UBC Undergraduate Research

Corridor Redesign of Chancellor Boulevard Chao, Xi; Chen, Wenzhan; Jin, Yanshan; Lu, Zheyu; Xue, Zixuan; Yang, Ruifang 2018-04-09

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report Corridor Redesign of Chancellor Boulevard - Team 16 Xi Chao, Wenzhan Chen, Yanshan Jin, Zheyu Lu, Zixuan Xue, Ruifang Yang University of British Columbia CIVL 445 Themes: Transportation, Community, Land April 9, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.                     Corridor Redesign of Chancellor Boulevard Final Design Report   Client: UBC SEEDS (Social Ecological Economic Development Studies) Sustainability Program  Prepared by: Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd. (Team 16)  Xi Chao Wenzhan Chen Yanshan Jin Zheyu Lu Zixuan Xue Ruifang Yang   April 9, 2018        Letter of Transmittal   April 9, 2018  UBC SEEDS (Social Ecological Economic Development Studies) Sustainability Program Campus and Community Planning University of British Columbia 2210 West Mall Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4  Dear Sir/Madam,  As one of the key deliverables, please find attached for our submission of final design report for the project entitled Corridor Redesign of Chancellor Boulevard.  This report provides a detailed description of the final design with structural calculations and engineering drawings being attached as supplementary materials. Our roadway design mostly focuses on adjusting current lane configurations and developing a shared pathway for pedestrians and cyclists along both sides of Chancellor Boulevard.   A road-crossing underpass will be constructed at the intersection of Hamber Road with Chancellor Boulevard for best efficiency and safety considerations. Construction works are scheduled to start on May 1st, 2018, with a proposed duration of 93 days in total. The class B cost estimate is calculated as 5.4 million for this entire project.   We hope you will find this report helpful. Please feel free to contact us if you have any question or concern regarding this final design.   Sincerely yours,  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd. 6250 Applied Science Lane Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4      Executive Summary  According to the request from UBC SEEDS, Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd. has redesigned Chancellor Boulevard in order to facilitate traffic flow and improve safety of all road users, while accommodating increasing demands due to population growth. Our design focuses on the specified project corridor, which starts from Acadia Road and runs eastwards to Drummond Road. This report introduces the finalized design option in details and provides comprehensive rationales together with drawings for clear demonstration of design components and structures.   Our final planning consists of both changes on road geometry and construction of an additional road-crossing underpass for pedestrians and cyclists. The existing layout of 2 lanes per direction has been kept with lane widths adjusted to 3.5 meters. Bicycle lanes along roadsides are integrated together with pavements to form a shared walkway for both pedestrians and cyclists. Volume sensors will be used to activate the control of traffic signal at intersection of Hamber Road with Chancellor Boulevard. Some other improvements are adjustments on gradient in order to accelerate drainage, installation of flexible posts at turnings, increased number of traffic signs and special paintings on road for speed control, installation of cats eyes for better night vision, as well as planting of vegetation on median. Drawings illustrating details are attached in Appendix E.   The additional underpass was designed to locate at the intersection of Hamber Road and Chancellor Boulevard to provide a safe and efficient option for road crossing, while at the same time minimizing the disturbance on traffic flow. Detailed design drawings are included in Appendix E with overviews for entrances, lifts, retaining structures, storage tanks and drainage pumps, lighting, and vandal-proof equipment.  Construction is scheduled to commence on May 1st, 2018 and be completed on September 9th. The whole project construction could be divided into 5 zones, with an overall duration of 17 weeks. The schedule is planned with the consideration that disturbance to traffic should be minimized by avoiding full closure to the road. A detailed construction schedule could be found attached in Appendix A. Information regarding to construction will be released online for public as well as to local communities, and transportation relevant departments several weeks in advance. There will also be interacting events include information sessions and open houses to obtain feedbacks from stakeholders and clients.  Based on our finalized design, the detailed cost estimate is calculated to be 5.4 million, with road surface construction taking up to 3.6 million, and underpass construction sharing the rest 1.2 million with other costs such as permitting and maintenance. Detailed cost breakdown is enclosed in Appendix B for further reference.   We are very pleased to provide SEEDS with an improved road and traffic system with better efficiency and experience with increased safety for all road users, as well as protecting the natural surrounding environment and ecosystem along Chancellor Boulevard.   April 2018    |    i  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Project Overview ........................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Project Objectives .......................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Team Contributions to Final Design ................................................................................. 3 2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA ............................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Roadway Design ............................................................................................................ 5 2.2 Underpass Design .......................................................................................................... 6 3.0 TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................................. 7 4.0 KEY DESIGN COMPONENTS ................................................................................................. 8 4.1 Roadway Design ............................................................................................................ 8 4.1.1 Geometry Design ..................................................................................................... 8 4.1.2 Pedestrian and Cyclist Pathway Design .................................................................... 11 4.1.3 Pavement Design ................................................................................................... 11 4.1.4 Landscape Design .................................................................................................. 12 4.1.5 Traffic Design ........................................................................................................ 14 4.2 Pedestrian and Cyclist Underpass .................................................................................. 15 4.2.1 Location Selection .................................................................................................. 15 4.2.2 Structural Components .......................................................................................... 