UBC Undergraduate Research

Facilitating Recreational Programming on Campus Bourchier-Willans, Abigayil; Vader, Kasey; Vadot, Emma; Radivojevic, Dana; Peterson, Zoe 2018-04-03

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program  Student Research Report         Facilitating Recreational Programming on Campus Abigayil Bourchier-Willans, Kasey Vader, Emma Vadot, Dana Radivojevic, Zoe Peterson  University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Community, Wellbeing April 3, 2018       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .2 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3 METHODS AND RATIONALE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 RESULTS AND FINDINGS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 DISCUSSION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLIENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 REFERENCES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A: TCPS 2 Certificates for All Group Members  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13 B: Sample Recruitment Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 C: Sample Consent Form for Interviewees  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 D: Interview Questions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 E: Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 F: Transcript of All Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 22 1 Executive Summary Facilitating Recreational Programming on CampusThe purpose of this project is to identify the information and resources that would be               most valuable to UBC groups and clubs when planning and hosting recreational events.             Recreational programs have been shown to have physical, educational, psychological and social            benefits to students in university (Forrester, 2014). Despite these benefits, it may be difficult for               students to run these types of programs due to difficulty balancing school, work and other               responsibilities (​Hall, Scott, & Borsz 2008​). Our research aims to identify the barriers UBC              academic groups face when planning and hosting recreational programming. This study also            aims to determine the most valuable resources that could be provided to assist in overcoming the                identified barriers. Our data could be used to form a ‘recreational programming toolkit’ that              could be provided to all UBC campus groups. We hope this information can be used to lessen the                  burden that recreational event planning can place on university students and enable more groups              to host activities that are beneficial to the university population.  Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews of each participant          either in person or over the phone. Interviews began by asking if the participant’s club had ever                 hosted a recreational event before, and their yes or no answer guided us along to a specific set of                   questions dependent on the response. The following questions investigated the group’s history            with recreational programming, their successes and failures in their endeavours, as well as the              resources they desired but struggled to obtain to facilitate their events as intended. Thematic              content analysis provided us with a count of the total number of groups that identified similar                barriers, as well as the most frequently wished-for information and resources. The most frequently identified barriers to recreational programming were difficulty          acquiring facilities (10 / 15 total respondents), communicating with UBC staff (9 / 15 total               respondents), and the need for financial support (9 / 15 total respondents). Our participants              indicated that the two most beneficial resources would be: resources for booking facilities (9 / 15                respondents) and acquiring athletic/sports equipment (8 / 15 respondents). Whether these groups plan recreational events to socialize, to increase their health, or just              to break up their regular group activities, a ‘recreational programming toolkit’ would allow all              UBC groups to reap even more benefits from their events, and hold them more frequently. A                ‘recreational programming toolkit’ would also make planning and hosting recreational events           more accessible and welcoming for groups that have not held them in the past. The ideal toolkit                 would provide information on the best practices for booking facilities and acquiring            athletic/sports equipment, options and advice for when groups feel they need financial support,             and listings of possible instructors or leaders.  Limitations of this study mostly stemmed from the challenging recruitment of academic            groups, which led to a limited range of groups included in the study. Future research should be                 done in order to expand information presented in the toolkit so that it can be useful for other                  university organizations.  2 Introduction & Literature Review UBC is home to 117 undergraduate academic groups including societies, organizations           and associations of many different goals and interests (AMS Clubhouse, n.d.). Recreation            programs are an important part of campus life, and involve a lot of organization and preparation.                Through this work, we tried to find effective ways for academic groups to organize recreation               programming on campus, by providing specific guidelines to aid planning and reduce potential             barriers. We collected information regarding what resources would be valuable to have in a              comprehensive and straightforward toolkit for academic organizations on campus to facilitate           planning of recreational programs. This was achieved       through interviewing campus academic groups about      barriers they may face, or anticipate facing while planning         recreational events, as well as investigating what may have         contributed to the success of past events. This also included          learning about what kind of programs campus groups want         to plan, who their target population is, and what they hope           to achieve from these programs.  Programming has been defined as “designing, staging and delivering leisure opportunities           by intervening in social interaction” (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008, p. 6). Rossman and Schlatter              (2008) have identified key aspects that are essential to keep in mind when organizing an               effective program. The programmer should have knowledge of who the program is intended for,              what kind of setting will be needed, and what kind of additional objects will be necessary                (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008). The program should also be structured in a way that should engage                all participants, help foster relationships between participants and create a smoothly-flowing           environment (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008). If campus recreation programs are well organized, they align with a wide range of aspects               that support and enhance student life. There are many social benefits such as promoting school               spirit and students’ sense of belonging within the campus (Henchy, 2013), as well as physical               benefits such as increased fitness level and decreased sedentary time (Forrester, 2014). It has also               been shown that recreational programs are a good way to release stress and increase              concentration, while aiding in energy levels and academic performance (Forrester, 2014). There are many barriers that campus groups may face when trying to organize             recreational programs. For example, ​Hall, Scott, & Borsz        (2008​) found that it can be hard for students to organize their            events effectively due to the difficulty of balancing their         school, work and other responsibilities. Having good       problem-solving, communicative and collaborative skills may      be key to overcoming challenges that arise when organizing a          program (​Hall, Scott, & Borsz 2008​). When interviewing the         academic campus organizations, we used semi-structured      3 interviews in order to get more detailed information about their experience with organizing             recreation programming. Semi-structured interviews allowed us to focus on specific target areas,            while also taking into account differences groups face between planning their individual events             (Adams, 2010). We also talked to academic as well as other organizations on campus who have                run recreational events in the past, to better understand what leads to successful and simple event                planning. This helped determine the best practices for by-student-for-student organizations, so           that they make their recreational events a success. Methods & Rationale Population Choice Rationale: For this research, we chose to focus on students in academic groups or societies. The               self-reported goals of academic groups often focus on socialization, networking, and academic            development (AMS Clubhouse, n.d.). There are many sport and recreational groups on campus             whose primary goal and activities centre on physical activity. It is therefore likely that their               members are already more physically active and more familiar with recreational resources than             students in academic groups or societies. Therefore, we believe that individuals in academic             groups were the right choice to provide us with a greater understanding of the hardships and                barriers students face in planning and hosting recreational events. The wide range of academic              groups on campus allowed us to pull a variety of different opinions and experiences. From our                selected population (academic clubs at UBC), we recruited a variety of individuals from groups              that differ in size, experience with recreational events, as well as respective goals of their groups                for activities. This variation allows us to develop a better understanding of barriers that may be                specific to particular types of academic clubs, as well as helping us identify commonalities              between groups.  