.3 SEICHING 19 4.4 PIPE SYSTEMS 20 4.5 WEIR DESIGN 20 4.6 RIPRAP SIZING 21 4.7 MAINTENANCE PLAN 21 4.7.1 DREDGING PLAN 21 3 4.7.2 WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT 21 4.7.3 PIPE CLEANING 21 4.7.4 CIRCULATOR AND AERATOR MAINTENANCE 22 4.7.5 VEGETATION MAINTENANCE 22 4.8 PARK LAYOUT 23 4.9 RENEWABLE SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS 23 4.10 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS 24 4.10.1 SITE INVESTIGATION 24 4.10.2 SUBSURFACE SOIL CONDITIONS AND SOIL PARAMETERS 25 4.10.3 GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS 26 4.10.4 SEISMIC CONDITIONS 26 4.10.5 STORMWATER SEEPAGE CONTROL 26 4.10.6 - SHORING AND EXCAVATION 27 4.10.7 - SLOPE STABILITY 28 4.10.8 FOUNDATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 29 5.0 SOFTWARE AND STANDARDS 29 5.1 SOFTWARE 29 5.2 STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES 30 6.0 CONSTRUCTION PLANNING 32 6.1 SCHEDULE 32 6.2  CRITICAL PATH 32 6.3 ANTICIPATED SITE ISSUES 34 6.4 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 34 6.4.1 WESBROOK DIVERSION 34 6.4.2 OUTLET CONNECTION 35 6.5 STAGING AREAS 36 7.0 PROJECT COST ESTIMATE AND SUMMARY 36 7.1 OPERATING COST 37 7.2 CAPITAL COST OVERVIEW 37 7.3 FINANCIAL INTEREST RESERVE, LIABILITY INSURANCE, AND CONTINGENCY 38 7.4 SOURCES OF ERROR 39 8.0 CONCLUSION 40 REFERENCES 41 APPENDIX A - STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS 42 APPENDIX B - DETAILED CALCULATIONS 52 APPENDIX C - SCHEDULE GANTT CHART 61 APPENDIX D - DETAILED DESIGN DRAWINGS 62 APPENDIX E - COST ESTIMATE 63 4 Table of Figures Figure 1: Location of the Centre for Comparative Medicine 5 Figure 2: 3-D Orthographic Projection Render of Thunderbird Lake Concept 7 Figure 3: Solar Altitude and Angle Summary Chart at Thunderbird Lake Site Location 24 Figure 4: Pond Cross Section 38 Figure 5: Slope Stability Analysis Results 29 Figure 6: Pipe Laying and Trench Filling 33 Figure 7: Project Adjacent Roadways 36 Figure 8: Staging Area Location 37 Figure 9: Project Budget Breakdown 39 Table of TablesTable 1: Member Contribution Summary Table 6 Table 2: Stormwater Collection & Discharge Pipe Dimensioning 8 Table 3: Detention Pond Volume Summary Table 13 Table 4: Selected Soil Parameters 26 5 1.0 INTRODUCTION Team 16 has been selected by the University of British Columbia (UBC) Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program to design a stormwater detention system adjacent to UBC Center for Comparative Medicine (CCM). The goal of the project is to design a stormwater detention system that will collect runoff from South UBC campus and release the collected stormwater at a controlled rate to prevent erosion of the cliffs near Wreck Beach. The stormwater detention system must also serve as a multipurpose facility. Team 16 believes that a wet pond water retention system is the best option to meet the criteria of the project. A wet pond has been design and named “Thunderbird Lake”. This report will detail the design and design process of Thunderbird Lake and provide details necessary for construction of Thunderbird Lake.  1.1 SITE DESCRIPTION The UBC Centre for Comparative Medicine (CCM) is one of Western Canada’s largest medical research facilities. Located in the south end of UBC campus next to the Tri-University Meson Facility (TRIUMF) and the National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, the protection of this area is a priority. The location of the CCM is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Location of the Centre for Comparative Medicine 6 1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES The UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program has identified the need for a stormwater detention facility adjacent to the CCM, at the intersection of SW Marine Drive and Wesbrook Mall. The primary objective of this facility is to detain stormwater flows resulting from a 1/100 year rainfall event. During the design rainfall event, the facility must safely control enough stormwater for the current drainage systems to function without failing. Nearby research centres are considered major stakeholders in this project, as flooding of this area could impact operations at these locations. The sustainability targets of UBC and Metro Vancouver encourage a design which limits environmental impact and provides additional functionality aside from only stormwater detention. The detention facility must also release stormwater of acceptable quality into the environment at a controlled rate, without damaging the cliffs surrounding Wreck Beach. 1.3 TEAM CONTRIBUTION Team 16 is comprised of six individuals, each providing insight from their respective experiences. Below is a summary of each team member’s contribution to the development of this report. Table 1: Member Contribution Summary Table Justin DeSiena 3D Modelling, Hydrological Considerations, Stormwater Collection System Chris Irish Hydrological Considerations, Stormwater Collection System Sandeep Arcot Geotechnical Considerations, Structural Design Tarek Ghoul Pond Hydraulic Design, Environmental Considerations Matthew Munk Construction Planning and Scheduling, Environmental Considerations Jimmy Zhang Cost Estimate, Drafting, Photovoltaic System  7  2.0 DESIGN OVERVIEW The design overview describes all key components of Thunderbird Lake. Major elements of the design include stormwater collection, the wet pond, and water discharge system. A 3-D concept preview of the proposed design is shown in Figure 2.        Figure 2: 3-D Orthographic Projection Render of Thunderbird Lake Concept  2.1 STORMWATER COLLECTION & DISCHARGE To deliver stormwater to the wet pond facility, it must be collected from existing stormwater lines spanning parallel along Marine Drive and Wesbrook Mall. The pipes comprising this collection system must be adequately sized to convey flows resulting from the 1/100 year storm; Section 2.1 describes how the stormwater collection and discharge systems were designed for Marine Drive and Wesbrook Mall sub-catchments, and the pond outlet. All pipe sections are precast concrete with a Manning’s “n” value of 0.013; nominal pipe diameters were selected based on the smallest size up from the required diameter. The invert elevation for the inlet structures of both Marine and Wesbrook Diversions is set to the permanent water elevation of 54.25 m.a.s.l in the forebay. A summary of pipe dimensions for the entire stormwater collection and discharge system is provided in Table 2. Specifications for the pipe sections can be found in Section 2 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications.     8  Table 2: Stormwater Collection & Discharge Pipe Dimensioning  PIPE SEGMENT LENGTH [m] NOM. PIPE DIAMETER [mm] SLOPE [%] FLOW RATE [m3/s] Marine 1 128.6 450 0.4 0.13 Marine 2 30.4 525 0.4 0.26 Wesbrook 1 52.8 1050 1.5 2.48 Wesbrook 2 75.4 1050 1.5 2.48 Wesbrook 3 166.8 1050 1.4 2.48 Wesbrook 4 71.3 1050 1.8 2.48 Wesbrook 5 172.0 1200 0.56 2.41 Pond Outlet 55.2 600 3.6 0.92  2.1.1 MARINE The Marine Drive sub-catchment delivers approximately 10% of the total flows to the wet pond facility resulting from the 1/100 year storm. The southernmost pipe inlet in the forebay, Marine Inlet, delivers stormwater to the wet pond facility via two collection pipes, namely, Marine Diversions 1 & 2. To maximize flow into the wet pond facility, pipe grades for the Marine sub-catchment were designed at the minimum value of 0.4% as stated in the Surrey Design Criteria. Marine Diversion 1 connects to an existing drainage pipe oriented approximately north-south; the connection features a contraction between the existing trapezoidal drainage ditch and Marine Diversion 1. Marine Diversion 2 connects to an existing gutter which follows the east side of SW Marine Dr; this pipe will span parallel to a paved accessibility path for entrance to the northeast corner of the park. The Marine inlet features a headwall structure with Marine Diversions 1 and 2 entering the facility independently.  2.1.2 WESBROOK  The Wesbrook Drive sub-catchment delivers approximately 90% of the total flows to the wet pond facility, resulting in a design flow rate of 2.48 m3/s. The Wesbrook Diversion consists of 5 pipe segments that connect to two existing stormwater lines. The stormwater line which connects to Segment 5 conveys  9  the vast majority of the flow to the Wesbrook Inlet, as it conveys flow from the existing stormwater line running parallel to Wesbrook Mall which drains a large portion of South UBC. The connection from the existing stormwater line to Segment 5 features an expansion from 1050 mm to 1200 mm.  The stormwater line which connects to Segment 4 drains the neighbouring Centre for Comparative Medicine (CCM) and contributes only 0.07 m3/s to peak flows. The connection from the existing stormwater line to Segment 4 features an expansion from 250 mm to 1050 mm. Pipe grades for the Wesbrook Diversion were selected initially by assuming the minimum value of 0.4%, and the elevation of the closest upstream  node for the Wesbrook stormwater line was found; the pipe grades were then adjusted to account for the increase in elevation difference between the node and the pond inlet. Segments 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Wesbrook collection system feature a constant diameter of 1050 mm. Segments 4 and 5 are outside of the study area for the wet pond facility, and therefore permission need be obtained to lay and connect pipe to the existing stormwater system. The Wesbrook inlet features a headwall structure with the Wesbrook Diversion entering from approximately north.  2.1.3 POND OUTLET The Pond Outlet pipe connects the outlet structure of the wet pond facility to the culvert which crosses under Wesbrook Mall. The pipe is designed to convey a flow rate of 0.92 m3/s, as determined from analysis. As the elevation difference between the outlet and culvert is quite high, the Pond Outlet pipe is required to be built at a grade of 3.6%, causing the section to fail the necessary cover requirement as provided by the Surrey Design Criteria; to account for this, a small amount of fill will be placed above the shallow sections to ensure adequate pipe cover of 1.5 m. The relatively large slope also causes 1/100 year flows to become supercritical, therefore in-pipe energy dissipators will be used to reduce water speed and prevent erosion. The connection from the Pond Outlet pipe to the existing stormwater line features an expansion  from 600 mm to 1200 mm.  10  2.2 INLET The inlet system for the wet pond facility is comprised of to two intake structures; the Wesbrook Inlet and the combination of the two Marine Inlets. The structures are to be precast concrete wingwalls angled at 45 degrees with a footing and pipe intake centered at the permanent water level. The wingwall structure was designed using  (LHV Precast, n.d.) as guidance for geometry and dimensions. Details and dimensions of the Wesbrook and Marine Inlets are provided in Appendix D - Detailed Design Drawings.  2.2.1 INLET PROTECTION The Surrey Design Criteria warrants energy dissipation for supercritical inflows to reduce the scouring effects of high-velocity water. Using the Froude number and flow velocity, riprap aprons were designed according to the TP10 design guidelines used by the City of Auckland (2003). Both aprons consist of 0.25 m riprap and measure 8 m x 3.6 m x 0.5 m and 8 m x 5.6 m x 0.5 m for the Wesbrook Inlets and combined Marine Inlets, respectively. A single size riprap was used for homogeneity and logistic considerations; the greater diameter governed. 2.2.2 DEBRIS COLLECTION The end of each intake pipe will be fitted with netted trash traps to collect large debris before they enter the forebay while allowing design flows to pass unimpeded. These traps will reduce equipment damage and pipe blockage, as well as facilitate easier cleaning and maintenance of the forebay. 2.3 FOREBAY The purpose of the forebay is to provide a sedimentation process for stormwater entering the facility, dissipate the energy of flows into the main pond, and provide additional retention volume. Stormwater entering the facility will likely contain suspended sediments, which if not removed, may contribute to blockage of hydraulic features or contamination at the ocean outfall. The forebay is designed such that  11  any particle larger than 0.05 mm will settle to the bottom of the pond by gravity before it reaches the weir and is discharged into the main pond. The minimum water level required for sedimentation in the forebay is determined to be 0.6 m; to account for effective particle settlement and water loss due to evaporation, the permanent water level is designed to be 0.7 m. Due to the relatively shallow permanent water level, reservoir stratification can be ignored. The forebay is designed as a trapezoidal cross section with an average basin width of 9 m, depth of 3 m, slopes of 1:3 (California Stormwater), a total permanent stormwater volume of 295 m3, and a full volume of approximately 2065 m3 (including permanent volume and stormwater detention volume) detailed drawings are shown in Appendix D - Detailed Design Drawings. To prevent stagnant water and improve water quality, a surface aerator will be used in the forebay. Due to the systems exposure to open surfaces and location in an area with significant anticipated sediment runoff, the facility will have to be drained and dredged every 2 - 3 years (Government of Canada, 2013). To accommodate this maintenance, a drainage mechanism has been designed which features a pipe connecting the forebay and the main pond via the weir. Natural drying cycles will allow for dredging to be performed in the summer. If it is to be performed during any other period, the main pond can be drained by opening the valves, then a valve at the bottom of the weir can be opened to drain the forebay. The project maintenance plan located in Section 4.7 of this report can be referenced for more information. 