16 4.2.3 Underpass Entrance ............................................................................................... 20 4.3 Drainage and Utilities ................................................................................................... 21 4.4 Other Facilities ............................................................................................................. 23 4.4.1 Lighting ................................................................................................................. 23 4.4.2 Vandal Proof ......................................................................................................... 23 4.4.3 Underground Facilities ........................................................................................... 23 5.0 FINAL COST ESTIMATE ...................................................................................................... 26 6.0 SCHEDULE ....................................................................................................................... 28 6.1 Construction Zones ...................................................................................................... 28 6.2 Construction Planning .................................................................................................. 29 6.3 Anticipated Construction Issues .................................................................................... 30 7.0 MAINTENANCE PLAN ....................................................................................................... 31 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 34 APPENDIX A SCHEDULES .......................................................................................................... A April 2018    |    ii  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  APPENDIX B COST ESTIMATES .................................................................................................. E APPENDIX C SAMPLE CALCULATIONS ......................................................................................... I APPENDIX D SYNCHRO STATUS REPORT .................................................................................... R APPENDIX E ENGINEERING DRAWINGS ..................................................................................... T   April 2018    |    iii  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  List of Tables  Table 1 Summary of Team Member Contributions to Final Design........................................ 4 Table 2 Summary of Team Member Contributions to Final Design Report ............................ 4 Table 3 Key Roadway Design Criteria and Guidelines .......................................................... 5 Table 4 Key Underpass Design Criteria and Guidelines ........................................................ 6 Table 5 Table of Proposed Road Widths ............................................................................... 9 Table 6 Material Summary of Roadway and Pathway Structures ........................................ 12 Table 7 Summary of Class B Cost Estimate ........................................................................ 26      List of Figures  Figure 1 Overview of Existing Project Corridor (Image source: Google Maps) ...................... 1 Figure 2 Marked Location of the Intersection of Chancellor Boulevard with Hamber Road (Image source: Google Maps) ............................................................................................... 2 Figure 3 Geometry Overview of Chancellor Boulevard .......................................................... 9 Figure 4 Existing Road and Lane Configuration (Image source: Google Maps)................... 10 Figure 5 Proposed Road and Lane Configuration Design for Chancellor Boulevard ............ 11 Figure 6 Brief Overview of Landscape Area (South Entrance) ............................................ 13 Figure 7 Brief Overview of Landscape Area (North Entrances) ........................................... 14 Figure 8 Proposed Location and Layout of Underpass at the Intersection ........................... 16 Figure 9 Cross Section Design for Pedestrian and Cyclist Underpass ................................ 17 Figure 10 Detailed Design Drawing for Footing Strips ......................................................... 19 Figure 11 Example of Foldable Platform for Wheelchair Users (Image source: Google) ..... 20 Figure 12 Curved Roof Feature at the Entrances to Underpass .......................................... 20 Figure 13 Existing Drainage Pipeline Utility Drawing at the Intersection of Chancellor Boulevard with Hamber Road ............................................................................................. 24 Figure 14 Construction Zone Planning ................................................................................ 29 Figure 15 Summarized Construction Schedule ................................................................... 30   April 2018    |    1  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  1.0 INTRODUCTION   Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd. has performed a redesign of Chancellor Boulevard as requested by UBC SEEDS (Social Ecological Economic Development Studies) Sustainability Program. The project corridor spans from east of Acadia Road to west of Drummond Drive, with a total length of approximately 1.8 km. This design aims to improve overall road serviceability and construct a road-crossing underpass for pedestrians and cyclists at a suitable location. The purpose of this report is to summarize the final detailed design based on previous preferred preliminary designs.   1.1 Project Overview  Chancellor Boulevard is one of the five arterial roads that connects UBC Point Grey campus directly to the city of Vancouver. Managed by University Endowment Lands, it is an east-west roadway passing through the Pacific Spirit Regional Park and terminating at the intersection with Drummond Drive. This corridor provides a total of four driving lanes in both travel directions, which are separated by a 5-meter-wide median in the middle. Each driving lane is about 3.7 m in width. Meanwhile, there are no reserved bicycle lanes within the whole length of project corridor, and Chancellor Boulevard provides only one direction of pedestrian sidewalk in this region.   Figure 1 Overview of Existing Project Corridor (Image source: Google Maps) April 2018    |    2  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  1.2 Project Objectives  The project corridor serves a great amount of vehicles both traveling into and out of the main campus, especially during peak hours on weekdays. Currently, only the intersection of Hamber Road with Chancellor Boulevard is signalized with one set of pedestrian-controlled traffic signals. This location is the only choice for road users other than vehicle drivers to safely cross Chancellor Boulevard. Since Chancellor Boulevard also provides the only access to University Hill Elementary School on Hamber Road, an overlap of traffic volume significantly increases possibilities of traffic conflicts and raises safety concerns for pedestrians and cyclists. Therefore this intersection is considered as our main design focus for implementing improvements on traffic conditions. The proposed pedestrian underpass will be located here as well to provide maximum service efficiency for this infrastructure.    