UBC Undergraduate Research

Prepared for : UBC Building Operations Bisceglia, Lorenzo; Wang, Vivien; Wang, Dawei; Turco, Giulia; Wilson, Carlene 2017-03-26

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportCarlene Wilson, Dawei Wang, Giulia Turco, Lorenzo Bisceglia, Vivien WangPrepared for: UBC Building OperationsCOMM 486MMarch 26, 2017University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.EXECUTIVE​ ​SUMMARY In January 2017, Cloud9 Consulting was approached by UBC Building Operations (Building            Ops) to devise a plan to reach the emission target goals set out by the Climate Action Plan.                  The brief given was: How should UBC create a significantly more efficient and cost effective               fleet of vehicles, while simultaneously dramatically reducing fleet vehicle greenhouse gas           emissions?  ABOUT​ ​THE​ ​CLIENT UBC Building Ops is the on-campus maintenance organization who manages a large fleet of              vehicles for the campus. Through partnerships and economies of scale, the organization is             able to achieve low costs for vehicles, fuel and maintenance services. UBC Building Ops has               reduced emissions by 45% since 2007, though they have a ways to go to hit their targets for                  the future. Most importantly, 54% of all campus vehicles are owned outside of the              organization,​ ​making​ ​hitting​ ​future​ ​targets​ ​more​ ​challenging.  The largest issue Building Ops is facing currently, is that not all faculties within UBC share                the same vision on reaching the emissions targets. Even if they did, Building Ops has no                way to monitor their progress as many of their vehicles are outside the organization’s fleet.               This​ ​main​ ​problem​ ​leads​ ​to​ ​three​ ​major​ ​symptoms,​ ​which​ ​include: 1. Emissions​ ​per​ ​vehicle​ ​still​ ​remain​ ​too​ ​high2. Too​ ​many​ ​UBC-owned​ ​vehicles​ ​are​ ​on​ ​campus3. Internal​ ​operations​ ​are​ ​not​ ​optimized​ ​for​ ​campusCloud9 has executed primary and secondary research in order to provide recommendations            for​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​moving​ ​forward. ANALYSIS​ ​AND​ ​RECOMMENDATIONS All recommendations by Cloud9 will be focusing on the 2050 goal of zero emissions. Though               the 2020 benchmark is much sooner, Cloud9 has discovered that costs associated with             focusing on two separate goals will be much higher than focusing on the second of the two.                 With​ ​the​ ​recommendations​ ​in​ ​place​ ​for​ ​2050,​ ​2020​ ​goals​ ​will​ ​simultaneously​ ​be​ ​achieved. Building Ops is not yet in a position to fully centralize all vehicles on UBC, mainly, because                 there are departments who are opposed to joining, despite the clear data on costs savings               and the benefit associated with the centralized fleet. Cloud9 initially considered an incentive             program or cap and trade to either incentivise or nudge the faculties into joining, though we                quickly understood that this may be seen as coercion and may not be adopted fondly by the                 faculties. That being said, our recommendations are built around the non-member faculties            owning their own car, though attempting to create a shared values with Building Ops to               achieve​ ​the​ ​emission​ ​targets.  Recommendation alternatives were evaluated based on their ability to lower the symptoms            outlined​ ​above,​ ​and​ ​include​ ​their​ ​ability​ ​to: 1. Lower​ ​greenhouse​ ​gas​ ​emissions1 2. Reduce​ ​fleet​ ​size3. Optimization​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​systemAfter​ ​careful​ ​consideration​ ​and​ ​analysis,​ ​the​ ​three​ ​recommendations​ ​are​ ​as​ ​follows: 1. Remove​ ​fossil​ ​fuel​ ​vehicles​ ​and​ ​collect​ ​data2. Reduce​ ​fleet​ ​size3. Optimize​ ​campus​ ​operationsThough these are lofty goals, Cloud9 has outlined tactics to make each recommendation             realistic​ ​and​ ​ready​ ​to​ ​be​ ​implemented.  Recommendation​ ​1:​ ​Remove​ ​fossil​ ​fuel​ ​vehicles​ ​and​ ​collect​ ​data Recommendation one is built around government subsidized programs to incentivise car           owners to trade in their vehicle for a clean energy vehicle. Using these governmental              programs in junction with a Building Ops subsidy should be enough of an incentive for               faculties to switch out their vehicles. The only request from Building Ops, would be that the                faculty insert a telematics device in their car for solely the purpose of data collection. This                recommendation will work because it is enough of an incentive to sway the faculties to move                to non-GHG emitting vehicles, while Building Ops has slightly more control over the vehicles              that are not associated with Building Ops. The data collected will be used to further improve                the​ ​system​ ​moving​ ​forward. Recommendation​ ​2:​ ​Reduce​ ​fleet​ ​size There is a binding constraint to fully electrifying all on-campus vehicles, and that is the lack                of infrastructure to support it (charging stations, power, etc.). Our second recommendation is             the introduction of Veemo bikes by Velometro. Unlike other bike sharing programs such as              Mobi, Veemo provides a car-like experience using solar panels on the roof to generate              electricity. Veemo’s enclosed, electric-assist and three-wheeled vehicle is regulated as a           bicycle.​ ​These​ ​bikes​ ​have​ ​the​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​replace​ ​vehicles​ ​for​ ​small,​ ​nearby​ ​jobs.  Veemo is already partnered with UBC to conduct a test run of the bikes Spring 2017.                