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UBC Emergency Water Supply System : Final Design Report Chung, Alexander; Lauron, Lean; Ng, Justin; Yau, Adrian; Yeung, Aaron; Zhang, Yezi 2018-04-09

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report UBC Emergency Water Supply System - Team 14Alexander Chung, Lean Lauron, Justin Ng, Adrian Yau, Aaron Yeung, Yezi Zhang University of British Columbia CIVL 445Themes: Water, Community, Land April 9, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as wellas their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. UBC EMERGENCY WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM FINAL DESIGN REPORT  Prepared for UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program  CIVL 446 Team 14 April 9, 2018   CHUNG, Alexander  LAURON, Lean NG, Justin YAU, Adrian  YEUNG, Aaron  ZHANG, Yezi   QDS ENGINEERING QDS ENGINEERING    Executive Summary Context and Overarching Objectives As of 2017, the UBC Vancouver Campus hosts approximately 55,000 people per day with long term growth expected to peak at around 70,000 people per day.  A substantial amount of people at UBC, therefore, rely on UBC’s Energy and Water Services Unit to provide them with water. Although UBC owns and operates its own water distribution system, water is currently sourced from the nearby Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD) Sasamat Reservoir in Pacific Spirit Park.  From Sasamat Reservoir, water is directed towards UBC through a series of pipes.  A failure east of this area would essentially hamstring inflows of water into UBC. The overarching objective of our project, therefore, is to design a water supply system that can provide water to the UBC Vancouver area in the event of a Metro Vancouver system failure. Key Issues and Considerations The proposed design is constrained by various technical and regulatory requirements such as those outlined in UBC’s Technical Guidelines, as well as municipal bylaws and regulations, and city ordinances.   Other considerations include land use guidelines, tie-in and compatibility with the existing water supply system, potential for future expansion, and sustainable development. Furthermore, given the scope and size of this project, the constructability of the project and its various infrastructure components is particularly important.  In considering these issues, our    team will discuss economic considerations including capital cost, operating costs, and lifecycle costs. General Methodology The design of our project, in general, followed an iterative solution methodology; to ensure the overall system components were designed cohesively, we adjusted necessary components and parameters of our project to meet all non-negotiable design criteria and to maximize meeting all negotiable design criteria. Key Features of Design Our design features two below grade reinforced concrete reservoirs with a total capacity of approximately 30 million litres, two new watermain alignments, and a booster station.  The design is sized for 72 hours of reduced institutional and residential water usage and 120 hours of emergency and fire-flow water usage (at full capacity). Each of the below grade reservoirs will contain approximately equal amounts of volume and feature a similar design consisting of multi-cell compartmentalization to provide redundancy, an adjustable weir to control inlet flow rates, and a sluice gate to control discharge flow rates.  For ease of access and maintenance, inline gate valves will also be installed at selected locations along the pipe alignment. To hydraulically connect the two adjacent reservoirs, the water levels in each reservoir will be controlled using a hydraulically controlled altitude valve that will function based on differential water pressure.   Furthermore, the two reservoirs will be tied in using a transition coupler    which will eventually connect to a new supply main approximately 1400 meters in length.  In the event of failure of the Metro Vancouver water supply, water will be released to a new booster station that will discharge to a new watermain 1000 metres in length. To ensure potability of water, disinfection will be provided using a sodium hypochlorite injection system.  This system will inject a 12% sodium hypochlorite solution to the water inside the inlet chamber, through a diffuser, using two peristaltic pumps. I    Table of Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 7 1.1 Project Overview .............................................................................................................. 7 1.2 Project Objectives ............................................................................................................ 7 1.3 Site Overview ................................................................................................................... 8 1.4 Member Contributions ................................................................................................... 10 2 Key Design Components ........................................................................................................ 11 2.1 Design Overview ............................................................................................................. 11 2.2 Structural Design ............................................................................................................ 12 2.2.1 Mat Foundation ...................................................................................................... 12 2.2.2 Foundation Wall ...................................................................................................... 13 2.2.3 Superstructure ........................................................................................................ 14 2.2.4 Reinforcement Summary ........................................................................................ 15 2.1 Reservoirs ....................................................................................................................... 16 2.1.1 North Reservoir ....................................................................................................... 16 2.1.2 South Reservoir ....................................................................................................... 18 2.1.3 Level Control ........................................................................................................... 20 2.1.4 Civil Pipe .................................................................................................................. 21 2.1.5 Reservoir Access and Ventilation ............................................................................ 22 2.2 Booster Pump Station .................................................................................................... 22 2.2.1 Pump Specification ................................................................................................. 22 2.2.2 Piping, Fittings and Valves ...................................................................................... 23 2.2.3 Electrical Components ............................................................................................ 24 2.3 New Water Main Alignments ......................................................................................... 25 II    2.3.1 Supply Main Alignment ........................................................................................... 25 2.3.2 Discharge Main Alignment ...................................................................................... 26 2.4 Treatment ....................................................................................................................... 28 2.5 Disinfection..................................................................................................................... 28 2.6 Baffle Walls ..................................................................................................................... 29 2.7 Concrete ......................................................................................................................... 29 2.8 Geotechnical Design ....................................................................................................... 30 2.8.1 Subsurface Conditions ............................................................................................ 30 2.8.2 Foundation Choice .................................................................................................. 31 2.8.3 Liquefaction Potential ............................................................................................. 31 2.8.4 Ground Improvement ............................................................................................. 31 3 Design Standards and Software............................................................................................. 32 3.1 Design Standards ............................................................................................................ 32 3.2 Design Software ............................................................................................................. 32 4 Modelling ............................................................................................................................... 33 4.1 EPANET ........................................................................................................................... 33 5 Technical Design Considerations ........................................................................................... 35 5.1 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 35 5.2 Technical Requirements ................................................................................................. 36 5.3 Regulatory Requirements .............................................................................................. 36 5.4 Design Loads ................................................................................................................... 37 5.4.1 Lateral Loads ........................................................................................................... 37 5.4.2 Vertical Loads .......................................................................................................... 38 6 Technical Design Outputs ...................................................................................................... 39 III    6.1 Supply and Distribution Mains ....................................................................................... 39 6.2 Reinforcement Details .................................................................................................... 39 7 Construction Specifications ................................................................................................... 40 8 Draft Plan of Construction Work ........................................................................................... 41 8.1 North and South Reservoirs ........................................................................................... 41 8.2 Supply and Discharge Main ............................................................................................ 43 9 Cost Estimate ......................................................................................................................... 45 9.1 Detailed Design Costs ..................................................................................................... 45 9.2 Permitting Costs ............................................................................................................. 45 9.3 Construction Costs ......................................................................................................... 45 9.4 Operating and Maintenance Costs................................................................................. 46 10 Schedule ................................................................................................................................ 47 11 Service Life Maintenance Plan ............................................................................................... 48 12 Sustainability ......................................................................................................................... 49 12.1 Design ............................................................................................................................. 49 12.2 Construction ................................................................................................................... 49 13 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 51 14 References ............................................................................................................................. 