To recruit participants into our study, we used the AMS clubhouse webpage and a search               of Facebook groups to find groups, clubs, and societies that fit our inclusion criteria. The               inclusion criteria was: the group must have an academic focus, the group must have a contact                email listed (if on clubhouse website), and groups must be run by and made up of UBC students.                  We contacted the groups through their clubhouse email or Facebook group page to arrange              interviews (See Appendix B for sample of recruitment email sent to groups). We reached out to                35 groups in total. 15 groups expressed interest in participating, and we arranged interview times               with them over email or Facebook messenger. A consent form was signed by each participant at                the time of the interview. A sample of the consent form can be found in Appendix C. What data will be collected, when, and how: Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews of each participant          either in person or over the phone. For the in-person interviews, an effort was made to meet the                  participants in their club offices during office hours, to ease participant burden. All interviews              were audio recorded. The interviewer followed the questions presented in Appendix D, but also              4 asked further probing questions to follow-up on participants’ answers. With this method, we             gained a deeper understanding of the changes in context and barriers for each individual.              Interviews were conducted throughout the first two weeks of March, 2018.  We began by asking if the participant’s club had ever hosted a recreational event before,               and a yes or no answer guided us along to a specific set of questions dependent on the response.                   If the participant answers no to the initial question, we followed up with a set of questions                 investigating where the club has faced blocks in organizing recreational events. We followed this              by asking what specific events they would be interested in hosting, and how confident they               would currently feel in running such an event. If the participant answers yes to the initial                question, we then followed up with questions on what type of event it was, what difficulties they                 faced along the way, as well as how confident the club was in hosting the event. Finally, we                  asked all participants to choose from a list of resources those that they feel would be most                 beneficial to them, should they choose to run a recreational event. We leave the last interview                question open ended to give the clubs an opportunity to voice anything that we might not have                 included, but that they feel would be beneficial for us to know.  Data Analysis Once all interviews were transcribed from their recording, the qualitative data was            analyzed with thematic and content analysis. Thematic analysis was done by reading and             re-reading the data to become familiar with the content and patterns, searching for themes within               the responses, then identifying recurrent themes and patterns (​Braun & Clarke, 2006; ​Hsieh &              Shannon, 2005​)​. Content analysis was performed by sorting the participants’ responses by            question, and counting the number of times certain barriers or resources were mentioned and              identified (​Braun & Clarke, 2006; ​Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). Where more specific probing             questions were asked, we used these to give context to the project as a whole, pulling out                 compelling extracts of the participants’ responses. This analysis allowed us to review all of the               participants’ answers to identify common broad and specific barriers, as well as compare and              contrast the different needs and barriers brought up by members of different academic groups.              By comparing participants’ current awareness of available resources, we are able to identify             which potential resources in the toolkit have received sufficient recognition and which require             more advertisement. Through this process we have gathered evidence that supports the necessity             of making a ‘recreational programming toolkit,’ as well as identifying the resources that would              be most beneficial to include. Results and Findings The research was conducted at the University of British Columbia to assess the barriers that different academic groups face in regards to organizing physical and recreational activities. The data was collected from 11 different academic clubs/societies and student associations through semi-structured interviews. Some groups had 1 to 3 different members participating in the interviews resulting in a total of 15 interviews. The interviews provided input from groups in 5   regards to their personal experiences with planning and facilitating recreational programming either targeted within the group context or within a general UBC target context​.​ Within the 11 groups, 8 of them have had at least some experience planning or running one or several recreational activities for their club/organization/society. Dependent on groups’ experience, we had two sets of questions catered to groups with prior experience planning recreational events as opposed to groups that have never facilitated recreational activities before. Of the groups that we interviewed, common recreational activities that they planned ranged from yoga, group meditation, local hikes, to participating in UBC REC run events such as Storm the Wall, Day of the Longboat, etc. Experienced groups as well as those that lacked any experience were able to address barriers that they encountered or think they would encounter when facilitating recreational activities. Nonetheless, 11 out of the 15 participants stated that they were confident in their ability to organize a recreational activity if need be.   Themes  There were 7 themes that we identified through the use of content analysis (​Braun & Clarke, 2006; ​Hsieh & Shannon, 2005) of the data as seen in ​Appendices E figure 1​: difficulty acquiring facilities, difficulty communicating with UBC, financial need, difficulty acquiring equipment, low participation, difficulty in marketing, and information on licensing. Below we have listed the top 4 themes that have been determined as the most frequently mentioned barriers indicated by participants in regards to organizing recreational events.  Difficulty Acquiring Facilities 10 out of 15 participants stated that they had issues acquiring facilities needed for running their recreational events due to variable issues.  “The SRC is really difficult to work with; they are bad with replying to emails, they are hard to get a hold of and we have had long waiting times for answers.” - ​Participant  “Once there’s booking facilities and finances involved, that’s where I imagine we’d struggle.” - ​Participant   Difficulty communicating with UBC In terms of difficulty communicating with UBC, this encompassed having problems in coordinating with the right people for organizing events. 9 of the 15 participants ran into issues in organizing events due to poor communication or lack thereof.  “UBC staff responsiveness has been a big barrier [in planning events]” - ​Participant   Financial Need 6   A common theme taken from the interviews was that, especially for many of the smaller clubs, financial need was commonly a barrier to organizing an event. Of the 15 participants that were interviewed 9 stated that financial needs was a preventative issue.  “It’s ALWAYS financial reasons.  Either there is not enough funding, or it costs too much, or if there is funding it’s so difficult and tedious to go through all the processes [to access it].”- ​Participant  Difficulty Acquiring Equipment Finally, another recurring issue was in acquiring equipment for the events. 8 of the 15 participants addressed problems in renting or buying equipment for events they were planning and difficulty determining where to get certain items such as tables, sports equipment, tents etc. and other necessary items.  Reasons for facilitation of Recreational Activities There were 8 groups that previously organized and have run recreational events. These groups indicated that the reasons for doing so was due to the following: opportunity for socialization, facilitating team-building, providing health benefits, encouraging time spent outside, as well as offering a break from regular group activities. From these listed reasons, 3 of the 5 were more often stated as popular reasons and can be seen in ​Appendices E figure 2.  Opportunity for Socialization The opportunity for socialization within the exec team as well as the general club during recreational events was the most frequently voiced reason for hosting such events with 7 of the 8 individuals with recreation facilitation experience stated that as their main objective in organizing their events.  “Often we’re doing them as a way to bring people together, rather than strictly for the health benefits. Recreation and physical activity are a topic of common interest in our faculty, so it brings people together.”- ​Participant   Provides Health Benefits The next most frequently occuring reason for organizing recreational events was the benefits that come from participating in physical activity. 5 of the 8 clubs prioritized health benefits as the one of the main reasons for facilitating recreation based events.   Offers a Break from Regular Group Activities Finally another common finding was that, for 3 of the 8 clubs, hosting a recreational event was a way to provide their members with a reprieve from regular group activities and again another contributing factor for facilitating recreational events.  