Building Ops shouldn’t have a problem receiving a few vehicles to add to their fleet on a                 test-basis. Recommendation​ ​3:​ ​Optimize​ ​campus​ ​operations Our last recommendation focuses on long-term costs. Cloud9 recommends Building Ops           take the data collected from our first recommendation, and use it to create a centralized               deployment application to improve efficiency. Building Ops currently function with 9 different            platforms, this program will reduce the need of an employee to manage and deploy the               vehicles. Cloud9 takes these strategies and tactics into further depth in this report. This plan lays the                groundwork to reach UBC’s 2050 goal of zero emissions, as well as key metrics and change                management. 2 We are a team of innovative and capable students with an array of knowledge in different                areas.​ ​All​ ​5​ ​consultants​ ​are​ ​BCom​ ​candidates​ ​at​ ​the​ ​Sauder​ ​School​ ​of​ ​Business. ● Lorenzo ​has experience in project management and strategic implementation, with         his most recent job being in a data integration role to facilitate a B2B customer              segmentation.● Vivien ​has a focus on business operations. Through case studies and work           experience, Vivien has become excellent at reviewing business operations and         identifying​ ​key​ ​drivers​ ​for​ ​operations​ ​improvements.● Dawei ​has worked in various business development and financial analyst roles, from           the agency side of advertising, to strategic consulting in Ethiopia, to analyst positions            in​ ​banking.● Giulia ​has three years of experience in public relations where she has perfected her             communication and strategic thinking. Giulia has an array of experience within the           business development aspect of PR, and her experience includes crafting and          developed a strategy for a large retailer’s expansion throughout Canada,         relationships​ ​with​ ​the​ ​media​ ​and​ ​influentials,​ ​and​ ​managing​ ​of​ ​projects.● Carlene ​is heavily involved with UBC’s Human Resource Management Club, where          she organizes and plans events for fellow students. She has a Diploma in Accounting             from Douglas College, and has three years of experience working as a Jr. Accounts             Payable​ ​Specialists.3 Prior to developing a strategy, Cloud9 completed a thorough strategic analysis of Building             Ops’ current system. A SWOT analysis is a useful tool to create goals and metrics based on                 Building Ops’ current status. ​From the findings, Building Ops has achieved low fuel and              maintenance costs for their vehicles managed under their fleet. They are also a charter              member of the E3 fleet program and have received a platinum rating. This shows that they                are optimizing and performing to their fullest potential. One of their weaknesses is, that              although they have been able to efficiently control and manage their own fleet, there are               many departments that haven’t joined forces with them. Having a centralized unicen system             is detrimental to achieving their long-term goal of reducing emissions by 2050. The             technology industry is growing, and Cloud see this as both an opportunity and a threat.               Advancing technology could be an opportunistic for Building Ops, but there is no way of               knowing​ ​for​ ​sure.  Please​ ​see​ ​a​ ​more​ ​detailed​ ​SWOT​ ​in​ ​Appendix​ ​24.4 Building Ops’ Big Hairy Audacious Goal (BHAG) is to reduce GHG emissions by 66% by               2020 and 100% by 2050, as per the 2007 baseline. To date, Building Ops has achieved                transportation-based reductions of around 45%. To reduce GHG emissions, there are 3 main             levers​ ​that​ ​can​ ​be​ ​pulled: 1.​ ​Reducing​ ​average​ ​fuel​ ​consumption​ ​of​ ​the​ ​fleet;2.​ ​Reducing​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​kilometers​ ​driven​ ​per​ ​vehicle;​ ​and3.​ ​Reducing​ ​the​ ​total​ ​number​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​being​ ​driven.In order to achieve 0% emissions, one or all of these components must reach zero. It’s                impossible for the number of kilometers driven to reach zero, and the number of vehicles to                reach zero. So, in order to meet its 2050 goals, Building Ops must eliminate fossil fuels from                 its​ ​fleet.​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​can​ ​best​ ​meet​ ​its​ ​goals​ ​by​ ​doing​ ​the​ ​following: 1.​ ​Minimize​ ​the​ ​distance​ ​driven;2.​ ​Minimize​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​in​ ​the​ ​fleet;​ ​and3.​ ​Completely​ ​eliminate​ ​fossil​ ​fuels​ ​from​ ​the​ ​fleet.As discussed in the SWOT Analysis, Building Ops has already highly optimized its fleet with               currently-available technology. It’s assumed and expected that Building Ops will continue to            monitor and optimize its fleet (with the help of ARI) as EVs become a more viable option, but                  we can only expect very modest returns in the near future. In order to continue to make                 progress towards its GHG emissions goals, Building Ops should look outside its own fleet.              Specifically,​ ​Building​ ​Ops’​ ​should​ ​target​ ​the​ ​54%​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​owned​ ​by​ ​other​ ​faculties. While we have discussed the 2050 goal, we have so far ignored the intermediate 2020 goal                of 66% reductions. Ideally, it would be possible to reach both goals through the same               strategy, however we recognize that achieving an additional 20% of reductions in the next              year is a near-impossible task. Furthermore, it should be noted that the targets of 66%               reductions apply to the campus as a whole, and not to each individual department such as                Fleet Management. While it would be great for each department to arrive at the goal by                2020, it may result in undue inefficiency and greenwashing for Building Ops to get there in                time. Therefore we are not ignoring the 66% goal, but we are highlighting that it will be                 incidentally be met on our way to achieving 100% reductions. We expect to incidentally meet               the​ ​66%​ ​reduction​ ​goal​ ​by​ ​2025,​ ​but​ ​we​ ​will​ ​primarily​ ​be​ ​focussing​ ​on​ ​the​ ​strategy​ ​for​ ​2050. 