52 Images ....................................................................................................................................... 53 Appendix A – IFC Drawings ........................................................................................................... 54 A-00 Base Plan ........................................................................................................................... 54 A-01 Site Layout ........................................................................................................................ 54 A-02 North Reservoir ................................................................................................................. 54 A-03 South Reservoir ................................................................................................................. 54 IV    A-04 Reservoir Section and Details ........................................................................................... 54 A-05 Booster Pump Station ....................................................................................................... 54 A-06 Distribution Main .............................................................................................................. 54 A-07 Supply Main ...................................................................................................................... 54 A-08 Reinforcement Details ...................................................................................................... 54 Appendix B – Steel Reinforcement Calculations........................................................................... 55 Foundation Wall ........................................................................................................................ 55 Mat Foundation ......................................................................................................................... 59 Design Roof Load Calculations .................................................................................................. 61 Beam Calculations ..................................................................................................................... 62 Slab Calculations........................................................................................................................ 63 Column Calculations .................................................................................................................. 64 Appendix C – SAFE 2016 Outputs ................................................................................................. 65 Appendix D – Cost Estimate .......................................................................................................... 69 Appendix E – Schedule .................................................................................................................. 69 Appendix F – Geotechnical Analysis ............................................................................................. 69 Appendix G – Liquefaction Analysis .............................................................................................. 70 Appendix H – Air Valve Calculations ............................................................................................. 70    V    List of Tables Table 1. Team Member Contributions. ......................................................................................... 10 Table 2. Cross Sectional Dimensions of Structural Components .................................................. 15 Table 3: Major components and specifications of the north reservoir ........................................ 18 Table 4: Major components and specifications of the south reservoir ........................................ 19 Table 5: Major components and specifications related to civil piping ......................................... 22 Table 6: Material and specification of the pipes and valves to be used in the booster station .. 24 Table 7: Recommended manufacturers for the electrical component of the booster station .... 25 Table 8: Major components and specifications of the supply and discharge main alignment .... 28 Table 9: Proposed Disinfection Method ....................................................................................... 29  List of Figures Figure 1. A map showing the UBC area (site location) and its corresponding pressure zones. ..... 9 Figure 2. Plan view of reservoir system. ....................................................................................... 11 Figure 3: Configuration and components of the north reservoir ................................................. 17 Figure 4: Configuration and components of the south reservoir ................................................. 19 Figure 5: Elevation view of the altitude valve chamber ............................................................... 20 VI    Figure 6: Proposed pump curve plotted against the system demand curve ............................... 23 Figure 7: Supply main alignment and proposed tie-in locations .................................................. 26 Figure 8: Discharge main alignment and proposed tie-in locations ............................................. 27 Figure 9. EPANET Model. .............................................................................................................. 33 Figure 10. Lateral Loads. ............................................................................................................... 38 7    1 Introduction The detailed design of a water supply system at the UBC Vancouver Campus will be described in this report.  The report will begin with an introduction to the project, followed by a description and analysis of various design components and criteria.  Detailed design specifications, construction specifications, a draft plan of construction work, and a cost estimate and schedule will be provided. The introduction section of this report will present an overview of the project, a description of the project objectives, and a site overview. 1.1 Project Overview Our client for this project, UBC SEEDS (Social Ecological Economic Development Studies) Sustainability Program has expressed interest in potential solutions to address the University’s resilience to short and long-term stressors regarding the tenuous water supply that is currently sourced into UBC. Increasing population growth at the UBC Vancouver campus and fettered reliance on sourcing water from the nearby Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD) Sasamat Reservoir in Pacific Spirit Park are the major motivating factors to develop an independent water system distribution system on the UBC campus.   1.2 Project Objectives The project objective is to design a water supply system that can provide water to the UBC Vancouver area in the event of a Metro Vancouver system failure.  Our design is sized for future projected demand at UBC, which is assumed to peak at around 70,000 people per day. 8    Other project objectives include meeting key technical and non-technical issues and constraints of the design.  Furthermore, a project of this scope and size must meet all relevant bylaws and regulations and consider the consequences to any affected stakeholders. Our solution also seeks to integrate UBC Campus-Level Sustainability Plans in conjunction with Unit-Level Sustainability Frameworks developed by the UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program. All relevant aspects of the design, such as distribution networks, pumping stations, and storage tanks will be designed.  In addition, our team will consider design criteria including, but not limited to, cost, constructability, sustainability, and ability for future expansion. 1.3 Site Overview The site location is the Point Grey Vancouver Campus of the University of British Columbia, which is an approximately 4 square kilometer (1000 acre) parcel of land.  Although the focus of our project is the design of a water supply system at UBC, surrounding areas (such as Pacific Spirit National Park) are relevant with respect to existing water distribution infrastructure such as piping networks and available pump stations. Figure 1 below presents an overview of the UBC area (the site location). 9     Figure 1. A map showing the UBC area (site location) and its corresponding pressure zones.    10    1.4 Member Contributions  The contributions of individual team members to the final design report and detailed design outputs are as follows: Table 1. Team Member Contributions. Final Report Sections Person(s) Responsible Title page, executive summary, table of contents, introduction AC Key Design Components LL, AY, YZ Design Criteria YZ Design Standards and Software AY Technical Design Considerations AC Technical Design Outputs AY, YZ Construction Specifications and Draft Plan of Construction Work JN Cost Estimate, Schedule, and Service Life Maintenance Plan AYe Sustainability JN Detailed Design Outputs Person(s) Responsible A-00 Base Plan LL, YZ A-01 Site Layout LL, YZ A-02 North Reservoir YZ A-03 South Reservoir YZ A-04 Reservoir Section and Details LL A-05 Booster Pump Station LL A-06 Distribution Main AY A-07 Supply Main AY A-08 Reinforcement Details AY, YZ Appendix B – Steel Reinforcement Calculations AY, YZ Appendix C – SAFE 2016 Outputs AY Appendix D – Cost Estimate AYe Appendix E – Schedule AYe Appendix F – Geotechnical Analysis AYe Appendix G – Liquefaction Analysis AYe Appendix H – Air Valve Calculations LL   11    2 Key Design Components In this section, the key components and parameters of the proposed design are discussed in detail. The proposed design consists of two below grade reservoirs, a booster pump station, and two new watermain alignments. 2.1 Design Overview  The design consists of two fully buried reinforced concrete reservoirs: the North Reservoir with a length of 72 metres and width of 45 metres, and the South Reservoir with a length of 92 metres and a width of 32 metres. Both reservoirs are 5.0 metres in height. Figure 2 shows a plan view of the two-reservoir system. In the figure, the South Reservoir is on the left and North Reservoir is on the right.  Figure 2. Plan view of reservoir system. Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) baffle walls divide the reservoir into a series of cells and divert the flow of water. Water is supplied to the reservoir through a supply main. The reservoirs then 12    convey water to the UBC water distribution system through a distribution main. The distribution main draws water from a booster pump station located east of the North Reservoir. 2.2 Structural Design The reinforced concrete design of the reservoirs is divided into five main components: the mat foundation, foundation walls, top slab, columns, and beams. Reinforcement for each of the components is designed to provide flexural and shear resistance, with temperature and shrinkage reinforcement provided where necessary. All reinforced concrete designs follow the steps prescribed in “Reinforced Concrete Design” by Brzev and Pao (2006). 2.2.1 Mat Foundation Coduto (2000) states that mat foundations are often used for supporting erratic structural loads, are used when the bottom of the structure is below the groundwater table, and are the industry standard in storage tank foundation design. As such, the foundation of each reservoir consists of a 500 mm thick mat foundation, with a length of 73 metres and a width of 47 metres for the North Reservoir, and a length of 93 metres and a width of 33 metres for the South Reservoir. Design loads are similar for both reservoirs, so the reinforcement designs for the two reservoirs are identical. The foundation was designed using the finite element method (a type of non-rigid method) in SAFE 2016. Outputs from SAFE 2016 including design loads, deflections, and layout of flexural reinforcement (not accounting for code requirements) are shown in Appendix C – SAFE 2016 Outputs. Flexural reinforcement was designed for two loading cases: one with the reservoir empty and one with the reservoir at full capacity. The minimum reinforcement requirement governs the 13    reinforcement design, since the design generated in SAFE 2016 does not meet the minimum reinforcement requirement from CSA A23.3 Cl 7.8.1. The recommended design consists of a layer of two-way 10M@400mm steel reinforcement at the top and bottom of the mat foundation. Detailed design calculations are shown in Appendix B – Steel Reinforcement Calculations. A detail drawing of the mat foundation reinforcement design is shown in Appendix A – IFC Drawings. 