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Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities : Upper Level Commuter Students Lee, Emily; O’Neill, Paul; Happeney, Hannah; Wright, William; Vit, Cianna 2018-04-03

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report  Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Emily Lee, Paul O’Neill, Hannah Happeney, William Wright, Cianna Vit University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Community, Wellbeing April 3, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter StudentsExecutive Summary The university experience is one of tremendous growth and development, often providing diverse opportunities that shape the type of person one will become. On campus recreational programs have been shown to improve a student’s sense of belonging (SSOB) to their campus, which in turn renders a host of benefits to the student such as enhanced psychosocial well-being, academic success, and improved social skills (Buote et al., 2007, Newbold et al., 2011, Chiu et al., 2016). However, there appears to be a lack of participation which coincides with gaps in opportunities provided to particular student demographics. One such minority is commuter students. Comprising 75% of the total 44 565 student population at the University of British Columbia (UBC), the group has been severely underserved in this context. The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers that commuter students at UBC face in terms of embracing SSOB, and provide insight into the kinds of initiatives and resources that should be implemented to enhance their experience.  After recruiting commuter students with a commute longer than 45 minutes to campus, and conducting numerous semi-structured interviews and transcribing the audio recordings, the interview data confirmed that commuter students do not feel a strong sense of belonging at UBC, which is reflected in low participation rates in school sponsored activities.. Barriers in terms of access to recreational programs on campus were identified through the interviews, and include limited selection of activities on campus, hardship of  work, study, and life balance, limited access to safe space to store belongings which forces students to haul heavy bags all day, and expensive food and beverage options on campus. Using this data, the goal is to provide framework in designing and implementing recreational programs designed specifically for commuter students to maximize their experience and promote physical activity on and off campus. Overall, we will recommend the implementation of lounges tailored to commuter students that will act as a resource to facilitate student engagement and create a sense of belonging for commuter students on campus. Introduction/Literature Review The University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver Campus currently has 44,565 undergraduate students enrolled in studies, and approximately 75% of this population commute to campus to attend classes (University of British Columbia, 2017; Madden-Krasnick, 2017). There are many reasons as to why post secondary students choose not to live on campus. Perhaps Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Studentsit is due to the extremely high cost of living on campus, which can range from $9,000 to $11,000 total for 8 months of the school year (University of British Columbia, 2017). Additionally, 73% of undergraduate students admitted to UBC for the 2016/2017 cycle were BC residents, which tells us that many students live at home or with family members in the greater Vancouver area (Redish & Mathieson, 2017). Regardless of reasoning, student engagement and inevitable seizing of recreational activities on campus is significantly influenced by a students housing proximity to campus (Buote et al., 2007, Newbold et al., 2011). This project aims to tackle low participation rates and the gap in opportunities provided to upper year (third and fourth year) commuter students at UBC by comparing the opportunities that are available to students currently living on campus - specifically first year students (Pokorny, Holley, & Suzanne, 2017).  Using current research, this paper will explore methods to bolster student engagement and increase a student sense of belonging (SSOB) which in turn can have positive outcomes for student health and well-being (Pokorny, Holley, & Suzanne, 2017). The goal for this paper is to identify barriers to participation in recreation that commuter students at UBC experience. Additionally, this project will present and convey polished ideas and strategies to improve the well-being and overall health of commuter students who tend to face more obstacles and lead more complex lives than the traditional student (Newbold, 2015).  Boute et al. (2007) proposes that a strong relationship exists between friendship formation and feelings of attachment to one’s university, primarily because “friends fulfill a number of key functions in helping students accommodate to their environment.” The author also highlights that students in campus residence have significantly more opportunity to generate meaningful friendships with other students compared to commuter students, with 84% of residence-living student social network comprised of other students compared to 48% for commuter students (Buote et al., 2007). These findings also overlap in another study that also discovered a positive relationship between SSOB and psychosocial well-being and academic success (Chiu et al., 2016). What made this study unique was that it examined the concept of SSOB across 41 countries, and identified the main ‘players’ or ‘instigators’ that mediated whether a student felt included or not (Chiu et al., 2016). The teacher-student relationship was a strong force in cultivating SSOB, perhaps leading to the idea that fostering personal relationships with your professor are an effective vehicle to bolstering well-being (Chiu et al., 2016). The authors also took an intersectional approach to SSOB, acknowledging the variance in obtaining Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students SSOB is based on family characteristics, schoolmate characteristics, teacher characteristics, and student characteristics (Chiu et al., 2016). This is important as it informs the complexity of the task at hand, and provides insight into the approaches researchers should take when tackling this issue.  The goal for this paper is to expose the disparriage of resources allocated to commuter students considering they comprise a large portion of the general student population. Conducting interviews with current upper year commute students on campus will allow us to detect these aforementioned gaps in opportunities provided to this demographic. The interviews will also provide insight into the feelings attributed to the students state sense of belonging (SSOB), allowing us to formulate methods that will enhance it and improving the experience and well being of the succeeding cohort’s of UBC students - the suggestions will be listed in the ‘Recommendations’ sections of this paper.   Methods  Description of Methods Used  For our study we conducted interviews with 10 participants. Interviews were conducted in person. Each researcher from our group conducted 2 interviews. The duration of each interview was 15-20 minutes. Each participant must have provided written consent via completion of a consent form (Appendix C) in order to participate in the study. At the beginning of each interview, participants were encouraged to answer each question thoughtfully, and to include any additional information on the topic that they felt was important that may not have been addressed in the predetermined questions.The interviews consisted of 11 predetermined questions. The questions created for the interviews were specifically developed for our target population of 3rd and 4th year students who travel at least 45 minutes in one direction during their commute to UBC. The anticipated responses for the questions created consisted of information regarding, but not limited to barriers and facilitators to participating in recreational activities on campus, additional information, and the sense of belonging of our specific demographic. We then used thematic analysis to identify trends in the responses provided by those who participated in the study. Thematic analysis is commonly used to identify and record themes in qualitative data sets (Braun & Clarke, 2006).  Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Rationale for selecting these methods: Study Population and Rationale We studied third and fourth year commuter students who’s commute to campus is a minimum of 45 minutes one way, for a total of an hour and a half each day. For the purposes of this project, commuter students were defined as students who do not live on campus, but attend UBC from the surrounding area (Newbold, Mehta & Forbus, 2011). This population has unique needs with respect to recreation because there are numerous barriers to participation in activities on campus including transporting appropriate activewear, time restraints often make attending campus events challenging, a less extensive social network and limited access to and knowledge about resources available to commuter students (Newbold et al., 2011; Buote et al., 2007). Through studying third and fourth year commuter students, we hope to gain insight into overcoming challenges that this unique population faces with respect to accessing recreation and health promoting activities at UBC.  