2.4 WEIR To control flow between the forebay and main pond, a weir was designed to be placed between the two reservoirs. The weir will delay the overall time taken for stormwater to accumulate in the main pond, therefore providing more retention time for the system. The weir also improves the stormwater quality of the main pond by trapping sediment in the forebay. Team 16 recommends the use of a 1 m tall 0.3 m wide V-notch concrete weir with an angle of 160 degrees. The notch shall be located at the centre of the structure at a height of 0.7 m, directly above the permanent water level such that it allows water through  12  during stormwater events. The structure will be made of reinforced concrete with riprap placed downstream of the weir opening to dissipate energy and prevent bed erosion. Two 250 mm pipes with valves will be located 0.1 m above the forebay bed and shall be used to drain the forebay for maintenance purposes. 2.5 POND The main pond will be 97 m long and will feature a vertical concrete retaining wall at the stormwater discharge outlet. The pond bed is located 0.3 m below the forebay’s bed resulting in an elevation drop at the weir. A clay liner will be installed underneath and around the facility to prevent stormwater seepage and soil contamination. The trapezoidal cross section of the main pond is designed identically to that of the forebay, with a height of 3 m and horizontal distance of 9 m, yielding a 1:3 slope; a typical cross section  as well as the width over the span of the length is shown in Appendix D - Detailed Design Drawings. The main pond has a minimum top width of 27 m, although the width varies across its 97 m length. The main pond features a total permanent stormwater volume of 1,164 m3, and a full volume of  5,238 m3 (including permanent volume and stormwater detention volume) The majority of stormwater held during a 1/100 year storm event will reside in the main pond with a detention volume of 5,800 m3 including the forebay capacity.  The large design volume for the main pond is attributed to failsafe redundancy; the main pond was sized based on the assumption that the outlet for the facility may become blocked and cannot release stormwater, therefore requiring it to detain the entirety of the 1/100 year storm event. The operating depth of stormwater in the main pond is 1 m, although during a 1/100 year storm event the water level will rise to approximately 2.75 m. To prevent stagnant water and improve water quality, as with the forebay, aerators and circulators will be used. A summary table of the detention volumes of both the forebay and the main pond is presented below.   13  Table 3: Detention Pond Volume Summary Table  PERMANENT VOLUME DETENTION VOLUME FULL VOLUME Forebay 295 1770 2065 Main Pond 1164 4074 5238 Total 1459 5844 7303  2.6 OUTLET/ACCESS VAULT Given the nature of this project and the significant risk to the environment and human life in the event of failure, this facility was designed with several redundancies; the facility features a three-tiered protection system to provide safety from failure.   The outlet of the facility is designed with two 250 mm orifices draining into the current stormwater system; the orifices are located at a height of 1.125 m from the pond floor, allowing for drainage when the water level rises. The orifices were sized to withstand flows generated from a design head of 2.9 m, which represents the head exerted on the system given no continuous drainage (hydrostatic condition). Given that in reality there will be continuous drainage from the outlet of the facility, the design includes a large factor of safety (FOS) for freeboard. The actual water level of the main pond is expected to rise to 2.7 m, and yield a maximum discharge outflow of ~0.4 m3/s during the 1/100 year flood event. While excluding the runoff from subcatchments not diverted to the wet pond facility, the total flow through the conduit under Wesbrook Mall will be ~0.7 m3/s, still significantly smaller than the maximum flow rate of ~1.2 m3/s. Both outlets will feature filters that will prevent debris from entering the existing stormwater system as detailed in Section 2.5 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications. Upon exiting the main pond, stormwater will be conveyed via pipes into a stormwater chamber which will consist of a 700 mm x 1000 mm x 2500 mm vault that is accessible through a manhole and will relieve pressure in the system. The manhole will allow access to the outlet to facilitate cleaning and maintenance operations. After flowing  14  into the chamber, stormwater will be conveyed through two 250 mm pipes that connect to each other and then into the main 600mm concrete outlet pipe.  In the extremely unlikely event that both the stormwater tanks are blocked or otherwise cease to function, a parallel system has been devised consisting of two emergency discharge pipes with release valves. These discharge pipes will typically be used when draining the main pond for maintenance, although can still be used in emergency events if necessary. These 250 mm corrugated metal pipes were sized such that they can drain the main pond should the total head reach 2.9 m. The two failsafe mechanisms discussed in the preceding clauses were designed to be able to function simultaneously while limiting overland flows to below 1.2 m3/s.  The third design redundancy is the volume of the facility itself; the pond is sized in such a way that it is able to detain the entire 1/100 year flood event without failure. While this potential outcome is undesirable due to concerns of stormwater quality, it acts as the ‘last line of defense’ in the entire system. This allotted contingency also protects the overall system from a situation where the outlets are blocked; the volume of the main pond is large enough that even if this catastrophic failure occurs, the pond is still able to detain the large flows and prevent the nearby sensitive areas from inundation. 2.7 FILL AND SOIL MATERIALS Thunderbird Lake will be built with a variety of fill materials to form the side embankments, support slab foundations and to prevent seepage of stormwater. This section discusses the fill materials to be used in the construction of this facility.  2.7.1 EMBANKMENT FILL The existing soil on site was found to be glacial till. The soil can be classified as a combination of silty sand, clayey sand, and silt based on the ASTM D-2487 classification system. Based on typical soil  15  parameters and after conducting a slope stability analysis, the native soil was found to be suitable for use to form the embankments for Thunderbird Lake. Details regarding the site investigation and slope stability analysis can be found in Section 4.10 of this report. The specifications for the embankment fill can be found in Section 2 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications. 2.7.2 ENGINEERED FILL AND GRAVEL All the structural systems within the facility will be supported by slab-on-grade concrete foundations. In order to provide adequate support for the slab foundations, an engineered fill consisting of clean sand should be placed in areas where a slab foundation is to be constructed. On top of the engineered fill a layer of gravel and polyethylene moisture barrier will be installed to prevent any possible moisture migration. Details regarding the engineered fill and gravel can be found in Section 4.10 of this report and Section 2 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications. 2.7.3 CLAY LINER In order to prevent seepage of the pond water into the surrounding soil, a clay liner will be installed. With a clay liner the seepage of pond water will be minimal and any effects are deemed negligible. Details regarding clay liner and specifications can be found in Section 4.10 of this report and Section 2 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications.      16  3.0 DESIGN CRITERIA Many different factors were taken as design criteria for this project. As a multi-purpose facility, Thunderbird Lake was designed to handle floods, protect the environment, exist for future generations, and act as an accessible and aesthetic amenity on UBC campus. 3.1 EXTREME FLOOD EVENT The wet pond facility is designed to maintain a permanent water level during typical storm events. As per the client’s requirement, the pond is also appropriately sized to retain a 1/100 year flood volume.  3.2 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 3.2.1 CLIFF EROSION  Cliff erosion is an important issue within the scope of the wet pond design. Detainment and controlled release of the 1/100 year flood volume was required to minimize overland sheet flows and negative downstream impacts to the cliffs surrounding Wreck Beach. 3.2.2 GREEN SPACE The maintenance of green space and promotion of nature habitat is a primary focus in the design of the wet pond facility. The site will facilitate biodiversity and sustainability; aligning with the client’s and UBC’s visions and environmental targets. 3.2.3 SEDIMENTATION By consulting the Quebec Ministry of Agriculture’s design standards regarding detention ponds, the forebay was adequately sized to settle all particles larger than coarse silt and most medium silts (0.035 mm) during a 1/100 year storm event. By calculating the horizontal particle speed compared to the  17  vertical speed, it was calculated that a 38 m long forebay would be sufficient to achieve this consideration. During smaller storm flows (10% of the 1/100 year event), particles larger than fine silts will be settled. The presence of a weir will further improve the systems ability to detain sediment and prevent it from entering the main pond as well as create a well defined area that can be cleaned every 2-3 years, thus preventing the buildup of significant amounts of sediment in the main pond. 3.3 DESIGN LIFE Because this facility is designed to detain a 1/100 year storm, its design life must be long enough to make it a worthwhile effort. A project life of at least 50 years was considered when designing this project. Project materials were chosen to be durable and long lasting. Work required to preserve the functionality and extended life of the wet pond is prescribed in the maintenance plan, which can be found in Section 4.9 of this report; consideration of this plan will allow for the facility to function optimally throughout its life. 3.4 ACCESSIBILITY Thunderbird Lake was designed to be a multipurpose facility, and as such, access to the public must be maintained. While the 30 m tree buffer exists and would deter members of the public from entering the facility, there are four entrances to the facility, each with their own gates. The gate from marine drive to the southwest would be accessible to vehicles and heavy equipment such as excavators for maintenance purposes. The location of the site is also critical when considering accessibility to the public. Given that there are bus stops on either side of Thunderbird Lake, the site is ideal for public access. With regards to accessibility within the Thunderbird Lake site, there is a scenic path around the lake with a fence preventing individuals from falling, allowing them to enjoy the park.   18  3.5 AESTHETICS As the site is located on a major entrance to the UBC campus, aesthetic appeal is a significant criterion when designing the facility. The facility’s tree buffer will enhance the natural appearance of the park and the campus itself.  3.6 MULTI-PURPOSE FACILITY Thunderbird Lake will be surrounded with green space and walking pathways that can be utilized as leisure areas. Due to the proximity to TRIUMF, The CCM, and the Wesbrook residential area, it is anticipated the green space and leisure area will be utilized by residents from Wesbrook Village and workers from the nearby research facilities. Thunderbird Lake also serves the purpose of being a welcoming feature for UBC campus from the entrance near SW Marine Drive. Thunderbird Lake will act as welcoming feature for students and professor who commute to campus as well as visitors.  