2.2.2 Foundation Wall The foundation wall was designed as a reinforced concrete basement wall as per steps outlined in Brzev & Pao, 2006. The walls are modelled as pin supported at the top and bottom, and are designed to resist shear and bending from lateral earthquake loads and earth pressures, as well as vertical loads. As with the mat foundation, since tributary areas and design loads associated with the foundation wall are similar across the two reservoirs, the reinforcement design is identical for both reservoirs. The design consists of two layers of vertical and horizontal distributed reinforcement, with one layer on each side of the wall. For the side exposed to soil, the clear cover is 75 mm (concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth) and for the side exposed to water, the clear cover is 60 mm (concrete exposed to chlorides). The vertical distributed reinforcement provides flexural resistance, and consists of 30M@150mm steel reinforcement. The horizontal distributed reinforcement provides shear resistance, and consists of 15M@200mm steel reinforcement. At the foundation wall and mat foundation interface, and foundation wall and 14    top slab interface, the tie-off development length for flexural reinforcement is 1075mm. Detailed calculations for the foundation wall reinforcement design are shown in Appendix B – Steel Reinforcement Calculations. A detail drawing of the foundation wall reinforcement design is shown in Appendix A – IFC Drawings. 2.2.3 Superstructure The superstructure of each reservoir consists of a system of columns, beam, and one-way slabs. Each reservoir consists of 7 beams running along the length of the reservoir, supported by an array of 49 columns. The layout of the superstructure can be found in Appendix A – IFC Drawings.  Sample calculations can be found in Appendix B – Steel Reinforcement Calculations. Beams in the North Reservoir and South Reservoir are spaced 5.6m and 4.0m respectively. As columns and beams are continuously connected, the beams were analyzed as beams fixed at both ends, span lengths of 9m in the North Reservoir, and 11.5m in the South Reservoir. Flexural reinforcement is placed in areas of tension (see Appendix A – IFC Drawings). For the North Reservoir, beams are 700mm in height and 550mm in width, and use 10-35M flexural reinforcement. For the North Reservoir, beams are 750mm in height and 600mm in width, and use 8-35M reinforcement. Both beams use 10M shear reinforcement.  Columns were analyzed as concentrically loaded columns without lateral loads, as loads from water movement negligible. Columns in both reservoirs are 300mm square columns with 8-30M axial reinforcement. Steel ties are 10M@300mm. At the column and mat foundation 15    interface, as well as the column and beam interface, the tie-off development length for axial reinforcement is 1075mm.  Top slabs were analyzed as one-way slabs running along the length of beams. Thus, the span length of the one-way slabs were taken as the spacing between beams. In the North Reservoir, top slabs are 5.6m wide and 300mm thick with 15m@140mm flexural reinforcement. In the South Reservoir, top slabs are 4m wide and 250mm thick with 15m@170mm flexural reinforcement. Top slabs in both reservoirs will have 15M@250mm temperature reinforcement.  2.2.4 Reinforcement Summary A design summary for our structure is provided in Table 2 below.  Detailed drawings, including cross sections, can be found in Appendix A – IFC Drawings Table 2. Cross Sectional Dimensions of Structural Components Component  North Reservoir  South Reservoir Beams Dimensions: 700x550mm Flexural Reinforcement (top): 10-30M (tension) Flexural Reinforcement (bottom): 5-30M (tension) Shear Reinforcement: 10M  Dimensions: 750x600mm Flexural Reinforcement (top): 8-35M (tension) Flexural Reinforcement (bottom): 5-30M (tension) Shear Reinforcement: 10M Columns Dimensions: 300x300mm Axial Reinforcement: 8-20M Ties: 10M@300mm Dimensions: 300x300mm Axial Reinforcement: 8-20M Ties: 10M@300mm Top Slab Dimensions: 5600x300mm Flexural Reinforcement: 15M@140mm Temperature Reinforcement: 15M@250mm Dimensions: 4000x250mm Flexural Reinforcement: 15M@170mm Temperature Reinforcement: 15M@250mm Foundation Walls Flexural Reinforcement 30M@150mm vertical (2 layers) Shear Reinforcement: 15M@200mm horizontal (2 layers) Flexural Reinforcement 30M@150mm vertical (2 layers) Shear Reinforcement: 15M@200mm horizontal (2 layers) Mat Foundation Flexural Reinforcement: 10M@400mm grid (2 layers) Flexural Reinforcement: 10M@400mm grid (2 layers) 16     2.1 Reservoirs Due to the geometry and geology of the site location, a single 30.4 ML reservoir cannot be physically constructed without intruding into the UBC baseball turf and the Rashpal Dhillon Track & Field Oval. To address this geometric constraint, the proposed reservoir is divided into two smaller below-grade concrete reservoirs. 2.1.1 North Reservoir The north reservoir will be located between the UBC baseball turf and the Rashpal Dhillon Track & Field Oval. It is approximately 72 m long, 45 m wide, 5 m deep and will have a total capacity of 16 ML. This reservoir will be divided into four cells that can be independently isolated as necessary. Each reservoir cell will be equipped with a 2400mm x 2400mm adjustable weir to control the inlet flow rate and a 1200mm x 1200mm sluice gate to control the discharge flow rate. Both the weir and sluice gate will be controlled through a hand wheel located above the reservoir. To minimize the cost associated with valves and pipes, two cells will share a common inlet and outlet chamber. Flows to the inlet chamber will be fed from a 300 mm stainless steel pipe and the water from the outlet chamber will discharge to a 600 mm stainless steel pipe. Stainless steel was selected as the preferred material because of its relatively low corrosion rate compared to ductile iron. Figure 3 shows the proposed configuration of the north reservoir. The major components of the north reservoir are summarized in the table below. 17     Figure 3: Configuration and components of the north reservoir    18    Table 3: Major components and specifications of the north reservoir Component Cell A Cell B Cell C Cell D Inlet Control Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Discharge Control 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 Inlet pipe 300 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 300 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 Discharge Pipe 600 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 600 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 Inlet Chamber Shared between Cell A and B Shared between Cell C and D Outlet Chamber Shared between Cell A and B Shared between Cell C and D  2.1.2 South Reservoir The south reservoir will be located between the UBC Baseball Turf and the boulevard north of West 16th Avenue. It is 92 m long, 32 m wide, 5 m deep and will have a total capacity of 14.4 ML. The south reservoir will also be divided into four cells for resiliency and ease of maintenance.  Similar to the north reservoir, the flow rate through the cells will be controlled by an adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir at the inlet and a 1200mm x 1200mm sluice gate at the discharge. The configuration and size of the inlet and outlet chamber as well as the intake and discharge pipes will also be similar to the north reservoir. Figure 4 shows the proposed configuration of the South Reservoir. The major components of the south reservoir are summarized in Table 4 below. 19     Figure 4: Configuration and components of the south reservoir  Table 4: Major components and specifications of the south reservoir Component Cell E Cell F Cell G Cell H Inlet Control Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Adjustable 2400mm x 2400mm weir gate as per AWWA C560 Discharge Control 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 1200mm x 1200mm cast-iron sluice gate as per AWWA C560 Inlet pipe 300 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 300 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 Discharge Pipe 600 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 600 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 Inlet Chamber Shared between Cell E and F Shared between Cell G and H Outlet Chamber Shared between Cell E and F Shared between Cell G and H    20    2.1.3 Level Control The water level of the north and south reservoir will be controlled using a 300mm Cla-Val altitude valve. The altitude valves will be located upstream of the 300 mm inlet pipes and will function based on differential water pressure. To maintain high levels of stored water inside the reservoirs, the altitude valves are set to open at 90% reservoir volume and close at 100%.  The altitude valve will be housed, below grade, on a 3600mm x 3600mm concrete chamber located upstream of the inlet chamber. The altitude valve chamber can be accessed through a 1200mm x 1200mm access hatch located at grade. Figure 5 below shows the elevation view of the altitude valve chamber.  Figure 5: Elevation view of the altitude valve chamber 21    2.1.4 Civil Pipe The 300 mm stainless steel inlet pipes of both reservoirs will each be tied in to a 300 mm ductile iron pipe using a transition coupler located downstream of the altitude valve. The 300 mm ductile iron pipes will then be tied in to a common 300 mm intake header which will then be connected to the main supply line.  Similarly, the 600 mm stainless steel discharge pipes will be tied in to a 610 mm ductile iron pipe using a transition coupler. The 600 mm ductile iron pipes will then be connected to a common 600 mm discharge header which will be connected to the intake header of the proposed booster station.  To allow isolation during maintenance and repair, inline gate valves will be installed at selected locations along the pipe alignment.  The material and specification of the civil pipes are summarized in Table 5 below.    22    Table 5: Major components and specifications related to civil piping Component Specification Common Intake Header to Reservoir Intake Pipe Connector 300 mm ductile-iron pipe as per AWWA C151 Discharge Pipe to Common Discharge Header Connector 600 mm ductile-iron pipe as per AWWA C151 Intake Header 300 mm ductile-iron pipe as per AWWA C151 Discharge Header 610 mm ductile-iron pipe as per AWWA C151 Fittings As per AWWA C153 Isolation Valves Gate Valves as per AWWA C509 Thrust Blocks As required  2.1.5 Reservoir Access and Ventilation Access inside the reservoir will be provided by a 900 mm by 900 mm access hatch and a stainless-steel ladder. Air vents will also be installed at each cell to allow the reservoir to depressurize. To prevent tampering and contamination of the water inside the reservoir, protective grilles will be installed at each vent opening. Lastly, floor drains connected to a 200 mm PVC pipe will be installed at each cell to allow drainage during maintenance. 2.2 Booster Pump Station Water from the reservoir will be conveyed using an underground booster pump station to ensure that UBC’s distribution pressure requirements are met. The booster pump station will be located directly south of the Rashpal Dhillon Track & Field Oval with an offset of approximately 25 m from the north edge of pavement on West 16th Avenue. 2.2.1 Pump Specification Two 75 horsepower Goulds Model 19BF pumps, each sized to provide 137 L/s at 33m Total Dynamic Head, will be used to convey water from the reservoir to UBC’s distribution system. The pumps were sized based on the system curve of the new water main alignment which 23    connects the reservoir to the proposed tie-in point located in between University Boulevard and Agronomy road along Westbrook Mall. The pumps will be configured in parallel and will follow a duty-standby operation sequence. Each pump will also be equipped with variable frequency drives to improve its efficiency and decrease power consumption. Figure 6 below shows the pump curve of the proposed pump overlaid on the system demand curve.   Figure 6: Proposed pump curve plotted against the system demand curve  2.2.2 Piping, Fittings and Valves The 600mm discharge header of the reservoirs will be connected to the 600mm intake header of the booster station.  