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UNA Community Centers : Promoting Interculturalism through Physical Activity Gavric, Marko; Johnstone, Dannen; Kandola, Mahabhir; Lee, Emily; Lin, Jackie; Liu, Jackson 2017-12-07

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  UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program  Student Research Report       UNA Community Centers: Promoting Interculturalism through Physical Activity  Marko Gavric, Dannen Johnstone, Mahabhir Kandola   Emily Lee, Jackie Lin, and Jackson Liu     University of British Columbia KIN 465 December 2017           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.        2 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report                UNA Community Centers: Promoting Interculturalism through Physical Activity    Marko Gavric, Dannen Johnstone, Mahabhir Kandola   Emily Lee, Jackie Lin, Jackson Liu      Interculturalism, Health, and Physical Activity (KIN 465)  School of Kinesiology  University of British Columbia     Date completed: Thursday, December 7th, 2017                    3 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Table of Contents  Executive Summary .............................................................................................................. 4 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………… .. 5 Background Information …………………………………………………………………… .. 6 Literature Review ....................................................................................................... 6 Methodology …………………………………………………………………………….... .... 8 Outcomes, Findings,  and Discussion ….. ............................................................................. 9 Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………… .. 13 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………… . 16 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 References ………………………………………………………………………………… .. 18 Appendix A: Graph for Survey Results …………………………………………………… . 22 Appendix B: Focus Group Transcript .................................................................................. 22  Appendix C: CBEL Project Work Plan …………………………………………………….. 40                     4 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   I. Executive Summary  The University Neighbourhood Association (UNA) is a non-for-profit organization that serves approximately 10,000 residents within the community of the University of British Columbia (UBC). UBC neighborhoods are representative of the diversity in Vancouver, and consists of significant immigrant populations from various backgrounds including Chinese, Korean, Persian and European. Although many programs have acknowledged the need for multiculturalism and diversity within physically activity, there is still a need to continually draw attention to the issues involved through research with different cultural groups (Frisby, 2011). In recent years, UNA has had growing difficulty reaching certain population groups within the community and as a result, invited us to evaluate their program. The purpose of this study was conducted to promote intercultural physical activity among residents and increase participation of certain population groups at the UNA community centres. Four separate meetings were held throughout the term with UNA community partners to discuss goals and objectives, project design, and ensure the project remained on schedule. The UNA sent out a survey we created, consisting of Likert scale questions, through their weekly newsletter and a total of 68 residents responded to the survey. Following the survey, a focus group session was conducted and 7 residents attended. The result of our focus group discussion showed that the top three barriers to participation at UNA were; (1) the inability to progress a skill due to a lack of different levels (beginner, intermediate, advanced) of classes available; (2) the inflexibility of the registration system and; (3) difficulty understanding the context and content of the class due to language barriers. Our recommendations were given based on the barriers identified: (1) to provide different levels of class progression (beginner, intermediate, advanced) so participants have the choice to further improve their skills, be challenged and learn; (2) to provide more flexibility and ease of registration by allowing all programs to be available for registration online; (3) to implement a system to provide  5 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   translation for the non-English speaking community through the use of volunteers (UBC residents born/raised here) and a buddy system. Our most significant barrier was the size and population of our focus group. Due to availability, our focus group consisted of 7 adult females, with 6 of them being full-time mothers. Future recommendations include conducting focus groups that have male participants as well as this will result in a better representation of the population in the community.  II. Introduction  The Canadian Government estimates that the Metro Vancouver population is around 4.8 million people with the current median age being 42.2 years of age (Government of Canada, 2017).  Metro Vancouver is a destination where people from many different cultures from all over the world call home. The number of immigrants coming to Canada continues to rise each year, and research has shown that there is little to no information shared about promising inclusion practices between local, provincial, and federal sport and recreation policy makers (Frisby, 2011). It is of no surprise that current community organizations such as, the University Neighbourhood Association (UNA) are finding it difficult to provide sport and recreation opportunities to all ethnic minorities. A large amount of people living in Metro Vancouver immigrated to Canada at some point in their lifetime. When immigrants with different histories, cultures, and needs arrive to global cities, their presence disrupts takenfor-granted categories of social life and urban space, as they struggle to meet the conditions for belonging in their adoptive society (Frisby, 2011). This process requires the active construction of new ways of living together, new forms of spatial and social belonging  (Frisby, 2011). To further complicate things, the definition of recreational “physical activity” differs from culture to culture, let alone person to person (Frisby, 2011). To create a truly  6 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   inclusive environment for all residents of Metro Vancouver to participate and feel welcome is not an easy task.  In this report we will highlight our evaluation of the UNA organization, determine the top three areas that need improvement, and provide recommendations to further improve the UNA’s efforts for the inclusion of certain population groups.   III. Background Information and Literature Review  Background Information  The University Neighbourhoods Association (UNA) services approximately 10,000 residents among five major residential communities at UBC. The non-profit society established in 2002 intends to provide services that encourage a sustainable community life. UBC neighborhoods are representative of the diversity in Vancouver, and consist of significant immigrant populations from various backgrounds including Chinese, Korean, Persian and European. The UNA has two recreational facilities on campus, the Old Barn Community Centre and the Wesbrook Community Centre (opened in 2015). Presently, the recreational facilities have a 10% yearly engagement. UNA staff would like to gain insight into how residents make recreation choices for themselves and their families, barriers to participation, and the role of community centers in the various cultures. This project will inform the UNA of the needs of their residents and provide suggestions to increase physical activity participation rates to promote interculturalism within the community centers.  Literature Review  Although many programs have acknowledged the need for multiculturalism and diversity within physically activity, there is still a need to continually draw attention to the issues involved through research with different cultural groups (Frisby, 2011). In an effort to  7 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   determine what methods can be implemented into the intercultural community and programming at the UNA, this literature review will identify studies which have successfully implemented similar programs to promote interculturalism through physical activity.       