Recruitment Process  The sample of 10 participants was recruited from the student body at the UBC Vancouver Campus. Eligibility was restricted to 3rd and 4th year students who commute a minimum of 45 minutes one way, and a minimum total of 90 minutes in total. Participants were recruited through peer encounters and classmates of the researchers.  During the interview  participants were asked if they were 3rd or 4th year commuter students who’s commute was at least 45 minutes in one direction.. The interview was then conducted if all previously mentioned criteria were met and the participant had signed the consent form.  Data Collection  We conducted 10 interviews with participants who met our aforementioned criterion. Respondents were required to sign a consent form prior to completing the interview (See Appendix C). Interviews were conducted in person. Each interview consisted of 11 questions. Participant names were removed from the responses to the interview questions in the transcribed data. These interviews were recorded using a cell phone and then later transcribed to a Microsoft Word document. The transcribed answers to the interview questions (See Appendix A), the raw Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students data (See Appendix B),  as well as the consent forms (See Appendix C) will be stored by Dr. Bundon as per terms of the UBC ethics board. Themes were then derived from the responses to the conducted interviews.   Data Analysis After recording our interviews, the data was then personally transcribed onto a Word document by the researcher who conducted the interview. All interviews were then transferred onto one single document which grouped the research questions with the answers from the respective participants. The data sets remained paired upon transfer onto the single document. The data was then evaluated using thematic analysis for recurring responses from the participants. If at least one response for each questions was repeated, or was similar to a response provided by another participant, then said response was recorded as a trend.  Problems and Challenges  There were numerous challenges encountered in data collection and analysis. Each researcher recruited two participants from their peer group, therefore the selection of participants was not completely random as there was some bias in the selection of participants. This would likely alter the responses slightly, as the peers of the researchers are more likely than the general public  to have similar similar opinions to the researchers that support the research hypothesis. As 4 out of 5 of the researchers who selected the participants are studying Kinesiology, it is possible that our sample lacks the diversity of our target population. Because we only conducted 10 interviews within our peer groups that consisted of varying but often relatively short responses, it may be unlikely that our sample accurately reflects the target population  for our study.Transcribing the data was often a tedious and complicated task. Because we wished to only include relevant data, we as researchers had to determine what information during the interview was relevant, and what information was not. This could have resulted in some potentially useful data being lost, or relevant data being omitted from our findings. Often participants would get off topic, and there was also dialog developed while establishing rapport with possible participants that was not relevant to the study.   Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Findings  Background  To investigate how commuter students typically spend their time outside of class, we asked questions about time spend being physically active, at work and commuting. As show in Table 1, all of the participants were active off campus at least 2 hours per week, and as much as 8 hours per week. This is in stark contrast with hours per week spent being active on campus. Most participants indicated they spend 0 hours per week active on campus, with the exception of 2 interviewees that indicated they spend 2-3 hours active on campus per week. Additionally, all participants work off campus for 8-25 hours per week. Furthermore, participants indicate that they spend as little as 0 hours per week and as much as 3 hours per week on campus after class. However, most participants indicated that they used this additional time to study. One participant said, “I only stay for UBC rec activities like storm the wall.” This indicates that special events that carry tradition are more enticing than regular recreational activities like going to the gym.    As travel time of a minimum of 45 minutes each way for a total of an hour and a half commute was the criteria for recruitment, all participants met this criteria. It was found that participants spend a minimum of 45 minutes and a maximum of 1.5 hours travelling to and from UBC in each direction. The majority of participants use public transportation to commute.   Table 1 — Range of Time: Physical Activity, Work and Additional Time   Hours per Week    Minimum Maximum  Active On Campus  0 3 Active Off Campus  2 8 Work On Campus  0 0 Work Off Campus  8 25 Additional Time Spent On Campus Outside of Class Time  0 3 Barriers   To determine what makes it difficult for commuter students to participate in recreation activities at UBC, we asked interviewees to describe the barriers they experience. Table 2, shows narratives of participants that describe the barriers they face. Restrictions on time was a common theme among barriers for all participants. Work, time needed for studying, and a lengthy commute appear to place the greatest restriction on time. Additionally, some participants indicated that carrying around the equipment needed for activities is exhausting and inconvenient. Furthermore, anticipated travel time was a very clear barrier for all interviewees, who all indicated “yes” in some way. When asked about the potential restriction of needing to Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students carry items around, most participants also strongly indicated “yes” in some way. It was indicated that in most cases it was uncomfortable and inconvenient to carry around equipment needed for school, physical activity and other needs.  Table 2 — Participant Narratives: Barriers  Participant Narratives What are the barriers/what makes it hard to participate in campus activities? “Mostly because I live in Coquitlam, it is a bit of a commute, I don’t want to come here and be here more than I have to. Working and being in school full time makes it difficult to find time to participate in stuff on campus, Also, if I were to go to the gym at school, bringing my shoes and workout clothes to school and carrying them around all day would be annoying.”  “Work, study, life.”  “Not having a secure place to store my stuff and not really having enough time between class, work and transit time”  “Just not super convenient because food is expensive, and it takes a lot of energy carrying around all the stuff you need for activities like that”  “My class schedule, work schedule, and living away from campus make it hard.”  Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus due to the anticipated travel time between your home and campus? “[Anticipated travel time] is one of the main reasons. Especially with the new ARC building, I would love to work out on campus more and spend more time here since it is beautiful, but I dread the transit time back.”   “Definitely. I usually choose to go home or go to a library or café near my house to study to skip rush hour traffic getting home from UBC.”  Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus/partake in non-class activities on campus due to the number of items you need to carry around with you?    “Depends on the day, but yes. It’s pretty tiring lugging around a full backpack, gym gear, food for the day and whatever else I’m carrying.”  “Definitely, if I work out on campus, I have to bring a change of clothes, change of shoes and a water bottle which is a lot of extra weight on top of my regular work gear to and from work.”  ”Yes, for sure. My bag is heavy enough with my laptop, textbooks and school supplies without the additional weight of carrying around my gym gear and what not.”   Motivation and Resources In order to gauge what would motivate students to be more active on campus, we asked what resources students would like to see. Table 3 shows narratives of participant answers. An Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students overarching theme was that commuter students would like to see resources that make commuting easier. This included lounges for students, accessible and possibly subsidized storage facilities and a better transit system. Additionally, it was indicated that more fitness classes, activities that appeal to a wider range of students and better facilities, including showers would be motivating factors for participation in recreation. When asked about a potential commuter lounge, answers were mixed. Some participants indicated that it would be a great addition to campus, others felt that UBC already offered components of a student lounge across campus. Furthermore, interviewees indicated they would like to see lockers, places to nap, charging stations, quiet study areas, microwaves and fridges, entertainment like games and televisions, food and coffee options, and information boards to communicate UBC events in a common area like a student lounge.   