Flow from intake header well then be branched to the pumps through two prefabricated 600mm x 250mm tee stainless steel spool. Both pumps will discharge to a common 600mm discharge header which is connected to the 600mm distribution main. Flow 24    isolation within the booster station will be provided using a combination of DeZurick gate valves and butterfly valves. To prevent backflow, a 300mm Valmatic check valve will be installed at the downstream pipe of each pump. Surge relief valves will also be installed at the inlet header to relieve pressure in the event of a water hammer. Furthermore, Victaulic couplings will be installed at selected joints to allow easy removal of valves and equipment during maintenance. Valves to be used at the booster pump station will be externally epoxy coated. All piping, valves and fitting and other wetted components will be constructed using ANSI/NSF 61 approved materials. The material and specification of the pipes and valves for the booster station are summarized in Table 6 below.  Table 6: Material and specification of the pipes and valves to be used in the booster station Component Specification Intake Header 600 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 Discharge Header 600 mm stainless steel as per AWWA C220 Intake Header Isolation Valve 600 mm DeZurick butterfly valve Discharge Header Isolation Valve 600 mm DeZurick butterfly valve Isolation Upstream of Pump 250 mm DeZurick gate valve Isolation Downstream of Pump 300 mm DeZurick gate valve Backflow Prevention 300 mm Valmatic check valve  2.2.3 Electrical Components The booster pump station will have a Motor Control Centre (MCC) equipped with a circuit breaker, automatic transfer switch, Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), variable frequency drives and Human Machine Interface (HMI) control. Also, a diesel operated standby generator will be installed on a secured kiosk, above grade, to provide backup power in case of a power 25    failure. Table 7 below summarizes the recommended manufacturers for the electrical components of the booster station. Table 7: Recommended manufacturers for the electrical component of the booster station Component Recommended Manufacturers Motor Control Centre Eaton Automatic Transfer Switch Eaton Uninterrupted Power Supply  Toshiba 200VA Human Control Interface (HMI) and PLC Allen-Bradley  Standby Diesel Generator Cummins All electrical work and components will be as per the Canadian Electrical Code.  2.3 New Water Main Alignments To hydraulically connect the proposed reservoir to the existing water distribution system, two new pipe alignments are proposed.  2.3.1 Supply Main Alignment This supply main connects the existing Metro Vancouver (GVRD) supply line to the intake header of the proposed reservoirs. The supply alignment runs along West 16th Avenue and is approximately 1400 m long. Based on the pipe length, flow rate and pressure distribution requirement, a 300 mm ductile iron pipe will be used for the supply main. The proposed supply main will have two key tie-in locations. The first tie-in location will be a branch tie-in to the existing 610 mm high pressure feeder main at the intersection of Cleveland Trail and 16th avenue. This connection will branch water going to the high-pressure feeder main to the proposed supply main. The second tie-in location will be a tie-in to feed the proposed reservoirs. The west end section of the supply main will be tied in to the 300 mm intake header 26    of the proposed reservoirs.  Figure 7 shows the proposed alignment and tie-in locations of the supply main.  Figure 7: Supply main alignment and proposed tie-in locations  2.3.2 Discharge Main Alignment This discharge main connects the proposed reservoir to UBC’s main distribution line. The total length of the discharge main alignment is approximately 1000 m. This alignment will cut through the south area of the Rashpal Dhillon Track & Field Oval where it turns north following Westbrook Mall. The proposed discharge main will have three key tie-in locations. The first tie-in location will be a tie-in to the discharge header of the booster pump station. This tie-in directs water from both reservoirs to the discharge main. The second tie-in location will be a branch tie in to the existing 300 mm feeder main located south east of the Rashpal Dhillon Track & Field Oval. This 27    connection will supply water to the low pressure zone through an existing Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) located directly south of the proposed tie-in location. The last tie-in location will be a tie-in to the existing 610 mm feeder main located between University Boulevard and Agronomy road along Westbrook Mall to supply the high pressure zone. Based on pressure requirements, design flow rate, and existing infrastructure, a 610 mm ductile iron pipe will be used for the discharge main. Figure 8 shows the proposed alignment and tie-in locations of the discharge main.  Figure 8: Discharge main alignment and proposed tie-in locations Furthermore,  Table 8Table 8 below summarizes the components and specifications of the proposed supply and discharge main.   28    Table 8: Major components and specifications of the supply and discharge main alignment Component Supply Main Discharge Main Pipe 300 mm ductile-iron pipe as per AWWA C151 610 mm ductile-iron pipe as per AWWA C151 Air Valves As per AWWA C512 (Typical manufacturers include Valmatic and Cla-Val) Fittings As per AWWA C153 Isolation Valves Gate Valves as per AWWA C509 Thrust Blocks As required  2.4 Treatment Disinfection will be provided using a sodium hypochlorite injection system. This system will inject a 12% sodium hypochlorite solution to the water inside the inlet chamber, through a diffuser, using two peristaltic pumps. The sodium hypochlorite system was selected as the preferred chlorine booster because of its low cost and reliable dosing accuracy. The sodium hypochlorite injection system will be located on a vault chamber adjacent to the inlet chamber of each reservoir cell. A total chlorine analyzer will be installed post-reservoir to monitor chlorine residuals at the discharge location. Chlorine concentration readings from the chlorine analyzer will then be used to determine the chlorine dosing rate at the inlet chamber. Both the sodium hypochlorite pump skid system and 12% sodium hypochlorite solution will be sourced from ClearTech. 2.5 Disinfection Prior to commissioning, the water supply system will be disinfected using the methods summarized in Table 9 below. 29    Table 9: Proposed Disinfection Method System Method North and South Reservoir Chlorination Method 1 as per AWWA C652 Supply and Discharge Main Slug Method as per AWWA C651 Pipe Headers and Connector Continuous Feed Method as per AWWA C651  2.6 Baffle Walls FRP baffle walls control the flow of water to provide the necessary concentration and contact time (CT value) required for adequate secondary disinfection via chlorination. The use of FRP is a more sustainable option over concrete, as it allows the overall reduction in concrete use. Prefabricated FRP panels also allow for easier construction assembly. FRP Corrugated Baffle Walls manufactured by NEFCO Systems will be used. Detailed drawings can be found on the manufacturer’s website.  2.7 Concrete  The reservoirs will need to be constructed from low permeability concrete to prevent the absorption of water and chloride (from disinfection), which allows for better durability performance. The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in the concrete mix will be used to achieve these properties. SCMs are a variety of industrial by-products that can be used as a cementing agent in concrete production. Thus, the use of SCMs produces sustainable concrete as it uses recycled materials in place of cement.  Lafarge Canada’s Ultra Series Ready-Mix will be used, or an equivalent ready-mix approved by the Engineer. The Ultra Series mix shall include the use of silica fume and fly ash to achieve low 30    permeability. Uniformly graded aggregates shall be also be used to achieve low permeability. The concrete must have a 28 day strength of 25 MPa.   2.8 Geotechnical Design No significant changes were made to the geotechnical design of the reservoir aside from the calculation of the lateral loads and earthquake loads found in the corresponding section of the report. However, the current geotechnical parameters were extrapolated from geotechnical investigations that were not site specific. The assumed geotechnical parameters pose a risk since the actual site conditions could be completely different due to the spatial variability of the subsurface.  This risk can be mitigated if a site specific geotechnical investigation was conducted to improve the geotechnical parameters. Improved geotechnical parameters could lead to cost savings for the client since there would be less risk of encountering unforeseen subsurface conditions during construction. 2.8.1 Subsurface Conditions A geotechnical model was developed using data from Piteau Associates’ 2002 hydrogeological and geotechnical assessment of UBC. The geotechnical model was interpolated from drill holes TH01-04 and BH63-4 as they were the closest drill holes to the site. The site is assumed to contain glacial down to around 15 m. The excavation of the reservoir is planned to be 5 m deep, therefore, only glacial till will be encountered during the excavation. It is recommended that a site specific geotechnical investigation be undertaken before construction begins to fully understand the site’s subsurface conditions. 31    2.8.2 Foundation Choice The foundation of the reservoir will be a shallow foundation due to the ease of construction and high compatibility for a reservoir. The slab will be 500 mm thick and span the entire area of the excavation. The high bearing capacity of the glacial till will be sufficient to carry the loading of the reservoir. 2.8.3 Liquefaction Potential The liquefaction potential of the site was determined via the liquefaction triggering method proposed by Youd et. al (2001). The results of the liquefaction analysis, found in Appendix G – Liquefaction Analysis, concluded that the depth at which the reservoir will be constructed at is expected to liquefy if a magnitude 7.5 earthquake occurred. Therefore, the site’s liquefaction resistance must be increased in order for the site to be resilient during liquefaction events. It is recommended that ground improvement be conducted at site before construction in order to increase the liquefaction resistance of the site. 2.8.4 Ground Improvement As the site is located in a location that is very sensitive to high noise and vibrations such as the nearby school and football field, it is recommended that ground improvement method that emits low noise and vibrations be undertaken. Vibro-replacement with stone columns or jet grouting would work well for the ground improvement at this site as they are effective at improving the liquefaction resistance of glacial till as well as being relatively quiet and exerts less vibrations compared to other methods.   32    3 Design Standards and Software 3.1 Design Standards Design loads were specified according to the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) 2015, Division B, Part 4 (Structural Design). In particular, dead, live, rain, snow, and earthquake load combinations were developed based on specifications outlined in NBCC 2015. The concrete reinforcement design adheres to Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A23.3 guidelines, which is generally consistent with American Concrete Institute (ACI) guidelines. The hydrotechnical design adheres to the UBC Technical Guidelines and specifications outlined in American Water Works Association (AWWA) guidelines. Construction standards and methods adhere to UBC Technical Guidelines as well as MMCD guidelines.  This includes work such as excavation, pipe installation, and placement of fill material. 3.2 Design Software To perform structural analysis, RISA-2D was used to preform preliminary analysis of the beam system to determine the shear and bending moment profiles. SAFE 2016 was used to design the steel reinforcement of the mat foundations, and check deflections to inform design of the mat thickness. For the hydrotechnical analysis, EPANET was used to model system pressures and flow rates in the UBC water supply system with the proposed reservoirs, booster pump station, and distribution and supply mains. Microsoft Excel 2016 was used to develop the pump and system curves to select the optimal pumps for the booster pump station. AutoCAD Civil 3D was used to develop all IFC design drawings, including drawings for the reservoir system, booster pump station, and distribution and supply mains. 