Figure 2 Marked Location of the Intersection of Chancellor Boulevard with Hamber Road (Image source: Google Maps)  The most important objective of our design is to maximize travel safety for every road user in all travel modes, including walking, cycling, driving, and taking public April 2018    |    3  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  transportations. Vehicle speed is proposed to be reduced, with road priorities being assigned to pedestrians, cyclists, buses, and emergency vehicles. After road improvements, the corridor will be able to accommodate an increased travel demand in the future according to population growth. By improving the drainage system, the impact of storm events will be minimized, which also positively influences users’ experiences. The proposed project aims to be completed within a comparatively acceptable cost budget.   Considering sustainability as another major aspect of the design, one of the targets is to minimize the potential influence on the environment and disturbance to wild creatures caused by construction. This also aligns with UBC’s target of promoting sustainable travel and reducing single occupant vehicles (UBC Transportation Plan Vancouver Campus, 2014). Design features will also fit with existing culture and economic background of the project corridor.    Several key issues are also identified from existing road conditions and site visits during the design stage, which closely relates to safety of road users. One of the key issues is that cyclists have to either share the road with vehicles or occupy part of pedestrian sidewalks. Moreover, the speed limit is 60 km/hr on the corridor including a turning at east side close to Drummond Drive which is not safe enough when cyclists and cars are sharing the same road. There is also a heavy accumulation of left turning vehicles from Chancellor Boulevard onto Hamber Road on east bound during morning peak hours, which significantly reduces intersection efficiency and raises potential risk of conflicts between road users.   1.3 Team Contributions to Final Design  April 2018    |    4  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  Table 1 below summarizes contributions by each team member towards the completion of final detailed design. Contributions are organized by teamwork assignment, which later develops into report components. Each component has a main contributor and a secondary contributor, and has been reviewed by a specified reviewer. Names of all team members are represented by initial letters.   Table 1 Summary of Team Member Contributions to Final Design Design Components Main Contributor Secondary Contributor Structural design and analysis RJ KC Roadway drawing LL KC Stormwater management GY XC Specifications and Maintenance Plan XC LL Engineering Drawings KC RJ Construction Plan and Schedule LL AX Cost Estimate AX GY  Specifically, Table 2 summarizes contributions of each team member to this final design report.   Table 2 Summary of Team Member Contributions to Final Design Report Report Components Main Contributor Secondary Contributor Reviewer Letter of Transmittal RJ - AX Executive Summary GY XC RJ Introduction XC LL GY Design Criteria RJ GY GY Technical Considerations RJ KC GY Key Design Components GY AX RJ Final Cost Estimate AX KC RJ Schedule LL AX GY Maintenance Plan XC KC LL Engineering Drawings KC LL RJ   April 2018    |    5  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  2.0 DESIGN CRITERIA  In the process of developing our design from conceptual stage to its final stage, a list of design criteria have been adopted to assess the overall design performance, which comprehensively covers several aspects ranging from city standards to social and economical considerations. This section summarizes those design criteria for both the overall road section along project corridor and the pedestrian/cyclist underpass, respectively.   2.1 Roadway Design  Referring to the UBC Transportation Plan (2014), UBC Vancouver Campus Plan (2014), and project design specifications, the key criteria of roadway redesign for Chancellor Boulevard could be concluded with strong focuses on user safety, sustainability, and cost efficiency.   Table 3 Key Roadway Design Criteria and Guidelines Regulatory guidelines and city standards Master Municipal Construction Document (MMCD) City of Vancouver Street Restoration Manual General criteria Sustainability ♦ Maximize performance ratio ♦ Minimize disturbance to environment ♦ Resilient and innovative design Future demands ♦ Maximum 2000 vehicles per direction during peak hours Safety ♦ Reduction of traffic speed to 50 km/hr ♦ Road priority to buses and emergency vehicles Stormwater drainage capacity ♦ 1 in 20 years capacity Cost ♦ Minimize construction and maintenance cost ♦ Maximize cost efficiency Stakeholders ♦ Positive feedback from most relevant stakeholders  April 2018    |    6  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  2.2 Underpass Design  In general, design criteria for pedestrian/cyclist underpass follows the same baseline as that for road section. However, the regulatory requirements and city standards are different due to the variance in the nature of these two structures.   Table 4 Key Underpass Design Criteria and Guidelines Regulatory guidelines and city standards Master Municipal Construction Document (MMCD) City of Vancouver Street Restoration Manual CSA A23.3 04 Design of Concrete Structures British Columbia Building Code (2012) General criteria Sustainability ♦ Maximize performance ratio ♦ Minimize disturbance to environment ♦ Resilient and innovative design Future demands ♦ Maximum 480 pedestrians and 120 cyclists during peak hours Safety ♦ Service life of 50 years ♦ 24 hour lighting with 17.5 lux ♦ Fencing near the entrances at the intersection Accessibility ♦Ease of access for pedestrians /cyclists /disabilities to the underpass Drainage ♦ Minimize stormwater into the underpass Cleaning requirements ♦1 in 20 years stormwater capacity  Cost ♦  Minimize construction and maintenance cost ♦  Maximize cost efficiency Appearance ♦  Proper appearance regarding to the surrounding environment   April 2018    |    7  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  3.0 TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS  The two main components of this project consist of road renovation and underpass construction, which both have positive impacts on facilitating traffic on the project corridor. One of the most important considerations is to arrange a reasonable schedule that minimizes traffic disturbances during the construction phase. This will be achieved by constructing underpass in two sections so that half of the corridor can be used to accommodate traffic in both directions during construction. The remaining roadway construction will also be divided into several zones to minimize disruption on traffic flow. In addition, the construction method should be selected such that influences on the surrounding environment is reduced to the minimum possible value due to the location of project corridor within Pacific Spirit Regional Park. Waste disposal needs to be arranged properly for sustainability considerations. After evaluating capacity of the existing drainage system during intensive rainfall events, it is obvious that the whole system needs to be redesigned and updated to accommodate for the expected 1 in 20 years rainfall event.   