3.7 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT Stakeholders and local First Nations groups relevant to this project must be consulted to ensure its success. UBC is located on unceded Musqueam land, therefore the Musqueam First Nation must be consulted, and their approval for the project must be received before construction. Nearby facilities such as The CCM and TRIUMF are stakeholders due to their proximity, and must also be consulted to ensure the project does not negatively impact them. UBC students will fund this project through tuition and may visit the area, thus making them stakeholders as well. Those entering campus by vehicle, bike, or on foot to Wesbrook Mall are considered stakeholders to the project, as Team 16 wishes to enhance the visual appeal of the corner property for public satisfaction, and to attract visitors.      19  4.0 TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS  Technical considerations were examined and used to perform calculations and design components of the project. 4.1 POND SIZING The pond was sized with several factors in mind; the pond is to be able to settle all particles larger than fine silts, with all particles larger than coarse silts (0.05 mm) settling in the forebay during the 1/100 year event. During typical storms, the bulk of the fine silts (0.01 mm) are to be settled in the forebay which was sized accordingly. Sedimentation velocities were calculated using soil particle density and dimensions of the pond, The Agrireseau Quebec Retention Basin Guide was used to determine time for a given particle to fall to the bottom of the pond.  The pond was also sized with the maximum outflow of 1.2m3/s flow rate constraint. Detention pond outlet structures are typically sized to match the rainfall flow patterns, however due to this constraint, a worst case scenario was assumed and several redundancies were put in place to prevent a risk to public safety resulting from a collapse of the cliffs downstream. One of these redundancies was the size of the pond itself which is to accommodate 5844 m3 of water, which corresponds to the total amount of water assuming constant discharge below the 1.2 m3/s rate with a factor of safety to account for other overland flows that were not captured by the stormwater drainage system and accounting for the magnification resulting from the effects of global warming. This was calculated by creating a flow-balance hydraulic model with time steps of 1 s and modelling the effects of the expected flow rate on the overall system at any given time, accounting for the weir, the forebay, and the constant outflow.   20  4.2 EVAPORATION Due to the historically dry summers in Vancouver, the effects of surface evaporation were considered for the wet pond facility. The Penman Formula was used to calculate the water loss due to evaporation based on temperature data retrieved from Environment Canada. The temperature data were selected for the 4-month period between May - August for the year 2017, as this drought season reported the highest average temperature on record for Vancouver. After application of the Penman Formula with an assumed dew point temperature of 10 C, a volume reduction of 1000 m3 is estimated for the wet pond facility under the stated conditions. Although this volume is large, the wet pond facility will not dry completely as the permanent pond volume is 1459 m3. Considering that there will be some inflow during this period, there is a low risk of the wet pond facility drying entirely.  4.3 SEICHING Seiching was considered given the strong winds that may be experienced in Vancouver. Assuming a 140 km/hr windstorm, it was calculated that the pond would experience seiching in the order of 2.3 cm, thus marginally contributing to recirculation while still not resulting in a risk of spilling during the 1/100 year event. 4.4 PIPE SYSTEMS Clause of the SDC states that the minimum pipe grade is 0.4 %. To capture as much flow as possible into the wet pond facility, minimum slope requirements were used for both pipe segments connecting to the Marine Inlet. The steepest pipe grade in the system is 3.6 % for the pond outlet pipe, which is below the maximum of 15 % from the SDC. Clause states that design velocities must be less than 3 m/s and subcritical; due to the required slope of the pond outlet pipe, the flow velocity in that section is super-critical during a 100-year event. This will be mitigated by placement of small rip-rap (diameter 0.25 m) at the pipe exit near the culvert under Wesbrook Mall. The smallest design velocity in  21  the system is 0.8 m/s for the Marine 1 pipe segment, which is above the minimum velocity of 0.6 m/s from the SDC. To protect against acid attack and general pipe corrosion, the concrete pipe sections will be protected as per Section 3.2 in Appendix A - Standards and Specifications.  4.5 WEIR DESIGN A V-notched weir was selected as it provides additional retention time, detains sediment in the forebay, and allows for the water level in the forebay to be maintained during smaller events, spilling over the weir during large stormwater events. This also serves to channel the flow to a smaller area that is covered with riprap, thus acting as a scour mitigation device.  A set of valves located at the bottom of the weir were placed to allow for drainage should the entire pond need to be drained during the wet season. In such a scenario, the main pond would be drained, followed by the forebay. The weir is made of rebar reinforced concrete, made of the proper exposure class. Specifications for the concrete can be found in Section 3.1 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications. 4.6 RIPRAP SIZING The size of the stones selected to be used as riprap (0.25 m) is chosen to satisfy both of the requirements of the inlet placement and weir placement as to reduce cost. 4.7 MAINTENANCE PLAN Maintenance work must be done periodically throughout the life of the wet pond, to ensure optimal performance. Maintenance Specifications can be found in Appendix B - Sample Calculations.  22  4.7.1 DREDGING PLAN To prevent the accumulation of sediment at the bed of the forebay, an excavator shall be used to dredge the pond at least once every three years or after a year with particularly strong storms comparable to the 1/100 year storm event. The pond will be dredged between June 1st and August 1st for safety purposes when the water level is lowest due to evaporation.  Excavators shall only access the forebay via the designated access route. The main pond does not need to be routinely dredged since the majority of the sediment will accumulate in the forebay. 4.7.2 WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT Waterfowl such as geese and ducks are usually considered a nuisance in regards to lakes and other bodies of waters as their excrements may pollute the water and they may be aggressive to park users. To prevent waterfowl from gathering near the pond, 4 coyote scarecrows will be placed at various locations near the water to deter them. This will be coupled with a non-toxic goose repellent that shall also be periodically applied to grazing areas to keep away geese and other waterfowl. 4.7.3 PIPE CLEANING All inlet and outlet pipes are to be routinely cleaned and inspected to prevent clogging during storm events. The grates and trashbags will over time accumulate debris.The emergency outlet pipes must be manually cleaned from the outside but the orifice outlet pipes may be cleaned through the access manhole.  4.7.4 CIRCULATOR AND AERATOR MAINTENANCE During the winter where flows are expected to be high, the circulator systems will be turned off to prevent damage to the system. Aerators and Circulators should be inspected as per their user manuals every two years to ensure that they are working properly and are replaced when needed. Should the aerator and  23  circulators fail, causing algae growth, commercial products such as Algaway and Green Clean can be used to treat the algae. 4.7.5 VEGETATION MAINTENANCE At times plants may need to be replaced. Long droughts, harsh winters, or local wildlife could potentially kill off vegetation planted in the wet pond. It is recommended that the pond is inspected twice a year, in September and in March, to determine if any sections of vegetation must be replanted. 4.8 PARK LAYOUT The overall site surrounding the main wet pond feature prioritizes the safety and comfort of its visitors. The walkway and ramps are designed to be compacted engineered fill to accommodate bicycles and wheelchairs as well as provide an appealing design from the street. The main pathway circling the facility will have standard park fencing between itself and the pond slopes with a vehicular access gate at the forebay (mentioned previously) and maintenance gates for technicians to service the outlet. The site is designed with standard park lighting for visitor safety.  The site includes a park area with picnic benches on the moderately sloped land and a pathway leading to the street. The steeper terrain is utilized as a solar farm to provide power of the facilities electrical components. 4.9 RENEWABLE SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS A solar pathing analysis was conducted, and a shadow projection was produced. The results are summarized in Figure 3 and used to estimate the maximum number of solar photovoltaic panels that could be installed at the site without being in the shade cast by other panels and tall trees in the area. The angle of the sun used for the calculations is taken as the solar angles experienced on the winter solstice, as the sun is farthest to the earth during that time and the longest shadows are cast. An estimated 160 panels  24  can be installed at our site, with an installation capacity of 41.6 kW. In the winter time, an average of 55 kWh of energy can be produced on a daily basis, while 203 kWh can be produced in the summer. This energy production is enough to power between 2 to 8 households at any given time and is sufficient to power all the recirculation and aeration devices and site lighting. The entire system is connected to the electrical grid so that excess power generated can be used to reduce the total load on the grid. The grid also serves as a backup to the site electricity demands when the solar panels undergo maintenance or at night when the panels cease to operate. Out of warranty and safety concerns, the panels are recommended to only be in operation between 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM such that panels ending up in the shade do not become dead loads in the system. The exact details and specifications of the technology used for the system may be found in Section 6 of Appendix A - Standards & Specifications.   Figure 3: Solar Altitude and Angle Summary Chart at Thunderbird Lake Site Location  25  4.10 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS The following section will discuss the site investigation that was conducted near the proposed facility, and further research conducted regarding geotechnical considerations for this project. The section will also provide design details and requirements dealing with geotechnical engineering relevant to the project.  4.10.1 SITE INVESTIGATION The facility is to be situated adjacent to the UBC Centre for Comparative Medicine (CCM) in South UBC. Although no geotechnical investigation has been conducted at the exact site of the proposed project, a geotechnical site investigation report prepared by GeoPacific Consultants (GPC) is available for a multi-story development near 16th Avenue and Westbrook Mall. For the purposes of this report, it is assumed that the conditions reported by GPC are consistent with conditions found at the location for the proposed facility. Three auger test holes were drilled to depths between nine and eleven meters below surface level; a summary of findings relevant to the project provided from the GPC geotechnical assessment are provided in the sections below.  4.10.2 SUBSURFACE SOIL CONDITIONS AND SOIL PARAMETERS The geology of South UBC was classified by GPC as Vashon Glacial deposits. This was done by utilizing Map 1484A from the Geological Survey of Canada (Government of Canada). The borehole data provided in the report shows that there is ~0.5 m of topsoil overburden spread across the site, after ~0.5 m of depth, there is ~9 m of glacial till; no further data is available regarding deeper soil layers. The glacial till matrix is described as a silty sand with trace gravel clasts and cobbles, exhibiting high density at shallow depths and higher density at deeper depths. Based on GPC’s soil description, the soil can be classified as a mixture of silty sand, clayey sand and silt based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-2487 Classification System. The soil was classified using the ASTM D-2487 system primarily because most of the referenced standards and engineering guides utilized ASTM D-2487 as well.  26    As no soil parameters were provided by the report prepared by GPC, further research was conducted in order to produce a geotechnical analysis. An engineering guide titled “Introduction to Fill and Backfill for Structures” published by CED Engineering was referenced for soil parameters to be used in the geotechnical analysis. The guide listed typical soil parameters for various types of soil depending on the classification of soil based on the ASTM D-2487 classification system. Table 4 below summarizes the soil parameters selected for the native glacial till on site. Parameters for the clay liner were also selected using this guide. The clay liner will be discussed in the following sections.  