33    4 Modelling  4.1 EPANET An EPANET model of the proposed water distribution system was developed to ensure that the system complies with UBC’s pressure distribution requirement. The system was modelled using the 2015 Maximum Day Demand (MDD) as provided by the client.  Figure 9 below shows the pressure distribution within UBC’s water distribution network once the proposed water distribution system is commissioned.    Figure 9. EPANET Model. 34    Based on modelling results, pressures within the system ranges between 43.5 psi and 120.2 psi. For the low pressure zones, UBC’s minimum pressure requirement is approximately 40 psi. Therefore, the proposed system meets the client’s pressure distribution requirements.   35    5 Technical Design Considerations Various technical design considerations were judiciously examined during the design of our water supply system.  During the detailed technical design of our project, our team focused on the following three focus areas: 1. Structural and Earthquake 2. Geotechnical 3. Hydraulic 5.1 Analysis In considering the three focus areas detailed above, our team aims to build a simple yet robust design that increases constructability while reducing costs. Regarding the structural and earthquake focus area, our technical design considered the possibility of natural disasters and the project’s ability to maintain its resilience.  Henceforth, the construction of baffle walls was incorporated to reduce possible structural damage. In the geotechnical focus area, our team investigated liquefaction and foundation issues.  The relevant design, therefore, accounts for such issues by construction using appropriate soil and cover during construction. Finally, hydraulic consideration includes issues regarding pressure zones and tie-in locations.  In completing our design, our team built the piping network and ran a simulation in EPANET to ensure its reliability. 36    Detailed justification and considerations for each of the key component’s technical considerations can be found in each of the project component’s respective section. 5.2 Technical Requirements Designs need to meet certain requirements in order to provide the University of British Columbia with a temporary supply of water in the case where water supply provided by Metro Vancouver is disrupted. It was determined by the design team that the following technical requirements must be met in order to meet the institution’s needs for water. These are: 1. Supply institutional and residential average day demands (ADD) for 72h with reduced research, washroom, and shower use, for the full build-out population of 70,000 people per day under UBC’s long term growth strategy.  2. Supply UBC Hospital with water to provide critical functions that support public health and life safety for 120h. 3. Supply fire flows for 3h per day for 5 days (15h). 4. Supply the minimum balancing volume, to account for inflows and outflows from the reservoirs during normal operations. 5. Supply water for drinking and sanitation for the approximately 17,000 residents within a 1h walk from UBC, for 5 days (120h). The total reservoir volume required to support these functions is 30.4 million litres. The design life shall be 75 years.  5.3 Regulatory Requirements All designs will be located within the University of British Columbia on the University Endowment Lands (UEL). The UEL is an unincorporated area that is located to the west of the 37    City of Vancouver and is part of Metro Vancouver. The UEL is not part of the City of Vancouver and therefore, construction located within the UEL is not subject to Vancouver Building Bylaw. It is however under provincial jurisdiction and must follow the British Columbia Building Code. The University of British Columbia also has established its own University of British Columbia Technical Guidelines that establish a minimum for which the designs must meet. The design is subject to and must meet or exceed the provisions outlined in both the University of British Columbia Technical Guidelines as well as the British Columbia Building Code. Although the design is does not need to meet the Vancouver Building Bylaw, it is recommended it is given consideration as infrastructure compatibility with the City of Vancouver may be required. Additionally, all construction must follow safe work practices as provincially mandated in the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation in force under the Workers Compensation Act as the UEL is within the inspection jurisdiction of the WorkSafeBC.  5.4 Design Loads  5.4.1 Lateral Loads  Lateral earth loads were determined by the active earth pressures method. The wall of the reservoir was assumed to be a retaining wall. The surcharge load was taken to be the weight of the top soil. The active earth pressures from the soils and the surcharge load were then calculated and combined to find the total lateral loads. The lateral earth loads range from 15.7 kPa at the top of the reservoir to 127 kPa at the bottom of the reservoir and can be approximated by a linear relationship along the height of the reservoir. Earthquake Loads were calculated using the online design tool, Jabacus, which is based on the Equivalent Static Method. A Site Class C was assumed. A diagram of the lateral loads is shown in Figure 10. 38     Figure 10. Lateral Loads. 5.4.2 Vertical Loads  Vertical loads were determined using the National Building Code of Canada 2015. Dead load was taken as the sum of the self-weight of concrete and weight of top soil (designed to be 300mm for landscaping purposes). As the surface of the reservoir will be available to public access, the live load was determined to be 4.8kPa based on the “Recreational Area” occupancy defined by the UBC Technical Guidelines. Snow and rain load was determined using coefficients provided by Jabacus. The governing load combination was determined to be 23.3 kPa for both reservoirs. Please refer to Appendix B – Steel Reinforcement Calculations for detailed calculations.   Earthquake Load Lateral Earth Pressure 39    6 Technical Design Outputs 6.1 Supply and Distribution Mains IFC drawings showing the horizontal and vertical alignments of the supply and distribution mains are found in Appendix A – IFC Drawings. The drawings consist of a plan view and profile view. The plan view shows the horizontal alignment of the proposed water mains and tie-ins with the existing UBC water distribution system. The profile view shows ground elevations, pipe invert elevations, and the cover over the water main along its length. 6.2 Reinforcement Details Details showing the concrete reinforcement design for the mat foundation, foundation walls, top slab, columns, and beams are included in Appendix A – IFC Drawings.   40    7 Construction Specifications Specifications for construction should follow all UBC Technical Design Requirements as well as the Master Municipal Construction Design (MMCD) Platinum edition. All testing should follow CSA standards and should be conducted by individuals approved by the Canadian Council of Independent Laboratories.   41    8 Draft Plan of Construction Work  8.1 North and South Reservoirs Before work can begin, an environmental sweep must be conducted that encompasses all areas where work will be occurring.  Then all utilities must be daylighted by BC One Call and marked. After that, grubbing and stripping can begin where all vegetation and topsoil will be removed from the excavation footprint and then temporarily stored on site for use after. This work will be done with excavators and dump trucks. The excavators should excavate to foundation level the foot print with an additional 1.5m excavated around the perimeter used to facilitate subsequent work. The excavators will excavate using the strip method and bench loading the dump trucks where possible in order to maintain order and save time. Excavated material that is not topsoil will then be hauled off site leaving onsite only the material required for backfilling. Before the work on the foundation can begin, a ground inspection by an engineer must be conducted to ensure that the ground is free from organics and has competent soil. All organics must be removed and all soft spots must be sub excavated and replaced with competent soil. After the ground passes the base inspection, the soil needs to be compacted and pass soil density testing by a qualified inspector. Formwork for the foundation will then be erected around the perimeter of the foundation. Rebar for the foundation slab will then be placed. The rebar and formwork must be inspected before any concrete can be poured. Concrete must be tested for slump, air, temperature, and compressive strength before placement. Failed concrete cannot be placed until it passes testing. All concrete must be tested before the placements of superplasticizer and all concrete must be poured within its expiry time. Concrete cylinders casted for compressive strengths tests must be stored onsite for 24 hours before 42    being stored in the lab. Concrete will be placed using a concrete pump truck. Placed concrete will be finished after pouring and must be covered if there is rain. The floor slab should be poured as one unit in order to ensure there are no joints that can leak.  After the floor slab is completed, work can begin on the concrete reservoir walls as well as reservoir columns. Rebar will be erected and inspected and after that, form work will be installed and inspected. Waterstop must be installed between the floor slab and the wall slabs in order to prevent leakage in the joints. The concrete will be placed inside the formwork using a pump truck and vibrated due to the depth of form. Care will be taken in order not to over vibrate the concrete causing segregation. The concrete formwork must remain in place for several days until the concrete is set enough for removal. After the walls and columns are in place and set, work can begin on the reservoir cap. Formwork can be installed for the cap followed by rebar placement for the concrete. Waterstop must be installed between the reservoir walls and the top cap in order to prevent leakage through the joint before the concrete for the top cap can be poured. The formwork must be left in place until the concrete is set enough for its removal. Piping will be installed for supplying and draining the reservoirs and then the reservoir will be filled and left for testing. Perimeter drains must be installed along the exterior of the foundation. A trench will be dug around the perimeter and filter cloth must be placed from one side to the next. Granular crush is then placed in the trench and weeping tile is installed. The perforated pipe weeping tile shall be covered in a filter sock to prevent soil from entering into the weeping tile. The weeping tile should connect to a perculation trench that drains away from 43    the foundation. Crushed granular will be then placed on top of the weeping tile until the trench is level. The reservoir walls will be coated with a polymer waterproofing membrane to prevent water ingress into the reservoir. The walls will be cleaned in order to remove impurities and loose particles and then the polymer membrane will be placed. After the polymer is dried, the reservoir will be backfilled along the wall with native soil stockpiled onsite from the excavation. Hatches will be installed on the reservoir cap for access and then polymer membrane will be installed on the cap using the same method as listed above. Soil will then be placed around and on top of the reservoir with a final layer of native top soil previously stored on site being placed along the disturbed portions of the site. Finally, the top soil will be hydroseeded in order to prevent erosion, facilitate water infiltration, and return the site back to its previous condition. 8.2  Supply and Discharge Main Before work can begin, an environmental sweep must be conducted that encompasses all areas where work will be occurring. More details about the environmental requirements can be found HERE. Then all utilities must be daylighted by BC One Call and marked. Steps must be taken in order to protect the public from the excavation. Fencing and signs must be installed around the perimeter of trench excavation. For sections that are aligned parallel with roads or right of ways, it is expected that there will be existing utilities such as sewer mains, gas lines etc. Trenching must be completed as per UBC Technical Guidelines Section 3.2 and MMCD Section 02666. 