7 Resources When asking clubs about potential resources that would have been beneficial when planning recreational events the following resources were listed: facilities, athletic/ sports equipment, furniture, technology, transportation, instructors/ leaders, food/ drink, financial support, paperwork, and event promotion. The following 4 most common resources stated are shown below as seen in ​Appendices E figure 3​. Facilities Having knowledge about booking facilities as well as information on costs and who to contact was a resource that 9 of the 15 participants thought would have been beneficial during the planning process. Athletic/ Sports Equipment Accessing equipment for athletic or sporting events was seen at the next most common beneficial resource; 8 of the participants cited it would have been useful in organizing their event. Instructors/ Leaders For 7 of the participants, having access and knowledge in regards to contacting the right instructors or leaders for their events would have been beneficial during their planning process. Financial Support Finally, financial support was cited as resource for 7 of the 15 participants in planning their                event. DiscussionInterpretation of Results: The results of our study identified academic groups’ common barriers and most wanted             resources to plan recreational programs, which could be helpful in the creation of a ‘recreational               programming toolkit’. The most frequently cited reasons for holding recreational events were            that they provide health benefits, as well as an opportunity for socialization and a break from                other regular activities. Ideally, the creation of a toolkit will allow more groups at UBC to reap                 these benefits through recreational programming. Generally, the need for physical features such as facilities, equipments and instructors,            were identified as the primary resources that would be beneficial to have when organizing              recreational events. These resources are well aligned with the key aspects that Rossman and              Schlatter (2008) identified as being necessary for successful recreational programming, including           a complete and accurate knowledge of the settings and objects needed. Ironically, these physical              features were also identified as common barriers by the participants, which shows that a change               needs to be made so that these groups can have easier access to the resources they need to                  effectively plan events. The most common barrier mentioned was the difficulty of acquiring             8 facilities, which goes hand in hand with the most wanted resource of having information about               facilities. This can include access to what facilities are offered, how to book facilities and cost                for facilities. A participant mentioned that ​“tips and tricks when it comes to booking facilities”               would be extremely helpful for clubs to have.  The two other most common barriers were difficulties communicating with UBC, as well             as restricting financial resources. Communicating with UBC is extremely important in the            process of planning an event, as it is the main source for all other resources. However, many of                  the academic clubs interviewed expressed disappointment and difficulty when trying to get in             contact with UBC staff regarding recreational programming. When asked about barriers that they             faced, a participant indicated that ​“UBC staff responsiveness and working with the staff to              complete timelines” was a major difficulty and others did not even know where to start.                Furthermore, the need for financial resources differed from group to group, depending on their              size, given budget and funding received. For example, the Department of Oceanography does not              get much funding because of their small size, which increases their challenges in organizing              events; ​“if you don't have the maximum number of people that can benefit from something               educational or something that’s portraying UBC positively within the community, then you            won’t be able to receive funding for that” (Participant, Oceanography Club). Nonetheless,            financial support ended up being one of the most mentioned beneficial resources, as this can               often lead to making an event more appealing to members, which is a key feature in event                 planning (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008).  Other barriers that were less frequently mentioned included low participation of           members, difficulty in marketing and the need for information on licensing. Overall, many             organizations and clubs emphasized the need for all these resources to be more straightforward              and easily accessible. One participant expressed that ​“UBC should be able to provide more              resources and make these resources more readily accessible for all to use”​, which echoed many               others’ sentiments. Implications and application to larger population: This research has provided valuable information for the members of UBC recreation for             the formation of a 'recreational programming toolkit.' Ideally, this information will be harnessed             to produce an easy-to-use manual that could be distributed to the members of UBC's groups and                clubs to inform them of resources they may need to facilitate planning recreational events. If this                occurred, UBC clubs, organizations and groups would positively benefit when trying to organize             recreational events. Through this research, we gained a better understanding of barriers currently             faced by academic groups on campus who have tried to plan events, as well as resources students                 wish to have access to. All of this information will hopefully lead to the development of a                 straightforward and accessible toolkit that is directly applicable to the needs of various groups on               campus, leading to a more efficient program planning process. The majority of this research              could also be applied to other clubs on campus as they will have to face similar barriers and                  require similar resources. 9 Challenges, Limitations and Improvements: We faced multiple challenges throughout our study centered around recruitment of           academic groups. First, getting groups to agree to do interviews was a difficulty, as many groups                did not respond to our initial messages or were not interested in participating. One common               reason for not showing interest was lack of desire to plan recreational events for their club. As                 there was no incentive to participate, creating interest and motivation to participate in the study               was difficult. For the groups that did show interest, we had some challenges in organizing the                timing of interviews. Moreover, most of the groups that agreed to do interviews already had               some experience planning recreational events. Therefore, it was difficult to find a range of              planning experiences to help broaden our study. These challenges led to some limitations within the study. As we did not have a wide                range of planning experiences, most of our information on resources needed and barriers faced              came from groups who had previous experience planning recreational events. Of the groups who              had not attempted to plan recreational events before, many were unable to give information              about barriers they may face or were not knowledgeable of all the potential resources they would                need. Another limitation was that different groups that we interviewed had different financial             needs and resources. For example, some groups are given budgets by an outside source whereas               other groups have to raise funds themselves. Therefore, it is hard to generalize financial barriers               and needs across different groups. Finally, our study was limited to academic groups only from               the UBC population. Further investigations of a wider population are required to identify barriers              that may be specific to other type of campus groups.  Some ways in which the study could be improved would be to open up the method of                 collecting data to include a survey option. This way, clubs who did not want to take the time to                   meet or had difficulty organizing times with the researchers would still be able to participate in                the study. It would also be easier and faster which may entice clubs who did not show interest in                   the present study. Another way to encourage engagement would be to offer an incentive for               participation. For example, participation in each survey or interview would enter each participant             into a draw for a chance to win a gift card. Although not in the scope of this study, the next step                      to broaden and generalize the findings would be to include all groups, teams and clubs of UBC in                  the study.  10 Recommendations for client Based on our findings, we recommend that a toolkit of information and resources be              compiled for use by UBC groups, clubs, and societies. A ‘recreational programming toolkit’             would allow all UBC groups to reap even more benefits from their events, and hold them more                 frequently. This toolkit would also make planning and hosting recreational events more            accessible and welcoming for groups that have not held them in the past.  The ideal toolkit would provide: 1) Information on the best practices for booking facilities and acquiring athletic/sports          equipment. Further suggested is an easier form of communication between UBC groups/clubs and the             providers of facilities and equipment, such as an online chat or weekly office hours. 