Table 4: Selected Soil Parameters MATERIAL MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY (kN/m3) FRICTION ANGLE (Degrees) COHESION (kPa) Glacial Till 15 31 50 Clay Liner 15 28 86  4.10.3 GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS The report prepared by GPC indicates the static groundwater table is expected to be far below ground level. Perched groundwater was found in isolated locations from the borehole data, occurring sporadically at depths ranging from 4 m - 5.5 m (GeoPacific Consultants). Due to the depth of the static groundwater level and only isolated incidents of perched groundwater being present, no specific considerations for groundwater effects were considered.  27  4.10.4 SEISMIC CONDITIONS It was found that subsurface soils are not prone to ground liquefaction or other forms of ground softening induced by seismic events (GeoPacific Consultants). As a result, seismic effects were not considered for the design of Thunderbird Lake. 4.10.5 STORMWATER SEEPAGE CONTROL In order to maintain water in the wet pond, many design guidelines for wet ponds suggest the installation of a clay liner. A clay liner may not be needed dependent on the permeability of the native soil on site. The report prepared by GPC provided no information regarding the permeability of the native soil on site. For conservative measures it was decided that a clay liner should be installed to prevent seepage of stormwater into the soil and maintain a water level for the pond.   An engineering guide prepared by National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) titled “Low Impact Development in Coastal South Carolina: A Planning and Design Guide” was referenced in order to design the stormwater seepage control system. It is suggested a clay liner be utilized to prevent seepage of pond water. The clay liner will have thickness of 0.3 meters and additional layer of compacted soil with a thickness of 0.3 meters will be place above the clay liner. The existing soil will be used as the additional layer of compacted soil. The specification for the clay liner can be found in Section 2 of Appendix B - Sample Calculations. Figure 4 below shows a typical pond cross section with the clay liner installed.      28      Figure 4: Pond Cross Section 4.10.6 SHORING AND EXCAVATION Based on the report produced by GPC, temporary construction embankments may be designed to have a maximum ratio of 4V:3H (GeoPacific Consultants). All embankments and excavations should be performed in accordance with WorkSafe BC regulations unless otherwise directed by the geotechnical engineer. 4.10.7 SLOPE STABILITY A slope stability analysis was performed using Slope/W by GeoStudio. Various design guidelines have advised an embankment slope of 1V:3H for stability purposes. The standard Slope/W model parameters were input into the analysis, including usage of the Morgenstern-Price method for slope stability. According to the site investigation conducted, the static groundwater table was not included in the model. The only scenario modelled in Slope/W was the critical setup characterized by a drained pond.    29  Soil parameters from Table 4 were input into the model. Seepage effects were not considered as the clay liner applied to the embankment will allow for negligible seepage into the underlying soil. After analyzing results from the model, the FoS for the critical slope failure mode was found to be 12.7. Figure 5 below shows the output from Slope/W with the critical failure slope and associated FOS.     Figure 5: Slope Stability Analysis Results  Based on the results of the slope stability results and following an engineering guide regarding structural fill prepared by CED Engineering as previously mentioned, it was determined the native material is suitable to be used as fill material to form the proposed pond slopes of 1V:3H. Specifications and procedures needed to be undertaken to prepare the native soil material to form the embankments of the pond can be found in Section 2 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications.  30  4.10.8 FOUNDATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Thunderbird Lake will feature two foundation systems; both systems are concrete slab-on-grade foundations and are utilized at the outlet and weir structures. GeoPacific Consultants have outlined requirements for foundations which will be discussed below.   For adequate frost protection for foundation structures, the structures must be positioned at a minimum depth of 450 mm below grade (GPC). All foundation structures on site have been designed in accordance with this consideration.   The bearing capacity of the native soil is expected to be 575 kPa (GPC). The maximum pressure on the native soil under any foundation on site is expected to be 55 kPa which yields a FoS of 10, far greater than general requirements.   All foundation structures should be supported by an engineered fill. The proposed engineered fill material can be considered a clean sand. To prevent any potential upward migration of moisture, a polyethylene moisture barrier should be installed beneath the foundation along with gravel (GPC). Specifications for the engineered fill, polyethylene moisture barrier, and gravel can be found in Section 2 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications.   Foundation settlements should be below 25 mm (GPC). No heavy loading is expected on site, and the heaviest additional load in comparison to existing conditions is expected to be an additional 5 kPa. Considering that the depth of glacial till is expected to be very large, settlement effects are considered negligible.     31  5.0 SOFTWARE AND STANDARDS In this section the software and standards used to design the various project components are detailed. 5.1 SOFTWARE Multiple softwares were used in this project for a variety of purposes. Table 6 below lists all software used in the development of the wet pond facility.  Table 6: Software Used SOFTWARE USE GeoStudio Slope/W Slope stability analysis of the pond embankments. A critical failure slope and associated factor of safety was calculated using the software RSMeans Estimate task durations for project schedule Microsoft Project Generate Gantt Chart of project Schedule Microsoft Excel Create a hydraulic model of head of the facility, size the collection and discharge pipes, and was used in conjunction with EPASWMM to model flow rates AutoCAD Scale dimensions and design the pond based on local right-of-ways and elevations EPASWMM Analyse the existing stormwater system and determine 1/100 year flow rates in pipe segments SketchUp Conceptualize and project a 3D rendering of the proposed wet pond facility       32  5.2 STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES Multiple standards and guidelines were used in this project for a variety of purposes. Table 7 below lists all standards and guidelines used. Table 7: Standards and Guidelines Used STANDARD USE CSA A23-3 Concrete Design Code Design of the concrete structure for the weir/forebay and outlet structure  NER Pond Design Guideline Reference to design the pond embankments and clay liner ASTM (American Society of Testing Materials) Preparation of specification for fill material Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food Canada- Water Storage and Sedimentation Guide Sedimentation calculations and forebay sizing Surrey Design Criteria (SDC) Design of the stormwater collection and discharge system Iowa DNR Stormwater Management Manual Wet pond design constraints and sizing                33  6.0 CONSTRUCTION PLANNING The construction process of this project has been outlined and all necessary tasks have been considered. 6.1 SCHEDULE The schedule for this project begins on May 1st 2019, and ends on December 26th 2019; yielding a construction period of 172 working days, distributed over 8 months.  Construction for this project has been scheduled using Microsoft Project to create a Gantt Chart, which is attached in Appendix C - Schedule Gantt Chart. RSMeans was used to estimate job durations. Estimated float times were taken into account in the durations used in the Gantt Chart. Relationships between the different tasks were considered and taken into account. Certain tasks must be completed or started before others can be completed. For example, the laying of inlet piping must be done before the trench it lays in can be filled, but the entire length of the pipe does not need to be installed before backfilling begins. In the schedule, the piping is set to finish installation one day before the backfilling is completed. This can be seen in a section of the Gantt Chart shown in Figure 6 below.    Figure 6: Pipe Laying and Trench Filling   34  6.2  CRITICAL PATH The critical path for construction of this project is the rigid list of tasks which directly affects the schedule of the overall project; if one of these tasks is delayed, then the final completion date of the project will also be delayed. Tasks which are not considered part of the critical path feature flexibility for delays without affecting the entire project schedule. In the Gantt Chart schedule in Appendix C  - Schedule Gantt Chart, critical path items are highlighted in red.  The first task that must be completed is the clearing and grubbing of existing vegetation; this is required to prepare the site for other works to occur. The next critical task is bulk excavation of the pond. After excavation is done, the embankments must be compacted. The clay liner can then be installed along the banks and base of the pond. Again, the embankments must be compacted. Backfilling soil above the clay liner can then be completed and soil can be compacted. Backfilling of a base material must be completed below the slab portion of the outlet structure before forming and rebar placement can be done. After the concrete of the outlet structure is poured and has cured for 2 weeks, the formwork can be removed. The precast concrete risers behind the outlet can then be installed, along with the outlet piping. Once these pipes are connected, they are buried with backfill. As this concludes the heavy earthworks to be done on site, landscaping is done next. The walkway is built, lighting is installed, and pond guardrails are assembled. Solar panel podiums are then constructed, and the panels installed. Finally, the site trailer is removed and the 30 m treeline buffer at the construction entrance is replanted.    35  6.3 ANTICIPATED SITE ISSUES There is potential for construction to take longer than projected due to human error and adverse site conditions. In the construction schedule attached in Appendix C - Schedule Gantt Chart, it is assumed that no human errors are made, and site conditions are ideal. If soil stability is not as predicted, shoring and engineered backfill may become necessary. If unexpected perched groundwater is encountered, dewatering will be required. Any mechanical failures of equipment used during construction can also cause delays. As the facility is expected to be under construction for approximately one year, it will face a variety of weather conditions. Poor weather such as heavy rain or snow can result in work delays, whereas extreme weather conditions such as large storms could potentially damage works which have already been completed. 6.4 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN Due to the utility work involved in connecting Thunderbird Lake to the existing infrastructure, several roads will have to be closed. As such, Team 16 has created a traffic management plan to deal with the impacts of construction on nearby neighbourhoods, and to reroute traffic safely through the area without disrupting the operations of the nearby research centres. 6.4.1 WESBROOK DIVERSION The Wesbrook diversion will result in a portion of the Wesbrook mall stormwater network getting severed and replaced with new pipes. While the pipes will run underneath the sidewalks away from the street, some manholes will have to be relocated and the roundabout would therefore need to be closed at night to allow work to proceed. The roundabout would be closed just north of the 41 bus stop at northbound Wesbrook Mall at the TRIUMF Centre. The bus is operational between 7:08 am to 11:40 pm, providing workers with a 6-hour window to perform the necessary work. The roundabout will also be closed north of Nursery Street and west of the road adjacent to TRIUMF, allowing traffic to circumvent  36  the roundabout. Access to the nearby facility north of CCM will be temporarily restricted during this time. Figure 7 below shows the layout of the roads adjacent to the site.  