44    Once the trench has been excavated to the specified depth, a ground inspection must take place ensuring that the ground is competent. Granular bedding shall be placed as per UBC Technical Guidelines Section 3.3 and MMCD Section 0266. Bottom thickness of the granular bedding shall be 100mm for the supply main and 150mm for the discharge main. Pipe installation will adhere to UBC Technical Guidelines Section 3.4 and MMCD Section 02666. The shall be lowered into place by an excavator and connected into place using push on spigot type joints. The placement of pipes will go in one direction from one end to the other as to avoid the water main distorting in the middle due to soil loads. The pipe must be inspected by a Mechanical Distribution Engineer and UBC Energy & Water Services Head Plumber following UBC Technical Guidelines Section 3.8. After the pipes have passed inspection, the pipe can be surrounded and covered by the bedding granular. For granular fill, native material can be used provided that it is free from rock greater than 25mm. A sieve test will be conducted in order to determine if the native material is suitable for backfill. Backfill shall be compacted to 98% of standard proctor dry density and tested. Lifts shall not exceed 100mm in thickness. For trench sections that are parallel to a road, road sub-base will placed on top of trench backfill and compacted and tested. Road base will then be placed and compacted with asphalt being paved on top of the road base.    45    9 Cost Estimate The total costs for this reservoir has been estimated at $21,899,000 with a yearly operational and maintenance cost of $517,430. The total cost includes detailed design, permitting, project management, construction and annual yearly operational and maintenance costs. 9.1 Detailed Design Costs The estimated fee for the detailed design of this project was $99,484. The deliverables for the detailed design included a conceptual design and a design report. A breakdown of the estimated fee for the detailed design can be found in the project proposal. 9.2 Permitting Costs This project does not require an environmental assessment. Since the permitting phase follows the environmental assessment phase per Chilibeck (2017), permits from a federal and provincial level will not apply as there is no environmental assessment. However, $100,000 as a contingency in case any other permitting issues arise. 9.3 Construction Costs A detailed list of construction costs have been provided in Appendix D – Cost Estimate. This cost estimate is a class C level estimate and is a blended cost that includes labour and materials. The estimated construction costs for this underground reservoir is $21,899,000. The costs have been compiled from RSMeans and other industry sourced references. Quantities have been calculated from the drawings provided in the appendix. Concrete costs are expected to be the major cost for this project because of the large quantity to be used as well as its associated 46    cost. A lump sum for ground improvement has been included due to the liquefiable potential of the site.  9.4 Operating and Maintenance Costs Yearly maintenance and operating costs have been calculated to be $517,430 per year. A detailed cost calculation has been included in  Appendix D – Cost Estimate. The numbers for the power consumption has been determined from technical specifications. The rate of 12 cents per kWh for the electricity cost has been determined from BC Hydro’s preferred rate for industrial users. The costs for water treatment, maintenance and operations have been determined from technical manuals.     47    10 Schedule A final schedule has been developed for this project based on a start date of May 1st, 2018. The schedule has been developed based on major components of the project. The Gantt chart can be found in  Appendix E – Schedule . The schedule has been based on a work schedule of 5 days a week with an initial starting workforce of one crew. Additional workforces will be added as needed as additional components of the project begins. It is anticipated that the majority of the construction will be completed by October 28th, 2019. Minor details such as surveying and other miscellaneous items have been excluded as these will be conducted within the construction timeframe.     48    11 Service Life Maintenance Plan A preliminary plan has been developed for the maintenance of the reservoirs and booster stations. The two reservoirs and booster stations are estimated to have a long service life based on their design and material quality. The long service life of the reservoirs and booster stations can be maintained as long as water quality testing is conducted on a biweekly basis and regular pump maintenance is conducted on the pump station. The associated costs with these maintenance tasks can be found in Appendix D – Cost Estimate.   49    12 Sustainability Environmentalism is an important priority for this project. The goal is to ensure that steps are taken in all aspects of the project from its design as well as construction.  12.1 Design Environmentalism has been designed into the project from the very beginning. Care was taken to ensure that both economic viability and environmental protection were assessed during the design phase. A concrete reservoir was selected because the structure can be buried underground after construction. This enables the land use of the site to remain the same as before construction. Additionally, grass will be planted to make sure that the site will blend in with its environment and become part of the ecosystem. Top soil removed in excavation will reused onsite where possible and the site will be hydroseeded in order to prevent erosion, facilitate water infiltration, and promote ecology. The land above the reservoir can be used as a park space fostering physical activity and exercise which promotes a health in the community. Additionally we have designed for a rain garden to be placed on top of the structure that will encourage healthy eating. The promotion of public and community space will foster community bonding within the local area.  12.2 Construction Construction can contribute to emissions and ecosystem damage and steps need to be taken in order to minimize these effects. An environmental sweeps must be carried out on site before any work can begin. The sweeps will look for wildlife that must be removed off site or a may require a buffer zone in which no work can be done. Machinery that is stationary for over 12hrs 50    will require drip trays underneath them in order to catch any fluids that may leak from them. Equipment will be serviced on time and in good running condition to ensure that there are no leaks and operating efficiently. There will be a no idle policy on site to further reduce emissions. Spill kits must be in every piece of machinery with drip trays being readily available should they be needed. Garbage on site must be disposed of in their proper containers and products that can be recycled will be recycled in order to reduce waste generated by construction. Native material suitable for construction must be used in preference to importing material from offsite. This is ensure that the ecosystem of the site remains as close to its original condition as possible. During construction, erosion control must be implemented where necessary. Environmental monitoring will occur during construction in order to make sure that the environmental policies are being followed.       51    13 Conclusion Our preferred design features two below grade reinforced concrete reservoirs with a total capacity of 30.4 million litres, two new watermain alignments, and a booster station.  The design is sized for 72 hours of reduced institutional and residential water usage and 120 hours of emergency and fire-flow water usage (at full capacity).  The capital cost of the system is approximately 20 million dollars, with a scheduled start date of May 2018 and project completion scheduled for September 2018.  • The north reservoir is located between the UBC baseball turf and the Rashpal Dhillon Track & Field Oval. It has a capacity of 16 million litres and is 72 metres long, 45 meters wide, and 5 meters deep. • The south reservoir is located between the UBC Baseball Turf and the boulevard north of West 16th Avenue.  It has a capacity of 14.4 million litres and is sized at 92 metres long, 32 meters wide, and 5 meters deep. The reservoirs will be hydraulically connected and feature a similar design consisting of multi-cell compartmentalization, an adjustable weir to control inlet flow rates, and a sluice gate to control discharge flow rates.  A sodium hypochlorite injection system will be used to disinfect the water in the system. Two new watermain alignments will be built to facilitate proper distribution and pressurization of the water supply system; they are 1400 metres and 1000 metres in length, respectively.   52    14 References Cla-Val. (2018). AutoCad Drawings - Globe-Angle, 12 inch (.dwg). Retrieved from https://www.cla-val.com/autocad-drawings DeZurick (2018). CAD DRAWINGS DOWNLOAD - AWWA Butterfly Valves (.dwg). Retrieved from http://www.dezurik.com/cad-drawings-download/ DeZurick (2018). CAD DRAWINGS DOWNLOAD - Slurry Knife Gate Valves (.dwg). Retrieved from http://www.dezurik.com/cad-drawings-download/ Goulds Water Technology (2018) . Goulds Water Technology > Multi-Stage Pumps > eSV Series Vertical > 60 Hz > Pump & Motor (.dwg). http://www.catalogds.com/db/service?domain=goulds&command=showProduct&category=esv-60-pwm&product=1SV8CB4E4 Jabacus. Earthquake Load Equivalent Static Method (NBC 2010). Retrieved from http://jabacus.com/engineering/load/seismicload.php Jabacus. Roof Snow Load (NBC 2010). Retrieved from http://jabacus.com/engineering/load/snowload.php Lafarge Canada. Ultra Series Data Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.lafarge.ca/sites/canada/files/atoms/files/ultra_series_technical_data_sheet.pdf Marshall, S. (2017). Emergency Potable Water Planning at UBC: Increasing Our Resilience to Earthquakes. University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Retrieved from https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/SARAH%20MARSHALL%20CAPSTONE%20REPORT_0.pdf National Research Council Canada (2015). National Building Code of Canada. NEFCO Systems. NEFCO Fibreglass Baffle Wall Systems. Retrieved from http://www.nefco.us/bafflewalls/ UBC’s Energy and Water Infrastructure - Water (2017). Retrieved November 25, 2017, from http://energy.ubc.ca/ubcs-utility-infrastructure/water/ University of British Columbia Board of Governors. (2005). Sustainable Development. Retrieved from https://universitycounsel.ubc.ca/policies/index/ University of British Columbia. (2011). Water Action Plan Discussion Paper. Retrieved from https://sustain.ubc.ca/campus-initiatives/water/water-action-plan 53    University of British Columbia. (2014). Emergency Response Plan Water Utility. Retrieved from http://rms.ubc.ca/emergency/emergency-plans/ University of British Columbia. (2015). Land Use Plan. Retrieved from https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/planning/policies-plans/land-use-governance-documents/land-use-plan University of British Columbia. (2017). UBC Technical Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.technicalguidelines.ubc.ca/  Images Image of pressure zones http://energy.ubc.ca/ubcs-utility-infrastructure/water/    54    Appendix A – IFC Drawings A-00 Base Plan  A-01 Site Layout  A-02 North Reservoir  A-03 South Reservoir  A-04 Reservoir Section and Details  A-05 Booster Pump Station  A-06 Distribution Main  A-07 Supply Main  A-08 Reinforcement Details    DOUG MITCHELLTHUNDERBIRD SPORTSCENTREBERWICK MEMORIALCENTREGERALD MCGAVINUBC RUGBYCENTRESITKAWESBROOKCOMMUNITYCENTREKEATS HALL, UELWESTCOTT COMMONS,UELWESTCOTT COMMONS,UELGLENLLOYDREGENT COLLEGEUELCHAUCER HALL,UEL325242726BLOCK 1BLOCK 2BLOCK 3BLOCK 4BLOCK 5 BLOCK 6BLOCK 7BLOCK 11BLOCK 17BLOCK 16BLOCK 15BLOCK 14BLOCK 13 BLOCK 12BLOCK 10 BLOCK 9BLOCK 8PLANNED RENTALUNIVERSITY HOUSINGSITE DVILLAGESQUARELOT:ECHAN GUNNPAVILION438RASHPAL DHILLIONTRACK & FIELD OVALTROLLEY BUS LOOPCHRIS SPENCER FIELD673673FRANK BUCK FIELDARTHUR LORD FIELD673435PARKINGPARKINGPARKINGPARKINGPARKINGPARKINGVARSITY FIELD673PARKINGPARKINGPARKING691 DJAVADMOWAFAGHIANCENTRE forBRAINHEALTHTRIUMFHOUSEWESBROOK VILLAGESUPERMARKETWESBROOK VILLAGERESTAURANTUNIVERSITY BOULEVARDSITE BTAPESTRY NORTH593-1WESBROOK594TELUSHUB678VILLAGE SQUARELOT:E686690525-2523-2526525-1523-1198462463475473539537770503852771858921924 925926927928922502918529534553554551554-1 554-2 554-3554-7554-6554-5554-4687689868199199199527434465862550697538595ST. JAMESBUILDINGPUBLICSAFETYBUILDINGSTUDENT RENTALHOUSING LOT EC5LOT EC6SPIRIT