A study by Shan and Walter (2014) revealed that through gardening, Chinese immigrants were able to form and build intercultural relationships, create a sense of community and share experiences with other gardeners despite not being able to communicate in English. Researchers concluded that after meeting the same person in the garden, experiences about gardening are exchanged and after several meetings, a relationship is formed (Shan & Walter, 2014). Although the authors only focused on the gardening experiences of Chinese immigrants, it is evident that gardening, as a physical activity, can unite individuals from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds despite language barriers.  From Shan and Walter’s (2014) study, community gardens act as a medium to foster intercultural understanding and bring people into meaningful relationships through shared experiences.  Another study by Sasidharan (2002), analyzed the relationship between different ethnic cultures and recreation choices within urban parks and forests in a community. Researchers concluded that by involving the community in decision-making, planning and implementation of outdoor recreational initiatives allows for a more successful program (Grove, Vachta, McDonough, & Burch, 1993). By allowing input from ethnic minority groups, “they [ethnic minorities] start to develop a sense of ownership and responsibility in their community” (Sklar & Ames, 1985). However, before proper planning can begin, the relationship and meaning needs to be established prior to developing a successful program  (Sasidharan, 2002). For example, within the UNA context, ‘what do community centers mean  to different cultures?’ and ‘do residents plan to utilize that space for recreational activities or leisure?’   8 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Researchers within the School of Kinesiology at UBC analyzed a provincially recognized recreation program targeting immigrants within a large ethnically diverse Canadian city (Forde, Lee, Mills, & Frisby, 2014). Although the program had many strengths, researchers determined that the organization’s role was primarily aimed at reducing barriers that were not always clearly understood so that immigrants and newcomers could assimilate into an existing system offered by the local organization rather than targeted programming for newcomers that took their cultural backgrounds and interest into consideration (Forde et al., 2014). One recommendation for the program was to include community members in administrative and teaching positions within the recreation department. This could ease the implementation of activities most suitable to the immigrant population within the community (Forde et al., 2014). Similarly, within the UNA communities, this study aims to determine and uncover the barriers unique to ethnic minorities to improve physical activity participation rates within the community centres.     IV. Methodology  This study was conducted to promote intercultural physical activity among certain population groups within the UNA community centres. Four separate meetings were held throughout the term with UNA community partners to discuss goals and objectives, project design, and ensure the project remained on schedule.    Research Questions Determination  An online survey using Likert scale questions was sent to residents in the UNA communities using the online monthly newsletter. Questions were developed by our group in collaboration with UNA community partners to receive input from more residents due to the convenient and quick format of the survey. Participant responses were further used to design  9 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   probing questions for focus group discussions. Surveys and focus group methods were used to obtain quantitative and qualitative data to form the recommendations.   Sample Selection and Recruitment  Participants were recruited for our study using the monthly UNA newsletter emailed to subscribed residents. A total of 68 residents participated in the online survey and 7 residents participated in the focus group discussions. All participants are current residents within one of five UNA communities.   Data Collection Process  Questionnaire responses were received online using SurveyMonkey, a free online survey tool. After completing the online survey, residents had the option of providing their contact information to participate in focus group discussions. Participant responses during focus group questions were recorded on an audio recording device and transcribed. Trends within participant responses were determined and analyzed in the discussion to ultimately form the basis of our recommendations.   V. Outcomes, Findings, and Discussion  Quantitative Analysis  Quantitative analysis allows for studies to have greater statistical power, through the measurement of numerical variables (Plonsky, 2015). Quantitative data was compiled through survey-based approach that uses a 5-point numerical scale. Results for the survey were based on two separate demographics that received the survey either through the UNA newsletter or a communication app called WeChat. The findings were graphed for a clearer representation of the data for each individual question (see Appendix A).    10 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Qualitative Analysis  Crawford and Godbey originally suggested that constraints to leisure come in three forms: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural (1987). However, it is also important to note that these three constraints have since been proposed to be a “single integrated model in which leisure participants are viewed as having negotiated a sequential, hierarchical series of constraints levels” (Crawford, Edgar, & Godbey, 1991).    Moreover, the self determination theory suggests that, “humans have an inherent tendency toward growth development and integrated functioning” (Ryan et. al., 2008), and thus require programs that aid them in growing as individuals and developing a sense of competence, autonomy, and social relatedness to encourage attendance and adherence to the programs/activities that they are interested in.     Thus, we propose that the constraints faced by individuals of the UNA fall under one of the three categories proposed by Crawford and Gobey (1987), but are also negotiated by the said individuals and exist in a sequential and hierarchical nature unique to the individual (Crawford, Edgar, & Godbey, 1991). Moreover, to best understand how these barriers translate into health behavior motivation, we propose that constraints can be understood in terms of the self determination theory of health behaviours and related to autonomy, competency, and social relatedness (Godbey, Caldwell, Floyd, & Payne, 2005; Ryan et. al., 2008).  Barrier I. - Progression and Competency  One notable point brought up by two participants is that they felt that they met a barrier of skill level and experienced a lack of progression when looking to participate in community recreation programs provided by the UNA. First, this barrier can be as both an  11 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   intrapersonal constraint (that of personal development) and a structural constraint (lacking classes that may speak to their level of skill) (Crawford & Godbey, 1987).  Individuals who are enrolled in classes that over challenge them may be met with a barrier of competency. Multiple other studies observing children and barriers of physical activity have consistently found that competency is a common barrier to participation (Puglisi, Okely, Pearson, & Vialle, 2010; Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000). Individuals met by the constraint of classes that under or over challenge them may be less likely to develop a sense of competency around said activity.   On the opposite end of the spectrum, individuals who are under challenged may not experience a sense of flow (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014) which may also be an important aspect of continued participation in leisure activities (Godbey et al., 2005). The state of flow occurs when one’s skill level is adequate to meet the challenge provided by the activity, putting the individual into a state of intense enjoyment, focus, and performance (Godbey et al., 2005; Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). Furthermore, self determined forms of motivation and perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness have also been shown to have a positive relationship to “flow.”  