5 Based on our analysis, the 54% of faculty-owned cars are the next clear opportunity Building               Ops should explore. Based on information given by the client, Building Ops offers the              following​ ​benefits​ ​to​ ​prospective​ ​customers​ ​such​ ​as​ ​faculties: 1. Discounts​ ​on​ ​fuel​ ​(e.g.​ ​2016​ ​Gasoline​ ​Average:​ ​$1.0935/L);2. Maintenance​ ​discounts​ ​(Hourly​ ​Garage​ ​Rates:​ ​~$65​ ​vs.​ ​$120)​ ​and​ ​convenience;3. Discounts​ ​on​ ​vehicle​ ​acquisition;4. Assistance​ ​with​ ​salvage​ ​and​ ​disposal;​ ​and5. Guidance​ ​on​ ​maximizing​ ​life​ ​cycle​ ​value.Currently, some groups reach out to Building Ops for advice and guidance, but fleet              decisions are decentralized overall. Furthermore, all departments operate with individual          budgets and are not staffed with fleet specialists. Finally, most departments are not             collecting telematics data and assets are suspected to be underutilized. This results in             frustration​ ​and​ ​a​ ​misalignment​ ​of​ ​goals​ ​in​ ​the​ ​following​ ​ways: 1. Building​ ​Ops​ ​has​ ​made​ ​nearly​ ​all​ ​the​ ​progress​ ​it​ ​can​ ​on​ ​its​ ​own​ ​fleet;2. Building​ ​Ops’​ ​success​ ​is​ ​measured​ ​on​ ​the​ ​emissions​ ​for​ ​the​ ​​campus​ ​as​ ​a​ ​whole​;3. 54% of vehicles are not owned by Building Ops -- Building Ops has no control over               how​ ​those​ ​vehicles​ ​are​ ​managed;4. The vast majority of those vehicles are not managed by fleet staff specialists, do not              consult​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​for​ ​guidance,​ ​and​ ​do​ ​not​ ​follow​ ​“best​ ​practices”;5. Departments​ ​operate​ ​with​ ​individual​ ​budgets​ ​and​ ​minimize​ ​their​ ​short​ ​term​ ​costs;6. Departments are reluctant to follow Building Ops’ advice (e.g. preventative         maintenance​ ​every​ ​6​ ​months)​ ​because​ ​it​ ​increases​ ​short​ ​term​ ​costs;7. Departments are not collecting data that can help them make long-term, life-cycle           based​ ​decisions.This misalignment of incentives results in a great deal of frustration for Building Ops.              Building Ops seeks to minimize life cycle costs and maximize greenhouse gas reductions             while faculties are primarily mindful of minimizing short-term costs. Underpinning this           frustration is that greenifying a fleet reduces life cycle costs and total cost of ownership, but                requires capital outlay and increased short term spending. This poises Building Ops and             departments to be directly at odds about whether or not departments should greenify their              vehicles. At its core, the primary issue is that ​UBC’s climate goals are not driven by all                 departments​ ​on​ ​campus​. 6 UPS United Parcel Service (UPS) strives for excellence in everything they do. Today, they             operate one of the largest private alternative fuel and advanced technology fleets in the U.S.               The company has achieved success by always being an early adopter of innovative             technologies. They currently follow a rolling laboratory approach to managing its fleet, by             replacing vehicles whenever possible. They strive to reduce the amount of fuel through             implementing telematics in all their vehicles. This allows them to do their due diligence of               keeping track of mileage and maintenance to prevent problems before they begin. The             business success depends on efficiency, which is why they focus on network optimization.             Through one integrated and optimized network they can increase their efficiency and reduce             their environmental impact. Their fleet currently consists of all-electric, hybrid electric,           hydraulic hybrid, ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG),           propane, renewable natural gas (RNG)/biomethane, and light-weight fuel-saving composite         body​ ​vehicles​ ​such​ ​as​ ​pedal​ ​power.​ ​.  Google The heart of American multinational tech giant Google sits in Googleplex, Google’s main             corporate campus. As a company that is driven by innovation and blue sky thinking, one of                Google’s primary goals is to create an environment that is both sustainable and             self-sufficient. To achieve their goals of sustainability, Google has implemented a number of             programs to optimize their fleet management, including introducing an on-campus bike share            program, a ‘GFleet’ program, as well as self-driving and shared electric vehicles. To reduce              the carbon emissions of their employees, Google offers privately run coach busses within             the Palo Alto area to bring employees to and from work. Google derives much of their                inspiration from nature, and claim to “create buildings that function like living and breathing              systems​ ​by​ ​optimizing​ ​access​ ​to​ ​nature,​ ​clean​ ​air​ ​and​ ​daylight”. 7 As we discussed, departments are not driving UBC’s climate goals. We asked three experts as to why that would                   be​ ​the​ ​case​ ​and​ ​how​ ​we​ ​could​ ​encourage ​ ​adoption. Dr. Stephen Sheppard is a Professor of Urban Forestry at UBC. He is an expert on communicating the threat of                    climate​ ​change ​ ​to​ ​school-age ​ ​students​ ​and​ ​the​ ​general ​ ​population. His​ ​recommendations ​ ​were​ ​largely​ ​centered​ ​around​ ​​communication​.