Moreover, structural durability and reliability is another essential consideration for the underpass. Since the maximum change in elevation of the underpass is 3.5 meters deep from ground surface, it is important to denote locations of existing underground facilities including wires, pipelines and others. Rerouting of these facilities might be needed depending on the situation. Uncertainties regarding to foundation conditions and encountering of similar unexpected situations should be taken into account for project management and schedule arrangements.   April 2018    |    8  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  4.0 KEY DESIGN COMPONENTS  This section provides a detailed insight into the key components of our proposed final design for the project corridor along Chancellor Boulevard. Those components fall into two main categories: the roadway design and the underpass design, with the underpass being considered as the focus of this report. Together with some changes in lane configurations and improvements in traffic signal controls, the target of this design is to enhance overall travel efficiency and road safety by introducing better traffic conditions along Chancellor Boulevard.  4.1 Roadway Design   Proposed roadway design is developed based on existing geometries. Additional features and changes are made in order to meet criteria mentioned above. In accordance with UBC’s goal and Vancouver Greenest City 2020 Action Plan, the proposed corridor design will improve pedestrian and cyclist safety and promote green transit such as public transit and cycling. Traffic phases and geometry at the intersection with Hamber Road is redesigned to optimize traffic flows, as well as to accommodate the use of proposed road-crossing underpass. Landscape and green areas around entrances of underpass are one of the proposed features to provide a more comfortable environment for pedestrians and cyclists. An overview of the proposed geometry of Chancellor Corridor is shown in the figure below.  4.1.1 Geometry Design  In order to minimize impact to existing trees and green areas at both side of Chancellor Boulevard, our proposed design tend to retain existing width of road cross section. Space occupied by the existing bicycle path will be utilized to construct the proposed pedestrian and cyclist shared pathway when necessary. Road medians will remain April 2018    |    9  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  unchanged in the middle of the road as before. Width of this median will vary due to available constructive space in line with the goal of minimizing impact to green areas at both sides of the road. The major reason of keeping this median is for safety considerations that dividing traffics traveling in opposite directions separately. Since no lightings will be installed for the entire scope along Chancellor Boulevard, vehicles tend to turn on high beam at night. Bushes and trees will be planted on the median to minimize impacts of high beam from opposite direction and also add an aesthetic green feature to the region.   Figure 3 Geometry Overview of Chancellor Boulevard   Table 5 below summaries key dimensions of roadways design.    Table 5 Table of Proposed Road Widths Item Description Dimension (m) Driving Lane 3.5 Median 0 – 5.5 Left-Turn Lane 3.5   The width of lane is designed according to Geometry Design Guide of Canadian Roads as a standard width of lane. It is also one of the considerations that the width of lane is kept not as wide to help cars slow down and follow the speed limit of 50 km/hr on the project corridor. April 2018    |    10  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  Some modifications are made to the intersection at Hamber Road and Chancellor Boulevard to improve traffic traveling in and out of University Hill Elementary School. The roadway design also accommodates with the proposed underpass design which will be discussed later in this section. One of the major changes at this intersection is the removal of a triangular concrete island at the northwest corner of the intersection. Figures 4 and 5 below provide an insight into existing and proposed configurations, respectively. After the removal of this existing concrete island, more space is created to construct the entrance to underpass at the northwest corner. This decision is made in accordance with one of our design goals of minimizing impact on existing landscape as well. After this removal, merging to one lane along westbound is designed to happen at Acadia Cir which is located to the west of Hamber Road.  Therefore, the two lanes at Acadia Road are designed for straight driving and right turn lane respectively as existing road configuration. Drawings in Appendix E provide more details regarding to the proposed roadway design.   Figure 4 Existing Road and Lane Configuration (Image source: Google Maps) April 2018    |    11  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Figure 5 Proposed Road and Lane Configuration Design for Chancellor Boulevard  4.1.2 Pedestrian and Cyclist Pathway Design  One of the main design features of this project is the proposed pedestrian and cycling shared pathway. A 3-meter-wide shared pathway will  be constructed along both sides of Chancellor Boulevard. Similar to roadway regulations, bicycle traffic are also divided into two directions. Signages will be installed along the pathway to remind cyclist biking in the indicated direction. In considerations of budget saving, the pathways are proposed to be paved by asphalt. It is recommended that pedestrians and cyclists each share half of the pathway together. Due to safety considerations, special painting will be applied to this pathway to distinguish a 1.5-meter-wide space for cyclists and the other 1.5-meter-wide space for pedestrians. In order to further separate the shared pathway from traffic on road, the pathway will also be raised up by 150mm using concrete curbs. Those curbs are selected to be MF 137-A-1 type according to City of Vancouver Street Restoration Manual and detailed information can be found in Appendix E.  4.1.3 Pavement Design   All roadways and shared pathways on Chancellor Boulevard within the redesign scope are proposed to be paved by asphalt. Concrete pavement will only be applied to April 2018    |    12  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  sidewalks and trails around entrances to underpass in landscape areas. As Chancellor Boulevard is considered as an arterial road and according to City of Vancouver Street Restoration Manual and Master Municipal Construction Documents, the total thickness of asphalt pavement have to be 150 mm. This 150 mm asphalt will be paved in three lifts where each lift is 50 mm thick with tack coat applied in between each lift. Gravel base and sub-base will be installed to provide firm foundation to asphalt pavement on top of it. Gravel base will be graded according to the designed slope for drainage purposes. Thickness of gravel sub-base may vary depending on changes in road grade. A similar structure is proposed for the shared asphalt pathway for pedestrians and cyclists. Table 6 below summaries thickness of asphalt, gravel base and sub-based layers for both roadway and shared pathway:     Table 6 Material Summary of Roadway and Pathway Structures Item Description Roadway Shared Pathway Asphalt Surface Lift 50mm Superpave 12.5mm Surface Course 65mm Asphaltic Concrete Paving -Upper Course #2 Asphalt Base Lift 100mm Superpave 25mm Base Course in 2 lifts N/A Granular Base 150mm Granular Base 100mm Granular Base Granular Sub-base 450mm Granular Sub-base -Thickness varies 300mm Granular Sub-base  Types of asphalt specified in the table above are selected according to City of Vancouver Street Restoration Manual, City of Surrey Supplementary Master Municipal Construction Documents, and Master Municipal Construction Document.  