To encourage competency, classes should provide environments where individuals  “are not over challenged, but rather helped to experience mastery” (Ryan, Deci, Patrick, & Williams, 2008) and naturally progress in skill level to encourage further personal growth and development.  Barrier II. - Autonomy and Class Scheduling  A number of individuals mentioned that they were met by the barrier of time and flexibility of section/class selection when wanting to attend programs offered by the UNA. Because individuals may feel that they have little control over the classes they are able to  12 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   attend outside of the section they have originally chosen, their sense of autonomy may suffer. Another complaint was that currently, when individuals miss classes they are only able to attend makeup classes, but not others during the week. Additionally, not all classes are available for registration through their online registration system. Therefore, if they are unable to register in person due to various reasons such as being out of town, it can affect their sense of ownership and control over the planning of activities they wish to be part of.  We propose that this barrier is particularly one of structural nature (Crawford & Godbey, 1987). Thus, in response, structural changes such as communicating with individuals by providing a voting or poll system as to which times may work best for them may aid in giving individuals a sense of choice, and thus autonomy. Moreover, by providing greater flexibility for the class/registration system, individuals may also feel that they have more choices, less barriers for registration, and less external influence when deciding to participate in classes.  Barrier III. - Language Barriers  The UNA is a multicultural community, with residents coming from all around the world. One participant brought up that language served as an existing barrier when choosing which classes to take. The specific example given was how the participants son could not understand some of the vocabulary and terminology used by the teacher in his psychology  class.   Language is a form of communication barrier that may prevent individuals to complete tasks that require speaking and understanding another language. The ability to understand creates a sense of belongingness for an individual (Taormina & Gao, 2013). Participants in the focus group shared that having common interests helps break down that language barrier as they are able to communicate through doing their activity.    13 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   To facilitate an environment where language does not restrict anyone from participation, we propose a system where volunteers from nearby University Hill High School or other members of the community help translate or interpret during any activities or classes.  VI. Recommendations  Our recommendation suggestions to further improve participation for certain population groups is based on the three barriers identified:  Recommendation I - Provide Different Levels For Skill  Progression  Participants felt there was no room for improving the skills they have learned as the classes that is of interest to them only provide beginner level classes. Without room for improvement, be challenged and learn, it may cause a loss of motivation and interest for participants to register for classes in the future due to the idea that it is unlikely for them to progress any further than beginner. As one participant stated, “next term if it’s just only beginner level, then there you go. They stop right there and I would never come back”. We recommend the UNA look into offering different levels of classes, such as dance or music, for adults each term so participants know they have the opportunity and the room to improve and build on the skills they have learned from the previous term if they choose to do so. With this option available, it gives participants autonomy, “need to feel like the ‘origin’ of the behaviour and to experience choice and freedom in action” (Chatzisarantis, Biddle & Meek, 1997), because they have the choice to improve their skills if they wish to do so.  As mentioned earlier, the environment in class needs to ensure participants have a natural  14 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   progression in skill level which can encourage personal growth and development, but at the same time to ensure they “are not over challenged, but rather helped to experience mastery” (Ryan et. al., 2008). This relates to what SDT refers to as competence, which is the individuals desires to interact proficiently or effectively with their environment” (Kowal & Fortier, 1999). Through autonomy and encouraging competency, it gives participants the room to pursue and participate in programs that fulfils their needs and interests that they enjoy, resulting in experiencing a sense of “confidence and a source of identity and selfesteem which can enhance their mental health” (Lloyd & Little, 2010).  Recommendation II - Provide More Flexibility And Ease For  Program Registration  When registering for programs, participants expressed frustration with the registration system since not all programs are available to register online. One participant said:  “the time I was back in India, and I wanted to register my son for a music class. I had to call my friend and ask her to go to the (registration), which was inconvenient because it was snowing crazy. So maybe registration, maybe they can open up registration online, people somewhere else can do that (register)”.  Therefore, we recommend more flexibility in registration and make all programs available for registration online as well as the ability to attend make up classes if there is more than one session available each week. By providing autonomy when it comes to registration, it gives participants the feeling of being in control and having a sense of ownership over their choices (Lloyd & Little, 2010) since they are able to plan and know their schedules for the next semester even if they are out of the country.  Recommendation III - Implement A System To Provide   15 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Translation And Interpretation Services   Language is seen as a barrier for some participants as it can be difficult for them to be involved, learn and connect with other participants in class due to difficulties communicating. This can have an effect on social relatedness. According to SDT, relatedness refers to individuals desires to feel connected with others and to experience a sense of belonging in a particular social context” (Kowal & Fortier, 1999). Our recommendation is to provide language support for participants through the use of volunteers who are also interested in that particular program and implement a buddy system, suggested by one of the participants, where a participant is paired up with a volunteer. Volunteers can be recruited from within the UBC community who are born and/or raised here and offer their assistance to their buddies within classes. Apart from the benefits of participating in a recreational activity, the on-going one-on-one weekly interactions and support from volunteers can also foster new relationships, learning of cultures from both ends and increase a sense of belonging for the participant. As a result, “In this process a sense of being respected, understood, and cared for is essential to forming the experiences of connection and trust that allow for internalization to occur” (Ryan et. al., 2008).  In extension of exploring the methods to working around the issue of language barriers, it is very important to ensure participants have a feeling of belongingness. In the  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, one of the five basic needs for motivation is  “belongingness” (Taormina & Gao, 2013). One of the concerns was that people would not know what to do physically if the instruction is done in a language different than their own. Even the acknowledgment of someone's differences in a respectful way will make them feel more comfortable and safe. Another one of the five basic needs is safety. With the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs pyramid of motivation, certain needs need to be met before moving up to the next (Taormina & Gao, 2013). Reviewing all of them: 1) physiological, 2) safety–  16 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   security, 3) belongingness, 4) esteem, and 5) self-actualization. The goal is to reach selfactualization. Coming from a business perspective, in order to have a successful program it is crucial to have these foundations are built into the design of a program (Ugah & Arua, 2011). Especially when the target markets for these programs require self-motivation by the participants to make time to come to classes. In this setting, self-actualization would be where every participant walks out of the class feeling satisfied that they were given the tools they need to participate with a feeling of safety and belongingness (Ugah & Arua, 2011). Overall, having the ability to gain esteem to participate with ease (Ugah & Arua, 2011).     