Figure 7: Roadways Adjacent to Project Site 6.4.2 OUTLET CONNECTION Following the Wesbrook diversion tie in and shut off, the outlet must be connected to the stormwater system. At this point, the roundabout will once again be fully operational and as a result, vehicles will be able to travel through this area. The southbound lane will be temporarily closed to allow for the tie-in. This would effectively create a one-way road, restricting vehicles from travelling southbound at Wesbrook mall after the parking lots and using them to allow traffic to circle back and return north to access SW Marine via Ross and W 16th Avenue. This would add 3 km to the journey given the lack of redundancies in the area. This however would not affect the ability of first responders to arrive at the scene given that the path to the closest hospital, UBC Hospital, will be unobstructed during this phase of construction. During this phase of the construction process, the 41 travelling southbound on Wesbrook would be asked to collect and drop off commuters at TRIUMF, then use the roundabout to return northbound and access SW Marine Drive through Ross and W 16th Avenue for an average bus delay of 6-8 minutes. Buses  37  travelling to UBC would travel instead along SW Marine, turning right at W 16th Avenue, right at Ross Street, right at Wesbrook Mall, then circling back after dropping off travellers at TRIUMF. 6.5 STAGING AREAS During construction, a staging area will be required to store material and equipment to be used on site. This is also where the site trailer will be located. The area where the solar panels will eventually be installed directly to the northwest of the facility will be used as the staging area during construction. Because this is directly adjacent to the pond, and the solar panels are only installed after everything else has been completed, this is a good location for the staging area. Entrance to the site will be via a pull out lane on SW Marine Dr. Access paths will connect this entrance to the staging area and to the pond. These access paths can then be used during maintenance dredging throughout the life of the wet pond. A sketch of the layout is shown below in Figure 8.  Figure 8: Staging Area Location   38  7.0 PROJECT COST ESTIMATE AND SUMMARY An estimate of all costs associated with construction and operation has been completed.  7.1 OPERATING COST One of the reasons why the wet pond facility was selected as the preferred option is the fact that there are many precedent examples around the world for Team 16 to draw inspiration from. A report commissioned by the Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association is used as a baseline for extrapolating the maintenance costs of this facility. The report surveyed and compiled the operation costs of various stormwater detention systems in over thirteen cities in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Texas. The typical detention pond incurred annual maintenance costs of between $500 to $2,600 USD (Minton, 2003). After adjusting for exchange  rates and applying an inflation rate of 40.5% to account for the change in price indices between the release of the report in 2002 and present day, an estimated annual operating cost of $4,700 CDN is obtained. This amount is not included in the Project Cost Summary as it is not an upfront capital cost. In an effort to reduce the operation and maintenance costs, higher capital expenditure is exercised to include circulators and aerators as well as water purifying plants Nuphar Polysepalum and Scirpus Validus throughout the water body. 7.2 CAPITAL COST OVERVIEW The costs associated with the wet pond facility are divided into two major sections, construction costs and development costs. The construction costs add up to $2,062,000, and the development costs add up to $258,000. This puts the total project cost, less contingency, at $2,320,000. After a 15% contingency is allotted to the project, the total project cost is expected to be approximately $2,677,000. The pie chart shown in Figure 9 displays the amount and percentage each division contributes to the total cost. For a  39  more detailed breakdown into individual cost codes within each division, refer to the Thunderbird Lake Project Cost Summary in Appendix E - Cost Summary and Cost Calculations in Appendix B - Sample Calculations.   Figure 9: Project Budget Breakdown 7.3 FINANCIAL INTEREST RESERVE, LIABILITY INSURANCE, AND CONTINGENCY Typical financial institutions require a contingency amount totaling no less than 5 % of remaining cost-to-complete items to secure further financing. In a phased project such as the wet pond facility, it is desirable to approach financing with a running mortgage account, such that only what is needed to be paid out is drawn on a monthly basis to avoid unnecessary financing fees and interest payments. A financial interest reserve fund is set aside at approximately 0.2% of the annual costs of the project, leaving $1,700 for the financing costs associated with the project. Since there is indication of perched aquifers in the geology of the site, a 15% contingency is utilized so that even if the potential issue is realized, there will still be sufficient contingency funds available to secure further financing. The worst- 40  case scenario that must be avoided at all costs will be the rejection of financing due to depletion of funds, inclusive of contingency. This will ultimately put the project on hold indefinitely until separate financial injections are made, all the while accumulating further financing fees. The addition of the 15% contingency increases the total project budget by $347,000. The inclusion of liability insurance at benchmark market rates of 0.3 cents per at-risk value of the project is also included. This adds a further $7,000 to the budget. 7.4 SOURCES OF ERROR Significant effort has been exercised in ensuring the accuracy of the preliminary budget, however, there remain many factors unaccounted for, which may result in the elimination or increase of certain cost items. Although firm quotes for various concrete and sitework items have been procured, the stipulated unit rates are still susceptible to being applied to incorrect quantities. Other sources of uncertainty are caused by the inability to predict the volatile commodities market and the immaturity of the preliminary design. Some original quotes secured during the preliminary design phase of the project have now expired following the start of 2019. Highly conservative cost values are considered to yield greater flexibility in the event of cost discrepancies.     41  8.0 CONCLUSION After consideration of options for a stormwater detention facility for South UBC, due to the presence of many precedent examples and water quality concerns, a wet pond facility was selected. Thunderbird Lake is a typical wet pond featuring a forebay for sediment settlement and a main pond for stormwater detention, separated by a concrete weir. Thunderbird Lake will be capable of safely handling a volume of 8,500 m3 in the event of a 1/100 year rainfall event. Construction of the facility is expected to take approximately 8 months, with an anticipated start date of May 2019. Based on preliminary estimates, the total cost of the project is valued at $2,677,000.   Team 16 proposes the enclosed designs for the stormwater detention facility, and sincerely hopes that the UBC is approving of the documents provided. Team 16 is represented by the undersigned below.  If there are any issues with the proposed designs and/or specifications, please do not hesitate to contact us for further processing.    Sandeep Arcot    Justin DeSiena    Tarek Ghoul    Chris Irish     Matthew Munk    Jimmy Zhang  42  REFERENCES Agriculture and Agri-food Canada. (2013). Water Storage and Sedimentation Basins: Concept and Sizing. Retrieved from https://www.agrireseau.net/agroenvironnement/documents/Fiche bassin sédimentationV20130729FINAL_EN FINAL.pdf  Earth Sciences Maps. (2018, August 08). Retrieved from https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/resources/maps  Geopacific. (2006). Geotechnical investigation Report for Proposed Mixed Commercial/Residential Development Lot 10 - UBC South Campus, Wesbrook Drive at 16th Avenue, Vancouver BC (pp. 1-10, Rep.).  Guide to Stormwater Best Management Practices. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.northinlet.sc.edu/lid/FinalDocument/loRes/4.11 Wet Detention Pond low res.pdf  Guyer, J. (2012). An Introduction to Fill and Backfill for Structures. Retrieved from https://www.cedengineering.com/userfiles/An Intro to Fill and Backfill for Structures.pdf  Head Walls. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lhvprecast.com/products/product-catalog/headwalls/  Iowa Stormwater Design Manual. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.iowadnr.gov/Environmental-Protection/Water-Quality/NPDES-Storm-Water/Storm-Water-Manual  Surrey Design Criteria. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.surrey.ca/files/DesignCriteria.pdf  TP10 Design Guideline Manual Stormwater treatment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/documents/technicalpublications/tp10 design guideline manual stormwater treatment devices chapter 13 - 2003.pdf            43 APPENDIX A - STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS 44SECTION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.1 Installation and Removal of Construction Facilities and Controls 1. Provide construction facilities and temporary controls in order to execute the work expeditiously.2. Remove from site all such work after use.1.2 Hoarding 1. Provide hoarding with prefabricated temporary steel-framed construction fence with mesh, 8'-0"high, with sections interlocked together and fence being self-supporting. Erect hoarding aroundentire perimeter of site to protect the public, workers, public and private property from injury ordamage and to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction.2. Provide lockable gates within hoarding for access to site by workers and vehicles. Ensurehoarding is completely secure when work is not in progress.3. Locate all construction trailers, garbage bins, hoists, equipment, tools and the like, within theconfines of the exterior hoarding.4. Remove barriers prior to completion and final acceptance. Patch and repair surfaces to originalcondition damaged by erection of barriers.5. All hoarding to be in compliance with WCB standards and Municipal regulations, whichever ismore stringent.1.3 Guard Rails and Barricades 1. Provide secure, rigid guard railings and barricades around deep excavations, open shafts, openstairwells, open edges of floors and roofs.2. Provide as required by authority having jurisdiction.3. Neatly assemble and firmly brace.4. Maintain as required during construction period.5. Remove barriers prior to completion and final acceptance. Patch and repair surfaces to originalcondition damaged by erection of barriers.1.4 Hoisting 1. Provide, operate and maintain hoists and cranes required for moving of workers, material andequipment.2. Operate hoists and cranes using qualified operators.1.5 Scaffolding 1. Provide and maintain scaffolding, ramps, ladders, swing stages, platforms and temporary stairs.2. Erect scaffolding independent of walls. Use scaffolding with the least possible interference withthe Work. Construct and maintain scaffolding in rigid, secure and safe manner. Removescaffolding promptly when no longer required. Erect and place scaffolding to permit convenientaccess to all levels for all workers,the authority having jurisdiction, the Consultant and theOwner.3. Erect and dismantle scaffolding in accordance with all WCB standards.451. Provide temporary drainage and pumping facilities to maintain excavations and site free ofstandingwater, to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction.2. Keep excavations free of water while work is in progress.3. Protect open excavations against flooding and damage due to surface runoff.4. Dispose of water in a manner not detrimental to public and private property, or any portion ofwork completed or under construction.5. Provide tanks, setting basins, or other treatment facilities to remove suspended solids or othermaterials before discharging to storm sewers, watercourses or drainage areas, in accordance withlocal authority requirements.6. 