​ ​His​ ​recommendation ​ ​had​ ​3​ ​main​ ​points:  1. Collect​ ​data​ ​to​ ​actually​ ​scope​ ​out​ ​what​ ​faculties​ ​are​ ​actually​ ​doing​ ​to​ ​assess​ ​the​ ​size​ ​of​ ​the​ ​problem.2. It may seems obvious that Building Ops offers superior cost savings and lowers its overall costs through                fleet management. However, this may not be obvious to faculties. Therefore, it’s necessary to             communicate just how much money faculties will actually save by managing their fleet and showing              them how electrifying their vehicles and taking advantage of government programs will save money in              the​ ​long​ ​run.3. Faculties may have reservations about being managed by an outside entity. Therefore, encourage high             adoption rates by allowing faculties to maintain their own autonomy, ownership, and control of their              vehicles, whenever possible. Also, oftentimes, several tactics used in tandem will appeal to more people              and​ ​work​ ​better​ ​than​ ​a​ ​single ​ ​tactic.Moreno Zanotto has a Masters in Public Health with a specialization in cycling traffic interactions and                transportation-based infrastructure. His recommendations are to reduce the number of vehicles being driven by              reducing​ ​​behavioural​ ​barriers​: 1. Offer alternatives such as a bike-sharing network whereby faculties will have a newfound ability to get               around campus quickly without the use of a car. The research supports the idea that if the infrastructure                 is​ ​built​ ​(such​ ​as​ ​a​ ​skytrain​ ​line​ ​or​ ​a​ ​bike​ ​sharing ​ ​network),​ ​people ​ ​will​ ​start​ ​to​ ​use​ ​it.2. Make cycling more attractive by creating separated bike lanes to minimize accidents and rider anxiety,              and​ ​maximize​ ​cycling​ ​speed​ ​and​ ​efficiency.3. Offer​ ​weather-proofing ​ ​measures​ ​if​ ​possible,​ ​especially​ ​in​ ​a​ ​rainy​ ​climate​ ​like​ ​Vancouver.4. Offer incentives for drivers to try cycling and support their continued use through training and              management ​ ​buy-in.Dr. Omar Herrera is the the Manager of Transportation Futures at the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC).                 His​ ​recommendations ​ ​were​ ​around ​ ​​technical​ ​barriers​ ​to​ ​optimization​: 1. There is a constraint on UBC’s electrical transformers and ability to draw power from the grid. It’s                unlikely that unilateral electrification of the vehicle fleet can be accomplished without major construction             and upgrade costs. Therefore, if 100% emissions reductions are to be realized, it’s necessary to explore               other​ ​alternatives ​ ​like​ ​hydrogen ​ ​fuel​ ​cells,​ ​hybrids,​ ​on-site​ ​power​ ​generation, ​ ​or​ ​reducing​ ​fleet​ ​size2. CERC is working on an artificial intelligence, Aurora. While Aurora is still in Beta, it is designed to help                  optimize routes, traffic, and vehicle flow for the entire campus. Aurora would mesh extremely well with               autonomous ​ ​vehicles,​ ​which​ ​are​ ​increasingly​ ​in​ ​vogue.3. CERC is partnering with VeloMetro, the Vancouver startup behind Veemo, an alternative,           electric-assisted​ ​pedal​ ​vehicle.​ ​UBC​ ​will​ ​be​ ​used​ ​as​ ​a​ ​pilot​ ​project,​ ​with​ ​rollout​ ​happening ​ ​in​ ​spring​ ​2017.Overall​ ​recommendations: 1. Increase faculty adoption of electric vehicles by communicating why departments will benefit financially            and/or​ ​reducing ​ ​financial​ ​barriers;2. Decrease ​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​on​ ​campus​ ​by​ ​providing​ ​a​ ​bike​ ​share​ ​network​ ​and​ ​infrastructure;​ ​and3. Improve data collection to both assess the scope of the problem and integrate effectively with emerging               AI​ ​optimization​ ​techniques.8 It’s​ ​already​ ​established​ ​that​ ​to​ ​reach​ ​the​ ​100%​ ​reductions​ ​goal,​ ​the​ ​following​ ​actions​ ​must​ ​be​ ​taken: 1. Minimize​ ​the​ ​distance​ ​driven;2. Minimize​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​in​ ​the​ ​fleet;​ ​and3. Completely​ ​eliminate​ ​fossil​ ​fuels​ ​from​ ​the​ ​fleet.In​ ​tactical​ ​terms,​ ​this​ ​translates​ ​to​ ​a​ ​strategy​ ​that​ ​will​ ​do​ ​the​ ​following: 1. Optimize​ ​the​ ​vehicle​ ​mix​ ​and​ ​routes​ ​taken​ ​by​ ​​all​ ​campus-owned​ ​vehicles​;2. Reduce​ ​the​ ​size​ ​of​ ​the​ ​​campus​ ​fleet​;​ ​and3. Eliminate​ ​transportation-based​ ​GHGs​ ​for​ ​the​ ​​entire​ ​campus​.The​ ​4​ ​alternatives​ ​that​ ​have​ ​been​ ​considered​ ​are: 1. A​ ​Campus-wide​ ​Cap​ ​&​ ​Trade​ ​Policy​​ ​for​ ​transportation-based​ ​emissions.​ ​A​ ​UBC-sanctionedcap​ ​&​ ​trade​ ​policy​ ​passed​ ​through​ ​the​ ​Board​ ​of​ ​Governors​ ​would​ ​have​ ​the​ ​potential​ ​to​ ​alignthe​ ​incentives​ ​of​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​and​ ​departments​ ​and​ ​greatly​ ​reduce​ ​GHG​ ​emissions.However,​ ​this​ ​is​ ​quite​ ​a​ ​forceful,​ ​domineering​ ​tactic​ ​that​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​impose​ ​Building​ ​Ops’​ ​will​ ​onother​ ​faculties.​ ​This​ ​policy​ ​could​ ​be​ ​damaging​ ​to​ ​relationships​ ​with​ ​faculties​ ​in​ ​the​ ​long​ ​run,especially​ ​as​ ​it​ ​negatively​ ​impacts​ ​departments’​ ​budgets.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​this​ ​policy​ ​is​ ​a​ ​singulartactic​ ​and​ ​does​ ​not​ ​directly​ ​optimize​ ​the​ ​allocation​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​or​ ​reduce​ ​the​ ​size​ ​of​ ​the​ ​fleet.2. A​ ​Consultation​ ​&​ ​Communication​ ​Initiative​​ ​with​ ​faculties.