Table 3 — Participant Narratives: Motivation and Resources  Participant Narratives What would make it easier or motivate you to be more active on campus? What resources would you like to see? “I would like to see fitness classes like Zumba, yoga, and  kickboxing.”  “More fitness class, more diverse food options, more lounges for students.”  “There is nothing that I would particularly like to participate in in terms of extracurricular, non-academic activities.”  “Having a free and safe place to store my stuff for the day, better access to showers.”  “I guess it would be nice to have more gyms on campus so that it is less crowded, and more of an enjoyable experience, Maybe if there was more networking to promote different activities on campus, that would be nice.”  If you could design a commuter lounge - what would you include? Describe your ideal place to spend time on campus.   “A commuter lounge which has two sides perhaps, one where socializing was encouraged, the other more quiet.”  “Lockers, showers, couches, TV’s, fridge, wifi, day-beds to nap on.”   “Comfy couches, free lockers, microwave, device charging station, snacks, communication/information board.”  “Lockers! Microwaves, couches, napping areas, snacks, charging ports.”   Student Sense of Belonging   The interviewees that expressed a strong sense of belonging at UBC were typically involved in social activities such as being a part of a sorority or connected within one's own faculty. Most other participants expressed that they did not feel a sense of belonging outside of their faculty. Furthermore, it was frequently mentioned that meeting students from other faculties Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students would help students feel more connected at UBC, creating a stronger sense of belonging. Table 4 represents some of the responses interviewees gave to questions about student sense of belonging.  Table 4 — Participant Narratives: Student Sense of Belonging  Participant Narratives Do you currently feel a strong sense of belonging at UBC (i.e. feel strong ties to the university, social networks and/or desire to participate in activities on campus?) “Yes, because of being a student in Sauder and a member of a sorority.”  “Not particularly outside of my own small department.”  “Within my faculty yes, but with UBC as a whole, not really”  What would help you feel more connected at UBC? “Meeting more people from different faculties and backgrounds.”  “I don’t know. I guess getting things out there on social media to promote activities. I feel like its more secluded now because you kind of have to know about things or hear about them through people to participate.”  “Probably just being more involved in campus activities and getting to know more students and staff. Would be helpful to have more accessible opportunities for commuter students to get to know new people without having to be on campus all the time. Maybe online or off campus platforms?”  “Commuter lounge, more group fitness class.”  “More opportunities to connect with students outside my faculty and attending more social events on campus”  Discussion As we conducted our interviews, we noticed major trends amongst all the students. We conducted the interviews with overall goal of determining barriers that commuter students experience to participation in recreational activities at UBC. Particularly, we were interested in creating a sense of belonging on campus for commuter students. We hope this will help facilitate engagement in activities on campus and increase the wellbeing of commuter students.  One of the main trends of all the interviews was that people felt having to carry clothes and food to school would be a major inconvenience, deterring them from participating in school activities. Participants expressed that there is a lack of places to store personal items like food, clothes, and books. Being that the school is a large campus, students do not feel keen to pack all the necessary possessions if they can find activities to do off  campus, closer to home. With that Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students being said, many of the participants we interviewed said that they would benefit from having a student lounge which provided lockers. This is an aspect that could help to improve the students attitude towards being on campus and therefore participate in school events leading to a stronger sense of belonging and wellbeing.  The second main trend is technology. This means the ability to access strong wifi, charging station, and desks with outlets are all aspects that would make a student commuter lounge useful as it can be difficult finding study spaces on campus at times. The other part of technology would be microwaves to heat up food or kitchenettes which makes staying on campus more appealing for people who spend many hours on campus. Lastly, a few of the participants suggested having televisions or games to use in the student lounge. This would allow them to be able to relax and feel more at home.  The third main trend is having a quiet area for relaxing. The mentioning of couches or sleeping pods was a recurring request from the participants we interviewed. Spending many hours on campus can get exhausting, especially if you are participating in events or physical activities. Couches and sleeping areas could be valuable resources to improve student wellbeing. A student lounge has the potential to be a quiet area designated for relaxing or studying, but also a separate area where students could socially interact. This would make it easier to find an area to relax that caters to your personal needs.  Regarding the challenges we faced in the study as mentioned in methods, it would be beneficial to conduct the study again and recruit a larger sample of students. We could do so by broadening our recruitment criteria. If we made had less restrictions on our sampling criteria, we could draw information from a larger sample. Since the students we interviewed had to meet a specific criterion, it narrowed the number of students we could interview. A larger sample size would have created more data to work with and gain more meaningful insight. We could also increase the number of interviews conducted by each researcher. This would increase the chances that our sample accurately reflects our population. Another suggestion when conducting the study would be to conduct a study once again when the commuter lounge prototype has be produced. This would enable us to get more suggestions based on people who have experienced the lounge and see how their sense of belonging has improved and what factors influence their  sense of belonging. We hope that with this greater sense of belonging and desire to spend time Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students on campus, students will be more likely to increase their participation in recreational activities with UBC.   Recommendations  1. Increase promotion of current on campus resources on social media platforms a. UBC Recreation and other organizations on campus do a good job of promoting social events on social media, but do not necessarily promote current campus resources such as storage areas, charging stations, lounge areas or quiet study areas via social media. Although these resources may be limited, many students may not be aware that they exist on campus. For many students, instagram and facebook are two major resources of current UBC news. Using theses platforms to inform students of the resources available to them may help make their on campus experience more comfortable. This could help increase a student’s likelihood to stay on campus and therefore partake in more recreational activities on campus.  2. Conduct more student surveys/interviews regarding on campus improvements a. By UBC recreation and student services conducting more student interviews and surveys regarding issues such as what barriers prevent them from partaking in recreational activities and where they would like to see improvements to remove as many of said  barriers as possible, UBC would be able to get a greater understanding of what the general student population needs and wants in order to partake in recreation. Listening to the voices of the students, genuinely considering their ideas, and implementing as many of their recommendations as are appropriate and feasible, would likely make students feel as if they have a more significant influence on the delivery of recreation on campus and may increase their likelihood of participating in recreation at UBC.       Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Appendices References: Buote, V. M., Pancer, M. S., Pratt, M. W., Adams, G., Birnie-Lefcovitvh, S., Polivy, J., Winter, M. G. ( 2007). The Importance of Friends: Friendship and Adjustment Among 1st-Year University Students. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22(6), 665-689. DOI: 10.1177/0743558407306344 Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in  Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.  Chiu, M.M., Chow, B.W.Y., Mcbride, C., & Mol, S.T. (2016). Students sense of belonging at school in 41 countries: Cross-cultural variability. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(2), 175-196.  Coutts, L. (2012, August 15). Who are out students? Implications for teaching and learning [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://ctlt.ubc.ca/2012/08/15/who-are- our-students-implications-for-teaching-and-learning/  Madden-Krasnick, H. (2017, July 14). Commuting 101 [UBCfyi Blog]. Retrieved from: https://students.ubc.ca/ubcfyi/commuting-101   Newbold, J. (2015). Lifestyle changes for commuter students. New Directions for Students Services, 2015(150), 79-86. DOI: 10.1002/ss.20129.  Newbold, J. J, Mehta, S. S., Forbus, P. (2011). Commuter Students: Involvement and Identification with an Institution of Higher Education. Academy of Education Leadership Journal, 15(2), 141-153.    Pokorny, H., Holley, D., Kane, S. 2016. Commuting, transitions and belonging: the experiences of students living at home in their first year at university. Higher Education, 74(3), 543-558. DOI: 10.1007/S10734-016-0063-3  Redish, A., Mathieson, C. (2017). University of British Columbia: 2016/17 Annual Report on Enrolment. Retrieved from https://senate.ubc.ca/sites/senate.ubc.ca/files/ downloads/UBC%20Enrolment%20Report%202016-17_Final%20-%209%20Jan%202017.pdf  Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students University of British Columbia. (2017). UBC Overview & Facts. Retrieved from https://www.ubc.ca/about/facts.html  University of British Columbia. (2017). Undergraduate programs and admissions: Living in residence. Retrieved from http://you.ubc.ca/ubc-life/vancouver/residence/  University of Edinburgh. (2015). How do we get students cycling more at universities and colleges in Edinburgh? Social responsibility and sustainability. Retrieved from https://www.ed.ac.uk/files/atoms/files/ppp_cycling_report_march_2015_0.pdf  Appendix A - Interview Questions:  1. Background information: What program are you in? What year are you in? How many hours outside of school are you active? How many hours on campus are you active? How many hours a week do you work / what do you do for work?   2. How long on average do you spend in transit each day to and from campus combined? (May be by public transport, car, bike, etc.)   3. On average, how many days per week do you stay on campus past lecture and/or tutorial hours to study, or partake in recreational activities?  4. What are the barriers/ what makes it hard to participating in campus activities?  5. Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus due to the anticipated travel time between your home and campus?   6. Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus/partake in non-class activities on campus due to the number of items you need to carry around with you?   7. What would make it easier or motivate you to be more active on campus? What resources would you like to see?   Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students 8. Would you make use of a commuter lounge on campus? (A space to relax, safely store belongings, eat, charge devices etc.)   9. If you could design a commuter lounge - what would you include? Describe your ideal place to spend time on campus.   10. Do you currently feel a strong sense of belonging at UBC (i.e. feel strong ties to the university, social networks and/or desire to participate in activities on campus?)  11. What would help you feel more connected at UBC?   Appendix C - Consent Form for Participants:  Interview Consent Form (University of Edinburgh, 2017):  SAMPLE  Research Project Title: Investigating new ways to bolster students sense of belonging  (SSOB) in 3rd and 4th year commuter students at UBC Vancouver campus  Research Investigators: Hannah Happeney, Cianna Vit, Emily Lee, William Wright & Paul O’Neill.  Research Participants Name: ____________________________________________________  The interview will take approximately 15 minutes to complete. We do not anticipate any risks or emotional triggers associated with your participation, but you have the right to stop the interview or withdraw from the interview at any time before or during the interview with no explanation required.   Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students We would like to take this time to thank you for your agreement to partake in our interview. We require this consent form to be completed before any interview is commences as it is necessary for our team to inform you of the purpose of your involvement of this research project, and ensure that you understand how the information contained in this interview will be used for research purposes.   Please read and indicate whether you agree to the conditions of the project listed below:  - The interview will be recorded on an audio device (i.e. cell phone) and then transcribed by the interviewer.  - After the interview, we will email you a copy of the transcripts and will give you the opportunity to correct any factual errors during the transcription process.  - The audio file will be destroyed after the transcription process has been completed. - The transcript will be collectively analyzed by the research team.  - Access to the transcripts will be only granted to the research team and will be destroyed once the data has been analyzed.  - Any variation of the conditions above will only occur with the your further explicit compliance.  Quotation Agreement (please initial beside the agreement:   I also understand that my words may be quoted directly in the final research report.   By signing this form i agree that: 1. I am voluntarily taking part in this project. I understand that I do not have to take part at can relinquish my participation at any time during the interview process.  2. The transcribed interview or extracts will be used in the final project.  3. I have read and agree to the conditions listed above.  4. I understand there is no compensation for this particular research participation. 5. I have answered the questions as truthfully as possible. Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students  Print Name: __________________________________________________________________   Signature: ___________________________________________________________________   Interviewer signature: __________________________________________________________  If you have any concerns with any aspect of the research process, please direct your concerns to Professor Andrea Bundon, who can be reached at andrea.bundon@ubc.ca.                           Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students  Recruitment Material:  Each of our five researchers recruited two interviewees through their peers, giving us a total of ten interviewees/participants. Researchers met with each participant to conduct and record an in person interview. Each researcher then transcribed each of their interviews into writing. We then compacted the data and extracted trends in the data for analysis.   Materials required:   1. Interview questions  2. Consent forms  3. Researchers to conduct interviews 4. Recording devices 5. Writing utensils/computers      UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report  Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Emily Lee, Paul O’Neill, Hannah Happeney, William Wright, Cianna Vit University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Community, Wellbeing April 3, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter StudentsExecutive Summary The university experience is one of tremendous growth and development, often providing diverse opportunities that shape the type of person one will become. On campus recreational programs have been shown to improve a student’s sense of belonging (SSOB) to their campus, which in turn renders a host of benefits to the student such as enhanced psychosocial well-being, academic success, and improved social skills (Buote et al., 2007, Newbold et al., 2011, Chiu et al., 2016). However, there appears to be a lack of participation which coincides with gaps in opportunities provided to particular student demographics. One such minority is commuter students. Comprising 75% of the total 44 565 student population at the University of British Columbia (UBC), the group has been severely underserved in this context. The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers that commuter students at UBC face in terms of embracing SSOB, and provide insight into the kinds of initiatives and resources that should be implemented to enhance their experience.  