2) Options and advice for when groups feel they need financial supportAlthough we recognise that financial aid can not be made available for all groups, general               advice could be provided on ways to keep the cost of events down, as well as ways to                  have the event earn back it’s cost. Workshops on planning and budgeting money could              also be beneficial. 3) Listings of possible instructors or leadersFeeling unsure about their own ability to lead a recreational event shouldn’t hold groups  back from running one! By providing listings of potential instructors, and advice on how              to connect with them, recreational programming can be made more accessible to            individuals of all experience levels. 4) Listing of resources to obtain help in promoting events, as well as general advice on              actions the group can take to increase event engagement and participation With so many different options of campus activities, it can be hard to make your voice                heard and get people to come out to your event. By providing advice and resources that                would help groups get the word out about their events, we can bring the benefits of                recreational programming to more people on campus. 11 References Adams, E. (2010). The joys and challenges of semi-structured interviewing. Community Practitioner : The Journal of the Community Practitioners' & Health Visitors' Association, 83(7), 18. AMS Clubhouse. (n.d.). Retrieved March 26, 2018, from https://www.campusvibe.ca/campusvibe/groups/cea260f5-8aab-4e11-bccf-fe4a846e62dc#groupcategory=Academic Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. Forrester, S. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. ​Corvallis, OR: NIRSA ​. Hall, S. L., Scott, F., & Borsz, M. (2008). A constructivist case study examining the leadership development of undergraduate students in campus recreational sports. ​Journal of College Student Development ​, ​49​(2), 125-140. Henchy, A. (2013). The perceived benefits of participating in campus recreation programs and facilities: A comparison between undergraduate and graduate students. Recreational sports journal, 37(2), 97-105.​https://doi.org/10.1123/rsj.37.2.97 Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), 1277-1288. Rossman, J. R., & Schlatter, B. E. (2008). ​Recreation programming: Designing leisure experiences​. Sagamore Publishing LLC. 12 Appendix B Recruitment Email Subject:​ Recreational Events Research Body: ​Hello ​[Name]​,  I am part of a team of Kinesiology students carrying out a class project for KIN 464                 exploring the barriers that academic groups, clubs, and societies face when planning and             running recreational events at UBC. We are looking to interview members of various             academic clubs to gain insight into how recreational programming could be made more             accessible at UBC. We are interested in interviewing both groups with prior experience             organizing recreational events as well as those without prior experience planning these            events. Interviews will be conducted either i​n person or over the phone ​, and would take              approximately 10-15 minutes of your time. If conducted in person, interviews will be             arranged at a time and location convenient for you. If you are interested in participating in this study, please reply ​[name of contact person] ​at                [email address] ​. Thank you in advance for your time and consideration. Regards, [Name] 15 Appendix C Sample Consent Form for Interviewees 16 17 Appendix D  Interview Questions Has your team/group/ club ever run any events that involved physical activity or             recreation? ​[prompting if unsure: This can be anything from group walks, or a day of               events at the beach, to more structured recreational activities like playing a sport or              going out for a hike. If you have, please briefly describe what type of activities you have                 done in the past.] If the individual’s group has not run any events that involve physical activity or              recreation, they will be asked the questions in section A and C below. If the individual’s group ​has run events that involve physical activity or recreation, they              will be asked the questions in section B and C below. A: Questions for groups that have ​not ​run recreational events in the past: ● Are you interested in hosting recreational or activity-focused events for your          team/group/club? If no, why? If yes, what do you see as the benefits of recreational              events to your group?● What type of activities would you be interested in planning?○ [Prompting if unsure:] Would you be interested in running any of the following            types of activities for your group:■ Public beach day (would be free to have an event at the beach if cost an               issue)■ Weekly or monthly free yoga or meditation classes■ Snowshoeing at Cypress Mountain■ Participating in UBC Rec Tournaments■ Regular group coffee walks]● How confident are you in your ability to plan a recreational activity for your group?● Would you know who to contact and where to get the resources you wanted for your               activity?○ For example, if you wanted to book a facility at UBC, would you know who to               reach out to?○ For example, if you wanted to rent/borrow speakers for an outdoor event, would            you know where to go or who to contact?B: Questions for groups that ​have ​ run recreational events in the past: ● What type of recreational/ activity-focused events has your group done in the past?18   ● What are some barriers that you have faced in putting on recreation programming for              your members? (i.e. what roadblocks did you face? Did you have to change your original               plans because you did not have adequate access to resources?) ○ If possible, provide a specific example of time that this occurred. ○ Have any barriers ever had a significant impact on an event you were planning? ● How confident are you in your ability to plan and run recreational activities for your               group? ● Would you know who to contact and where to get the resources you wanted for your                activity? ○ For example, if you wanted to rent a facility or supplies, how would you go about                finding what you needed? ○ How satisfied are you about the current accessibility of these resources? ● Why do you run events that involve physical activity or recreation? What value do you               think they have? Please select 2.  ○ Provides an opportunity for socialization ○ Facilitates team-building ○ Provides health benefits ○ Advertises our team/group/club ○ For fun ○ To encourage time spent outside ○ Offers a break from the regular activities of our team/group/club ○ Other:  C: Questions for all groups: ● Which of the following do you feel could be beneficial resources to you when/if planning               a recreational event?  ○ Facilities (access to gyms, fields, rooms, etc) ○ Athletic/ Sports Equipment  ○ Furniture (tables, chairs, outdoor tents, etc) ○ Technology (speakers, microphones, etc) ○ Transportation  ○ Instructors/ Leaders/ Guides ○ Food/Drink ○ Financial Support ○ Paperwork (sign-up sheets, consent forms, waivers, etc) ○ Event Promotion (how to promote, printing posters) ○ Other:   19   Appendix E Results   Figure 1​. Analyzed themes from content analysis to question: “What are some barriers that              you have faced in putting on recreation programming for your members? (i.e. what             roadblocks did you face? Did you have to change your original plans because you did not                have adequate access to resources?)”  (Total number of respondents:15)  20 Figure 2​: Response totals to question: “Why do you run events that involve physical activity               or recreation? What value do you think they have? (Please select 2)” (Total number of respondents: 8) Figure 3​: ​Response totals to question: "Which of the following do you feel could be               beneficial resources to you when/if planning a recreational event? (choose as many as             you like)” (Total number of respondents: 15) 21  UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program  Student Research Report         Facilitating Recreational Programming on Campus Abigayil Bourchier-Willans, Kasey Vader, Emma Vadot, Dana Radivojevic, Zoe Peterson  University of British Columbia KIN 464 Themes: Community, Wellbeing April 3, 2018       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .2 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3 METHODS AND RATIONALE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 RESULTS AND FINDINGS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 DISCUSSION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLIENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 REFERENCES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A: TCPS 2 Certificates for All Group Members  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13 B: Sample Recruitment Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 C: Sample Consent Form for Interviewees  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 D: Interview Questions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 E: Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 F: Transcript of All Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 22 1 Executive Summary Facilitating Recreational Programming on CampusThe purpose of this project is to identify the information and resources that would be               most valuable to UBC groups and clubs when planning and hosting recreational events.             Recreational programs have been shown to have physical, educational, psychological and social            benefits to students in university (Forrester, 2014). Despite these benefits, it may be difficult for               students to run these types of programs due to difficulty balancing school, work and other               responsibilities (​Hall, Scott, & Borsz 2008​). Our research aims to identify the barriers UBC              academic groups face when planning and hosting recreational programming. This study also            aims to determine the most valuable resources that could be provided to assist in overcoming the                identified barriers. Our data could be used to form a ‘recreational programming toolkit’ that              could be provided to all UBC campus groups. We hope this information can be used to lessen the                  burden that recreational event planning can place on university students and enable more groups              to host activities that are beneficial to the university population.  Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews of each participant          either in person or over the phone. Interviews began by asking if the participant’s club had ever                 hosted a recreational event before, and their yes or no answer guided us along to a specific set of                   questions dependent on the response. The following questions investigated the group’s history            with recreational programming, their successes and failures in their endeavours, as well as the              resources they desired but struggled to obtain to facilitate their events as intended. Thematic              content analysis provided us with a count of the total number of groups that identified similar                barriers, as well as the most frequently wished-for information and resources. The most frequently identified barriers to recreational programming were difficulty          acquiring facilities (10 / 15 total respondents), communicating with UBC staff (9 / 15 total               respondents), and the need for financial support (9 / 15 total respondents). Our participants              indicated that the two most beneficial resources would be: resources for booking facilities (9 / 15                respondents) and acquiring athletic/sports equipment (8 / 15 respondents). Whether these groups plan recreational events to socialize, to increase their health, or just              to break up their regular group activities, a ‘recreational programming toolkit’ would allow all              UBC groups to reap even more benefits from their events, and hold them more frequently. A                ‘recreational programming toolkit’ would also make planning and hosting recreational events           more accessible and welcoming for groups that have not held them in the past. The ideal toolkit                 would provide information on the best practices for booking facilities and acquiring            athletic/sports equipment, options and advice for when groups feel they need financial support,             and listings of possible instructors or leaders.  Limitations of this study mostly stemmed from the challenging recruitment of academic            groups, which led to a limited range of groups included in the study. Future research should be                 done in order to expand information presented in the toolkit so that it can be useful for other                  university organizations.  2 Introduction & Literature Review UBC is home to 117 undergraduate academic groups including societies, organizations           and associations of many different goals and interests (AMS Clubhouse, n.d.). Recreation            programs are an important part of campus life, and involve a lot of organization and preparation.                Through this work, we tried to find effective ways for academic groups to organize recreation               programming on campus, by providing specific guidelines to aid planning and reduce potential             barriers. We collected information regarding what resources would be valuable to have in a              comprehensive and straightforward toolkit for academic organizations on campus to facilitate           planning of recreational programs. This was achieved       through interviewing campus academic groups about      barriers they may face, or anticipate facing while planning         recreational events, as well as investigating what may have         contributed to the success of past events. This also included          learning about what kind of programs campus groups want         to plan, who their target population is, and what they hope           to achieve from these programs.  Programming has been defined as “designing, staging and delivering leisure opportunities           by intervening in social interaction” (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008, p. 6). Rossman and Schlatter              (2008) have identified key aspects that are essential to keep in mind when organizing an               effective program. The programmer should have knowledge of who the program is intended for,              what kind of setting will be needed, and what kind of additional objects will be necessary                (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008). The program should also be structured in a way that should engage                all participants, help foster relationships between participants and create a smoothly-flowing           environment (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008). If campus recreation programs are well organized, they align with a wide range of aspects               that support and enhance student life. There are many social benefits such as promoting school               spirit and students’ sense of belonging within the campus (Henchy, 2013), as well as physical               benefits such as increased fitness level and decreased sedentary time (Forrester, 2014). It has also               been shown that recreational programs are a good way to release stress and increase              concentration, while aiding in energy levels and academic performance (Forrester, 2014). There are many barriers that campus groups may face when trying to organize             recreational programs. For example, ​Hall, Scott, & Borsz        (2008​) found that it can be hard for students to organize their            events effectively due to the difficulty of balancing their         school, work and other responsibilities. Having good       problem-solving, communicative and collaborative skills may      be key to overcoming challenges that arise when organizing a          program (​Hall, Scott, & Borsz 2008​). When interviewing the         academic campus organizations, we used semi-structured      3 interviews in order to get more detailed information about their experience with organizing             recreation programming. Semi-structured interviews allowed us to focus on specific target areas,            while also taking into account differences groups face between planning their individual events             (Adams, 2010). We also talked to academic as well as other organizations on campus who have                run recreational events in the past, to better understand what leads to successful and simple event                planning. This helped determine the best practices for by-student-for-student organizations, so           that they make their recreational events a success. Methods & Rationale Population Choice Rationale: For this research, we chose to focus on students in academic groups or societies. The               self-reported goals of academic groups often focus on socialization, networking, and academic            development (AMS Clubhouse, n.d.). There are many sport and recreational groups on campus             whose primary goal and activities centre on physical activity. It is therefore likely that their               members are already more physically active and more familiar with recreational resources than             students in academic groups or societies. Therefore, we believe that individuals in academic             groups were the right choice to provide us with a greater understanding of the hardships and                barriers students face in planning and hosting recreational events. The wide range of academic              groups on campus allowed us to pull a variety of different opinions and experiences. From our                selected population (academic clubs at UBC), we recruited a variety of individuals from groups              that differ in size, experience with recreational events, as well as respective goals of their groups                for activities. This variation allows us to develop a better understanding of barriers that may be                specific to particular types of academic clubs, as well as helping us identify commonalities              between groups.  To recruit participants into our study, we used the AMS clubhouse webpage and a search               of Facebook groups to find groups, clubs, and societies that fit our inclusion criteria. The               inclusion criteria was: the group must have an academic focus, the group must have a contact                email listed (if on clubhouse website), and groups must be run by and made up of UBC students.                  We contacted the groups through their clubhouse email or Facebook group page to arrange              interviews (See Appendix B for sample of recruitment email sent to groups). We reached out to                35 groups in total. 15 groups expressed interest in participating, and we arranged interview times               with them over email or Facebook messenger. A consent form was signed by each participant at                the time of the interview. A sample of the consent form can be found in Appendix C. What data will be collected, when, and how: Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews of each participant          either in person or over the phone. For the in-person interviews, an effort was made to meet the                  participants in their club offices during office hours, to ease participant burden. All interviews              were audio recorded. The interviewer followed the questions presented in Appendix D, but also              4 asked further probing questions to follow-up on participants’ answers. With this method, we             gained a deeper understanding of the changes in context and barriers for each individual.              Interviews were conducted throughout the first two weeks of March, 2018.  We began by asking if the participant’s club had ever hosted a recreational event before,               and a yes or no answer guided us along to a specific set of questions dependent on the response.                   