VII. Limitations   The limitation with the most influence of the data collected from the research was the sample size of the focus group. The group was smaller because there was not much availability of residents to participate in the focus group. While this was a limitation, this also allowed for more qualitative feedback allowing the UNA to get specific feedback with 7 participants. Prior to the focus group, the survey that was emailed to the general community and Chinese community covered the quantitative data with 68 respondents. The data gathered from the survey highlighted areas of interest and allowed for a more purposefully designed focus group. Another limitation with the focus group was that there was only one focus group and all the participants were female. This is essentially due to the lack of availability. These limitations prevent generalizability and may not be a true representation of the population.  Once the feedback was gathered from the focus groups, the other limitation is the low funding which can limit the UNA Community Centre from providing solutions to barriers.  The other concern is finding staff and instructors for the UNA Community Centre when it comes to expanding schedules, which was feedback given by the focus group participants.      17 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Recommendations For Future Studies  As mentioned earlier, all our focus group participants were female, with 6 out of 7 participants being full time mothers, therefore, most of their needs and wants are similar to one another. Future focus groups can include male participants to gain other perspectives because there may be needs and wants specific to this group that is not addressed in our study. This also provides a better representation of the population in the community. Based on what P1 said about her daughter being uninterested in community centre programs because her friends are not participating, it can also be helpful to conduct a focus group for youths, ages 12 to 18 years to gain information about what their needs and wants are.    VIII. Conclusion  Our study focused on increasing participation of certain population groups and enhancing intercultural physical activity among residents within the UNA. Through a focus group discussion, we discovered participants felt there was a lack of autonomy and competency when it comes to participation and skill progression due to limited availability of classes that offer differing skill levels (beginner, intermediate, advanced). We also found participants felt frustrated with the registration process, which resulted in a loss of ownership over the planning of their activities. Lastly, language barrier was seen to affect social relatedness for participants where English is a second language. Without addressing these barriers faced by participants, it can have an affect on their growth, motivation in participating in physical activity and forming intercultural relationships with other members of the community. Therefore, the recommendations we have proposed looks to enhance the experiences of the participants to create/improve their feelings of autonomy, competency and social relatedness. First, we recommend providing different levels (beginner, intermediate,  18 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   advanced) of classes for skill progression. Next, we recommend providing more flexibility and ease of registration for participants. Lastly, we recommend on implementing a system to provide translation for the non-English speaking community through the use of volunteers and a buddy system.                                      References  Bedell, G., Coster, W., Law, M., Liljenquist, K., Kao, Y. C., Teplicky, R., ... & Khetani, M.  A. (2013). Community participation, supports, and barriers of school-age children  19 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   with and without disabilities. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 94(2), 315-323.  Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Biddle, S. J. H., & Meek, G. A. (1997). A self-determination theory  approach to the study of intentions and the intention-behaviour relationship in children's physical activity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2(4), 343-360. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8287.1997.tb00548.x  Crawford, Duane W., Edgar L. Jackson, and Geoffrey Godbey. "A hierarchical model of  leisure constraints." Leisure sciences, 13.4 (1991): 309-320.  Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure  sciences, 9(2), 119-127.  Forde, S. D., Lee, D. S., Mills, C., & Frisby, W. (2014). Moving towards social inclusion: Manager and staff perspectives on an award winning community sport and recreation program for immigrants. Journal of Sport Management Review, 18(1), 126-138.  Frisby, W. (2011). Promising physical activity inclusion practices for chinese immigrant  women in vancouver, canada. Quest, 63(1), 135-147.   Godbey, G. C., Caldwell, L. L., Floyd, M., & Payne, L. L. (2005). Contributions of leisure  studies and recreation and park management research to the active living agenda.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2), 150-158.  doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.027  Grove, M., Vachta, K. E., McDonough, M. H., & Burch, W. R. (1993). The urban resources initiative: Community benefits from forestry. In P. Gobster (Ed.), Managing urban and high-use recreation settings (pp. 24–30). Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-163. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station.   20 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Kowal, J., & Fortier, M. S. (1999). Motivational determinants of flow: Contributions from  self-determination theory. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139(3), 355-368. doi:10.1080/00224549909598391  Lloyd, K., & Little, D. E. (2010). Self-determination theory as a framework for understanding  women's psychological well-being outcomes from leisure-time physical activity.  Leisure Sciences, 32(4), 369-385. doi:10.1080/01490400.2010.488603  Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The concept of flow. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 239-263). Springer Netherlands.  Plonsky, L., & Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. (2015). Advancing quantitative methods in  second language research. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. doi:10.4324/978131587090  Puglisi, L. M., Okely, A. D., Pearson, P., & Vialle, W. (2010). Barriers to increasing physical  activity and limiting small screen recreation among obese children. Obesity research & clinical practice, 4(1), e33-e40.  Ryan, R. M., Patrick, H., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2008). Facilitating health behaviour  change and its maintenance: Interventions based on self-determination theory.  European Health Psychologist, 10(1), 2-5.  Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical  activity of children and adolescents. Medicine & science in sports & exercise, 32(5),  963-975.  Sasidharan, V. (2002) Special Issue Introduction: Understanding Recreation and the  Environment within the Context of Culture, Leisure Sciences, 24:1, 1-11.   21 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Shan, H., & Walter, P. (2015). Growing everyday multiculturalism: Practice-based learning  of chinese immigrants through community gardens in canada. Adult Education Quarterly, 65(1), 19-34.  Taormina, R. J., & Gao, J. H. (2013). Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: Measuring  satisfaction of the needs. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(2), 155-177.   Ugah, A. D., & Arua, U. (2011). Expectancy theory, maslow's hierarchy of needs, and  cataloguing departments. Library Philosophy and Practice, (1), 1.                           