4.1.4 Landscape Design April 2018    |    13  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Besides the proposed landscape on medians, all other landscape design is made for areas around entrances to the underpass. At both north and south sides of the underpass, a landscape area is proposed to accommodate pedestrians, cyclists, and children from the elementary school, as well as tourists visiting Pacific Spirit Regional Park. Some features of these landscape areas include concrete trails, aesthetic pleasing planting, and post lights where necessary for safety consideration. Figures 7 and 8 below illustrate a brief overview of the landscape area. Meanwhile, population of pedestrians, tourists and cyclists entering this project corridor is expected to increase with the development of the proposed underpass. Therefore, the designed landscape area is proposed to lower crowd density around entrances and provide a pleasing and relaxing environment.   Figure 6 Brief Overview of Landscape Area (South Entrance)  April 2018    |    14  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Figure 7 Brief Overview of Landscape Area (North Entrances)  4.1.5 Traffic Design  According to our site observations, about 40% of the cars traveling along eastbound during morning peak hours will make a left turn onto Hamber Road. However, morning major traffic volume usually occurs in westbound, and the pedestrian crossing is also quite busy, left turning vehicles struggle a lot to find a chance to make their turn. This delay on the left turning lane could accumulate in a short time and even cause influences on vehicles traveling along the straight lanes. In order to improve traffic efficiency of the whole intersection, a traffic sensor will be installed approximately 20 meters behind stop line at the collector lane for left turning vehicles. Since there is no need for pedestrian controlled signals, number of vehicles waiting for left turns will be used to activate a special left turning signal phase at this intersection. This design ensures that all vehicles could safely pass through the intersection with minimum delays and possibility of conflicts. In order to protect traffic flows on westbound, a green light protection phase will be used after the left turning phase.   April 2018    |    15  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  Synchro is used to model and optimize the proposed traffic cycle length. Based on our road geometry design and prediction of vehicle volumes in the future, a cycle length of 60 seconds will be appropriate, comparing with the existing length of 25 seconds for pedestrian crossing and another half a minute of cool down time for traffic. Detailed report could be found attached in Appendix D.   In order to further improve our design and provide more convenient travel conditions for pedestrians and cyclists, a flashing beacon pedestrian crossing system and reminding signs will be installed at where Pioneer Trail intersects with Chancellor Boulevard. This design could also help vehicle drivers reduce their speed and follow the proposed speed limit along the whole project corridor.   4.2 Pedestrian and Cyclist Underpass  4.2.1 Location Selection  Due to the location of University Hill Elementary School, the intersection of Hamber Road with Chancellor Boulevard is the busiest section along the whole project corridor. It has the greatest possibilities for traffic conflicts and maximum demands for pedestrian and cyclist road crossing. This intersection could maximize overall efficiency and road safety, therefore it has been selected as the location for our pedestrian/cyclist underpass.   April 2018    |    16  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Figure 8 Proposed Location and Layout of Underpass at the Intersection (Image source: Google Maps)  4.2.2 Structural Components   Considering structural functioning, safety, and construction feasibility, the underpass will be placed right in the middle of the intersection. Since the design life will reach a maximum of 50 years, main structure of the underpass will be made of reinforced concrete, which is strong enough, durable, and comparatively easy to maintain. Compressive strength of concrete will be 45 MPa, which could provide maximum strength per unit volume as a type of normal concrete.   As shown in Figure 9 below, a two-way reinforced concrete slab will serve as part of the road, as well as the ceiling of pedestrian/cyclist underpass. A 150 mm thick asphalt layer will be covering the top surface of the slab for protection against abrasion and corrosion caused by water from the environment. The slab will support a dead load caused by its self weight and live loads contributed by moving vehicles and other road users. Considering a minimum allowable depth of 120 mm (CSA A23.3 04) and resistance to factored shear and moment, the thickness is decided to be 250 mm. 10 M Steel reinforcement will be installed close to the bottom of this slab in both directions. A April 2018    |    17  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  spacing of 80 mm from center to center is designed for both resistance and protection against shrinkage and thermal effect.    Figure 9 Cross Section Design for Pedestrian and Cyclist Underpass  The transition from slab to existing asphalt road surface is designed to be natural and smooth by installing connection rebars during construction. Rubber expansion joints are adopted to prevent moving and transfer of shear and other loads to the supporting retaining walls (CSA A23.3 04).   Retaining walls will support the concrete slab and transfer loads from upper structure to the foundation through footing strips. The design basically follows the CSA guideline for basement walls, with a recommended thickness of 200 mm and 10M rebars in both horizontal and vertical directions. Other than vertical loads carried from the concrete slab, the walls are also designed to take lateral earth pressure and bearing forces due to eccentric loading conditions. Rebar spacing is 250 mm in horizontal direction, which is a bit denser than the 300 mm spacing for vertical direction. The matrix of rebars should be placed close to the center of the wall for protection against worst exposure case to the environment.   April 2018    |    18  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   The whole pedestrian and cyclist underpass is 7 meters in width and 27 meters in length, which ensures enough space for travellers from both directions. Its height reaches approximately 2.8 meters along the centerline of the longer direction. A -2% slope extends from this centerline towards walls on both sides, which provides indoor drainage for the underpass. Drainage channels along both sides will be collecting and directing water to drainage pipelines. Detailed drainage designs for the underpass could be found later in this section. The minimum thickness of concrete pavement at both sides of the cross-section is 150 mm. A layer of gravels is installed beneath this pavement to absorb and transfer vibration to the soil foundation.   