If the participant answers no to the initial question, we followed up with a set of questions                 investigating where the club has faced blocks in organizing recreational events. We followed this              by asking what specific events they would be interested in hosting, and how confident they               would currently feel in running such an event. If the participant answers yes to the initial                question, we then followed up with questions on what type of event it was, what difficulties they                 faced along the way, as well as how confident the club was in hosting the event. Finally, we                  asked all participants to choose from a list of resources those that they feel would be most                 beneficial to them, should they choose to run a recreational event. We leave the last interview                question open ended to give the clubs an opportunity to voice anything that we might not have                 included, but that they feel would be beneficial for us to know.  Data Analysis Once all interviews were transcribed from their recording, the qualitative data was            analyzed with thematic and content analysis. Thematic analysis was done by reading and             re-reading the data to become familiar with the content and patterns, searching for themes within               the responses, then identifying recurrent themes and patterns (​Braun & Clarke, 2006; ​Hsieh &              Shannon, 2005​)​. Content analysis was performed by sorting the participants’ responses by            question, and counting the number of times certain barriers or resources were mentioned and              identified (​Braun & Clarke, 2006; ​Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). Where more specific probing             questions were asked, we used these to give context to the project as a whole, pulling out                 compelling extracts of the participants’ responses. This analysis allowed us to review all of the               participants’ answers to identify common broad and specific barriers, as well as compare and              contrast the different needs and barriers brought up by members of different academic groups.              By comparing participants’ current awareness of available resources, we are able to identify             which potential resources in the toolkit have received sufficient recognition and which require             more advertisement. Through this process we have gathered evidence that supports the necessity             of making a ‘recreational programming toolkit,’ as well as identifying the resources that would              be most beneficial to include. Results and Findings The research was conducted at the University of British Columbia to assess the barriers that different academic groups face in regards to organizing physical and recreational activities. The data was collected from 11 different academic clubs/societies and student associations through semi-structured interviews. Some groups had 1 to 3 different members participating in the interviews resulting in a total of 15 interviews. The interviews provided input from groups in 5   regards to their personal experiences with planning and facilitating recreational programming either targeted within the group context or within a general UBC target context​.​ Within the 11 groups, 8 of them have had at least some experience planning or running one or several recreational activities for their club/organization/society. Dependent on groups’ experience, we had two sets of questions catered to groups with prior experience planning recreational events as opposed to groups that have never facilitated recreational activities before. Of the groups that we interviewed, common recreational activities that they planned ranged from yoga, group meditation, local hikes, to participating in UBC REC run events such as Storm the Wall, Day of the Longboat, etc. Experienced groups as well as those that lacked any experience were able to address barriers that they encountered or think they would encounter when facilitating recreational activities. Nonetheless, 11 out of the 15 participants stated that they were confident in their ability to organize a recreational activity if need be.   Themes  There were 7 themes that we identified through the use of content analysis (​Braun & Clarke, 2006; ​Hsieh & Shannon, 2005) of the data as seen in ​Appendices E figure 1​: difficulty acquiring facilities, difficulty communicating with UBC, financial need, difficulty acquiring equipment, low participation, difficulty in marketing, and information on licensing. Below we have listed the top 4 themes that have been determined as the most frequently mentioned barriers indicated by participants in regards to organizing recreational events.  Difficulty Acquiring Facilities 10 out of 15 participants stated that they had issues acquiring facilities needed for running their recreational events due to variable issues.  “The SRC is really difficult to work with; they are bad with replying to emails, they are hard to get a hold of and we have had long waiting times for answers.” - ​Participant  “Once there’s booking facilities and finances involved, that’s where I imagine we’d struggle.” - ​Participant   Difficulty communicating with UBC In terms of difficulty communicating with UBC, this encompassed having problems in coordinating with the right people for organizing events. 9 of the 15 participants ran into issues in organizing events due to poor communication or lack thereof.  “UBC staff responsiveness has been a big barrier [in planning events]” - ​Participant   Financial Need 6   A common theme taken from the interviews was that, especially for many of the smaller clubs, financial need was commonly a barrier to organizing an event. Of the 15 participants that were interviewed 9 stated that financial needs was a preventative issue.  “It’s ALWAYS financial reasons.  Either there is not enough funding, or it costs too much, or if there is funding it’s so difficult and tedious to go through all the processes [to access it].”- ​Participant  Difficulty Acquiring Equipment Finally, another recurring issue was in acquiring equipment for the events. 8 of the 15 participants addressed problems in renting or buying equipment for events they were planning and difficulty determining where to get certain items such as tables, sports equipment, tents etc. and other necessary items.  Reasons for facilitation of Recreational Activities There were 8 groups that previously organized and have run recreational events. These groups indicated that the reasons for doing so was due to the following: opportunity for socialization, facilitating team-building, providing health benefits, encouraging time spent outside, as well as offering a break from regular group activities. From these listed reasons, 3 of the 5 were more often stated as popular reasons and can be seen in ​Appendices E figure 2.  Opportunity for Socialization The opportunity for socialization within the exec team as well as the general club during recreational events was the most frequently voiced reason for hosting such events with 7 of the 8 individuals with recreation facilitation experience stated that as their main objective in organizing their events.  “Often we’re doing them as a way to bring people together, rather than strictly for the health benefits. Recreation and physical activity are a topic of common interest in our faculty, so it brings people together.”- ​Participant   Provides Health Benefits The next most frequently occuring reason for organizing recreational events was the benefits that come from participating in physical activity. 5 of the 8 clubs prioritized health benefits as the one of the main reasons for facilitating recreation based events.   Offers a Break from Regular Group Activities Finally another common finding was that, for 3 of the 8 clubs, hosting a recreational event was a way to provide their members with a reprieve from regular group activities and again another contributing factor for facilitating recreational events.  7 Resources When asking clubs about potential resources that would have been beneficial when planning recreational events the following resources were listed: facilities, athletic/ sports equipment, furniture, technology, transportation, instructors/ leaders, food/ drink, financial support, paperwork, and event promotion. The following 4 most common resources stated are shown below as seen in ​Appendices E figure 3​. Facilities Having knowledge about booking facilities as well as information on costs and who to contact was a resource that 9 of the 15 participants thought would have been beneficial during the planning process. Athletic/ Sports Equipment Accessing equipment for athletic or sporting events was seen at the next most common beneficial resource; 8 of the participants cited it would have been useful in organizing their event. Instructors/ Leaders For 7 of the participants, having access and knowledge in regards to contacting the right instructors or leaders for their events would have been beneficial during their planning process. Financial Support Finally, financial support was cited as resource for 7 of the 15 participants in planning their                event. DiscussionInterpretation of Results: The results of our study identified academic groups’ common barriers and most wanted             resources to plan recreational programs, which could be helpful in the creation of a ‘recreational               programming toolkit’. The most frequently cited reasons for holding recreational events were            that they provide health benefits, as well as an opportunity for socialization and a break from                other regular activities. Ideally, the creation of a toolkit will allow more groups at UBC to reap                 these benefits through recreational programming. Generally, the need for physical features such as facilities, equipments and instructors,            were identified as the primary resources that would be beneficial to have when organizing              recreational events. These resources are well aligned with the key aspects that Rossman and              Schlatter (2008) identified as being necessary for successful recreational programming, including           a complete and accurate knowledge of the settings and objects needed. Ironically, these physical              features were also identified as common barriers by the participants, which shows that a change               needs to be made so that these groups can have easier access to the resources they need to                  effectively plan events. The most common barrier mentioned was the difficulty of acquiring             8 facilities, which goes hand in hand with the most wanted resource of having information about               facilities. This can include access to what facilities are offered, how to book facilities and cost                for facilities. A participant mentioned that ​“tips and tricks when it comes to booking facilities”               would be extremely helpful for clubs to have.  