23 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Participant 6 (P6): Normally when I choose, or plan vocation/activities for myself, first factor to influence my choice would be schedule, family schedule. If I have time for myself, would be the first thing. Second thing, I like doing things together with somebody. I’m a social person. It means the availability of a friend who would do the activity with me and then if it’s a course or something involved in a group, cost will be a factor as well. Participant 4 (P4): First, it has to work out with my schedule. Second, maybe interest or maybe not interest. If (it’s) something that I’ve been trying for a long time and I really want to go and explore that, I will make time for it. So time factor would be a thing, that’s the second priority.  Participant 2 (P2): First would be time. Whether I have time to do something. Second is location because we don’t have a car. So, if I could walk or take transit to the location. Third is cost, because I’m moving into retirement years so, my income will be less. Interest, if I’m interested in – like a flyer for this community centre in Dunbar or Kerrisdale and all of that, and look and see there’s lots of things, but unfortunately they’re never at the time because  I’m still working, they’re never at the time I can go. Lastly, since I’m moving into my senior years, my preference would be other participants like myself who are similar age, but mixed is fine too.  P4: So just touching on your question and answer. Is this question are you participating on UBC campus or it could be off campus?  Moderator 1 (M1): I think just recreational choices in general.  P4: But not limited to campus, right?  M1: No.  Participant 1 (P1): My preference are, again, time and schedule. So sometimes if I look at a program that I like (it) and it’s offered in evening time, like 6 o’clock, 7 o’clock, that’s dinner  24 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   time, then I cannot go out right? I need to cook. So, that will rule out preference. If it’s something that’s in the off time, that’s like dinner or sometimes even in the weekend, usually it’s family time on the weekend. So we’re out, for myself, right? And second one is that I don’t get the continuity of the class, if (it’s) something that I want to learn. Something like a serious hobby that I want to pursue. I would look at, do you offer, after this term, winter term, do you have a spring term, do you have a summer term. It will be good that I continue that interest.  M1: Like a progress.  P1: Yeah, yeah. And then third one is, often time I look at something, maybe, the instructor. So, I like it, for example, this one, the Wesbrook community offers some class, I think they have a free dance class before the fall class began. They have a free trial one, I would usually come and take a look at the class and learn about what other people that has the same interest as me and, you get to know about the instructor and see her teaching style. If it’s something that I like, then I will probably pursue. So, the instructor and the class.  Participant 3 (P3): For me, I think about my needs and my wants. So, what do I kind of, I guess mostly, it’s my wants. Is it a physical activity where I want to do something that I enjoy and I guess maybe part of what I’ve been doing is learning some languages so it’s more unique. I’ll take on what participant number 1 said, is that it needs to be also kind of at the right level, so is there a progression to move on to. So, I’m bound by location, we don’t have a car. And then I need to consider the time factor. So, there’s five of us in the family, so with my sons scheduling and my husband’s scheduling, what can I dedicate to myself.  Participant 7 (P7): I think the interest in, although I have kids, I need to integrate my family schedule. But if the interest is really fortunate to rearrange my schedule. I will try too. And  25 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   also, same as participant number 1, talking about the continuous. If I have the interest, it’s just 3 intensive (classes) and that’s all, then probably will just skip it.  Participant 5 (P5): Because I’m interested in sports games and the UNA community classes, such as dancing class and gym. Running, and I take part in dancing class, but because many ladies here have no partner so I can’t continue the second class. And when I have time, I always take part in the daytime because I have to take care of my son after school. So, I normally go out running, walking with some friends in the morning. Now, sometimes I will take badminton.  M1: Okay, thank you. So, from what I’ve heard, timing, scheduling and just interest was I think the biggest 3 factors that affected how you guys chose community programs and recreational choices. So that’s good. So, the second question we have is how do you make recreation choices for your children? So, you can see up there. Similar to yourself, but now for your children. If you don’t have children or children that are younger or part of this community then you can just say that and we’ll skip you and we’ll move on to the next person.     Q2. How do you make recreation choices for your children?  P7: I have kids in teenage and in that age, it’s not really recreational if they have continuous  [inaudible], it’s become a little bit competitive that age group. I’m looking for the instructors’ qualification for the program who can really help them to shape their skills. And the timing is the second important thing. Like school, they have a requirement, I think 30 mins or 50 minutes every day for PE. Also after school sport teams, but they seldom have qualified coach to sponsor them or to kind of enrich their games. So, if school, UBC is quite handy and if  26 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   community centre has this kind of resource, we, as parents, we would like to see the connection between those together.  P1: I think it’s harder to make choices for my children. When she was younger, I have to consider location because I need to drive her to and from, but she’s bigger now, she’s 12, so she can kinda walk so it’s a little bit better. But then, I found that quite difficult because they usually want to go with their friends. If their friends are interested in something they would come, but if it’s just her, and I said, “I thought you like to do, I don’t know, painting or…but why don’t you go?”, she said “I don’t know because friends are not there”. Another thing is that she, it’s something quite, I wouldn’t say in fashion, like what kids these days, for example they like to code, do little programs. Sometimes they offer in school. They have lots of after school programs already and they have tons of their own interest that they do with their friends. Ruling out all that, the community centre, there’s nothing offered that they really want. In additional that their friends doesn’t even come to do it with her. So, it’s very tough. She hasn’t been participating in community class in awhile. She used to when she’s younger, much more interested in, you know, going out, doesn’t have to be a friendly. They will make friends, at a younger age they’ll make friends faster, they’re okay. But now they’re pre-teen, they already have their circle, they already have their own interest, so anything that  I show her…”I have my own life or interest” so it’s tougher. So, it has to, if anything, I would suggest is that, maybe do a focus group or ask kids that sort of age or teenager or pre-teen,  “what do you guys really want?”, like how do you get other, your friends or interest, so you would take with your friends, things like that.  P2: Participant 2 does not have any two-legged children, just four legged.  P4: So, I have a toddler who is in daycare, so the options are very limited right now at his home, but I still try to bring him out at Wesbrook community centre. For instance, we were here a few weeks ago doing the pumpkin carving which was at 4:30pm so I went to pick him  27 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   up at 4 and right away came here. So, I do manage based on the activities that they are providing to make sure that I take that extra stride to bring him over here. Even if it’s paid or free or I would suggest if there are any events over the weekend, like they have parents and toddler over here. That’s fine, where they come and just play for an hour. But if there are any other events, I would still be able to bring him over during the weekends. So that is why I hope they get more in the community at that young age.  