​ ​The​ ​purpose​ ​of​ ​this​ ​processwould​ ​be​ ​to:i. Foster​ ​goodwill​ ​with​ ​faculties​ ​and​ ​learn​ ​about​ ​their​ ​concerns​ ​regarding​ ​partneringwith​ ​Fleet​ ​Management;ii. Appeal​ ​to​ ​emotion​ ​by​ ​communicating​ ​Fleet​ ​Management’s​ ​vision​ ​of​ ​100%​ ​emissionsreductions​ ​by​ ​2050​ ​and​ ​creating​ ​a​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​urgency;iii. Appeal​ ​to​ ​ethics​ ​by​ ​leveraging​ ​Fleet​ ​Management’s​ ​E3​ ​Rating​ ​and​ ​demonstratingauthority​ ​and​ ​willingness​ ​to​ ​help;iv. Appeal​ ​to​ ​reason​ ​by​ ​educating​ ​faculties​ ​on​ ​the​ ​governmental​ ​programs​ ​available,​ ​aswell​ ​as​ ​demonstrating​ ​the​ ​potential​ ​cost​ ​savings​ ​that​ ​can​ ​be​ ​had​ ​from​ ​performing​ ​athorough​ ​fleet​ ​analysis,​ ​right-sizing​ ​vehicles,​ ​and​ ​electrifying​ ​the​ ​fleet;v. Ultimate​ ​goal:​ ​negotiate​ ​the​ ​implementation​ ​of​ ​telematic​ ​devices​ ​in​ ​eachfaculty’s​ ​fleet.b. If​ ​faculties​ ​are​ ​still​ ​reluctant​ ​to​ ​install​ ​telematics​ ​(due​ ​to​ ​cost​ ​concerns​ ​or​ ​autonomyconcerns),​ ​consider​ ​a​ ​​Cost-Share​ ​Incentivization​ ​Program​​ ​to​ ​help​ ​holdout​ ​facultiesreplace​ ​aging​ ​vehicles​ ​with​ ​electric​ ​vehicles:i. Offer​ ​a​ ​50/50​ ​cost​ ​share​ ​on​ ​the​ ​purchase​ ​price​ ​of​ ​an​ ​EV​ ​through​ ​ARI,​ ​aftergovernmental​ ​subsidies​ ​of​ ​$11,000​ ​(CEV​ ​program​ ​$5,000,​ ​BC​ ​Scrap-It​ ​Program9 $6,000); ii. The​ ​​department​​ ​owns​ ​the​ ​vehicle;iii. In​ ​exchange,​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​installs​ ​telematics​ ​in​ ​the​ ​department’s​ ​fleet​ ​for​ ​a​ ​minimumof​ ​6​ ​months.​ ​The​ ​faculty​ ​covers​ ​the​ ​monthly​ ​operating​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​the​ ​telematics​ ​duringthis​ ​time​ ​(~$50/month/vehicle).​ ​Furthermore,​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​does​ ​maintenance​ ​on​ ​thefleet​ ​during​ ​this​ ​trial​ ​period;iv. All​ ​data​ ​on​ ​the​ ​faculty’s​ ​fleet​ ​is​ ​displayed​ ​in​ ​a​ ​dashboard​ ​that​ ​the​ ​departmentmanager​ ​has​ ​full​ ​access​ ​to.​ ​This​ ​dashboard​ ​would​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​show​ ​the​ ​benefits​ ​fromreduced​ ​fuel​ ​costs,​ ​maintenance​ ​costs,​ ​downtime,​ ​and​ ​GHG​ ​reductions​ ​compared​ ​tothe​ ​retired​ ​vehicle;v. Monthly/quarterly​ ​reviews​ ​will​ ​be​ ​held​ ​with​ ​the​ ​department​ ​manager​ ​to​ ​discusspotential​ ​cost​ ​savings​ ​and​ ​areas​ ​of​ ​improvement;c. While​ ​this​ ​strategy​ ​would​ ​help​ ​reduce​ ​GHGs​ ​and​ ​the​ ​data​ ​collected​ ​could​ ​be​ ​used​ ​tooptimize​ ​vehicles,​ ​fleet​ ​reduction​ ​would​ ​not​ ​be​ ​achieved.​ ​Replacing​ ​one​ ​aging​ ​vehiclewith​ ​a​ ​new​ ​EV​ ​retains​ ​the​ ​size​ ​of​ ​the​ ​fleet.3. A​ ​Veemo​ ​bike​ ​network​ ​​and​ ​partnership​ ​with​ ​VeloMetro​ ​to​ ​allow​ ​UBC’s​ ​staff​ ​to​ ​doshort-distance​ ​trips.​ ​Currently,​ ​it’s​ ​assumed​ ​that​ ​UBC​ ​staff​ ​walk​ ​to​ ​any​ ​job​ ​within​ ​walkingdistance.​ ​For​ ​all​ ​other​ ​trips,​ ​they​ ​use​ ​vehicles.​ ​By​ ​offering​ ​an​ ​electric-assisted​ ​pedalalternative,​ ​GHG​ ​reductions​ ​are​ ​achieved​ ​while​ ​also​ ​changing​ ​the​ ​product​ ​mix.​ ​With​ ​a​ ​newproduct​ ​mix​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​at​ ​UBC’s​ ​disposal,​ ​the​ ​overall​ ​size​ ​of​ ​the​ ​vehicle​ ​fleet​ ​can​ ​be​ ​reduced.If​ ​used​ ​in​ ​tandem​ ​with​ ​a​ ​cost​ ​sharing​ ​strategy,​ ​this​ ​would​ ​have​ ​the​ ​secondary​ ​benefit​ ​ofoffsetting​ ​much​ ​of​ ​those​ ​costs.​ ​However,​ ​optimization​ ​is​ ​not​ ​achieved​ ​with​ ​this​ ​tactic.4. Aurora​ ​Artificial​ ​Intelligence​​ ​and​ ​partnership​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Clean​ ​Energy​ ​Research​ ​Centre.​ ​Withincreased​ ​adoption​ ​of​ ​best​ ​practices​ ​by​ ​faculties,​ ​the​ ​product​ ​mix​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​can​ ​be​ ​optimizedfor​ ​the​ ​entire​ ​campus,​ ​resulting​ ​in​ ​a​ ​smaller​ ​fleet.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​integration​ ​of​ ​the​ ​datacollected​ ​by​ ​faculties​ ​can​ ​be​ ​implemented​ ​for​ ​highly​ ​optimized​ ​route​ ​planning,​ ​vehiclemovement​ ​patterns,​ ​and​ ​vehicle​ ​deployment.​ ​While​ ​this​ ​strategy​ ​achieves​ ​optimization​ ​andfleet​ ​reduction,​ ​it​ ​does​ ​not​ ​impact​ ​fossil​ ​fuel​ ​combustion​ ​on​ ​its​ ​own.Each​ ​of​ ​recommendations​ ​2,​ ​3,​ ​and​ ​4​ ​are​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​complete​ ​the​ ​strategy​ ​on​ ​their​ ​own.​ ​However, when​ ​taken​ ​together,​ ​each​ ​recommendation​ ​has​ ​strengths​ ​where​ ​the​ ​others​ ​have​ ​weaknesses. Therefore,​ ​it​ ​seems​ ​that​ ​an​ ​integrated​ ​approach​ ​is​ ​best​ ​if​ ​all​ ​goals​ ​are​ ​to​ ​be​ ​met.​ ​Therefore,​ ​as​ ​stated in​ ​the​ ​vision,​ ​the​ ​goal​ ​to​ ​optimize​ ​the​ ​allocation​ ​and​ ​deployment​ ​of​ ​vehicles​ ​on​ ​campus​ ​as​ ​a​ ​whole. This​ ​goal​ ​will​ ​be​ ​achieved​ ​through​ ​an​ ​integrated​ ​approach​ ​of​ ​​Communication​ ​and​ ​Data​ ​Collection, a​ ​Veemo​ ​Bike​ ​Network,​ ​and​ ​Optimization​ ​using​ ​Aurora​ ​AI. 10 UBC should have a focus on 2050 climate action goal to emit zero emissions and begin                implementing tomorrow. From Building-Ops’ BHAG analysis, fuel consumption, distance         driven and numbers of vehicles are three key drivers to GHG reductions. To meet the               ultimate​ ​goal,​ ​zero​ ​emissions,​ ​there​ ​are​ ​three​ ​areas​ ​could​ ​be​ ​worked​ ​on:  1. remove​ ​fossil​ ​fuels​ ​and​ ​collect​ ​data;2. optimize​ ​internal​ ​operations;3. reduce​ ​size​ ​of​ ​fleet.The​ ​approach​ ​is​ ​three-pronged,​ ​but​ ​they​ ​are​ ​not​ ​mutually​ ​exclusive. The first approach aims to reduce average fuel consumption of the fleet. With more              telematics installed, UBC could have better knowledge about fuel consumption on mileage.            Thus, the fleet could be better managed. The fleet management team also has more facts to                demonstrate its achievement on GHG reduction. The second arm of the strategy is reducing              size of the fleet. Fewer vehicles emit fewer GHG emissions. The total number of vehicles               being driven on the campus should reduced to achieve this goal. The last area to work on is                  to optimize internal operations. With optimized operations, the number of kilometers driven            per​ ​vehicle​ ​could​ ​be​ ​reduced​ ​and​ ​fleet​ ​vehicles​ ​are​ ​used​ ​effectively. 