After recruiting commuter students with a commute longer than 45 minutes to campus, and conducting numerous semi-structured interviews and transcribing the audio recordings, the interview data confirmed that commuter students do not feel a strong sense of belonging at UBC, which is reflected in low participation rates in school sponsored activities.. Barriers in terms of access to recreational programs on campus were identified through the interviews, and include limited selection of activities on campus, hardship of  work, study, and life balance, limited access to safe space to store belongings which forces students to haul heavy bags all day, and expensive food and beverage options on campus. Using this data, the goal is to provide framework in designing and implementing recreational programs designed specifically for commuter students to maximize their experience and promote physical activity on and off campus. Overall, we will recommend the implementation of lounges tailored to commuter students that will act as a resource to facilitate student engagement and create a sense of belonging for commuter students on campus. Introduction/Literature Review The University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver Campus currently has 44,565 undergraduate students enrolled in studies, and approximately 75% of this population commute to campus to attend classes (University of British Columbia, 2017; Madden-Krasnick, 2017). There are many reasons as to why post secondary students choose not to live on campus. Perhaps Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Studentsit is due to the extremely high cost of living on campus, which can range from $9,000 to $11,000 total for 8 months of the school year (University of British Columbia, 2017). Additionally, 73% of undergraduate students admitted to UBC for the 2016/2017 cycle were BC residents, which tells us that many students live at home or with family members in the greater Vancouver area (Redish & Mathieson, 2017). Regardless of reasoning, student engagement and inevitable seizing of recreational activities on campus is significantly influenced by a students housing proximity to campus (Buote et al., 2007, Newbold et al., 2011). This project aims to tackle low participation rates and the gap in opportunities provided to upper year (third and fourth year) commuter students at UBC by comparing the opportunities that are available to students currently living on campus - specifically first year students (Pokorny, Holley, & Suzanne, 2017).  Using current research, this paper will explore methods to bolster student engagement and increase a student sense of belonging (SSOB) which in turn can have positive outcomes for student health and well-being (Pokorny, Holley, & Suzanne, 2017). The goal for this paper is to identify barriers to participation in recreation that commuter students at UBC experience. Additionally, this project will present and convey polished ideas and strategies to improve the well-being and overall health of commuter students who tend to face more obstacles and lead more complex lives than the traditional student (Newbold, 2015).  Boute et al. (2007) proposes that a strong relationship exists between friendship formation and feelings of attachment to one’s university, primarily because “friends fulfill a number of key functions in helping students accommodate to their environment.” The author also highlights that students in campus residence have significantly more opportunity to generate meaningful friendships with other students compared to commuter students, with 84% of residence-living student social network comprised of other students compared to 48% for commuter students (Buote et al., 2007). These findings also overlap in another study that also discovered a positive relationship between SSOB and psychosocial well-being and academic success (Chiu et al., 2016). What made this study unique was that it examined the concept of SSOB across 41 countries, and identified the main ‘players’ or ‘instigators’ that mediated whether a student felt included or not (Chiu et al., 2016). The teacher-student relationship was a strong force in cultivating SSOB, perhaps leading to the idea that fostering personal relationships with your professor are an effective vehicle to bolstering well-being (Chiu et al., 2016). The authors also took an intersectional approach to SSOB, acknowledging the variance in obtaining Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students SSOB is based on family characteristics, schoolmate characteristics, teacher characteristics, and student characteristics (Chiu et al., 2016). This is important as it informs the complexity of the task at hand, and provides insight into the approaches researchers should take when tackling this issue.  The goal for this paper is to expose the disparriage of resources allocated to commuter students considering they comprise a large portion of the general student population. Conducting interviews with current upper year commute students on campus will allow us to detect these aforementioned gaps in opportunities provided to this demographic. The interviews will also provide insight into the feelings attributed to the students state sense of belonging (SSOB), allowing us to formulate methods that will enhance it and improving the experience and well being of the succeeding cohort’s of UBC students - the suggestions will be listed in the ‘Recommendations’ sections of this paper.   Methods  Description of Methods Used  For our study we conducted interviews with 10 participants. Interviews were conducted in person. Each researcher from our group conducted 2 interviews. The duration of each interview was 15-20 minutes. Each participant must have provided written consent via completion of a consent form (Appendix C) in order to participate in the study. At the beginning of each interview, participants were encouraged to answer each question thoughtfully, and to include any additional information on the topic that they felt was important that may not have been addressed in the predetermined questions.The interviews consisted of 11 predetermined questions. The questions created for the interviews were specifically developed for our target population of 3rd and 4th year students who travel at least 45 minutes in one direction during their commute to UBC. The anticipated responses for the questions created consisted of information regarding, but not limited to barriers and facilitators to participating in recreational activities on campus, additional information, and the sense of belonging of our specific demographic. We then used thematic analysis to identify trends in the responses provided by those who participated in the study. Thematic analysis is commonly used to identify and record themes in qualitative data sets (Braun & Clarke, 2006).  Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Rationale for selecting these methods: Study Population and Rationale We studied third and fourth year commuter students who’s commute to campus is a minimum of 45 minutes one way, for a total of an hour and a half each day. For the purposes of this project, commuter students were defined as students who do not live on campus, but attend UBC from the surrounding area (Newbold, Mehta & Forbus, 2011). This population has unique needs with respect to recreation because there are numerous barriers to participation in activities on campus including transporting appropriate activewear, time restraints often make attending campus events challenging, a less extensive social network and limited access to and knowledge about resources available to commuter students (Newbold et al., 2011; Buote et al., 2007). Through studying third and fourth year commuter students, we hope to gain insight into overcoming challenges that this unique population faces with respect to accessing recreation and health promoting activities at UBC.  Recruitment Process  The sample of 10 participants was recruited from the student body at the UBC Vancouver Campus. Eligibility was restricted to 3rd and 4th year students who commute a minimum of 45 minutes one way, and a minimum total of 90 minutes in total. Participants were recruited through peer encounters and classmates of the researchers.  During the interview  participants were asked if they were 3rd or 4th year commuter students who’s commute was at least 45 minutes in one direction.. The interview was then conducted if all previously mentioned criteria were met and the participant had signed the consent form.  Data Collection  We conducted 10 interviews with participants who met our aforementioned criterion. Respondents were required to sign a consent form prior to completing the interview (See Appendix C). Interviews were conducted in person. Each interview consisted of 11 questions. Participant names were removed from the responses to the interview questions in the transcribed data. These interviews were recorded using a cell phone and then later transcribed to a Microsoft Word document. The transcribed answers to the interview questions (See Appendix A), the raw Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students data (See Appendix B),  as well as the consent forms (See Appendix C) will be stored by Dr. Bundon as per terms of the UBC ethics board. Themes were then derived from the responses to the conducted interviews.   