P6: When I choose activities for my children, first factor would be interest. If they are interested in that sort of activity or if it’s pleasurable. We do have a rule in our family that says that they have to have at least one art and at least one sport. But I do not go into what exactly art or what exactly sport they have to have. It’s their choice, they are free to choose and in terms of sport they can do like one semester, they can do ice skating, another semester they can do whatever, skiing, another semester they can do soccer, whatever they choose. Or if they wanna stay in one sort of activity they can stay there and that’s the case with my kids. My younger one she’s into martial arts and she’s been there for years and she loves it. So that’s one activity – she tried different ones she figured out what she likes, she stays in what she likes. My older one he’s not a very sporty guy so he takes something each semester and he alternates those things so he doesn’t get bored. So, for him it’s mostly focusing on being physically active than on progression in certain type of physical activity. For the arts, it’s the same approach. So first it’s interest. Second would be the atmosphere in the group they go. For the older one it’s less critical, probably, he’s 15 already. For the younger one, I’m usually looking, she tries a couple of classes or a couple of activities and I’m usually looking for positive, motivative, friendly, supportive, group and instructor in that group. That activity keeps the self-esteem up on top of getting some physical skills. So, art skills it keeps her selfesteem up. If it getting too competitive, it doesn’t work for both of my kids. They don’t like very competitive activities. So, it would be, second would be atmosphere and instructor.  28 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   The personality of the instructor. Forth would be the time and the location. Because my kids are two different ages, sometimes I have to drive them to the activities so it would be like scheduling would be difficult to make sure that we are on time for every class that they have. And fifth would be the cost, again, so with two kids you have to think that you put in your money wisely.  P5: For my son, first of all, I will, encourage him to take part in activities in school. U-Hill, because it’s a small secondary school and the groups are very limited so he just take part in running group. For example, cross country, just finished. After that, now we are [prepping] for activity outside, such as swimming class, or guitar, or some badminton. Because near our community is very difficult to look for good coach/instructor, so I have to send him to Elizabeth Park to play badminton with his classmates.  P3: For my children, we would do everything in your program, in your guide, if we have the time and if we had the money. They enjoy, you know, a range of things, and there needs to be a nice balance, like you said, the creative, the artistic, the physical, those ones that challenge you a little bit more as a thinker. They have never chosen, and I’ve never chosen an activity for them based on their friendship group because to me they do that sorts of things outside the actual class that we sign them up for. Timing, definitely, there was some classes that I would have liked for my younger son to be in but they were on a bit too late in the evening for him. And then, location again, we tend to choose, for the ease of and the timing as well. The cost, we’re limited by how many clubs we can do through each term.  M1: Did everyone go? Again, timing and location were the biggest ones.  P6: Interest.  M1: And interest. Just to our third question, “What are your barriers to participating in community programs?” So many of you guys said in the last question, so the cost of some  29 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   programs, or the timing, their interest or what participant one said, maybe they’re not with their friends.  P1: Peer group  M1: Yeah, like peer groups, where their interests are different from when they were younger, so what are some barriers that you had noticed in participating in community programs for you guys and your children?     Q3. What are your barriers to participating in community programs?  P1: One barrier is, again, I’ve spoken about this is, the continuity of the program. A lot of program I saw, just offers once. Or if I come back next term, it will offer something similar at that same level. I don’t have a higher level, a continuity of what I learned last term. So that’s something that I’ve been looking for and haven’t found that’s offered. So, something that can kind of keep my interest level and also kind of have my skill or whatever progress, that would be good. The second one is…I just lost my thought…the second one was, maybe it’ll come back to me.  M1: Just a question on the progress. Do you think the, say the instructor, do you think it would matter if the instructor was the same? Or if it was a different instructor teaching a stage 2 of the same activity.  P1: Doesn’t matter, as long as it stays. They know that, for example, dance or guitar, that they know that the previous term they offer beginner, this term, they do it intermediate, next term, advanced and then more advanced.  M1: Just as long as they know where the level is.   30 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   P1: Yeah, something they offer that they know that people have already learned the beginner class and next term if it’s just only beginner level, then there you go. They stop right there and I would never come back.  P6: On my side there are different barriers, but most probably is, good programs are usually popular and good programs fill up quickly. So, if you are not up at night or the morning to register your kid for that program, then you’re screwed, right? And the machine or system is pretty rigid, right. So, if there are high demand, and there are 2 classes for example, just one class/program, the machine is too rigid to open a second one or third one in the semester.  That’s one of the barriers that brings disappointment.  P4: Also, there are few classes where you need to come in in person to register. You can’t register right away when they open registration. So, if you are travelling, like the time I was back in India, and I wanted to register my son for a music class. I had to call my friend and ask her to go to the (registration), which was inconvenient because it was snowing crazy. So maybe registration, maybe they can open up registration online, people somewhere else can do that (register). And my other worry was, changing instructors for classes is sometimes not a, I mean, I was not pleased because I really liked one instructor and the next semester I came and the instructor was gone. So, I requested the person at UNA, but they were not able to negotiate. I don’t know, but I think having, if the class is really full, that’s because they like the instructor, not because they like the class or the concept in general, right. So, if people are requesting for you to keep one instructor, they should at least try and make sure that the instructor is there for upcoming classes.  P7: I think it’s similar to my answer for number 2. Depending on the instructor – when my kids was young they, we need to go out because this community centre haven’t built yet, and at the time, they have different choices and a variety of choices of recreational. That time, my  31 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   focus is location and cost because everything they just want to touch a little bit and to see how deep they are going into. Right now, they are in pre-teen age, there’s some skills they already developed, and their interest go deeper. So, I’m looking for the qualified instructors who can offer better progress.  P5: Because we are a newcomer here, for my family, maybe language is sometimes is a barrier for my family. Because my son, his English is not good enough, I think some activities in the community is very good, I encourage him to take part in psychology club here, every Thursday after school, but he come here and he said he can’t understanding the professional words so he refused to take part. So maybe language.  