The two other most common barriers were difficulties communicating with UBC, as well             as restricting financial resources. Communicating with UBC is extremely important in the            process of planning an event, as it is the main source for all other resources. However, many of                  the academic clubs interviewed expressed disappointment and difficulty when trying to get in             contact with UBC staff regarding recreational programming. When asked about barriers that they             faced, a participant indicated that ​“UBC staff responsiveness and working with the staff to              complete timelines” was a major difficulty and others did not even know where to start.                Furthermore, the need for financial resources differed from group to group, depending on their              size, given budget and funding received. For example, the Department of Oceanography does not              get much funding because of their small size, which increases their challenges in organizing              events; ​“if you don't have the maximum number of people that can benefit from something               educational or something that’s portraying UBC positively within the community, then you            won’t be able to receive funding for that” (Participant, Oceanography Club). Nonetheless,            financial support ended up being one of the most mentioned beneficial resources, as this can               often lead to making an event more appealing to members, which is a key feature in event                 planning (Rossman & Schlatter, 2008).  Other barriers that were less frequently mentioned included low participation of           members, difficulty in marketing and the need for information on licensing. Overall, many             organizations and clubs emphasized the need for all these resources to be more straightforward              and easily accessible. One participant expressed that ​“UBC should be able to provide more              resources and make these resources more readily accessible for all to use”​, which echoed many               others’ sentiments. Implications and application to larger population: This research has provided valuable information for the members of UBC recreation for             the formation of a 'recreational programming toolkit.' Ideally, this information will be harnessed             to produce an easy-to-use manual that could be distributed to the members of UBC's groups and                clubs to inform them of resources they may need to facilitate planning recreational events. If this                occurred, UBC clubs, organizations and groups would positively benefit when trying to organize             recreational events. Through this research, we gained a better understanding of barriers currently             faced by academic groups on campus who have tried to plan events, as well as resources students                 wish to have access to. All of this information will hopefully lead to the development of a                 straightforward and accessible toolkit that is directly applicable to the needs of various groups on               campus, leading to a more efficient program planning process. The majority of this research              could also be applied to other clubs on campus as they will have to face similar barriers and                  require similar resources. 9 Challenges, Limitations and Improvements: We faced multiple challenges throughout our study centered around recruitment of           academic groups. First, getting groups to agree to do interviews was a difficulty, as many groups                did not respond to our initial messages or were not interested in participating. One common               reason for not showing interest was lack of desire to plan recreational events for their club. As                 there was no incentive to participate, creating interest and motivation to participate in the study               was difficult. For the groups that did show interest, we had some challenges in organizing the                timing of interviews. Moreover, most of the groups that agreed to do interviews already had               some experience planning recreational events. Therefore, it was difficult to find a range of              planning experiences to help broaden our study. These challenges led to some limitations within the study. As we did not have a wide                range of planning experiences, most of our information on resources needed and barriers faced              came from groups who had previous experience planning recreational events. Of the groups who              had not attempted to plan recreational events before, many were unable to give information              about barriers they may face or were not knowledgeable of all the potential resources they would                need. Another limitation was that different groups that we interviewed had different financial             needs and resources. For example, some groups are given budgets by an outside source whereas               other groups have to raise funds themselves. Therefore, it is hard to generalize financial barriers               and needs across different groups. Finally, our study was limited to academic groups only from               the UBC population. Further investigations of a wider population are required to identify barriers              that may be specific to other type of campus groups.  Some ways in which the study could be improved would be to open up the method of                 collecting data to include a survey option. This way, clubs who did not want to take the time to                   meet or had difficulty organizing times with the researchers would still be able to participate in                the study. It would also be easier and faster which may entice clubs who did not show interest in                   the present study. Another way to encourage engagement would be to offer an incentive for               participation. For example, participation in each survey or interview would enter each participant             into a draw for a chance to win a gift card. Although not in the scope of this study, the next step                      to broaden and generalize the findings would be to include all groups, teams and clubs of UBC in                  the study.  10 Recommendations for client Based on our findings, we recommend that a toolkit of information and resources be              compiled for use by UBC groups, clubs, and societies. A ‘recreational programming toolkit’             would allow all UBC groups to reap even more benefits from their events, and hold them more                 frequently. This toolkit would also make planning and hosting recreational events more            accessible and welcoming for groups that have not held them in the past.  The ideal toolkit would provide: 1) Information on the best practices for booking facilities and acquiring athletic/sports          equipment. Further suggested is an easier form of communication between UBC groups/clubs and the             providers of facilities and equipment, such as an online chat or weekly office hours. 2) Options and advice for when groups feel they need financial supportAlthough we recognise that financial aid can not be made available for all groups, general               advice could be provided on ways to keep the cost of events down, as well as ways to                  have the event earn back it’s cost. Workshops on planning and budgeting money could              also be beneficial. 3) Listings of possible instructors or leadersFeeling unsure about their own ability to lead a recreational event shouldn’t hold groups  back from running one! By providing listings of potential instructors, and advice on how              to connect with them, recreational programming can be made more accessible to            individuals of all experience levels. 4) Listing of resources to obtain help in promoting events, as well as general advice on              actions the group can take to increase event engagement and participation With so many different options of campus activities, it can be hard to make your voice                heard and get people to come out to your event. By providing advice and resources that                would help groups get the word out about their events, we can bring the benefits of                recreational programming to more people on campus. 11 References Adams, E. (2010). The joys and challenges of semi-structured interviewing. Community Practitioner : The Journal of the Community Practitioners' & Health Visitors' Association, 83(7), 18. AMS Clubhouse. (n.d.). Retrieved March 26, 2018, from https://www.campusvibe.ca/campusvibe/groups/cea260f5-8aab-4e11-bccf-fe4a846e62dc#groupcategory=Academic Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. Forrester, S. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. ​Corvallis, OR: NIRSA ​. Hall, S. L., Scott, F., & Borsz, M. (2008). A constructivist case study examining the leadership development of undergraduate students in campus recreational sports. ​Journal of College Student Development ​, ​49​(2), 125-140. Henchy, A. (2013). The perceived benefits of participating in campus recreation programs and facilities: A comparison between undergraduate and graduate students. Recreational sports journal, 37(2), 97-105.