Data Analysis After recording our interviews, the data was then personally transcribed onto a Word document by the researcher who conducted the interview. All interviews were then transferred onto one single document which grouped the research questions with the answers from the respective participants. The data sets remained paired upon transfer onto the single document. The data was then evaluated using thematic analysis for recurring responses from the participants. If at least one response for each questions was repeated, or was similar to a response provided by another participant, then said response was recorded as a trend.  Problems and Challenges  There were numerous challenges encountered in data collection and analysis. Each researcher recruited two participants from their peer group, therefore the selection of participants was not completely random as there was some bias in the selection of participants. This would likely alter the responses slightly, as the peers of the researchers are more likely than the general public  to have similar similar opinions to the researchers that support the research hypothesis. As 4 out of 5 of the researchers who selected the participants are studying Kinesiology, it is possible that our sample lacks the diversity of our target population. Because we only conducted 10 interviews within our peer groups that consisted of varying but often relatively short responses, it may be unlikely that our sample accurately reflects the target population  for our study.Transcribing the data was often a tedious and complicated task. Because we wished to only include relevant data, we as researchers had to determine what information during the interview was relevant, and what information was not. This could have resulted in some potentially useful data being lost, or relevant data being omitted from our findings. Often participants would get off topic, and there was also dialog developed while establishing rapport with possible participants that was not relevant to the study.   Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Findings  Background  To investigate how commuter students typically spend their time outside of class, we asked questions about time spend being physically active, at work and commuting. As show in Table 1, all of the participants were active off campus at least 2 hours per week, and as much as 8 hours per week. This is in stark contrast with hours per week spent being active on campus. Most participants indicated they spend 0 hours per week active on campus, with the exception of 2 interviewees that indicated they spend 2-3 hours active on campus per week. Additionally, all participants work off campus for 8-25 hours per week. Furthermore, participants indicate that they spend as little as 0 hours per week and as much as 3 hours per week on campus after class. However, most participants indicated that they used this additional time to study. One participant said, “I only stay for UBC rec activities like storm the wall.” This indicates that special events that carry tradition are more enticing than regular recreational activities like going to the gym.    As travel time of a minimum of 45 minutes each way for a total of an hour and a half commute was the criteria for recruitment, all participants met this criteria. It was found that participants spend a minimum of 45 minutes and a maximum of 1.5 hours travelling to and from UBC in each direction. The majority of participants use public transportation to commute.   Table 1 — Range of Time: Physical Activity, Work and Additional Time   Hours per Week    Minimum Maximum  Active On Campus  0 3 Active Off Campus  2 8 Work On Campus  0 0 Work Off Campus  8 25 Additional Time Spent On Campus Outside of Class Time  0 3 Barriers   To determine what makes it difficult for commuter students to participate in recreation activities at UBC, we asked interviewees to describe the barriers they experience. Table 2, shows narratives of participants that describe the barriers they face. Restrictions on time was a common theme among barriers for all participants. Work, time needed for studying, and a lengthy commute appear to place the greatest restriction on time. Additionally, some participants indicated that carrying around the equipment needed for activities is exhausting and inconvenient. Furthermore, anticipated travel time was a very clear barrier for all interviewees, who all indicated “yes” in some way. When asked about the potential restriction of needing to Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students carry items around, most participants also strongly indicated “yes” in some way. It was indicated that in most cases it was uncomfortable and inconvenient to carry around equipment needed for school, physical activity and other needs.  Table 2 — Participant Narratives: Barriers  Participant Narratives What are the barriers/what makes it hard to participate in campus activities? “Mostly because I live in Coquitlam, it is a bit of a commute, I don’t want to come here and be here more than I have to. Working and being in school full time makes it difficult to find time to participate in stuff on campus, Also, if I were to go to the gym at school, bringing my shoes and workout clothes to school and carrying them around all day would be annoying.”  “Work, study, life.”  “Not having a secure place to store my stuff and not really having enough time between class, work and transit time”  “Just not super convenient because food is expensive, and it takes a lot of energy carrying around all the stuff you need for activities like that”  “My class schedule, work schedule, and living away from campus make it hard.”  Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus due to the anticipated travel time between your home and campus? “[Anticipated travel time] is one of the main reasons. Especially with the new ARC building, I would love to work out on campus more and spend more time here since it is beautiful, but I dread the transit time back.”   “Definitely. I usually choose to go home or go to a library or café near my house to study to skip rush hour traffic getting home from UBC.”  Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus/partake in non-class activities on campus due to the number of items you need to carry around with you?    “Depends on the day, but yes. It’s pretty tiring lugging around a full backpack, gym gear, food for the day and whatever else I’m carrying.”  “Definitely, if I work out on campus, I have to bring a change of clothes, change of shoes and a water bottle which is a lot of extra weight on top of my regular work gear to and from work.”  ”Yes, for sure. My bag is heavy enough with my laptop, textbooks and school supplies without the additional weight of carrying around my gym gear and what not.”   Motivation and Resources In order to gauge what would motivate students to be more active on campus, we asked what resources students would like to see. Table 3 shows narratives of participant answers. An Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students overarching theme was that commuter students would like to see resources that make commuting easier. This included lounges for students, accessible and possibly subsidized storage facilities and a better transit system. Additionally, it was indicated that more fitness classes, activities that appeal to a wider range of students and better facilities, including showers would be motivating factors for participation in recreation. When asked about a potential commuter lounge, answers were mixed. Some participants indicated that it would be a great addition to campus, others felt that UBC already offered components of a student lounge across campus. Furthermore, interviewees indicated they would like to see lockers, places to nap, charging stations, quiet study areas, microwaves and fridges, entertainment like games and televisions, food and coffee options, and information boards to communicate UBC events in a common area like a student lounge.   Table 3 — Participant Narratives: Motivation and Resources  Participant Narratives What would make it easier or motivate you to be more active on campus? What resources would you like to see? “I would like to see fitness classes like Zumba, yoga, and  kickboxing.”  “More fitness class, more diverse food options, more lounges for students.”  “There is nothing that I would particularly like to participate in in terms of extracurricular, non-academic activities.”  “Having a free and safe place to store my stuff for the day, better access to showers.”  “I guess it would be nice to have more gyms on campus so that it is less crowded, and more of an enjoyable experience, Maybe if there was more networking to promote different activities on campus, that would be nice.”  If you could design a commuter lounge - what would you include? Describe your ideal place to spend time on campus.   “A commuter lounge which has two sides perhaps, one where socializing was encouraged, the other more quiet.”  “Lockers, showers, couches, TV’s, fridge, wifi, day-beds to nap on.”   “Comfy couches, free lockers, microwave, device charging station, snacks, communication/information board.”  “Lockers! Microwaves, couches, napping areas, snacks, charging ports.”   