11 Our first action is to remove fossil fuels from the entire UBC fleet, including both               Building-Ops and Non-Building-Ops. In order to achieve this, we must negotiate with            departments and communicate Building Ops’ vision to find an opportunity to create shared             value with these departments. If faculties are hesitant to join, we can propose a Cost Sharing                Incentive Program. Although this initial step will be rather expensive, this is the ground work               to our overall strategy, and the costs can be recuperated in lower fuel, insurance, and               maintenance​ ​costs​ ​in​ ​later​ ​steps.​ ​We​ ​have​ ​identified​ ​three​ ​steps​ ​to​ ​achieving​ ​this​ ​goal: 1. Electrifying the fleet: The Province of British Columbia and SCRAP-IT encourage the           adoption of new clean energy vehicles and are currently offering an incentive           program which will result in potentially $11,000 worth of savings towards the           purchase of a new clean energy vehicle. To encourage the the adoption of this             program, for every vehicle that is replaced with an electric car, we will split the              remaining costs with the department. This is simply an incentive program, and the            department​ ​will​ ​remain​ ​the​ ​sole​ ​owner​ ​of​ ​the​ ​vehicle.2. Telematic System Installed: We ask that every car that is purchased instal a            telematic device. By having these devices in most vehicles, we will be able to collect              and gather data on mileage and fuel consumption. We will share this data with             faculties and reiterate that this data is for their benefit, to inform future purchase             decisions. It is advisable to hold monthly/quarterly meetings to consult with          participating faculties and highlight where improvements can be made. This data          collection process is currently an issue, since we don’t have this information for our             vehicles.3. Communicate Shared Values: In the long-term we hope that by collecting this data            we can communicate the benefit to driving an electric fleet and hopefully more            departments will adopt this program. There are main benefits to driving a clean            energy vehicle. By having a concrete data analysis of how much money they could             have saved, we will be able to communicate to all departments the benefits of electric              vehicles. The increase in communication using factual information will create shared          values between the departments and Building Opps of reducing GHG emissions.          12 The second recommendation is to reduce the size of the fleet. Smaller size fleet directly               contribute to lower GHG emissions. While ensuring daily operational needs are met,            reducing the size of the fleet is another driver to reduce GHG emissions. There are two                tactics​ ​to​ ​achieve​ ​this​ ​goal. 1. Introducing car sharing Veemo fleet: Veemo is an enclosed, electric-assist and          three-wheeled vehicle. It provides a car-like experience but it is regulated as a bicycle.             Driving Veemo doesn’t need a driver’s licence and no need to buy insurance either. Veemo              combines the best of electric car, bike and Car2go. With weather protection and cargo             space, we believe that Veemo is a clean transportation alternative that transports UBC’s            staff and necessary tools to complete basic tasks on the campus. In addition to Veemo’s              zero​ ​emission,​ ​Veemo​ ​liberates​ ​fuel​ ​costs​ ​and​ ​the​ ​operating​ ​costs.The company, VeloMetro Mobility, is launching a veemo pilot fleet on UBC campus. This              illustrates that, from developer’s perspective, Veemo will be best performed on UBC            Vancouver campus. Also, Veemo has a cloud-based platform that supports corporate fleet            management. The comprehensive system enables operators to focus on the fleet           maintenance and user based development. Based on the above analysis, UBC could            purchase Veemo cars and incorporate them into our fleet. Having Veemo cars in the fleet               reduces numbers of vehicles, increase fleet’s flexibility and expedites GHG emissions           reduction. 2. Bike Lane Infrastructure: While a closed vehicle that protects the driver from the rain             already makes cycling more attractive, it’s important to limit all possible barriers that would             limit Veemo uptake. The current cycling situation is congested, especially on key routes such             as University Boulevard and Main Mall. With a growing student population, this intermingling            of pedestrian and cycling traffic will only become more chaotic over time and withdraw from              the efficacy and attractiveness of cycling. Therefore, it’s recommended that UBC conduct a            study on separating bike traffic and pedestrian traffic. Such a policy would have the potential              to minimize potential liability expenses, reduce rider anxiety and frustration, and increase           cycling efficiency and enjoyment overall. These factors would improve the uptake of the            Veemo​ ​or​ ​any​ ​future​ ​bike​ ​sharing​ ​networks.13 The third recommendation is to use the data that has been collected to optimize the vehicle                mix​ ​and​ ​deployment​ ​on​ ​campus. If recommendations 1 and 2 are successful, there will be a wealth of data from department                vehicle use available to be mined. Furthermore, the overall campus fleet will be increasingly              electric, right-sized, and faculties will be monitoring complete life-cycle costs. With this shift             in focus on long term costs, we see it being feasible that departments may be interested in                 increasing the utilization rates of