​https://doi.org/10.1123/rsj.37.2.97 Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), 1277-1288. Rossman, J. R., & Schlatter, B. E. (2008). ​Recreation programming: Designing leisure experiences​. Sagamore Publishing LLC. 12 Appendix B Recruitment Email Subject:​ Recreational Events Research Body: ​Hello ​[Name]​,  I am part of a team of Kinesiology students carrying out a class project for KIN 464                 exploring the barriers that academic groups, clubs, and societies face when planning and             running recreational events at UBC. We are looking to interview members of various             academic clubs to gain insight into how recreational programming could be made more             accessible at UBC. We are interested in interviewing both groups with prior experience             organizing recreational events as well as those without prior experience planning these            events. Interviews will be conducted either i​n person or over the phone ​, and would take              approximately 10-15 minutes of your time. If conducted in person, interviews will be             arranged at a time and location convenient for you. If you are interested in participating in this study, please reply ​[name of contact person] ​at                [email address] ​. Thank you in advance for your time and consideration. Regards, [Name] 15 Appendix C Sample Consent Form for Interviewees 16 17 Appendix D  Interview Questions Has your team/group/ club ever run any events that involved physical activity or             recreation? ​[prompting if unsure: This can be anything from group walks, or a day of               events at the beach, to more structured recreational activities like playing a sport or              going out for a hike. If you have, please briefly describe what type of activities you have                 done in the past.] If the individual’s group has not run any events that involve physical activity or              recreation, they will be asked the questions in section A and C below. If the individual’s group ​has run events that involve physical activity or recreation, they              will be asked the questions in section B and C below. A: Questions for groups that have ​not ​run recreational events in the past: ● Are you interested in hosting recreational or activity-focused events for your          team/group/club? If no, why? If yes, what do you see as the benefits of recreational              events to your group?● What type of activities would you be interested in planning?○ [Prompting if unsure:] Would you be interested in running any of the following            types of activities for your group:■ Public beach day (would be free to have an event at the beach if cost an               issue)■ Weekly or monthly free yoga or meditation classes■ Snowshoeing at Cypress Mountain■ Participating in UBC Rec Tournaments■ Regular group coffee walks]● How confident are you in your ability to plan a recreational activity for your group?● Would you know who to contact and where to get the resources you wanted for your               activity?○ For example, if you wanted to book a facility at UBC, would you know who to               reach out to?○ For example, if you wanted to rent/borrow speakers for an outdoor event, would            you know where to go or who to contact?B: Questions for groups that ​have ​ run recreational events in the past: ● What type of recreational/ activity-focused events has your group done in the past?18   ● What are some barriers that you have faced in putting on recreation programming for              your members? (i.e. what roadblocks did you face? Did you have to change your original               plans because you did not have adequate access to resources?) ○ If possible, provide a specific example of time that this occurred. ○ Have any barriers ever had a significant impact on an event you were planning? ● How confident are you in your ability to plan and run recreational activities for your               group? ● Would you know who to contact and where to get the resources you wanted for your                activity? ○ For example, if you wanted to rent a facility or supplies, how would you go about                finding what you needed? ○ How satisfied are you about the current accessibility of these resources? ● Why do you run events that involve physical activity or recreation? What value do you               think they have? Please select 2.  ○ Provides an opportunity for socialization ○ Facilitates team-building ○ Provides health benefits ○ Advertises our team/group/club ○ For fun ○ To encourage time spent outside ○ Offers a break from the regular activities of our team/group/club ○ Other:  C: Questions for all groups: ● Which of the following do you feel could be beneficial resources to you when/if planning               a recreational event?  ○ Facilities (access to gyms, fields, rooms, etc) ○ Athletic/ Sports Equipment  ○ Furniture (tables, chairs, outdoor tents, etc) ○ Technology (speakers, microphones, etc) ○ Transportation  ○ Instructors/ Leaders/ Guides ○ Food/Drink ○ Financial Support ○ Paperwork (sign-up sheets, consent forms, waivers, etc) ○ Event Promotion (how to promote, printing posters) ○ Other:   19   Appendix E Results   Figure 1​. Analyzed themes from content analysis to question: “What are some barriers that              you have faced in putting on recreation programming for your members? (i.e. what             roadblocks did you face? Did you have to change your original plans because you did not                have adequate access to resources?)”  (Total number of respondents:15)  20 Figure 2​: Response totals to question: “Why do you run events that involve physical activity               or recreation? What value do you think they have? (Please select 2)” (Total number of respondents: 8) Figure 3​: ​Response totals to question: "Which of the following do you feel could be               beneficial resources to you when/if planning a recreational event? (choose as many as             you like)” (Total number of respondents: 15) 21  UBC School of KinesiologyFacilitating Recreational Programming on CampusAbigayil Bourchier-Willans, Kasey Vader, Emma Vadot, Dana Radivojevic, & Zoe PetersonBackgroundThe purpose of this project is to identify the information and resources that would be most valuable to UBC groups and clubs when planning and hosting recreational events. Recreational programs have been shown to have physical, educational, psychological and social benefits to students in university (Forrester, 2014). Despite these benefits, it may be difficult for students to run these types of programs due to difficulty balancing school, work and other responsibilities (Hall, Scott, & Borsz 2008). Our research aims to identify the barriers UBC academic groups face when planning and hosting recreational programming. This study also aims to determine the most valuable resources that could be provided to assist in overcoming the identified barriers. Our data could be used to form a ‘recreational programming toolkit’ that could be provided to all UBC campus groups. We hope this information can be used to lessen the burden that recreational event planning can place on university students and enable more groups to host activities that are beneficial to the university population. Project DesignQualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews of each participant. The following questions investigated the group’s history with recreational programming, their successes and failures in their endeavors, as well as the resources they desired but struggled to obtain to facilitate their events as intended. Thematic content analysis provided us with a count of the total number of groups that identified similar barriers, as well as the most frequently wished-for information and resources.Part 1: Barriers to Recreational ProgrammingThe	most	frequently	identified	barriers	to	recreational	programming	were:• Difficulty	acquiring	facilities	•Challenges	communicating	with	UBC•Need	for	financial	supportParticipant Quote: “it’s a bit ambiguous trying to determine what facilities offer what resources and where you can go to get additional help to secure spaces and equipment.”Participant Quote: “It’s ALWAYS financial reasons. Either there is not enough funding, or it costs too much, or if there is funding it’s so difficult and tedious to go through all the processes [to access it].”Part 2: Resources to Facilitate Recreational ProgrammingThe	most	frequently	identified	“desired	resources”	for	recreational	programming	were:• Help	Booking	Facilities	and	Acquiring	Athletic	Equipment.• Financial	Support• Leaders	or	Instructors• Assistance	Promoting	Events	Participant Quote: “Overall I think it would be really great to have step by step guidelines of how to book places including the different places that are offered, as well as what resources each facility has and where you could access additional resources if the facility doesn’t have them.”DiscussionWhether campus groups plan recreational events to socialize, to increase their health, or just to break up their regular group activities, a ‘recreational programming toolkit’ would allow all UBC groups to reap even more benefits from their events, and hold them more frequently. This toolkit could also make planning more accessible and welcoming for groups that have not held them in the past.ConclusionBased on our findings, we recommend that a toolkit of information and resources be compiled for use by UBC groups, clubs, and societies that address the most frequently identified barriers as well as desired resources. Acknowledgement This research was supported by UBC Recreation. We would also like to thank all the students who shared their stories and time with us.Desired ResourcesResponse totals to the question: “Which of the following do you feel could be beneficial resources to you when planning a recreational event? (select as many as apply)” References•Forrester, S. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. Corvallis, OR: NIRSA.•Hall, S. L., Scott, F., & Borsz, M. (2008). A constructivist case study examining the leadership development of undergraduate students in campus recreational sports. Journal of College Student Development, 49(2), 125-140.The Ideal ToolkitThe	ideal	toolkit	would	provide	information	on:1. The	best	practices	for	booking	facilities	and	acquiring	athletic/sports	equipment2. Options	and	advice	for	when	groups	feel	they	need	financial	support3. Listings	of	possible	instructors4. Resources	to	obtain	help	in	promoting	events,	as	well	as	general	advice	on	actions	the	group	can	take	to	increase	event	engagement	and	participation.	

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