PARKAPARTMENTSGRANITETERRACEFRIEDMAN BLDG.BLOCK 'B'ADDITION ADDITIOND. HAROLD COPPBLDG. BLOCK 'A'J.B. MacDONALD BLDG.DENTISTRYPURDYPAVILLIONKOERNERPAVILLIONAMBULANCESTATIONDETWILLERPAVILIONPOINT GREYAPARTMENTSTHAMESCOURTSORORITYHOUSEPANHELLENICLIFESCIENCESCENTRETHUNDERBIRDPARKADEEMERG.GEN.P.A.WOODWARDINSTRUCTIONALRESOURCESCENTREMEWSDAVIDSTRANGWAYBLDG.DAVID STRANGWAY BLDG.ORAL HEALTH CENTREBASEBALLTRAININGFACILITY691AYO DEMONSTRATIONSMART HOMESAGENATIONALSOCCERDEVELOPMENTCENTRE215PHARMACEUTICALSCIENCES501-1501-2501-4501-3501-6501-5501-7501-10501-9501-17501-11501-16501-15501-14501-13 501-12501-8PRV-8PRV-8 DomesticCELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D400022002000126007800220041001260041002635400048002000UBC EMERGENCY WATERSUPPLY SYSTEMPROJECT: SCALE: 1:2000SHEET: A-07DATE: 04/09/18REV: 0DRAWING TITLE: DESIGNED: LLAPPROVED: ACCHECKED: LLDRAWN: AYISSUE FOR CONSTRUCTION SEALREV NO. DATE BY DESCRIPTIONDISTRIBUTION MAINWESBROOK MALLACADEMYSALESCTRDN3BLOCK 1BLOCK 2BLOCK 3 BLOCK 4BLOCK 5BLOCK 6BLOCK 7BLOCK 11BLOCK 17BLOCK 16BLOCK 15BLOCK 14BLOCK 13BLOCK 12BLOCK 10BLOCK 9 BLOCK 8BLOCK 1BLOCK 2BLOCK 3BLOCK 4BLOCK 5BLOCK 6BLOCK 7BLOCK 8BLOCK 9BLOCK 10BLOCK 11BLOCK 12BLOCK 13WOLFSON II FIELDLOGAN FIELDRASHPAL DHILLIONTRACK & FIELD OVALBLOCK 2BLOCK 3BLOCK 4BUILDING 1BLOCK 1BLOCK 5BLOCK 6BLOCK 8BLOCK 7BLOCK 9BLOCK 10BLOCK 11CHRIS SPENCER FIELD673673435PARKINGPARKINGV I L L A G E  L A N EV I L L A G E   L A N EPARKINGVARSITY FIELD673KHORANA PARKACADEMY SALESCENTREWESBROOK VILLAGESUPERMARKETWESBROOK VILLAGERESTAURANTTAPESTRY NORTH593-1WESBROOK594TELUSHUB678ACADEMY596BINNING TOWER598686SAGE595508505501504503502509687500862595PEMBERLEYTHEBALMORALTHEBRISTOLCHATHAMST. JAMESBUILDINGWESTHAMPSTEADSANDRINGHAMTHAMESCOURTBASEBALLTRAININGFACILITYSAGENATIONALSOCCERDEVELOPMENTCENTRE500-1500-2500-3500-4500-5500-6500-7500-8500-9500-10500-11500-12500-13501-1501-2501-3501-4501-5501-6501-7501-8501-9501-10501-11501-12501-1501-2501-4501-3501-6501-5501-7501-10501-9501-17501-11501-16501-15501-14501-13501-12501-8PRV-8PRV-8 DomesticCELL ACELL BCELL CCELL DCELL ECELL FCELL GCELL H7310185010009474100055461270022002000220020004700555620002000555610856400022002000126007800220041001260041002635400048002000UBC EMERGENCY WATERSUPPLY SYSTEMPROJECT: SCALE: 1:2000SHEET: A-07DATE: 04/09/18REV: 0DRAWING TITLE: DESIGNED: LLAPPROVED: ACCHECKED: LLDRAWN: AYISSUE FOR CONSTRUCTION SEALREV NO. DATE BY DESCRIPTIONSUPPLY MAIN16TH AVENUE55    Appendix B – Steel Reinforcement Calculations Foundation Wall Assume typical basement wall design, pin-supported at the top (slab) and bottom (mat foundation) as referenced in Brzev & Pao, 2006. Design vertical and horizontal distributed reinforcement as per CSA A23.3. Given: 𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′ = 25 MPa 𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦 = 400 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 𝜙𝜙𝑐𝑐 = 0.65 𝜙𝜙𝑠𝑠 = 0.85 Determine critical design bending moments and shear forces. 𝑉𝑉𝑓𝑓 ≈distributed lateral earth load × ℎ2 + average of earthquake load distribution × ℎ2  = 27.18 × 52 + 99.82 × 52 = 234 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘/𝑚𝑚 at the bottom of foundation wall  𝑀𝑀𝑓𝑓 = average of lateral and earthquake load distributions × ℎ28 = 77 × 58  = 241 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 approximately at midpoint of foundation wall Design walls for combined effects of flexure and axial loads. (a) Determine wall thickness (Cl 14.3.6.1). 𝑡𝑡𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑚𝑚 � 125ℎ = 3000 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚25 = 120 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚190 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 for cast-in-place foundation walls 𝑡𝑡𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 190 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 Use t = 300 mm. 56    (b) Calculate required area of vertical tension reinforcement. Determine the effective depth: Use 30M bars and 75 mm cover (for concrete cast against & permanently exposed to earth). 𝑑𝑑 = 𝑡𝑡 − 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 − 𝑑𝑑𝑏𝑏2 = 300 − 75 − 302 = 210 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 Calculate area of tension reinforcement using the direct procedure: 𝑀𝑀𝑟𝑟 = 𝑀𝑀𝑓𝑓 = 275 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑚𝑚 𝑏𝑏 = 1000 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 = 0.0015𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′𝑏𝑏 �𝑑𝑑 −�𝑑𝑑2 − 3.85𝑀𝑀𝑟𝑟𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′𝑏𝑏 � = 0.0015 × 25 × 1000�210 −�2102 − 3.85 × (241 × 106)25 × 1000 � = 4741 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2/𝑚𝑚 (c) Select amount of vertical reinforcement in terms of size and spacing. Use 30M bars: 𝑠𝑠 = 𝐴𝐴𝑏𝑏 1000𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 = 700 × 10004741 = 148 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 (d) Find maximum permitted bar spacing (Cl 14.1.8.4). 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 �3𝑡𝑡 = 3 × 300 = 900 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚  𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑠𝑠 = 148 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 < 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ⇒ 𝑈𝑈𝑠𝑠𝑐𝑐 𝑠𝑠 = 150 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ⇒  𝑢𝑢𝑠𝑠𝑐𝑐 30𝑀𝑀@150. 57    (e) Check that the maximum tension reinforcement requirement is satisfied (Cl 10.5.2). 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 = 𝐴𝐴𝑏𝑏 1000𝑠𝑠 = 700 × 1000150 = 4667𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2𝑚𝑚  𝜌𝜌 = 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑏𝑏𝑑𝑑= 46671000 × 215 = 0.0217 𝜌𝜌 = 0.0217 < 𝜌𝜌𝑏𝑏 ≈ 𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′1100 = 0.0227 ⇒ properly reinforced (f) Check the minimum area of distributed vertical reinforcement (Cl 14.1.8.5). 𝐴𝐴𝑔𝑔 = 1000𝑡𝑡 = 1000 × 300 = 300 × 103 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2 𝐴𝐴𝑣𝑣,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 0.0015𝐴𝐴𝑔𝑔 = 0.0015 × (300 × 103) = 450𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2𝑚𝑚  Since 𝐴𝐴𝑣𝑣 = 4667𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2𝑚𝑚 > 𝐴𝐴𝑣𝑣,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 450 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2𝑚𝑚  The vertical reinforcement is adequate. Design walls for shear. (a) Determine the concrete shear resistance, 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐. Find effective shear depth: 𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣 = 𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑚𝑚 � 0.9𝑑𝑑 = 0.9 × 210 = 189 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚0.72𝑡𝑡 = 0.72 × 300 = 216 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣 = 216 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ≈ 220 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 Use 𝑏𝑏𝑤𝑤 = 1000 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 as the width of the unit strip. Find 𝛽𝛽 (Cl 11.3.6.3b): 𝛽𝛽 = 2301000 + 𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣 = 2301000 + 220 = 0.189 ≈ 0.19 Find 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐: 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐 = 𝜙𝜙𝑐𝑐𝜆𝜆𝛽𝛽�𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′𝑏𝑏𝑤𝑤𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣 = 0.65 × 1.0 × 0.19 × √25 × 1000 × 220 = 136 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 𝑉𝑉𝑓𝑓 = 234 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑚𝑚 > 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐 = 136 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑚𝑚 ⇒ Shear reinforcement needed 58    (b) Find shear resistance of steel, 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐. 𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠 = 𝑉𝑉𝑓𝑓 − 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐 = 234 − 136 = 98 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑚𝑚  Use 15M shear reinforcement ⇒ 𝐴𝐴𝑣𝑣 = 𝐴𝐴𝑏𝑏 = 200 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2 𝑠𝑠 = 𝜙𝜙𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴𝑣𝑣𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑡𝑡(35°)𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠= 0.85 × 200 × 400 × 220 × 1.4398 × 103 = 218 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑠𝑠 = 218 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ⇒ 𝑢𝑢𝑠𝑠𝑐𝑐 𝑠𝑠 = 200 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ⇒ 𝑢𝑢𝑠𝑠𝑐𝑐 15𝑀𝑀@200. (c) Check maximum shear resistance (Cl 11.3.3). 𝑉𝑉𝑟𝑟,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 0.25𝜙𝜙𝑐𝑐𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′𝑏𝑏𝑤𝑤𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣 = 0.25 × 0.65 × 25 × 1000 × 220 = 894 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 𝑉𝑉𝑟𝑟 = 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐 + 𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠 𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠 = 𝜙𝜙𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴𝑣𝑣𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑡𝑡(35°)𝑠𝑠 = 0.85 × 200 × 400 × 220 × 1.43200 = 107 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 𝑉𝑉𝑐𝑐 = 136 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 ⇒ 𝑉𝑉𝑟𝑟 = 243 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 < 𝑉𝑉𝑟𝑟,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 894 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 (d) Check the minimum area of distributed horizontal reinforcement (Cl 14.1.8.6). 𝐴𝐴𝑔𝑔 = 1000𝑡𝑡 = 1000 × 300 = 300 × 103 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2 𝐴𝐴ℎ,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 0.002𝐴𝐴𝑔𝑔 = 0.002 × (300 × 103) = 600𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2𝑚𝑚  𝐴𝐴ℎ = 1000𝐴𝐴𝑣𝑣𝑠𝑠 = 1000 × 200200 = 1000 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2 𝐴𝐴ℎ = 1000𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2𝑚𝑚 > 𝐴𝐴ℎ,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 600 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2𝑚𝑚  (e) Check maximum permitted spacing (Cl 14.1.8.4). 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 �3𝑡𝑡 = 3 × 300 = 900 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚  𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑠𝑠 = 200 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 < 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 Check if 1 layer is adequate. Since 𝑡𝑡 = 200 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 > 310 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ⇒ Use 2 layers of reinforcement. For the side facing water, use a 60 mm cover, corresponding to exposure class C. 59    Mat Foundation Design mat foundation using the finite element method (a type of non-rigid method) in SAFE 2016. Consider loading cases with the reservoir empty and full.  • Use a modulus of subgrade reaction, k, of 27100 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘/𝑚𝑚 for silts and clays of low compressibility.  • Start with 10M bars. • For side exposed to soil (concrete is cast against and permanently exposed to earth) ⇒cover = 75 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 • For side exposed to water, use exposure class C ⇒ cover = 60 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 • Coduto, 2006 recommends a mat thickness of 1-2 m for buildings and tower structures. Since the reservoirs have a smaller load compared to larger multi-storey buildings, a 500 mm thickness was initially tested and verified in SAFE 2016. • No temperature or shrinkage reinforcement is required for two-way slabs. Model outputs: all designed reinforcement is less than the minimum reinforcement requirement. Therefore, the minimum reinforcement requirement governs: (a) Minimum reinforcement requirement (governs from model, Cl 7.8.1). 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 0.001𝐴𝐴𝑔𝑔 (per direction) = 0.001 × (1000 × 500) = 500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚2 (b) Check the minimum bar spacing requirement (Cl 7.4.1.2). 𝑠𝑠 = 100 × 1000250 (per layer per direction) = 400 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ⇒ 𝑢𝑢𝑠𝑠𝑐𝑐 10𝑀𝑀@400. (c) Check maximum bar spacing requirement (Cl 7.4.1.2). 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 �3𝑡𝑡 = 3 × 500 = 1500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚  𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑠𝑠 = 400 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 < 𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 500 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 60    (d) Check maximum reinforcement requirement (Cl 10.5.2). 