Student Sense of Belonging   The interviewees that expressed a strong sense of belonging at UBC were typically involved in social activities such as being a part of a sorority or connected within one's own faculty. Most other participants expressed that they did not feel a sense of belonging outside of their faculty. Furthermore, it was frequently mentioned that meeting students from other faculties Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students would help students feel more connected at UBC, creating a stronger sense of belonging. Table 4 represents some of the responses interviewees gave to questions about student sense of belonging.  Table 4 — Participant Narratives: Student Sense of Belonging  Participant Narratives Do you currently feel a strong sense of belonging at UBC (i.e. feel strong ties to the university, social networks and/or desire to participate in activities on campus?) “Yes, because of being a student in Sauder and a member of a sorority.”  “Not particularly outside of my own small department.”  “Within my faculty yes, but with UBC as a whole, not really”  What would help you feel more connected at UBC? “Meeting more people from different faculties and backgrounds.”  “I don’t know. I guess getting things out there on social media to promote activities. I feel like its more secluded now because you kind of have to know about things or hear about them through people to participate.”  “Probably just being more involved in campus activities and getting to know more students and staff. Would be helpful to have more accessible opportunities for commuter students to get to know new people without having to be on campus all the time. Maybe online or off campus platforms?”  “Commuter lounge, more group fitness class.”  “More opportunities to connect with students outside my faculty and attending more social events on campus”  Discussion As we conducted our interviews, we noticed major trends amongst all the students. We conducted the interviews with overall goal of determining barriers that commuter students experience to participation in recreational activities at UBC. Particularly, we were interested in creating a sense of belonging on campus for commuter students. We hope this will help facilitate engagement in activities on campus and increase the wellbeing of commuter students.  One of the main trends of all the interviews was that people felt having to carry clothes and food to school would be a major inconvenience, deterring them from participating in school activities. Participants expressed that there is a lack of places to store personal items like food, clothes, and books. Being that the school is a large campus, students do not feel keen to pack all the necessary possessions if they can find activities to do off  campus, closer to home. With that Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students being said, many of the participants we interviewed said that they would benefit from having a student lounge which provided lockers. This is an aspect that could help to improve the students attitude towards being on campus and therefore participate in school events leading to a stronger sense of belonging and wellbeing.  The second main trend is technology. This means the ability to access strong wifi, charging station, and desks with outlets are all aspects that would make a student commuter lounge useful as it can be difficult finding study spaces on campus at times. The other part of technology would be microwaves to heat up food or kitchenettes which makes staying on campus more appealing for people who spend many hours on campus. Lastly, a few of the participants suggested having televisions or games to use in the student lounge. This would allow them to be able to relax and feel more at home.  The third main trend is having a quiet area for relaxing. The mentioning of couches or sleeping pods was a recurring request from the participants we interviewed. Spending many hours on campus can get exhausting, especially if you are participating in events or physical activities. Couches and sleeping areas could be valuable resources to improve student wellbeing. A student lounge has the potential to be a quiet area designated for relaxing or studying, but also a separate area where students could socially interact. This would make it easier to find an area to relax that caters to your personal needs.  Regarding the challenges we faced in the study as mentioned in methods, it would be beneficial to conduct the study again and recruit a larger sample of students. We could do so by broadening our recruitment criteria. If we made had less restrictions on our sampling criteria, we could draw information from a larger sample. Since the students we interviewed had to meet a specific criterion, it narrowed the number of students we could interview. A larger sample size would have created more data to work with and gain more meaningful insight. We could also increase the number of interviews conducted by each researcher. This would increase the chances that our sample accurately reflects our population. Another suggestion when conducting the study would be to conduct a study once again when the commuter lounge prototype has be produced. This would enable us to get more suggestions based on people who have experienced the lounge and see how their sense of belonging has improved and what factors influence their  sense of belonging. We hope that with this greater sense of belonging and desire to spend time Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students on campus, students will be more likely to increase their participation in recreational activities with UBC.   Recommendations  1. Increase promotion of current on campus resources on social media platforms a. UBC Recreation and other organizations on campus do a good job of promoting social events on social media, but do not necessarily promote current campus resources such as storage areas, charging stations, lounge areas or quiet study areas via social media. Although these resources may be limited, many students may not be aware that they exist on campus. For many students, instagram and facebook are two major resources of current UBC news. Using theses platforms to inform students of the resources available to them may help make their on campus experience more comfortable. This could help increase a student’s likelihood to stay on campus and therefore partake in more recreational activities on campus.  2. Conduct more student surveys/interviews regarding on campus improvements a. By UBC recreation and student services conducting more student interviews and surveys regarding issues such as what barriers prevent them from partaking in recreational activities and where they would like to see improvements to remove as many of said  barriers as possible, UBC would be able to get a greater understanding of what the general student population needs and wants in order to partake in recreation. Listening to the voices of the students, genuinely considering their ideas, and implementing as many of their recommendations as are appropriate and feasible, would likely make students feel as if they have a more significant influence on the delivery of recreation on campus and may increase their likelihood of participating in recreation at UBC.       Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students Appendices References: Buote, V. M., Pancer, M. S., Pratt, M. W., Adams, G., Birnie-Lefcovitvh, S., Polivy, J., Winter, M. G. ( 2007). The Importance of Friends: Friendship and Adjustment Among 1st-Year University Students. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22(6), 665-689. DOI: 10.1177/0743558407306344 Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in  Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.  Chiu, M.M., Chow, B.W.Y., Mcbride, C., & Mol, S.T. (2016). Students sense of belonging at school in 41 countries: Cross-cultural variability. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(2), 175-196.  Coutts, L. (2012, August 15). Who are out students? Implications for teaching and learning [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://ctlt.ubc.ca/2012/08/15/who-are- our-students-implications-for-teaching-and-learning/  Madden-Krasnick, H. (2017, July 14). Commuting 101 [UBCfyi Blog]. Retrieved from: https://students.ubc.ca/ubcfyi/commuting-101   Newbold, J. (2015). Lifestyle changes for commuter students. New Directions for Students Services, 2015(150), 79-86. DOI: 10.1002/ss.20129.  Newbold, J. J, Mehta, S. S., Forbus, P. (2011). Commuter Students: Involvement and Identification with an Institution of Higher Education. Academy of Education Leadership Journal, 15(2), 141-153.    