6.Bear all costs for remedial work, and/or the cost to remove saturated material and installadditional material to replace saturated material resulting from the failure to carry out therecommended dewatering techniques.1.7 Access to Site 1. Maintain free and unimpeded access to and egress from site at all times.2. Whenever interference with normal street and sidewalk traffic becomes necessary for proper andconvenient performance of the work, and no satisfactory detour route exists,provide satisfactorydetour, temporary bridge, or other proper facility for traffic to pass around or over interference,and maintain in satisfactory condition as long as interference continues. Provide before beginninginterference.1.8 Public Traffic Flow 1. Provide and maintain flag persons, traffic signals, barricades and flares/lights/lanterns as requiredto perform the Work and protect the public.2. Maintain access to all portions of the site for fire fighting equipment to the satisfaction of thelocal Fire Department.1.9 Sanitary Facilities 1. Provide sufficient portable sanitary facilities during the construction period for workers, inaccordance with local health authorities.2. Maintain in clean condition.3. The use of the permanent washroom facilities will not be permitted.4. Provide separate facilities, as required, for men and women, appropriately identified.1.10 Equipment/Tool/Materials Storage 1. Provide and maintain, in a clean and orderly condition, lockable weatherproof sheds suitable forstorage of tools, equipment and materials and to protect from weather or construction.2. Locate materials required to be stored on site in a manner to cause the least interference withwork activities.3. All Owner/Contractor’s and Subcontractor’s tools and equipment must be in good physicalcondition.1.6 Dewatering 461. Provide and erect 8'-0" x 8'-0" project identification sign, including all necessary posts andframing.Maintain the sign in good condition for the duration of the Work. Clean periodically asrequired.Sign to be detailed as provided by the Consultant.1.12 Site Safety 1. The Owner/Contractor is responsible for maintaining of discipline and general orderliness.2. Provide adequate fire extinguishers on the premises during the course of construction of the typesand sizes recommended by the authority having jurisdiction for control of fires resulting from theparticular work being performed. Portable fire extinguishers must be visually checked daily, priorto commencement of Work to ensure the units is operational.3. Maintain on site five (5) sets of CSA approved construction safety hats, and glasses for use of anyauthorized visitor to site. Visitors are responsible for their own CSA approved footwear.4. Incorporate the W.H.M.I.S. (Workplace Hazardous Material Information System) and instruct allpersonnel handling, using and installing hazardous materials, in the proper and safe use of thesematerials. Hazardous materials are to be handled and used only by personnel trained andknowledgeable in their use and handling.1.13 Project Close-Out and Warranty 1. Prior to the expiry of the Warranty period for the project or individually completed areas of theproject, a review shall be carried out by the Consultant and the Contractor detailing the defectiveor unsatisfactory materials and/or workmanship. Carry out all remedial work required as observedby this review.SECTION 2 - SITE WORK 2.0 Reference Standards 1. ASTM D698-91: "Test Methods for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Soil-AggregateMixtures Using 5.5 lb. (2.49 kg) Rammer and 12 in. (305 mm) drop."2. ASTM D2167-84: "Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil In Place by Rubber BalloonMethod."3. ASTM D2922-81: "Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil Aggregate in Place by NuclearMethod (Shallow Depth)."4. CSA-A23.1-M94, "Concrete Materials and Methods of Concrete Construction".5. CSA A257.2, “Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm, and Sewer Pipe”2.1 Site Preparation 1. Prior to construction all topsoil, organic material, debris, loose and unsuitable soil must beremoved from the construction area.2. All topsoil should be stored to be used later during the landscaping phase of the project.2.2 Pond Embankments 1. Pond embankments to be formed using native glacial till soil.1.11 Construction Sign 472. Excavation must be done in a method to form the shape of desired pond as specified in thedrawings.3. Any excavated soil from site can be used as embankment fill material to form the desired shapeof the pond as needed.4. Any areas where native glacial till is used should be compacted 85% maximum dry density withassociated water content based on ASTM D1557.2.3 Engineered Fill and Foundation Requirements 1. Engineered fill should be placed underneath any slab foundations.2. Engineered fill is defined as clean sand and should be compacted in 300 mm loose lifts to aminimum of 98% of the maximum dry density based on ASTM D698.3. Moisture content should be within 2% of which is optimum for compaction.4. The engineered fill will also serve as the material used to construct park pathways.5. All slab foundations should be underlain with a polyethylene moisture barrier and 100 mm of ¾”gravel.2.4 Riprap 1. Riprap shall be placed in the Wesbrook Inlet, Marine Combined Inlet, and the Weir.2. The dimensions of each riprap apron can be found in Appendix D - Detailed Design Drawings.3. The aggregates (riprap) should be placed with the longest dimension in the vertical orientation inareas where aggregate displacement is present.2.5 Clay Liner 1. A clay liner will be installed covering the surface of the pond.2. The thickness of the liner will be 300 mm.3. Another 300 mm of compacted soil should be placed on top of the clay liner.4. Native soil from excavation can be used to cover the clay liner.5. The Table below shows specific specification required for the clay liner.PROPERTY TEST METHOD UNIT SPECIFICATION Permeability ASTM D-2434 Cm/sec 1 * 10-6 Plasticity Index of Clay ASTM D-423/424 % Not less than 15 Liquid Limit of Clay ASTM D-2216 % Not less than 30 Clay Particles Passing ASTM D-422 % Not Less than 30 Clay Compaction ASTM D-2216 % 95% of standard proctor density 482.6 Shoring and Excavation 1. Maximum temporary construction embankments may be designed to a have a maximum ratio of4V:3H.2. All excavation and shoring procedures should follow WorkSafeBC regulations unless otherwisedirected by the geotechnical engineer on site.3. Shoring protocols from WorkSafeBC Part 20.8 must be followed during all trench excavation onsite.2.7 Aeration and Circulation 1. A PondSeries 115V, PS20 System shall be used for pond aeration in the main portion of the pond.The air compression system shall be located at least 0.5 m higher than the 1 in 100 year floodwater level. Please refer to the PS20 installation manual for more details on specifications andinstallation.2. A 120V Kasco ½ HP 2400AF Surface Aerator shall be used in the forebay. This will beaccompanied by a Kasco C-25 control panel which shall be located at least 0.5m above the 1/100year flood water level. Please refer to the 2400AF specification sheet for additional informationregarding specifications and installation.3. A 120V ½ HP Kasco 2400CF Circulator shall be used to circulate water in the main portion ofthe pond. Please refer to the 2400CF specification sheet for additional information regardingspecifications and installation.4. All Circulator systems shall be turned off between the 1st of December and the 1st of March tominimize damage caused to components resulting from large storms.2.8 Stormwater Collection and Diversion Pipes *Design specifications adapted from Section 5.4 of SDC1. The minimum pipe cover shall be 1.5 m for all pipe segments; where this is not possible withexisting topography, fill shall be placed to achieve requirement.2. The water velocities in the pipe segments shall not be less than or exceed 0.6 m/s, and 3 m/s,respectively.3. The grade of the pipe segments shall not be less than or exceed 0.4 %, and 15 %, respectively.4. The selected pipe diameters shall be the closest nominal diameter larger than the requireddiameter determined from analysis.5. The pond outlet pipe invert shall be situated at EL 53.25 m.a.s.l, and the pond inlet pipe invertsshall be situated at EL 54.25 m.a.s.l.6. All concrete pipes shall be the minimum of CLASS II 50-D as per ASTM C478-08.2.9 Inlet System Inlet specifications are for both Wesbrook Inlet and the combined Marine Inlet. 1. Concrete wingwalls and the head of each inlet will be precast concrete as per Section 3.2 ofAppendix A - Standards and Specifications2. The dimensions of the concrete wingwalls are found in Appendix D - Detailed Design Drawings.3. The dimensions of the riprap apron are found in Appendix D - Detailed Design Drawings andshall be installed following Section 2.1 of Appendix A - Standards and Specifications.494. Debris bags shall be installed to facilitate maintenance (see Section 4.2 of Appendix A -Standards and Specifications for details) and prevent debris from entering the pond.2.10 Outlet System 1. All concrete pipes to be minimum of CLASS II 50-D as per ASTM C478-08.2. Corrugated steel pipes shall be used for the outlet system and shall lead into the 600 mm concreteoutlet pipe in accordance to the Surrey Design Manual’s requirements regarding corrugated steelpipes.3. Refer to pre-cast concrete specifications for concrete design4. Pipe guards shall be placed at each outlet point to prevent debris from entering the system. Thepipe guard grates shall be round at the edges as is what is typical for high volume drainageapplications.5. Galvanized steel shall be used for the drainage grates citing its anti-corrosion properties.6. The pipe grate shall be of standard shape for ease of cleaning. The grate thickness shall be at least3.81 cm (1.5 ”) The grate thickness shall not exceed 5.08 cm (2 ”)SECTION 3 - CONCRETE SPECIFICATIONS 3.0 Reference Standards 1. CAN3-A23.1 M77, "Concrete Materials and Methods of Construction".2. ACI 303R-74, "A Guide to Cast-in-Place Architectural Concrete Practice".3. National Standards of Canada, CAN/CSA A266.1-M (ASTM C494 Type D), water-reducing, setretarding and strength-increasing admixtures for concrete.4. CSA-A3000-98: Cementitious Materials Compendium.5. CAN/CSA-A23.1/A23.2-00: Concrete Materials and Methods of Concrete Construction/Methodsof Test for Concrete.6. CSA G30.5-M1983 (R1998): Welded Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement.7. CAN/CSA-G30.18-M92 (R1998): Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.8. ASTM A185-01: Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, forConcrete.9. ASTM C260-01: Standard Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete.10. ASTM C309-98a: Standard Specification for Liquid Membrane-Forming Compounds for CuringConcrete.11. ASTM C494/C494M-99ae1: Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete.12. ASTM D1751-99: Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for ConcretePaving and Structural Construction (Non extruding and Resilient Bituminous Types).3.1 Cast in Place 1. All cast in place concrete is to be exposure class F1 per CSA A23.1 and follow all CSArequirements for this class.502. All cast in place concrete is to be tested when poured on site for temperature, slump, and aircontent. Sample cylinders must also be taken for strength testing.3. All cast in place concrete must reach a compressive strength of 30MPa, 28 days after beingpoured.3.2 Precast Concrete 1. All precast concrete is to be exposure class F1 per CSA A23.1 and follow all CSA requirementsfor this class.2. All precast concrete is to be inspected for damages before installation.3. All precast concrete is to be reinforced with rebar.4. All precast concrete pipes are to lined on the inner diameter by an anti-corrosion coating.3.3 Rebar 1. 15M deformed reinforcing bars spaced at 300mm are to be used for all rebar in cast in placeconcrete.2. Minimum cover for all rebar is to be 40mm.3. All cast in place concrete slabs are to have longitudinal and latitudinal rebar reinforcement.4. All cast in place concrete walls are to have one layer of rebar reinforcement.5. When precast concrete slabs and walls intersect rebar from the slab is to be bent 90o and used inthe wall as well.SECTION 4 - MAINTENANCE SPECIFICATIONS 4.0 Dredging Plan 1. An excavator shall be used to dredge the pond at least once every three years  or after a year withparticularly strong storms comparable to the 1/100 year storm event.2. The pond may only be dredged between June 1st and August 1st for safety purposes when thewater level is lowest due to evaporation. Excavators shall only access the forebay via thedesignated access route.4.1 Waterfowl Management 1. To prevent waterfowl from accumulating near the pond, 4 coyote scarecrows will be used to scarethem. Other non-chemical repellent techniques are permitted.2. Non-toxic goose repellent with 14.5% Methyl Anthranilate shall also be periodically applied tograzing areas to keep geese and other waterfowl away as per the application instructions locatedat the back of the bottle.4.2 Pipe Maintenance 1. The debris bags for the inlet structures shall be cleaned once every month during the wet season(October to April) and once every two months during the dry season (May to September).2. The orifice trash racks at the outlet are to be cleaned once every month or after a major stormevent.3. The emergency release pipes at the outlet are to be inspected and cleaned once every 3 months51SECTION 5 - LANDSCAPING SPECIFICATIONS 5.0 General Specifications 1. Landscape mulch shall conform to Canadian Landscape Standards and be installed at depthsspecified under Canadian Landscape Standards, 7th edition. Mulch must be non-toxic. Mulchshould be dark brown or black in colour; red coloured mulch is not permitted unless specifiedotherwise.2. Filter fabric must be provided in any areas were drain rock is used as a mulch substitute orlandscape feature, with the exception of drip strips (unless noted otherwise).3. Site furnishings shall all be provided via shop drawing submittals