𝜌𝜌 = 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑏𝑏𝑑𝑑= 1000 (both directions)500 × 925 = 0.0022 𝜌𝜌 = 0.0022 < 𝜌𝜌𝑏𝑏 ≈ 𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐′1100 = 0.0227 ⇒ properly reinforced    61    Design Roof Load Calculations      North Reservoir Dimensionslength, l 72 mwidth, w 45 marea, A 3240 m^2Dead LoadUnit EquationSelf weight, w 25 kN/m^3Slab Thickness, t_c 0.3 mConcrete Load, D_c 7.5 kPa =w*t_sSoil weight, γ 16.7 kN/m^3Soil layer, t_s 0.3 mSoil load, D_s 5.01 kPa =γ*t_sDead Load, D 15.015 =D_c+1.5*D_sLive LoadAssembly Area load, L_A 4.8 kPa from UBC Technical GuidelinesReduction factor, f 0.578567 =0.5+SQRT(20/A)Live Load, L 2.777124 kPa =L_A*fSnow/Rain LoadI_s 1.25 Importance factor for post-disaster structurre S_s 1.9 kPa Climatic data from Jabacus Roof and Snow Load Calculator (Vancouver Granville & 41st Ave)l_c 61.875 =2w-w^2/lC_b 0.8 for I_c < 70C_w 1C_s 1C_a 1S_r 0.3 kPa Climatic data from Jabacus Roof and Snow Load Calculator (Vancouver Granville & 41st Ave)S 2.275 kPa =I_s*[S_s*(C_b*C_w*C_s*C_a)+S_r]Case D L S Combination1 1.4 0 0 18.0152 1.25 1.5 0 21.055685422+comp 1.25 1.5 1 23.330685423 1.25 0 1.5 20.30253+comp 1.25 1 1.5 23.07962362Design combination  load 23.33069 kPaLoad Factors62    Beam Calculations  Tributary width, w_t 5.625 m =w/8 Load per columnVertical Load, q 140.860106 kN/m =w_t*q_s+q_r 677.1829748 kN =q*l_n/2Col Spacing, l_n 9 m =l/8Self Weight, q_sf'c 25 MPa 9.625 kN/m =l*b*h*wf_y 400 MPa msa 20 mmh 700 mm h 700 mmmin d 428.571429 mm =ln/21*1000 min d 428.5714 mmd 590 mm =h-110 d 630 mmb 550 mm b 550 mmM- 950.805712 kNm =q*ln^2/12 M+ 475.4029 kNmiteration a A_s iteration a A_s1 250 6013.951 A_s=(M-*10^6)/((d-a/2)*0.85*f_y) 1 250 2768.7992 285.978107 6255.971 a=0.85*f_y*a/(0.8*0.65*f'c*b) 2 131.6632 2478.4153 297.486719 6337.553 3 117.8547 2448.4524 301.366161 6365.535 4 116.4299 2445.4015 302.696787 6375.19 5 116.2848 2445.0916 303.155894 6378.528 6 116.27 2445.0597 303.314623 6379.683 7 116.2685 2445.0568 303.36954 6380.083 8 116.2684 2445.0569 303.388545 6380.221 9 116.2684 2445.05610 303.395123 6380.269 10 116.2684 2445.056# bars, n 10 n 5area of bars, A_b 700 mm^2 A_b 700 mm^2diameter of bars, d_b 30 mm d_b 30 mmarea of steel, A_s 7000 mm^2 =n*A_b A_s 3500 mm^2Clear Cover, C 60 mm for exposure to chloride, no exposure to earth Clear Cover 60 mmn per row, n_r 5 n per row 5stirrup diameter, d_s mm mmMin Steel Requirement Min Steel RequirementA_s min 962.5 mm^2 =0.2*SQRT(f'c)*b*h/f_y A_s min 962.5 mm^2Check: YES A_s>A_S min Check: YESMin Spacing Requirement Min Spacing Requirements_min > 42 mm 1.4*d_b s_min 42 mm28 mm 1.4*MSA 28 mm30 mm 30 mms_available 43.3333333 mm =(b-n_r*d_b-2*C-2*d_s)/(n_r-1) s_available 43.33333 mmCheck: YES s_available > s_min Check: YESd (actual) 579 mm =h-C-d_s-d_b-d_b-(s_min/2) d 615 mmρ 0.02198147 =A_s/d/b ρ 0.010101ρ_max 0.02272727 =f'c/1100 ρ_max 0.022727Check: YES ρ<ρ_max Check: YESCrack Control Parameter Crack Control ParameterA_e 133100 mm^2 =(h-d)*2*b A_e 93500 mm^2z 25007.8815 N/mm =0.6*f_y*((C+d_s+d_b/2)*A_e/n)^(1/3) z 28009.03 N/mmCheck: YES z<30000 Check: YESM_r 1016.97566 kNm M_r 662.6703 kNmCheck: YES M_r > M_f Check: YESUse: 10-30M Use: 5-30MNote: cells in blue are trial and error guesses63    Slab Calculations   Unit Equation iteration a A_sclear span, l_n 5.625 m =w/8 1 250 2713.961Load, q_r 23.3306854 kN/m 2 70.98052582 1432.0963 37.45481731 1315.7164 34.41103123 1306.08f'c 25 MPa 5 34.1590038 1305.288f_y 400 MPa 6 34.13830116 1305.2237 34.13660167 1305.2188 34.13646217 1305.217h_min 281.25 mm =l_n/20*1000 9 34.13645072 1305.217h 300 mm 10 34.13644978 1305.217d 225 mm =h-C-d_b 11 34.1364497 1305.217b 1000 mm 12 34.13644969 1305.21713 34.13644969 1305.217M_max 92.2746836 kNm =q_r*l_n^2/8 14 34.13644969 1305.21715 34.13644969 1305.21716 34.13644969 1305.217n 7 =1000/s 17 34.13644969 1305.217A_b 200 mm^2 18 34.13644969 1305.217d_b 15 mm =n*A_b 19 34.13644969 1305.217A_s 1429 mm^2 20 34.13644969 1305.217Clear Cover 60 mmA_s=(M-*10^6)/((d-a/2)*0.85*f_y)Min Steel Requirement a=0.85*f_y*a/(0.8*0.65*f'c*b)A_s min 600 mm^2 0.002*h*1000Check: YES A_s > A_s minMax Spacing Requirements_max < 900 mm =3*h500 mms 140 mmd (actual) 232.5 mm =h-C-d_b/2ρ 0.00614439 =A_s/d/bρ_max 0.02272727 =f'c/1100Check: YES ρ<ρ_maxCrack Control ParameterA_e 97500 mm^2 =(h-d)*2*bz 23353.7548 N/mm =0.6*f_y*((C+d_s+d_b/2)*A_e/n)^(1/3)Check: YES z<30000M_r 104.638291 kNmCheck: YES M_r > M_fTemperature SteelA_s min 600 mm^2 0.002*h*1000n 4d_b 15 mmA_b 200 mm^2A_s 800 n*A_bCheck: YES A_s > A_smins_max < 1500 =5*h500s 250Use: Flexural 15M@140mmTemp 15M@250mm64    Column Calculations    P_f 677.183 kNClear cover 60 mmMSA 20 mmb 300 mmA_g 90000 mm62 =b^2n 8d_b 20 mmA_b 300 mm^2A_s 2400 mm^2 =n*A_bP_ro 1954.8 kN =(0.8*0.65*f'c*(A_g-A_s)+0.85*f_y*A_b)/1000P_max 1563.84 kN =0.8*P_roρ_t 0.026667 =A_g/bs_min > 28 mm =1.4*d_b28 mm =1.4*msa30 mms_max 500 mms 110 mmd_tie 10 mms_tie max < 320 mm =16*d_b480 mm =48*d_tie300 mms_tie 300 mm65    Appendix C – SAFE 2016 Outputs North Reservoir Point Loads 66     Deflections Flexural Reinforcement Layout  67     South Reservoir Point Loads 68     Deflections Flexural Reinforcement Layout   69     Appendix D – Cost Estimate  Appendix E – Schedule  Appendix F – Geotechnical Analysis  Item # Item Description Unit Qty Unit Price Amount1.0 General $130,000.00Mobilization / Demobilization L.Sum 1 $30,000.00 $30,000.00Bonding and Insurance L.Sum 1 $30,000.00 $30,000.00General Conditions L.Sum 1 $70,000.00 $70,000.002.0 Civil $3,726,200.00Clearing and grubbing Sq. M. 6500 $2.00 $13,000.00Topsoil Stripping and Replacement Sq.M. 6500 $10.00 $65,000.00Ground excavation Cu.M. 36000 $60.00 $2,160,000.00Fill to grade (with native) Cu.M. 4100 $20.00 $82,000.00Road Granular subbase Cu.M. 1300 $40.00 $52,000.00Road Granular base Cu.M. 150 $45.00 $6,750.00Hot mix asphalt paving Sq.M. 3150 $35.00 $110,250.00Fencing and gates Lin.M. 500 $175.00 $87,500.00300mm PVC Watermain Lin. M. 140 $500.00 $70,000.00610mm PVC Watermain Lin. M. 1000 $600.00 $600,000.00Tie-ins L.Sum 2 $10,000.00 $20,000.00Installation of fittings L.Sum 1 $26,400.00 $26,400.00300mm HxH PVC Gate Valve Each 18 $3,400.00 $61,200.00300mm Robar Coupling Each 2 $700.00 $1,400.00300mm PVC WYE Each 1 $1,000.00 $1,000.00350 x 300mm PVC Reducer Each 2 $300.00 $600.00300mm 45 degree PVC Bend Each 7 $300.00 $2,100.00350mm 22.5 degree PVC Vert. Bend Each 2 $300.00 $600.00300mm Robar Coupling Each 35 $500.00 $17,500.00300mm PVC SDR35 Drain Lin. M. 50 $600.00 $30,000.00300mm Perforated PVC DR35 Perim Drain Lin. M. 50 $360.00 $18,000.00Hydroseeding Sq. M. 6500 $3.00 $900.00Ground Improvement L.Sum 1 $300,000.00 $300,000.003.0 Structural $17,235,000.00Concrete Cu.M. 9200 $1,800.00 $16,560,000.00Rebar Cu.M. 135 $5,000.00 $675,000.004.0 Mechanical/HVAC $370,800.00Pumps Each 2 $100,000.00 $200,000.00300 mm Butterfly Valve Each 6 $3,500.00 $21,000.00Pressure Gauges Each 2 $700.00 $1,400.0050mm Air release Valve Each 2 $5,000.00 $10,000.00200mm Check Valve Each 8 $3,000.00 $24,000.00Weir Gate Each 8 $8,000.00 $64,000.00Sluice Gate Each 8 $6,300.00 $50,400.005.0 Electrical and Instrumentation $437,000.00MCC EA. 1 $150,000 $150,000.00Instrumentation (Chlorine) LS 1 $30,000 $30,000.00Control Panel EA. 1 $20,000 $20,000.00Building Electrical Install L.S. 1 $95,000 $95,000.00Power Service L.S. 1 $5,000 $5,000.00Genset L.S. 1 $115,000 $115,000.00Genset Pad L.S. 1 $4,000 $4,000.00Program, startup, commissioning L.S. 1 $18,000 $18,000.00Subtotal $21,899,000.00Power Consumption Cost kWhChlorine BoosterSodium Hypochlorite system (x4) 100Instrumentation (x4) 40Ventilation Fans (x4) 20Lighting, Auxiliary Power, Utilities etc. (x4) 20Booster StationDistribution Pumps (2x100 HP) 150Building Heater 15Lighting, Auxiliary Power, Utilities etc. 10Ventilation Fans 5Motor Control Centre 15ReservoirLighting and Utilities etc.  (x2) 15Flow Controls (Valve and Gates) (x2) 10Sum (kWh) 400Electricity Costs ($/kWh) 0.12Electrical Cost ($ per year) 420,480Treatment Cost ($ per year)Water Quality Testing Biweekly 7200Cost of Chemical (Sodium Hypochlorite) 10000Drained Water Treatment and Disposal 5000Maintenance Cost ($ per year)Pump Maintenance 3000Major and Minor Pipe Leaks 10000Programming 2000Valve Replacement 5000Operations Cost ($ per year at $50/hr for staff)Chlorine Booster Station (1 hour per day by staff) 18250Booster Station (1 hour per day by staff) 18250Reservoir (1 hour per day by staff) 18250Yearly Maintenance and Operational Costs 517,430ID Task Name Duration Start Finish Predecessors1 1.0 Pre-Construction 0 days Tue 5/1/18 Tue 5/1/182 Alert Public of Construction 0 days Tue 5/1/18 Tue 5/1/18 13 Obtain Necessary Permits 0 days Tue 5/1/18 Tue 5/1/18 145 2.0 Site Mobilization 0 days Tue 5/1/18 Tue 5/1/186 Setup Site Office 1 day Tue 5/1/18 Tue 5/1/18 57 Install Temporary Fencing 1 day Tue 5/1/18 Tue 5/1/18 58 Clear and Grub Site 3 days Tue 5/1/18 Thu 5/3/18 5910 3.0 North Reservoir Construction 0 days Fri 5/4/18 Fri 5/4/1811 Excavation of North Reservoir 30 days Fri 5/4/18 Thu 6/14/18 1012 Install Formwork and Pour Concrete for North Reservoir 60 days Fri 6/15/18 Thu 9/6/18 1113 Install Pipes and Valves 10 days Fri 9/7/18 Thu 9/20/18 1214 Programming of Valves 10 days Fri 9/21/18 Thu 10/4/18 1315 Testing of North Reservoir 10 days Fri 10/5/18 Thu 10/18/18 1416 Backfilling of North Reservoir 10 days Fri 10/19/18 Thu 11/1/18 1517 Disinfection Testing of North Reservoir 5 days Fri 11/2/18 Thu 11/8/18 161819 4.0 South Reservoir Construction 0 days Thu 11/8/18 Thu 11/8/1820 Excavation of South Reservoir 30 days Thu 11/8/18 Wed 12/19/18 1921 Install Formwork and Pour Concrete for South Reservoir 60 days Thu 12/20/18 Wed 3/13/19 2022 Install Pipes and Valves 10 days Thu 3/14/19 Wed 3/27/19 2123 Programming of Valves 10 days Thu 3/28/19 Wed 4/10/19 2224 Testing of South Reservoir 10 days Thu 4/11/19 Wed 4/24/19 2325 Backfilling of South Reservoir 10 days Thu 4/25/19 Wed 5/8/19 2426 Disinfection Testing of South Reservoir 5 days Thu 5/9/19 Wed 5/15/19 252728 5.0 Booster Station Construction 0 days Wed 5/15/19 Wed 5/15/1929 Booster Station Excavation 5 days Wed 5/15/19 Tue 5/21/19 2830 Install Formwork and Pour Concrete for Booster Station 10 days Wed 5/22/19 Tue 6/4/19 2931 Install Pumps and Valves 5 days Wed 6/5/19 Tue 6/11/19 3032 Programming of Pumps and Valves 5 days Wed 6/12/19 Tue 6/18/19 3133 Testing of Booster Station 5 days Wed 6/19/19 Tue 6/25/19 3234 Backfilling of Booster Station 5 days Wed 6/26/19 Tue 7/2/19 3335 Disinfection Testing of Booster Station 7 days Wed 7/3/19 Thu 7/11/19 343637 6.0 Supply Main Alignment 0 days Thu 7/11/19 Thu 7/11/1938 Trench Excavation, Pipe Laydown and Backfilling 20 days Thu 7/11/19 Wed 8/7/19 3739 Tie In to Existing Connections and Testing 5 days Thu 8/8/19 Wed 8/14/19 3840 Disinfection Testing of Supply Main Alignment 7 days Thu 8/15/19 Fri 8/23/19 394142 7.0 Discharge Main Alignment 0 days Fri 8/23/19 Fri 8/23/1943 Trench Excavation, Pipe Laydown and Backfilling 20 days Fri 8/23/19 Thu 9/19/19 4244 Tie In to Existing Connections and Testing 5 days Fri 9/20/19 Thu 9/26/19 4345 Disinfection Testing of Discharge Main Alignment 7 days Fri 9/27/19 Mon 10/7/19 444647 8.0 Post-Construction 0 days Mon 10/7/19 Mon 10/7/19 17,26,35,4548 Commissioning of New System 14 days Tue 10/8/19 Fri 10/25/19 4749 Resurfacing of Excavated Areas 14 days Tue 10/8/19 Fri 10/25/19 4750 Remove Site Office and Temporary Fencing 1 day Mon 10/28/19 Mon 10/28/19 495/15/15/15/15/411/85/157/118/2310/72629 2 5 8 11141720232629 1 4 7 10131619222528 1 4 7 1013161922252831 3 6 9 12151821242730 2 5 8 11141720232629 2 5 8 11141720232629 1 4 7 10131619222528 1 4 7 1013161922252831 3 6 9 12151821242730 2 5 8 111417202326 1 4 7 1013161922252831 3 6 9 12151821242730 3 6 9 12151821242730 2 5 8 11141720232629 2 5 8 11141720232629 1 4 7 1013161922252831 3 6 9 12151821242730 3 6 9 12151821242730 2May 2018 June 2018 July 2018 August 2018 September 2018 October 2018 November 2018 December 2018 January 2019 February 2019 March 2019 April 2019 May 2019 June 2019 July 2019 August 2019 September 2019 October 2019 NoTaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyExternal TasksExternal MilestoneDeadlineProgressManual ProgressPage 1Project: ubcwatersupplyDate: Sat 3/31/1870     Appendix G – Liquefaction Analysis  Appendix H – Air Valve Calculations  Pump Sizing Calculation   Supply Main Pipe Sizing                  Piping Air Valve Sizing  1. Supply Watermain   Discharge Watermain   

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