Reinforced concrete footing with proper steel connection to the retaining walls will be used as the supporting structure to transfer loads into soil foundation. The footing strips are 1m in width along both sides of the underpass, with the base being 250mm in height. Gravels are used to fill the space and provide side drainage outside of the retaining walls. The inner edge of the footing will be supporting the concrete pavement inside the underpass. Figure 10 below provides a detailed drawing of design for footing structures.  April 2018    |    19  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Figure 10 Detailed Design Drawing for Footing Strips  For concrete stairs connecting all three entrances to the underpass, a straight-run flight layout with rectangular threads will be adopted in our design, with a riser height of 118 mm and depth of 531 mm (British Columbia Building Code, 2012). A ramp with 22% slope and 1 m in width along the centerline of the stairs will allow cyclists to carry their bicycles down to the underpass. Total width of stairs together with the slope will be 7 m, with 3 m distributed on each side of the slope. A foldable wheelchair platform will be installed at each entrance for use of disabilities. When not in use, this platform can be folded aside to reserve space for pedestrians and cyclists.  April 2018    |    20  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Figure 11 Example of Foldable Platform for Wheelchair Users (Image source: Google) 4.2.3 Underpass Entrance  Entrances to underpass are designed to meet the design criteria such that it is convenient for all type of users and promotes energy saving by maximizing natural lighting. The entrance is mostly designed by three components: glass roof and wall, galvanized steel columns and concrete stairs. Glass wall and roof provides an excellent source of natural lighting. The curved roof feature as shown in Figure 13 below is designed to facilitate self-drainage.  Figure 12 Curved Roof Feature at the Entrances to Underpass   Clear crushes are to be placed around the entrances to collect stormwater flowing off from the roof of underpass. The concrete slab at the entrance will be raised by 0.2 m April 2018    |    21  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  from ground level with a small ramp. This feature is to ensure no rain water will flow into the underpass during normal storm event, and the small ramp is provided to maintain accessibility for disabilities. In addition, storm drain channel made of stainless steel grate will be installed in the front of the ramp and at the end of the stairs to underpass for rainwater collection. All features are designed to meet a 1 in 20 year rain event capacity. Detailed calculation for stormwater management can be found in Appendix C.   4.3 Drainage and Utilities  During storm events, water might be brought into the underpass by users or through potential seepage. As the lowest point is at approximately 3.5 m below ground, with the assumption that it is lower than the sewer pipelines, a storage tank and pump are necessary for transferring ponding out.   Storage tank is designed to locate near the mechanical room, which is in the middle of the underpass at the east side, with pump installed at the bottom of it, connecting the tank to sewer and combined pipeline with a service connection pipe. Therefore, the drainage system can be accessed through the mechanical room for repair and maintenance.   The drainage channel has a symmetric gradient of 2%, with highest elevation at entrances and lowest at the middle, where the collection points locate, and extra pipes are used connecting the collection points on both sides to storage tank to minimizing surface water in the underpass.  Pump is set in a way that it rests during normal times, but will be activated once the water level reaches a specific height, which will be calculated later, to transport water April 2018    |    22  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  out. The amount of water in the underpass is calculated by multiplying the estimated number of users during peak hours with the amount of water they carried, with a factor of safety taken into consideration.   According to our previous discussion, there will be 480 pedestrians and 120 cyclists using the underpass per hour for peak rate. We assume the amount of water on pedestrians and cyclists are 30 cm3 and 50 cm3, respectively, then the total amount of water will be calculated as:                                Overlapping time between the precipitation event and users’ activity considered to be 2 hours, and the factor of safety is assumed to be 1.75, which ensures the capability of the structure even under severe situations. Therefore, the threshold volume is determined as:                                 The activation water level is set at 35 cm, and the bottom area for the cylindrical tank is calculated to be 20400 mm2, which gives the radius of 25.5 cm.   The designed size for the storage tank is then designed to be a cylindrical with height of 65 cm, which should be higher than the threshold water depth, with inner radius of 25.5 cm.  Diameter of pipe connecting the drainage channel inside the underpass and the storage tank is assumed to be 125 mm, which is capable of delivering the flow calculated above.  April 2018    |    23  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  The pump size is not determined at this stage, as there’s no requirement from the client about the speed of dewatering. However, due to the small amount of water and low head required, a regular small pump should be capable.  4.4 Other Facilities  4.4.1 Lighting  According to city requirement, 24-hr of lighting should be provided as the length of the underpass exceeds 20m. Electricity is supplied through power lines connected to mechanical room. In order to save energy, LED lighting is selected with the illuminating level of 17.5 lux.   8-watts of LED light bulb will give 450 lumens, with 17.5 lux at consideration, indicating the service area of 25.7 m. For our 7 m width underpass, with 2 light bulbs per row, each one will need to serve 7.3 m in length and 3.5 in width.   As the underpass has the total length of approximately 25 m, 6 8-watts LED bulbs will be necessary, consisting of 3 rows and 2 per row, with separating length of 7.3 m.   4.4.2 Vandal Proof  Vandal proof system will be installed including 4 cameras, with two at the north entrance, one in the front of mechanical room and one at the south entrance, for facility and equipment protection.   Electricity power will also be supplied through mechanical room, which connects to surrounding power lines.  4.4.3 Underground Facilities  April 2018    |    24  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  The major considerations regarding to underground facilities include two parts: the disruptions brought by construction and checking for capability of existing pipelines for large storms.  For constructions, one existing manhole near Hamber Road will be relocated due to underpass construction, and correspondingly, two pipelines will be re-routed as the figure below shown:   Figure 13 Existing Drainage Pipeline Utility Drawing at the Intersection of Chancellor Boulevard with Hamber Road  For storm water collection, we went through the “Sewer and Combined” pipeline layout, finding out that the pipes are all of large diameters, which should be capable for the 20-April 2018    |    25  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  year return period storm event. Therefore, no upgrade in pipe size will be made, and layout at places along the corridor other than the intersection shown above will stay the same.   