through the submittal processesdefined under the master specification.4. All vegetation introduced to the site must be of naturally occurring native species.5.1 Terrestrial Vegetation 1. A 30 m buffer of trees must be maintained between adjacent roads and the wet pond facility.2. All trees planted on site must be Western Red Cedar (Thuja Plicata) or Douglas Fir (PseudotsugaMenziesii).3. An arborist report is to be submitted at the conclusion of landscaping work on site.5.2 Aquatic Vegetation 1. Great Yellow Pond Lilies (Nuphar Polysepalum) are to be planted along the floor of the mainpond.2. Softstem Bulrush (Scirpus Validus) is to be planted along the slopes of the main pond.5.1 Walkway 1. Walkway is to be constructed using engineered fill as specified in the earthworks specification2. Grades is to be less than 3% in order for pathway to be wheelchair accessible3. Cross slope is to be 2%4. Path width is specified at 2 meters5. Path to be inspected monthly to be cleared of debris and repaired in damaged areas52SECTION 6 - ELECTRICAL SPECIALTIES 6.0 Reference Standards 1. CSA C22.1 Canadian Electrical Code, Part I Safety Standard for Electrical Installations6.1 Solar Photovoltaic Specifications 1. Minimum panel capacity of 260 watts, equivalent to or better than benchmark model [SL250-270TU-48M], regardless of monocrystalline, polycrystalline, or thin film structure.2. All products must be certified as per IEC 61215, IEC 61730.3. Manufacturing facility and supplier must be certified to ISO 9001 / ISO 14001 /OHSAS 18001 quality management system standards.4. All products to carry 25 year limited power warranty, and 10 year limited product warranty.5. All products to have operating range between -40 degrees celsius to 85 degrees celsius.6.2 Low Voltage 1. Low Voltage connections to utilize standard three-phase electrical power with wye, delta, or opendelta connection methods at 120/208V, 347/600V, or 277/480V.2. Inverter Box, Combiner Box, and Distribution Board required, Converter not required.3. Maximum 21 panels to be combined into one (1) conduit to combiner box with six (6) inputs andsix (6) outputs. Five (5) sets to be in operation at all times, 1 set to be kept as backup.4. String model inverter box to not exceed 80 kW of installation capacity.5. Separate electrical closet to be provided by Contractor, or provisions made to connect to existingfacilities at UBC CCM adjacent to site.6. Switch to be provided to maintain Solar operations between 9:00 AM to 4:00 PM.6.3 High Voltage 1. High Voltage connections (4000V and above) not allowed for this project.53 APPENDIX B - DETAILED CALCULATIONS 54 Photovoltaic Calculations55 Hydraulic Model Methodology General Model The general model used to determine the height of the water in the system was devised using the relationship between flow rate and volume. By taking timesteps of t = 1 s and considering a constant inflow of 3 m3/s, the volume and height of water at any given point can be calculated.By performing this operation for multiple time steps and combining results with system specific flow formulas, the overall system can be modelled. This is done because the integral that is to be used is complicated and as such, riemann sums are a simpler method. The primary equation used for the iteration process is shown below.  Weir The V-notch weir flow formula was used to compute the flow rate for any given weir height, h.By using time steps of t = 1 s and multiplying by the net flow at any given time t, the volume in the system can be determined. Using this volume, a height can be computed; the height is then used to calculate the flow rate at any given point in time. A sample table used to perform this operation is shown below. 56 In this example, Qout is a small value and reaches 3.0 m3/s approximately 1300 s after the 1/100year storm has started. Height of the Main Pond and Outlet Calculations By the principle of mass continuity, the flow out of the forebay was set to equal the flow into the pond. Using a method similar to that outlined in the forebay section, the height at any given time can be obtained based on taking time steps of t = 1 s and adding volume to the pond over time. However, since there is continuous flow out, the net flow must be used to determine volume changes. The net flow is Qin-Qout, this method was used to simulate the behaviour of the system over time as shown in the table on the following page. Since the reservoir is large, note that velocity head is considered negligible for ease of calculation.   57    For safety and redundancy purposes, two outlet systems have been devised. The first includes a set of orifices at the permanent water level height leading into two outlet detention tanks. The second is a set of two pipes located at the bottom of the pond with valves that is left closed and is only to be opened in case of an emergency. For the purpose of calculations, the pipes and orifices were sized based on the “blocked” condition. The blocked condition assumes that the entire stormwater event is detained in the pond without continuous discharge, resulting in a maximum height of 2.74 m determined by dividing volume by the average cross sectional area. Bernoulli’s Equation was used as well as the Hazen-Williams Equation to determine the area of the pipe. A design flow of 0.5 m3/s was chosen, accounting for run-off and an additional factor of safety. The following two formulas were solved to determine the minimum area required for each opening.     58  Maximum Orifice Formula  *Note that the manhole used brings the system to atmospheric pressure and that the velocity head of the water is negligible. Pipe Calculations  With an assumed a Hazen-Williams Coefficient (C) of 60 corresponding to corrugated steel, the equation above was solved for iteratively using the goal seek function. The above is derived from Bernoulli’s Equation while ignoring surface velocity making it a conservative model.  Seiching The following was used to determine the surface gradient resulting from wind forces. A wind speed of 140 km/hr was used as a worst case scenario to ensure the water does not spill over.     59    60   Structural Calculations  61        APPENDIX C - SCHEDULE GANTT CHART          ID Task ModeTask Name Duration Start Finish Predecessors1 Construction 172 days Wed 19-05-01 Thu 19-12-262 Site Setup 16 days Wed 19-05-01 Wed 19-05-223 Clearing and Grubbing16 days Wed 19-05-01 Wed 19-05-224 Hoarding and Barricades4 days Wed 19-05-01 Mon 19-05-065 Site Trailer Setup1 day Wed 19-05-08 Wed 19-05-08 3SS+5 days6 Installation of Inflow Pipes15 days Fri 19-10-11 Thu 19-10-317 Piping from Wesbrook Stormwater15 days Fri 19-10-11 Thu 19-10-318 Excavating Trench and Installing Shoring 7 days Fri 19-10-11 Mon 19-10-21 3,10SS-1 day9 Removing Asphalt1 day Fri 19-10-18 Fri 19-10-18 8FF-1 day10 Laying Pipe 12 days Mon 19-10-14 Tue 19-10-29 35FF+1 day11 Removing Shoring and Filling Trench6 days Wed 19-10-23 Wed 19-10-30 10FF+1 day12 Repaving Wesbrook Mall1 day Thu 19-10-31 Thu 19-10-31 1113 Piping from Marine Drive5 days Thu 19-10-24 Wed 19-10-3014 Excavating Trench and Installing Shoring2 days Thu 19-10-24 Fri 19-10-25 15SS-1 day,815 Laying Pipe 3 days Fri 19-10-25 Tue 19-10-29 35FF+1 day16 Removing Shoring and Filling Trench2 days Tue 19-10-29 Wed 19-10-30 15FF+1 day17 Piping from Center3 days Mon 19-10-28 Wed 19-10-3018 Excavating Trench and Installing Shoring1 day Mon 19-10-28 Mon 19-10-28 19SS-1 day,1419 Laying Pipe 1 day Tue 19-10-29 Tue 19-10-29 35FF+1 day20 Removing Shoring and Filling Trench1 day Wed 19-10-30 Wed 19-10-30 19FF+1 day21 Installation of Outflow Pipes3 days Mon 19-10-28 Wed 19-10-3022 Installation of Emeragncy Pipes1 day Mon 19-10-28 Mon 19-10-28 5223 Installation of Upper Pipes1 day Mon 19-10-28 Mon 19-10-28 5224 Installation of Piping After Merge2 days Tue 19-10-29 Wed 19-10-30 22,2325 Earthworks 114 days Thu 19-05-23 Tue 19-10-2926 Bulk Excavation 92 days Thu 19-05-23 Fri 19-09-27 327 Compaction 6 days Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-10-0728 After Excavation1 day Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-09-30 2629 After Clay Liner1 day Wed 19-10-02 Wed 19-10-02 3130 After Backfill 1 day Mon 19-10-07 Mon 19-10-07 3331 Clay Liner 1 day Tue 19-10-01 Tue 19-10-01 2832 Backfill 19 days Thu 19-10-03 Tue 19-10-2933 Above Clay Liner2 days Thu 19-10-03 Fri 19-10-04 2934 Fill Below Slabs1 day Tue 19-10-08 Tue 19-10-08 3035 Pond Slope 1 day Mon 19-10-28 Mon 19-10-28 46,52,55,3136 Behind Outlet1 day Tue 19-10-29 Tue 19-10-29 22,2337 Concrete 18 days Wed 19-10-02 Fri 19-10-2538 Forebay Pad 4 days Wed 19-10-09 Mon 19-10-1439 Forming 1 day Wed 19-10-09 Wed 19-10-09 3440 Rebar 3 days Wed 19-10-09 Fri 19-10-11 39SS41 Pouring 1 day Mon 19-10-14 Mon 19-10-14 4042 Weir 13 days Wed 19-10-02 Fri 19-10-1843 Forming 1 day Wed 19-10-02 Wed 19-10-02 3144 Rebar 1 day Thu 19-10-03 Thu 19-10-03 4345 Pouring 1 day Fri 19-10-04 Fri 19-10-04 4446 Form Removal1 day Fri 19-10-18 Fri 19-10-18 45SS+10 days47 Outlet Structure13 days Wed 19-10-09 Fri 19-10-2548 Forming 1 day Wed 19-10-09 Wed 19-10-09 3449 Rebar 1 day Wed 19-10-09 Wed 19-10-09 48SS50 Pouring 1 day Thu 19-10-10 Thu 19-10-10 4951 Form Removal1 day Thu 19-10-24 Thu 19-10-24 50SS+10 days52 Installing Concrete Manhole1 day Fri 19-10-25 Fri 19-10-25 5153 Aeration System 23 days Mon 19-09-30 Wed 19-10-3054 Power Installation1 day Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-09-30 2655 Airline Installation1 day Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-09-30 2656 Difuser Installation1 day Wed 19-10-30 Wed 19-10-30 6857 Solar Panels 58 days Mon 19-09-30 Wed 19-12-1858 Connecting to Electrical Grid1 day Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-09-3059 Shallow Trench Digging1 day Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-09-30 2660 Wire Laying 1 day Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-09-30 59SS61 Shallow Trench Filling1 day Mon 19-09-30 Mon 19-09-30 60SS62 Installing Podiums1 day Fri 19-11-29 Fri 19-11-29 8063 Forming 1 day Fri 19-11-29 Fri 19-11-2964 Rebar 1 day Fri 19-11-29 Fri 19-11-2965 Pouring 1 day Fri 19-11-29 Fri 19-11-2966 Installing Panels 4 days Fri 19-12-13 Wed 19-12-18 64SS+10 days67 Landscaping 23 days Tue 19-10-29 Thu 19-11-2868 Riprap 1 day Tue 19-10-29 Tue 19-10-29 3569 Plants in Pond 1 day Wed 19-10-30 Wed 19-10-30 6870 Walkway 6 days Wed 19-10-30 Wed 19-11-0671 Forming 3 days Wed 19-10-30 Fri 19-11-01 3672 Rebar 2 days Fri 19-11-01 Mon 19-11-04 71FF+1 day73 Pouring 1 day Wed 19-11-06 Wed 19-11-06 72,7774 Lighting 15 days Mon 19-11-04 Fri 19-11-2275 Shallow Trench Digging1 day Mon 19-11-04 Mon 19-11-04 7176 Wire Laying 1 day Tue 19-11-05 Tue 19-11-05 7577 Shallow Trench Filling1 day Tue 19-11-05 Tue 19-11-05 76SS78 Lamp Post Base Prep1 day Wed 19-11-20 Wed 19-11-20 73SS+10 days79 Lamp Post Installation2 days Thu 19-11-21 Fri 19-11-22 7880 Pond Guardrail 7 days Wed 19-11-20 Thu 19-11-28 69,73SS+10 days81 Site Cleanup 41 days Thu 19-10-31 Thu 19-12-2682 Extra Fill Removal1 day Thu 19-10-31 Thu 19-10-31 36,35,11,16,2083 Trailer Removal 1 day Thu 19-12-19 Thu 19-12-19 80,6684 Fixing Treeline 5 days Fri 19-12-20 Thu 19-12-26 83W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F'19 May 05 '19 May 12 '19 May 19 '19 May 26 '19 Jun 02 '19 Jun 09 '19 Jun 16 '19 Jun 23 '19 Jun 30 '19 Jul 07 '19 Jul 14 '19 Jul 21 '19 Jul 28 '19 Aug 04 '19 Aug 11 '19 Aug 18 '19 Aug 25 '19 Sep 01 '19 Sep 08 '19 Sep 15 '19 Sep 22 '19 Sep 29 '19 Oct 06 '19 Oct 13 '19 Oct 20 '19 Oct 27 '19 Nov 03 '19 Nov 10 '19 Nov 17 '19 Nov 24 '19 Dec 01 '19 Dec 08 '19 Dec 15 '19 Dec 22Task Split Milestone Summary Project Summary Inactive Task Inactive Milestone Inactive Summary Manual Task Duration-only Manual Summary Rollup Manual Summary Start-only Finish-only External Tasks External Milestone Deadline Critical Critical Split Progress Manual ProgressPage 1Project: Detailed Project ScheduDate: Fri 19-04-0562 APPENDIX D - DETAILED DESIGN DRAWINGS DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENTCLIENT PROJECT NAME SEAL4145 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 1W5DESTROY ALL PRINTS BEARING PREVIOUS REVISION NUMBERREVISIONS / SUBMISSIONSNo. DATE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADRAWINGNUMBERHOR. SCALEVER. SCALETHUNDERBIRD LAKEVANCOUVER, BCUBC CIVIL ENGINEERINGCIVL 446 TEAM 16UBC SEEDS SUSTAINABILITYPROGRAM2210 WEST MALLVANCOUVER, BC V6T 1Z4PHONE: 604-822-8228 FAX: 604-822-6119 1:50TLAKE-010THUNDERBIRD LAKE - PLAN VIEWDEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENTCLIENT PROJECT NAME SEAL4145 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 1W5DESTROY ALL PRINTS BEARING PREVIOUS REVISION NUMBERREVISIONS / SUBMISSIONSNo. DATE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADRAWINGNUMBERHOR. SCALEVER. SCALETHUNDERBIRD LAKEVANCOUVER, BCUBC CIVIL ENGINEERINGCIVL 446 TEAM 16UBC SEEDS SUSTAINABILITYPROGRAM2210 WEST MALLVANCOUVER, BC V6T 1Z4PHONE: 604-822-8228 FAX: 604-822-6119TLAKE-000THUNDERBIRD LAKE GENERAL NOTESDEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENTCLIENT PROJECT NAME SEAL4145 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 1W5DESTROY ALL PRINTS BEARING PREVIOUS REVISION NUMBERREVISIONS / SUBMISSIONSNo. DATE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADRAWINGNUMBERHOR. SCALEVER. SCALETHUNDERBIRD LAKEVANCOUVER, BCUBC CIVIL ENGINEERINGCIVL 446 TEAM 16UBC SEEDS SUSTAINABILITYPROGRAM2210 WEST MALLVANCOUVER, BC V6T 1Z4PHONE: 604-822-8228 FAX: 604-822-6119 1:50TLAKE-010THUNDERBIRD LAKE - PLAN VIEWDEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENTCLIENT PROJECT NAME SEAL4145 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 1W5DESTROY ALL PRINTS BEARING PREVIOUS REVISION NUMBERREVISIONS / SUBMISSIONSNo. DATE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADRAWINGNUMBERHOR. SCALEVER. SCALETHUNDERBIRD LAKEVANCOUVER, BCUBC CIVIL ENGINEERINGCIVL 446 TEAM 16UBC SEEDS SUSTAINABILITYPROGRAM2210 WEST MALLVANCOUVER, BC V6T 1Z4PHONE: 604-822-8228 FAX: 604-822-6119 1:15 1:15TLAKE-020THUNDERBIRD LAKE - LANDSCAPE38.0097.0023.0035.001122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOInlet 1TITLEThunderbird Lake - Marine Diversion InletSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1 / 252400120025020015020050017001000135?800080005600?525?450MARINE DIVERSION 1MARINE DIVERSION 2800800Min. 500mm Class 5 1"x8" (Nominal Diameter 250mm)Rip Rap/Filter Rock as per BC-MoTI Secion 205Precase Concrete as per Specifications15M Rebar Reinforcement @ 300mm SpacingAll dimensions in mmElevation ViewTop ViewRip Rap Lining Top of Soil as per X-Sec in Drawing No. Weir 2 andNative Soils12001122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOInlet 2TITLEThunderbird Lake - Wesbrook Diversion InletSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1 / 25120012002000800080003600135?135?2005002200WESBROOK DIVERSION?105012001000Pre-cast Concrete as per Specifications15M Rebar Reinforcement @ 300mm SpacingMin. 