P2: I have this great desire to play pickleball. But every place that I look at at the moment is during the day and I work during the day. So, I did write to the community centre and they did put me in touch with a very nice lady who listed all the pickleball options but again, they were all, I think one exception which was [inaudible]. So that’s my main barrier, is that, anything that I want to do is usually scheduled during the day when I can’t attend.  P3: I think my main barrier is just the timing. We don’t have a language barrier or anything, most of the activities that are available touch the range of ages that we need. So, I would say basically it’s time, but for us, it’s not to do with the fact that regularly you don’t have a lot of things at different times, it’s just that we’re so very busy.  P1: Just to add, so time and schedule and commitment. I know there are different sections of each program that’s provided. So, you can choose the time that’s fit your schedule, but a lot time, usually it’s a span of 10 classes or 15 classes and for a full-time mom, at home mom, we’re very busy and sometimes we cannot make it. So maybe there should be a flexibility for me, if I choose section 1 of this time, but if I have to miss one or 2 sessions, can I make up on another section? I don’t know, I don’t have a solution or suggestion, on how to solve that.   32 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   P4: There are make up classes, because you pay for that. So, in case in the week, if there are  3 classes and I’ve paid my entire courses for Saturday. But if there are Monday and  Wednesday and I’m not able to attend one of the classes on Saturday, why can’t I attend the classes that are happening on Monday or Wednesday? That’s not a choice. I think make up classes would be.  M1: Make up classes, just to sit in and make up. Yeah, okay. I find it funny how you guys find registration as a barrier because as students registering for classes is, also, we know it’s frustrating.  Moderator 2 (M2): Yeah, we have registration at 10 o’clock and at 9:59, we’re like refresh refresh refresh.  M1: And the instructor, professor, whoever the teacher, that’s important too. If you end up with someone you don’t like, then it makes your life harder. So more on the focus of our class, do you feel it’s easier to meet and get to know someone from a different culture within these classes that you’re taking? Do you find you’re interacting with someone different, like having a different background and different culture than you and how do you feel about that?     Q4. Do you feel it is easier to meet/get to know someone from a different culture through participating in/engaging in physical activity? Why or why not?  P7: I can appreciate where we live here, we have a variety of cultures and like I’m also volunteer in UBC farm. It’s been several years and it’s like, when we meet together it’s all people from different cultures and because that’s the, our, like the same interest bring us together so that’s the starting topic that we talk about and after years and we go deeper with  33 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   others. So, it’s kind of, depends on our interests. When we choose the same topic and we go to there and we, it’s easy for us too.  M1: For sure. We’re really fortunate that’s it’s really multicultural here so it’s really easy to meet people from different backgrounds and cultures.  P2: The [office] that I work in is like a mini united nations so it’s um, I’m always learning, we have, a lot of my co-workers are from different parts of the world and they’ve decided to settle here in Vancouver. And, just the other day I was, one of my co-workers is Polish, and I didn’t know, but she has a, she knows three languages, so I said well how do you say thank you in Polish and she told me and I can’t quite remember it right now, but it’s that, I have a personal interest in language so I usually will say well how do you, or let’s say we have some Muslim co-workers and uh, you know, we’re all trading recipes and things like that. So, it’s very rich and inclusive and I think that’s very important here at UBC and in the UNA. P6: In Polish it’s “Zen Kwee” (Dziękuję Ci) P2: Sorry?  P6: “Zen Kwee” (Dziękuję Ci), thank you  P2: Yes yes  P6: It is wonderful that we can meet people with different cultures, no matter what focus of their class or course we’re taking here or recreational activities that’s created. We can meet people from different cultures. I’m here for 16 years and I realized that I’ve learned about people more here, in 16 years here than in 30 years back in my country, right, because back in my country it was more homogenous environment I would say, and what an eye opening experience for me was that, uh, well, we might be different, but our core values are very similar, very close to each other right and the more we learn from each other, the more wonderful friend, the more open and supportive community we can build here. Just love that one.   34 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   P3: I’ve worked and lived internationally for about 20 years and we’ve always mixed, this is where we were international school teachers, we’ve always mixed with the families, with the children, with the teachers, with the parents and coming to UBC hasn’t felt any different to any of the other communities we’ve been in. It’s welcoming, it’s inclusive, but to me it seems more inclusive.  P5: I think it’s easier to meet people in physical activities, such as I take part in dancing class and there are different people, but we have the same hobby so I can exchange the experience of dancing and we have the same topic and that’s very good to narrow the relationship  M2: So just to add on that, do you find, just the act of doing that activity kind of takes away any, either like language or…for example a language barrier that you may have, if it is a language barrier?  P5: Yes, it [does].  P1: Yeah, I agree with most of the participants ideas. Yeah, it’s very easy you know, you’ve got the same interest and you’re put to a setting in a class and you meet every week once and you know it’s very easy to kind of break down those barriers and understand different cultures. And I think UBC it’s such an environment, there’s so many different cultures, so international already, so it’s not hard at all to meet people from other culture.  M1: Yeah, so similar topics or similar interests that really brings people together from what  I’ve heard from you guys. Personal experience too, you know, I’ve, you know, I can second that. So just to add on to what moderator 2 said about language barriers, our 5th question is how can the community programming lessen the language barriers for you guys? Whether in class or just through activities, you know physical activities, or art classes or anything like that. How can the community program lessen that for you guys?   35 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report     Q5. How can the community programming lessen the language barriers?  P7: I think, [inaudible] hands on because I was helping in elementary school to running a young naturalist club and that time there’s a lot of second language, English as second language student, new immigrant coming, but that’s not a problem for them in the interest of nature science, like even tree identification. It’s everything new to them so they can, they can just focus on, because no matter English as native language or second language, they are all new learner for nature science. Like I think the similar things happen when they have cross country games or basketball games. They do activity and even music the same. So, it’s, if it’s all hands on, then language is suppose (to) not be a really big problem. But if for higher level, for like research, academic, then maybe it’s language, but for community program, should not have research or study group.  P4: [inaudible] program here in the community, they do have people, or their employers who speak, for instance Mandarin and English so there are plenty of parents and grandparents who come from China who bring their grandsons but they’re not able to communicate, but that time those volunteers will help them. So, having these kind of people, people who are helping with the languages who would really like minimize the barrier. And, uh, yeah, but at the same time programs like ESL they have the, so I was one of the instructors organising the last 2 years which would help, they’re helping immigrants you know acclimatize to the society and also minimize the barriers, so I think having such kind of programs will also help. I mean they are there right now [inaudible].  