April 2018    |    26  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  5.0 FINAL COST ESTIMATE   A class B cost estimation is conducted based on the detailed design drawings, city standards, and relevant specifications. Historical project-based unit rates are applied to conduct this cost estimate, and the total cost should be within 5% to 10% of actual contract price.   As shown in the table below, the roadway construction is 3.62 millions which occupies the bigger proportion of the overall cost; whereas the cost of constructing underpass is calculated to be 1.24 millions. The reason for the roadway construction cost being greater than that of the underpass is because of its large quantity in regard to its total area. The project management cost is calculated as 10% of the total construction cost according to the MoTi guidelines, and it turns out to be $486,000.  Therefore, the total cost of the Chancellor Corridor project is 5.4 millions including project management fee.   In addition to the project management design, there will be a permitting fee for reconstructing roadway and building underpass. This permitting fee is estimated to be $7,900 for a total of six permits includes development permit, excavation permit, utility permit, traffic management permit, building permit, and street and landscape permits.   Table 7 Summary of Class B Cost Estimate 1 Project Design   $                        58,000  2 Permitting   $                          7,900     Roadway Construction  3 Excavation, Earthwork and Asphalt paving  $                   2,953,725  4 Concrete works    $                        427,200  5 Pavement Marking and Signage    $                          80,000  6 Fences    $                            7,500  7 Electrical Works    $                        150,000   Total Roadway Construction   $                   3,618,425     April 2018    |    27  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  Underpass Construction  8 Excavation and earthwork    $                        237,800  9 Concrete Works    $                        539,500  10 Electrical Works    $                        121,800  11 Stormwater Management     $                            8,000  12 Underpass Entrances     $                        334,100   Total Underpass Construction     $                     1,241,200    Total Construction Cost $4,859,625 Project Management Cost (10%) $486,000 Total Construction Cost with PM, Design and Permitting (2018 Dollars)  $5,411,525 Annual Operating and Maintenance Fee (0.7%) $34,000    This cost estimate has implemented the unit rate estimating method. The cost of labor, materials, and equipment are included in the unit rate for each item. According to the final design schedule, this cost estimate includes a total of 5 mobilizations to site for roadway and underpass construction. Any additional demobilization and remobilization fee will be conducted by specific contractors building bidding and construction period.   Therefore, the total estimated cost of the proposed design comes up to be $5,411,525 including cost of construction, project management, project design and permitting. The annual operating and maintenance fee is estimated to be $34,000 according to the MoTi guidelines as 0.7% of the net construction cost. No inflation rate is applied on the estimated prices, so that all prices are in 2018-dollar value. A schedule of quantity and cost breakdown is enclosed in Appendix B for further information.         April 2018    |    28  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  6.0 SCHEDULE  The proposed schedule is planned based on a consideration of minimizing disruption on local traffics. Therefore, the overall construction is divided into a total number of five zones, with each zone to be under construction during different times. A detailed construction schedule is generated using Microsoft Project. Construction of this project is anticipated to start on May 1st, 2018, with a total duration of 93 days until early September. Reason for choosing this start date is that a comparatively low volume of traffic can be expected in and out of University Hill Elementary School during summer months. In addition, the nice weather during summer provides a preferred weather condition for most construction activities such as material transportation, excavation, and placement of concrete and asphalt.   6.1 Construction Zones  Construction of the project at Chancellor Boulevard has been divided into 5 different zones to minimize impact on local traffic, as shown in Figure 16 below.   Zone 1: North-West of underpass Zone 2: South-West of underpass Zone 3: North-East of underpass Zone 4: South-East of underpass Zone 5: Underpass  April 2018    |    29  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Figure 14 Construction Zone Planning  6.2 Construction Planning  A high-level summarized construction schedule is illustrated below in Figure 17. Construction of the underpass is planned as the very first task, with all the zones designed to avoid traffic shot down of the entire Chancellor Boulevard. Closure of road traffic will only happen to half of the road cross section, with both lanes in one direction providing full services while the other half is under construction. After excavation, a temporary shoring system will be constructed to ensure stability of underground structures during construction. Zone 1 and zone 3 will start construction on May 1st, followed by zone 2 and zone 4. The two lanes of eastbound will first be used for traffic for both directions while westbound is under construction. Similarly, westbound will be used to provide full services while eastbound is under construction. This construction plan minimizes possible traffic disruption during the construction period and minimizes impacts on local neighbourhoods.  April 2018    |    30  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   Figure 15 Summarized Construction Schedule  A detailed project Gantt Chart is attached in Appendix A with the critical path being highlighted with a red line.  6.3 Anticipated Construction Issues  Some problems could be occurring during the construction period that need to be taken into consideration at early stage. They can lead to significant delays on construction schedule, as well as affecting final quality after finish of construction. A list of those anticipated issues are listed as follows:   Non- universality of information  Weak performance of construction management  Inefficient communications  Unexpected site conditions  Poor connections between construction zones and times  Inadequate risk management   April 2018    |    31  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  7.0 MAINTENANCE PLAN  A project maintenance plan is designed to maintain the project service level during the designated service life. Listed below are some critical components that are included in the project maintenance plan:   Routine maintenance Routine maintenance is proposed to maintain the average service level of road and underpass in a relatively high frequency. It may include cleaning for the road surface and underpass, tree trimming, grass cutting, and snow cleaning or de-icing during winter. It should also be under routine maintenance to mitigate traffic chaos if the traffic lights and flashing beacon pedestrian crossing system are out of order.   