Pokorny, H., Holley, D., Kane, S. 2016. Commuting, transitions and belonging: the experiences of students living at home in their first year at university. Higher Education, 74(3), 543-558. DOI: 10.1007/S10734-016-0063-3  Redish, A., Mathieson, C. (2017). University of British Columbia: 2016/17 Annual Report on Enrolment. Retrieved from https://senate.ubc.ca/sites/senate.ubc.ca/files/ downloads/UBC%20Enrolment%20Report%202016-17_Final%20-%209%20Jan%202017.pdf  Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students University of British Columbia. (2017). UBC Overview & Facts. Retrieved from https://www.ubc.ca/about/facts.html  University of British Columbia. (2017). Undergraduate programs and admissions: Living in residence. Retrieved from http://you.ubc.ca/ubc-life/vancouver/residence/  University of Edinburgh. (2015). How do we get students cycling more at universities and colleges in Edinburgh? Social responsibility and sustainability. Retrieved from https://www.ed.ac.uk/files/atoms/files/ppp_cycling_report_march_2015_0.pdf  Appendix A - Interview Questions:  1. Background information: What program are you in? What year are you in? How many hours outside of school are you active? How many hours on campus are you active? How many hours a week do you work / what do you do for work?   2. How long on average do you spend in transit each day to and from campus combined? (May be by public transport, car, bike, etc.)   3. On average, how many days per week do you stay on campus past lecture and/or tutorial hours to study, or partake in recreational activities?  4. What are the barriers/ what makes it hard to participating in campus activities?  5. Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus due to the anticipated travel time between your home and campus?   6. Do you feel less inclined to spend additional time on campus/partake in non-class activities on campus due to the number of items you need to carry around with you?   7. What would make it easier or motivate you to be more active on campus? What resources would you like to see?   Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students 8. Would you make use of a commuter lounge on campus? (A space to relax, safely store belongings, eat, charge devices etc.)   9. If you could design a commuter lounge - what would you include? Describe your ideal place to spend time on campus.   10. Do you currently feel a strong sense of belonging at UBC (i.e. feel strong ties to the university, social networks and/or desire to participate in activities on campus?)  11. What would help you feel more connected at UBC?   Appendix C - Consent Form for Participants:  Interview Consent Form (University of Edinburgh, 2017):  SAMPLE  Research Project Title: Investigating new ways to bolster students sense of belonging  (SSOB) in 3rd and 4th year commuter students at UBC Vancouver campus  Research Investigators: Hannah Happeney, Cianna Vit, Emily Lee, William Wright & Paul O’Neill.  Research Participants Name: ____________________________________________________  The interview will take approximately 15 minutes to complete. We do not anticipate any risks or emotional triggers associated with your participation, but you have the right to stop the interview or withdraw from the interview at any time before or during the interview with no explanation required.   Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students We would like to take this time to thank you for your agreement to partake in our interview. We require this consent form to be completed before any interview is commences as it is necessary for our team to inform you of the purpose of your involvement of this research project, and ensure that you understand how the information contained in this interview will be used for research purposes.   Please read and indicate whether you agree to the conditions of the project listed below:  - The interview will be recorded on an audio device (i.e. cell phone) and then transcribed by the interviewer.  - After the interview, we will email you a copy of the transcripts and will give you the opportunity to correct any factual errors during the transcription process.  - The audio file will be destroyed after the transcription process has been completed. - The transcript will be collectively analyzed by the research team.  - Access to the transcripts will be only granted to the research team and will be destroyed once the data has been analyzed.  - Any variation of the conditions above will only occur with the your further explicit compliance.  Quotation Agreement (please initial beside the agreement:   I also understand that my words may be quoted directly in the final research report.   By signing this form i agree that: 1. I am voluntarily taking part in this project. I understand that I do not have to take part at can relinquish my participation at any time during the interview process.  2. The transcribed interview or extracts will be used in the final project.  3. I have read and agree to the conditions listed above.  4. I understand there is no compensation for this particular research participation. 5. I have answered the questions as truthfully as possible. Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students  Print Name: __________________________________________________________________   Signature: ___________________________________________________________________   Interviewer signature: __________________________________________________________  If you have any concerns with any aspect of the research process, please direct your concerns to Professor Andrea Bundon, who can be reached at andrea.bundon@ubc.ca.                           Identifying Recreation Gaps for Minority Communities: Upper Level Commuter Students  Recruitment Material:  Each of our five researchers recruited two interviewees through their peers, giving us a total of ten interviewees/participants. Researchers met with each participant to conduct and record an in person interview. Each researcher then transcribed each of their interviews into writing. We then compacted the data and extracted trends in the data for analysis.   Materials required:   1. Interview questions  2. Consent forms  3. Researchers to conduct interviews 4. Recording devices 5. Writing utensils/computers      UBC/KIN 464/Group 15Identifying Recreation Barriers for Commuter Students at UBCCianna Vit, Emily Lee, Paul O’Neill, Hannah Happeney, and William WrightBackgroundStudents that commute 45 minutes or more have been identified as having consistently low participation rates in activities on campus Why Does it Matter?Commuter students face numerous barriers that ultimately lead to less participation in school sponsored activities. Some barriers include: ● Complex lifestyles of commuter students lead to time constraints²● Typically organize their schedule to minimize time spent on campus²● Developing new social networks on campus may be difficult or not as important³Study Population Third and fourth year commuter students who’s commute to campus is a minimum of 45 minutes one way, for a total of an hour and a half each day.Methods10 interviews were conducted by our researchers. Each interview consisted of questions focused on…● Identifying barriers to participating in recreational activities on campus● How to increase student sense of belonging (SSOB)We also gave opportunities for students to provide any additional information they felt was relevant to the study.FindingsTime Spent On/Off Campus: Barriers:What are the barriers/what makes it hard to participate in campus activities?● Restrictions on time due to work, study schedule and commute● Inconvenience of carrying appropriate attire/equipment needed for recreational activities to school Motivation and Resources: What would make it easier or motivate you to be more active on campus? What resources would you like to see?● Lounges for students ● Subsidized storage facilities for commuters● Activities that appeal to a wider range of students → more fitness classes and yogaStudent Sense of Belonging: FeedbackPopular recommendations given by the participants:● Lockers● Quiet study areas● Social areas with recreational activities such as televisions● Microwaves and refrigerators● Napping pods and couchesRecommendations ● Increase promotion of current on campus resources on social media platforms● Conduct more student surveys/interviews regarding on campus improvementsTake Home MessageWith the addition of student lounges on campus, it is likely that students will be able to:● Participate more in campus events● Feel more comfortable on campus● Have a personal space ● Feel an increased sense of belonging at UBCThematic Analysis was used to identify trends in the student responses. Thematic Analysis emphasizes using pinpointing and examining themes within data.“What would help you feel more connected at UBC?”75% of UBC studentscommute to campus toattend classCreating opportunities for engagement from this population can create a greater sense of belonging at UBC. In turn, this has the potential to improve student wellbeing. Picture: Matt Dolf, UBC WellbeingTable 1 — Range of Time References¹Madden-Krasnick, H. (2017, July 14). Commuting 101 [UBCfyi Blog]. Retrieved from: https://students.ubc.ca/ubcfyi/commuting-101 ²Newbold, J. J, Mehta, S. S., Forbus, P. (2011). Commuter Students: Involvement and Identification with an Institution of Higher Education. Academy of Education Leadership Journal, 15(2), 141-153. ³Buote, V. M., Pancer, M. S., Pratt, M. W., Adams, G., Birnie-Lefcovitvh, S., Polivy, J., Winter, M.G. ( 2007). The Importance of Friends: Friendship and Adjustment Among 1st-Year University Students. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22(6), 665-689.Most students indicated that they did NOT feel a strong sense of belonging outside of their faculty

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