P3: I don’t know, I don’t think it’s the responsibility of the community programming per se to help with the integration of people into the community. But what I found is that, the residents of the UNA we’re kind of opened to everybody but there are people who…maybe  36 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   are native to here who say, well these immigrants ought to speak English, which is, it’s true. You know, we want to integrate you know but at the same, for some people it might be like an age thing, it might be a time thing. You can’t expect that everybody is going to be able to communicate comfortably in English maybe. But it’s kind of, you know, making everybody understand, different kind of comfort levels and abilities and being able to communicate, but I don’t think that’s necessarily the responsibility of the [group here].  P6: I do actually remember when I came back, uh, when I came to North America, it wasn’t  Vancouver at first right. I did have huge language barrier, I could write and read perfectly but  I couldn’t speak [inaudible] to them. Uh, approach [they taught English back in my country]. But, one of the things that helped me to break my language barrier was actually community centre, uh, conversation club. It was conversation club, it was for free, but I really loved it. I could be for hour and a half with people like me who recently immigrated, right and they have similar problems speaking out their thoughts right and it was a level we were comfortable with right and we were discussing simple things. Whatever, like the weather, news in our local community, news somewhere else and we were bringing newspapers with us and you know over the cup of the coffee where we were discussing things and I was realizing, “ooo”, lots of people have similar problems like me like not only language, but you know settlement and other things and it was an icebreaker. So, I actually think that if uh, I don’t, uh, yeah it’s not the community centre’s responsibility, but if community centres offer programs like that, that would be wonderful.  P3: Something that’s not academic.  P6: No, something open.  P3: Like in general, yeah.   37 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   P2: I think one of the things I understand about the flyer is that it’s multilingual and I think that it’s um a start, like a, you know, for, to overcome language barriers. At least everyone can at least read the flyer and see, understand, what programs are available, um, and then go from there. I like the idea of that conversational class, I’ve seen those listed in various community centres and I think it’s a good idea.  P5: Yes, I have the same idea. Because Canada is a immigrate country there are [limited classes] 3 or [inaudible] to learn English. But in our community centre, we have no, we have certain opportunity to practice our English. So, I wish in community centre you have, um, conversation, conversation class, each week have 2 different topic(s) and some volunteers, native language volunteer can help us to understand the culture North America or the how to, uh live here, and [have here], I think it’s good idea.  [inaudible, but content was P4 telling P5 that there are already English classes like that here in the community]  P1: I think maybe one of the things that can help, um doing is that, you know the instructors they can you know kind of recognize there are different levels of language within the class at the beginning. Then, you know, just, I’m just keeping thinking about that participant number 5 was saying that her son refuse to go to the, um, psychology club, because he can’t understand. So, I’m just thinking that if I’m the instructor, I would recognise there are people with less fluent, English speaking ability in the class and maybe he can seek help within the class, like, gotta be somebody that’s close, maybe a Chinese or, I’m sorry, I’m [inaudible] background, but somebody similar to your son’s background, but speak a better language.  They can pair them up or maybe just simply recognise there’s different level of English speakers in the class and you can slow down. You can tell the class that because of that, maybe sometimes, at times I can slow down or give a little bit more attention to the  39 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”):  Within the UNA, there is a lack of participation from the neighbourhood residents at the community centers. We are researching what population we are missing out on, what the purpose of them not participating may be, and generating recommendations on how to increase participation.  Deliverables (“what are we going to create?”):  Create recommendations on how to build up attendance at community centers in the UNA as well as build up overall community engagement in the UNA.  Methods (“how are we going to do this?”):  - Information collection (surveys and focus groups)  - Literature review  - Recommendations   Project Members  Skills/Interests  Role(s) in the project  Availability  Emily Lee  Skills: Organization and presenting  Interests: Fitness (primarily in community centers), KIN student with experience in business school.  Organizer: Enforce tasks be completed on time and polish all written documents.        M: 11:00-12:00 / 3:00-4:00 T: 12:00-3:00  W: 11:00-12:00 / 3:00-7:00  Th: 12:00-3:00  F: 3:00-4:00  Sa: Not available Su: 2:00-7:00  Mahabhir Kandola  Improving recreation participation in communities  Assist with literature review, methodology and focus group  interviews  M/W/F: 1 – Anytime  T: 1 – 4  Th: 5:30 – Anytime  Sa/Su: not available  Marko Gavric  Improving participation for people with disabilities  Assist with focus group interviews and report preparation   Can move schedule around on any day other than Wednesday.  Dannen Johnstone  Skills: Discussion, technology, Research.  Interests: Calisthenics, anthropology, rehabilitation, diet, physical activity and mental health, health psychology.  Communicator: Forward information  to all parties involved during each  phase and communicate  availability/findings to UNA, SEEDS,and TA.  M: 11:00-12:50 / 2:00-5:00  T: 4:40pm-6:40pm W: 11:00- 12:50  Th: 12:30-5:00pm  F: 11-12:50, 3:00-4:00pm Su: 3:30-7:00pm   41 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report    Literature Review  Find previously conducted surveys  -Search surveys specific to the North Vancouver area on what has been done to  increase participation in community centers  Dannen Johnstone  September 28, 2017  Determine key findings from those articles  -Read through the research and highlight relatable methods to increase participation.  All group members  October 5, 2017  Put the key findings together in presentation form for partners     -Put together a point form list of effective methods on building attendance at the  UNA community centers  All group members  October 9, 2017  Survey Design  Online survey and execution  -Put together 10-15  All group  October 16, 2017    questions that can be emailed to the UNA residents via survey monkey.  -Online survey be sent out on October 17th by partners.  members  Jackie (make mandarin version if needed)   Focus group design     -Group to design focus group questions for the  meeting on the week of  October 23rd  All group members  October 23, 2017  Meet with partners  -Discuss focus group questions based on  information received from the survey.  All group members  October 26, 2017 9:30am-11:00am  Conduct Survey  Meet with focus groups     -Meet with focus groups and gather information with intent to form recommendations  All group members  November 2, 2017   Report due  Analyze information and form a report  Based on all findings from literature review, online  survey, and focus groups –  put together a report and presentation  All group members  November 20, 2017  Final meeting with Contact  Person  Meet with Contact Person and get their feedback on  final project  -Schedule meeting  All group members  November 21, 2017  Give final amended project to Contact Person  -Amend project according to feedback from contact  person  All group members  November 21, 2017  Final Edits  Edit report        All group members  November 22 –  December 6, 2017   42 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report   Edit presentation        All group members  November 22-27, 2017  Presentation  Class presentation           All group members  November 28, 2017  Partner presentation           All group members  November 28, 2017    


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