their vehicles, pushing for them to be more efficiently              driven,​ ​or​ ​outsource​ ​their​ ​fleet​ ​management​ ​altogether. Either way, we anticipate that departments will be using their data to explore sharing their               vehicles and begin to optimize the campus transportation process. After the successful            implementation of recommendation 1 and 2, we would recommend and in-depth study to             determine the optimal tactic going forward. However, whether it’s a car share that             departments can buy into with a flat monthly fee, a platform that allows them to lend out their                  underutilized assets, or another tactic that remains to be seen, a trend of centralization of               intelligence is likely to occur. This, in conjunction with increasingly-autonomous vehicles,           makes​ ​it​ ​possible​ ​for​ ​Aurora​ ​AI​ ​to​ ​optimize​ ​the​ ​kilometer​ ​footprint​ ​of​ ​all​ ​vehicles​ ​on​ ​campus. 14 In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​meet​ ​the​ ​2050​ ​goal​ ​of​ ​100%​ ​emission​ ​reduction,​ ​and​ ​successfully​ ​implementing the​ ​recommendations​ ​made​ ​above,​ ​UBC​ ​will​ ​be​ ​faced​ ​with​ ​large​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​the organization.​ ​An​ ​effective​ ​plan​ ​to​ ​anticipate,​ ​monitor​ ​and​ ​correct​ ​issues​ ​that​ ​may​ ​arise​ ​must be​ ​in​ ​place.​ ​In​ ​implementing​ ​the​ ​recommendations​ ​above,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​important​ ​to​ ​note​ ​that employees​ ​must​ ​have​ ​a​ ​clear​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​direction​ ​for​ ​UBC​ ​to​ ​successfully​ ​implement​ ​changes. These​ ​steps​ ​have​ ​been​ ​broken​ ​down​ ​into​ ​7-day,​ ​30-day​ ​and​ ​90-day: ● 7-day​ ​plan:​ ​​within​ ​the​ ​first​ ​7​ ​days​ ​of​ ​implementing​ ​a​ ​new​ ​program​ ​or​ ​project,​ ​Cloud9has​ ​identified​ ​that​ ​the​ ​urgency​ ​and​ ​importance​ ​of​ ​the​ ​change​ ​must​ ​be​ ​communicatedwith​ ​employees​ ​of​ ​building​ ​ops​ ​in​ ​an​ ​effective​ ​matter.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​important​ ​that​ ​theemployees​ ​understand​ ​how​ ​the​ ​change​ ​might​ ​not​ ​just​ ​benefit​ ​the​ ​company,​ ​but​ ​alsothemselves,​ ​for​ ​the​ ​change​ ​to​ ​be​ ​fully​ ​adopted.​ ​Suggestions​ ​for​ ​this​ ​include​ ​animmediate​ ​town​ ​hall​ ​to​ ​fully​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​needs​ ​of​ ​the​ ​employees,​ ​and​ ​allow​ ​theirconcerns​ ​to​ ​be​ ​heard​ ​and​ ​acknowledged.​ ​Another​ ​suggestion​ ​comes​ ​with​ ​thecommunication​ ​of​ ​some​ ​sort​ ​of​ ​incentive​ ​program,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​a​ ​monetary​ ​award​ ​for​ ​theemployee​ ​who​ ​has​ ​contributed​ ​the​ ​most​ ​and​ ​maintained​ ​a​ ​positive​ ​attitude​ ​during​ ​thefirst​ ​month​ ​of​ ​the​ ​change.● 30-day​ ​plan:​ ​​This​ ​30-day​ ​plan​ ​will​ ​include​ ​engaging​ ​with​ ​the​ ​other​ ​Building-opsstakeholders,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​the​ ​departments​ ​at​ ​UBC​ ​who​ ​are​ ​or​ ​are​ ​not​ ​yet​ ​involved​ ​withBuilding-ops.​ ​Again,​ ​communication​ ​of​ ​the​ ​benefits​ ​for​ ​the​ ​campus,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​thebenefits​ ​pertaining​ ​directly​ ​to​ ​these​ ​stakeholders​ ​is​ ​imperative​ ​at​ ​this​ ​time.​ ​Alongsidethis​ ​communication,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​important​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​the​ ​Building-ops​ ​workers​ ​in​ ​mind,​ ​aschange​ ​must​ ​be​ ​monitored​ ​to​ ​ensure​ ​it​ ​is​ ​being​ ​adopted.● 90-day​ ​plan:​ ​​the​ ​90-day​ ​plan​ ​consists​ ​of​ ​iterating​ ​the​ ​change​ ​as​ ​needed,​ ​andcontinued​ ​monitoring​ ​of​ ​all​ ​stakeholders.​ ​Constant​ ​communication​ ​can​ ​be​ ​eased​ ​upon​ ​after​ ​30​ ​days,​ ​though​ ​another​ ​town​ ​hall​ ​should​ ​be​ ​held​ ​to​ ​ensure​ ​content​ ​andunderstanding​ ​from​ ​everyone​ ​who​ ​is​ ​affected.​ ​More​ ​tactically​ ​speaking,​ ​the​ ​first​ ​90days​ ​should​ ​be​ ​spent​ ​looking​ ​into​ ​further​ ​building​ ​out​ ​the​ ​infrastructure,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​asproper​ ​training​ ​of​ ​employees.15 Taking a look at the actual timeline of the implementation plan, we’ve categorized the              three-pronged​ ​strategy​ ​into​ ​a​ ​namely​ ​three-step​ ​approach.  The first phase of the plan is to reduce the amount of emissions per vehicle in operation. As                  we previously discussed, the cost sharing incentivisation plan of replacing the conventional            fleet with electric vehicles would begin in the next three years, and continue throughout, as               technological advances become more prevalent. To increase chances of creating a           successful negotiation term, UBC Building Ops would leverage our E3 standing in their             discussions. Approaching Year 2 of the plan, data collection would begin through various             integrated programs, as well as the continuation of communication between faculties in            terms of cost savings. Throughout the integration of the new EV fleet, the first three years                would also be used to either re-brand the decal labeling on the current fleet, as well as any                  new​ ​vehicles​ ​introduced. The second phase of the plan would begin in the third year, as UBC approaches the end of                  Step 1, and focuses on the actual reduction of the number of motor vehicles on campus.                This is when the integration of the campus Veemo network into a separate fleet of UBC                vehicles would begin. With an understanding that the adoption of these three-wheeled            electric vehicles may be difficult, but plan to offset that risk by potentially increasing the               number of bike lanes along both University Boulevard as well as Main Mall. Throughout              Years 3 and 4, UBC would focus on the realignment of driver incentives, as well as                implement​ ​the​ ​plan​ ​of​ ​creating​ ​a​ ​decentralized​ ​tool​ ​system. Lastly, the final phase of the plan is to look at ways of optimizing UBC’s current operations.                 