Periodical maintenance This category usually involves large scale and programmable maintenance during the whole life-span of road and underpass. Based on a reasonable time interval, the road signs, flexible posts, and other project components with damage will be replaced, and the road surface layer will be re-paved with newly painted road labels or lane borders for clearer indication. The lighting system in underpass will be checked, and light bulbs will be replaced based on a certain period. This period is decided according to site investigation results and specifications provided by light manufacturers.   Special maintenance Special maintenances are designed to respond to hazards and damages due to unexpected incidents. When the road or underpass structures are failed to resist April 2018    |    32  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  natural hazards such as floods, earthquakes, and tsunamis, engineers and constructors will take responsibilities to mitigate possible impacts and plan for renovations of the structure. If necessary, the road embankment and road shoulders will be stabilized in special maintenance.   Emergency plan  Any emergencies will be addressed immediately and call for proper responses, therefore a comprehensive emergency plan with detailed descriptions will be needed. Risks such as potential hazards will be identified together with proposed responding measures. According to different probabilities and levels of consequences of hazards, engineers will be able to quickly assess and react as needed. Final risk control and corresponding plans will aim to transfer, reduce, or avoid risks, as well as minimize potential consequences.   Improvements As the external environment is always changing over the time, it is reasonable to expect changes on traffic demands, policies, and site conditions. When new concerns and problems are to be addressed, the design should also be updated to include improvements on current project. For example, if the traffic volume is increasing dramatically in the future, engineers could consider shrinking the width of the median in the middle of the road to support more traffic capacity.  Improvements are not only necessary for this project, but also for the maintenance plan. This plan should be updated iteratively as more issues and concerns could occur as time passes by.  April 2018    |    33  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  Any processes in dealing with maintenance will be transparent in order to avoid ethical issues and other unexpected situations. All relevant tasks must be performed by qualified personnel and with proper onsite supervision. Records should be properly and safely conserved in case for future reference.    April 2018    |    34  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  REFERENCES  AA1000 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENTSTANDARD2011. (2011). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from https://www.bing.com/cr?IG=0205F97E19D74B83968277A3AA75E9B1&CID=264CE07BCD7C683D0C6EEB3CCC7A695C&rd=1&h=i40pCr6avs8omzuMVUOGdd1kYKRuHBq1HAmWaI8CNDE&v=1&r=https%3a%2f%2fwww.isealalliance.org%2fsites%2fdefault%2ffiles%2fAA1000SES%25202010%2520PRINT.pdf&p=DevEx,5056.1  Brzev, S., & Pao, J. (2009). Reinforced concrete design: A practical approach. NY, NY: Pearson Education.  Geometric design guide for Canadian roads. (1999). Ottawa, ON: Transportation Association of Canada.  Inset Cat Eyes. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from http://www.bridgepointroadmarkings.com/services/road-studs/inset-cat-eyes/  Lighting. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from http://www.bats.org.uk/pages/bats_and_lighting.html  Master Municipal Construction Documents. (2000). British Columbia: Master Municipal Construction Documents Association.   Ministry of Technology Innovation and Citizens Services. (2017, August 17). WorkSafeBC. Retrieved November 27, 2017, from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/services-for-government/bc-bid-resources/support-services/risk-management/worksafebc  New Stanley Park Bike and Pedestrian Lanes Officially Completed. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from  http://www.insidevancouver.ca/2016/03/04/new-stanley-park-bike-and-pedestrian-lanes-officially-completed/  Rain Drain. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from  https://www.lowes.ca/outdoor-drainage/rain-drain-40-in-channel-with-stainless-steel-grate_g2196762.html  Road Diets. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/road_diets/  Safety and Quality. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from http://www.oshainfo.gatech.edu/safety-pub.html  The British Columbia Building Code. (2012). Victoria, B.C.: Crown Publications.  The City of Vancouver Street Restoration Manual. (2008). City of Vancouver Engineering Services. Retrieved from http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/vancouver_street_restoration_manual.pdf  Tumkur, M. (2004). Design of concrete structures: A23.3-04. Mississauga, Ont.: Canadian Standards Association.  April 2018    |    A  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.                  APPENDIX A SCHEDULES  April 2018    |    B  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   April 2018    |    C  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.    April 2018    |    D  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.    April 2018    |    E  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.                   APPENDIX B COST ESTIMATES   April 2018    |    F  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.     April 2018    |    G  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.     April 2018    |    H  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.     April 2018    |    I  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.                  APPENDIX C SAMPLE CALCULATIONS   April 2018    |    J  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.      April 2018    |    K  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.      April 2018    |    L  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.      April 2018    |    M  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.      April 2018    |    N  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.     April 2018    |    O  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.       April 2018    |    P  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.     April 2018    |    Q  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.  Precipitation Calculations     April 2018    |    R  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.                   APPENDIX D SYNCHRO STATUS REPORT   April 2018    |    S  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.     April 2018    |    T  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.                   APPENDIX E ENGINEERING DRAWINGS April 2018    |    U  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.        April 2018    |    V  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   April 2018    |    W  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   April 2018    |    X  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   April 2018    |    Y  Alpine Breeze Engineering Consulting Ltd.   

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