500mm Thick Rip Rap/Filter Rockat Same Specifications as Drawing No.Inlet 1 for Marine Diversions.Install Grates and "Trashbag" at DischargeLocation to be Cleaned as per MaintenancePlan outlined in SpecificationsAll dimensions in mmSoil Conditions to Mimic Drawing No. Inlet 1Top ViewElevation View15001122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOWeir 1TITLEThunderbird Lake - Weir Base SpecificationsSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1 / 5035000?250 ?2503403300170006000770850013160?TOP VIEWBASE VIEWAll dimensions in mmAll concrete to be reinforced with 15M rebar @ 300mm spacingin accordance to SpecificationsSee detailed soil cross sectionsin Drawing No. Weir 2Emergency/Maintenance release orificeto be 250mm equipped with check valve1001122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOWeir 2TITLEThunderbird Lake - Weir Soil Cross SectionSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1 / 7All dimensions in mmTo be read in conjunctionwith Drawing No. Weir 1Engineered Fill12" Clay LinerGravel - Clear CrushPolyliner300300100300Typical cross section extendsthrough full 38m forebay lengthRip Rap Energy Dissipator7001000700All concrete to be reinforced with15M rebar @ 300mm spacing in accordance with Specifications3007701122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOOutlet Structure 1TITLEThunderbird Lake - Outlet StructureSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1/50?250 ?250?250?2501648842502251000 22530012003003002400 300013Maximum Water Level 2.4m Above LakebedEmergency Release Values 0.1m Above Lakebedwith Check Valves. Normal Orifice at 1.0m, to beConnected to Service Manholes as per Drawing No.Outlet 0Clay LinerNative Glacial TillNative Glacial TillOutlet Concrete Material to follow Specificiations15M Rebar Reinforcement @ 300mm SpacingOrifice to be Equipped with J.R. Hoe Grate CoversAll dimensions in mmWater1122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOOutlet Structure 2TITLEThunderbird Lake - Outlet Cross SectionSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1/15300300315030003003003003004501200Clay LinerGlacial TillGlacial TillGlacial TillCross Section Application to EntireLength of Pond, From Outlet Structureto Weir Structure.Outlet Discharge Orifices to be Connected to Outlet Pipe Structureas per Drawing No. Outlet 015M Rebar Reinforcement @ 300mm SpacingMinimum Overlap of 150mm at 90 deg. Bend1122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOOutlet 0TITLEThunderbird Lake - Outlet StructureSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1 / 5031061193104090310550200750200150250135?135?10080042501500080060026020031025010983935077655000800ELEVATION VIEWTOP VIEWManhole Details See Drawing Outlet 1200mm to 250mm Connection See Outlet 245 Degree Bends see Outlet 3Junction into 600mm See Outlet 4All dimensions in mm1122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOOutlet 1TITLEThunderbird Lake - Outlet ManholeSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1:10?1200R125R75 R75462250250250250388219400R19R343?1473?1341394 685 3942001850200685685Pre-benched Class II 50-D Concrete Service Manhole Typical Access Lid and HandlesTOP VIEWSIDE VIEWFRONT VIEWAll dimensions in mm1122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOOutlet 2TITLEThunderbird Lake - Outlet 150mm to 200mmWye ConnectionSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1/3?150?150?200175?500950R97R130R97135?TOP VIEWBASE VIEWSIDE VIEW Material to match 150mm and 200mm pipingAll dimensions in mm1122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOOutlet 3TITLEThunderbird Lake - Outlet 45 Degree Bends for 200mm and 250mm PipeSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1 / 22003030250135? 135?200mm 45 Deg. Bend250mm 45 Deg. BendAll dimensions in mm1122334455667788A AB BC CD DSHEET 1  OF 1 DRAWNCHECKEDQAMFGAPPROVEDJimmy 2019-03-31DWG NOOutlet 4TITLEThunderbird Lake - 200mm and 250mm into 600mm Pipe JunctionSIZEDSCALEUBC CIVL 446 Team 16REV1:7?600?800?200?26010030?250?310?800?6001003045?45? 45?45?200mm Junction 250mm JunctionTOP VIEWTOP VIEWBASE VIEW BASE VIEW250mm Junction200mm JunctionAll dimensions in mm63 APPENDIX E - COST ESTIMATE THUNDERBIRD LAKE PROJECT COST SUMMARYSUMMARY OF TOTAL PROJECT COSTSDETAILED DESIGN BUDGET ESTIMATE DATE - March 30th, 2019PREPARED FOR: UBC SEEDS(1) (4) (5)0100 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 192,0200200 SITE WORK 1,335,782 Revised for excavation and pipes0300 CONCRETE 417,618 Revised for weir expansion0400 MASONRY 00500 METALS 5,0000600 WOOD & PLASTIC 17,0600700 THERMAL & MOISTURE 52,006 Revised for weir expansion0800 DOORS & WINDOWS 00900 FINISHES 01000 SPECIALTIES 01100 EQUIPMENT 01200 FURNISHINGS 01300 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 01400 CONVEYING SYSTEMS 01500 MECHANICAL 13,000 Revised for addition of aeration sys.1600 ELECTRICAL 29,960 Revised for addition of SolarTOTAL CONSTRUCTION 2,062,4461700 CONSULTANTS 232,6441800 LAND 01900 MUNICIPAL LEVIES 20,0002000 FINANCING 4,6162100 SALES COSTS 02200 CONTINGENCIES 347,324 Target 15%, min. 5% for financingTOTAL DEVELOPMENT 604,584TOTAL PROJECT COSTS 2,667,0310101 Field Supervision 90,000 15000/month0102 Site Coordinator/CSO 48,000 8000/month0107 Truck Allowance/Employee Travel 6,000 1000/month0110 Concrete Testing 3,000 500/month0115 Site Phones 1,800 allow $300/month0116 Documentation & Deliveries 1,400 As per proposal0117 Site Consumables 1,800 allow $300/month0119 Temporary Site Office 4,800 800/month site trailer0120 Temporary Toilets 4,020 670/month for 3 toilet + pumping0121 Temporary Power 3,000 500/month0126 Hoarding & Barricades 600 $100 per month0131 Rubbish Removal 5,400 $900/month0134 Street Cleaning 5,200 $1300/month during rain season (4 month)0136 Security 12,000 $2000/month0196 Mobilization 5,000 As per proposal0100 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 192,0200210 Demolition & Clearing 40,000 20k/acreNOTES & ASSUMPTIONSCOST CODE DESCRIPTION OF WORK BUDGETPrepared by CIVL 446 Team 16 Date Printed: 2019-04-06 Page 1 of 2THUNDERBIRD LAKE PROJECT COST SUMMARYSUMMARY OF TOTAL PROJECT COSTSDETAILED DESIGN BUDGET ESTIMATE DATE - March 30th, 2019PREPARED FOR: UBC SEEDS(1) (4) (5)NOTES & ASSUMPTIONSCOST CODE DESCRIPTION OF WORK BUDGET0220 Excavation & Imported Fill 790,435 $7/ton, $500/trip, 27 tons/trip0255 Onsite Servicing 400,000 Altus 2018 + Finalized pipe length0280 Landscaping 105,346 Allow $12/sqft0200 SITE WORK 1,335,7820310 Formwork Material 11,661 $0.6/sqft ($20 7/16 4x8 OSB)0311 Formwork Labour 134,096 Allow $6.90/sqft0320 Concrete Reinforcing 151,907 Allow $0.75/ft0330 Concrete Supply     106,301 $130/m^3 (retaining wall/footing)0331 Concrete Pumping     13,653 $200/hr, $3 per m pumped (40M 5'' pump)0300 CONCRETE 417,6180550 Metal Fabrications/Misc. Metals 5,000 Weir allow appropriate gauge steel0500 METALS 5,0000610 Rough Carpentry Material 17,060 Allow $20/ft for 48' guardrail/fencing0600 WOOD & PLASTIC 17,0600705 Dampproofing 52,006 Allow $3/sqft for forebay/weir/outlet0700 THERMAL & MOISTURE 52,0061590 Mechanical Controls 13,000 2x PS20 and 1x Forebay Floater1500 MECHANICAL 13,0001610 Solar Photovoltaics 24,960 Allow $0.60 per Watt installed1650 Light Fixtures 5,000 Allow 5k exterior lighting1600 ELECTRICAL 29,9601702 Project/Construction Manager 120,000 Allow 10k/month Cost Plus1704 Geotechnical Engineer1708 Structural Engineer1716 Civil Engineer1715 Environmental Consultant 20,000 Allow 20k LOA1711 Surveyors 30,000 Assume 10k/month first 3 months1720 Accountant 6,000 Allow 1.5k quarterly1722 Liability Insurance 6,924 Standard construction insurance (0.003)1780 Consultant Disbursements 7,920 As per proposal + 10%1700 CONSULTANTS 232,6441903 UBC Fees 20,000 As per proposal1900 MUNICIPAL LEVIES 20,0002001 Financing Fees 4,616 ~0.002 of total cost per annum2000 FINANCING 4,6162201 Construction Contingency 347,324 15% of total project2200 CONTINGENCIES 347,32441,800 As per proposalPrepared by CIVL 446 Team 16 Date Printed: 2019-04-06 Page 2 of 2Parameters (not exactly as per drawings due to conservative estimation practice): *Areas are contact area to be used for formwork labour takeoffs, not total surface area*>Forebay Concrete Area: 1135.8 sqm; 12219.6 sqft>Forebay Concrete Volume: 340.7 cubic meters>Weir Concreted Area: 54 sqm; 290.6 sqft>Weir Concrete Volume: 27 cubic meters>Outlet Concrete Area: 202.5 sqm; 2179.7 sqft>Outlet Concrete Volume: 243 cubic meters>Cut/Fill Net Volume: 1620 cubic metersRequired Reinforcement (Thumb Rule Method)[(27+243)*130+340.7*100]/1.556*3.28 = 145817.6 ftRequired Imported Fill Trucking Trips1620*20/9.8/27 = 122 tripsOriginal Budget EstimateDivision Cost Code Item Quantity Unit Unit Rate Extension2 0200 Excavation & Imported Fill 122.0 trips 1,000.00$      122,000.00$      2 0200 Excavation & Imported Fill 3306.1 tons 17.00$      56,203.70$      2 0280 Landscaping 8778.9 sqft 12.00$      105,346.80$      3 0310 Formwork Material 14980.5 sqft 0.60$      8,988.30$      3 0311 Formwork Labour 14980.5 sqft 6.90$      103,365.45$      3 0320 Concrete Reinforcement 145817.6 ft 0.75$      109,363.20$      3 0330 Concrete Supply 610.7 cubic m 130.00$      79,391.00$      3 0331 Concrete Pumping 32 hours 200.00$      6,400.00$      3 0331 Concrete Pumping 610.7 cubic m 3.00$      1,832.10$      Revisions for changes between CIVL445 and CIVL446; added cost to complete itemsDivision Cost Code Item Quantity Unit Unit Rate Additional Cost2 0255 600mm Concrete Pipe 55.2 m 148.70$      8,211.21$      2 0255 525mm Concrete Pipe 128.6 m 110.50$      14,206.99$      2 0255 450mm Concrete Pipe 30.4 m 101.30$      3,078.51$      2 0255 1050mm Concrete Pipe 128.2 m 525.50$      67,357.12$      2 0255 1200mm Concrete Pipe 380.0 m 658.60$      250,268.00$      2 0220 Excavation 29418 tons 7.00$      205,926.00$      2 0220 Imported Fill 22905 tons 7.00$      160,335.00$      2 0220 Trucking 726.0 trips 500.00$      363,000.00$      3 0311 Concrete Pumping 24.0 hours 200.00$      4,800.00$      3 0311 Concrete Pumping 207.0 cubic m 3.00$      621.00$      3 0330 Concrete Supply 207.0 cubic m 130.00$      26,910.00$      3 0320 Concrete Reinforcing 56725.4 ft 0.75$      42,544.05$      3 0311 Formwork Labour 4453.7 sqft 6.90$      30,730.53$      3 0310 Formwork Material 4453.7 sqft 0.60$      2,672.22$      >Rebar weight at 1.556 kg/m>Thumb Rule Method yields 130 kg of reinforcement required per cubic meter of concrete for retaining structures, 100 kg/cubic meter for forebay slabs>Dampproofing/Waterproofing requires only Tremco Liquid spray and Delta MS membrane>Typical 40 meter length concrete pump with 5in diameter is used>One truck trip (27 tonnage) to bring in imported fill can also leave with load of spoil>Every truck requires $400 to mobilize + $125 per hour on the road, effectively $1000 per trip (Fairway quote), $500 per trip after 800 trips (scaling)>Soil conditions at site resembles density values of ~20 kN per cubic meter Detailed Design Cost Estimate - Major Cost Contributors Calculations & Breakdown*/This sheet only serves to supplement the Project Cost Summary; straight forward values reasonably inferrable from the summary sheet will not be calculated here; mainly focuses on Divisions 2 and 3*/Assumptions:Date Printed: 2019-04-03Prepared by CIVL 446 Team 16


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