This includes integrating the data collection and mining gathered from previous years into a              strategic plan in Year 4, and finally looking at ways of optimizing route options and plans, as                 well​ ​as​ ​integrate​ ​autonomous​ ​technologies​ ​such​ ​as​ ​Aurora​ ​in​ ​Year​ ​5. 16   Through conducting Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model, we conclude top four risks associated with our              strategy.​ ​We​ ​sort​ ​them​ ​by​ ​likelihood​ ​from​ ​low​ ​to​ ​high.  Risk​ ​#1:​ ​Veemo​ ​uptake​ ​is​ ​low​ ​and​ ​fleet​ ​doesn’t​ ​shrink This is important because it is a main area that our budget goes in, and it is crucial for successfully                    reducing fleet size. The strategic mitigation of this risk is driver consultation and incentivization.              Through communication and consultation, we want to make sure that drivers understand the             importance of reducing GHG emissions and how a big role they play in achieving this goal. Providing                 incentives is another tactic that helps to increase Veemo uptake. If this doesn’t work, we will consider                 adopting​ ​cap​ ​and​ ​trade.   Risk​ ​#2:​ ​Faculties​ ​want​ ​to​ ​remain​ ​autonomy​ ​and​ ​resist​ ​the​ ​change Our strategy requires interactions and collaborations with other departments who have their own             vehicles. Furthermore, we anticipate that departments will experience organizational changes.          Departments will feel threatened about the changes, resist them and want to remain the autonomous.               To handle this, we will communicate the vision of the change with faculty heads. Also, we hope our                  cost-sharing tactic could reduce their cost concerns and motivate them to join the change. The               contingency​ ​plan​ ​for​ ​dealing​ ​with​ ​resistance​ ​will​ ​be​ ​slowing​ ​our​ ​progress​ ​by​ ​only​ ​installing​ ​telematics.   Risk​ ​#3:​ ​EV​ ​technology​ ​doesn’t​ ​become​ ​more​ ​accessible In the best of situations, our fleet only consists of electric vehicles and zero emissions are achieved.                 However, the concern is that the achievement highly depends on EV technology. If EV technology               doesn’t become accessible enough, we will consult the Clean Energy Research Centre at UBC to see                if there are other available technologies or new clean energy to help with the GHG reduction. We can                  partner with them to creating a tailor solution for UBC. If that doesn’t work, we will consider to alter                   climate​ ​goals.  Risk​ ​#4:Electric​ ​infrastructure​ ​is​ ​not​ ​updated​ ​accordingly We anticipate high likelihood of electric infrastructure constraint because of increasing uptake of             electric vehicles and slow expansion of charge stations. Hopefully, by having more Veemo cars in our                fleet will reduce dependency on electric vehicles, which gives us more time to update EV               infrastructure. The severity is relatively low in this case because we can explore other alternatives               such​ ​as​ ​hydrogen,​ ​hybrids​ ​and​ ​CNG. 17 To determine the success of the suggested implementation plan, there are various metrics             that must be looked at when analyzing the results of the overall strategy. These metrics vary                depending​ ​on​ ​the​ ​phase​ ​of​ ​the​ ​plan​ ​UBC​ ​is​ ​in,​ ​and​ ​are​ ​as​ ​follows: In the first phase, the goal is to definitively eliminate GHG emissions, and thus the amount of                 CO2 reductions per average vehicle is an important figure to observe. Related to this, the               number of electric vehicles converted into the UBC fleet, as well as the overall percentage of                combustion engine vehicles still retained will provide a measure of the success of Step 1 of                the​ ​implementation​ ​plan.  In the second phase, the goal is to actually reduce the size of the fleet itself, and optimize                  the operations of the current vehicles in operation. To measure this, the number of vehicles               in operation per every 10 UBC departments staff will provide a key metric as to not only the                  efficiency of vehicle use, but the effectiveness of each individual vehicle given a particular              job. Additionally, because of the implementation of the Veemo fleet, we will be able to               measure the number of drivers that regularly use these alternative modes of transportation,             as well as the actual frequency of use. This will provide value data on whether the adoption                 of the Veemo fleet is campus-wide, or specific to a core group of individuals who are either                 innovators​ ​or​ ​early​ ​adopters. Finally, the third phase of the implementation plan is to optimize campus operations through              utilizing data collected from previous phases, and implementing a route-optimizing platform           for vehicles and drivers. To determine the metrics behind this step, measuring the average              kilometres driven per vehicle, as well as relative to previous years, will provide us with               efficiency feedback. Additionally, GPS tracking and check-in capabilities will show the           number of times a UBC employee or vehicle visits the same building in a given time frame,                 allowing UBC Building Ops to potential re-plan job visits, and collectively complete tasks             while​ ​utilizing​ ​a​ ​smaller​ ​number​ ​of​ ​resources. 18 To implement the three-step strategy brought forward by the Cloud9 Consulting team, there are a               number​ ​of​ ​key​ ​drivers​ ​when​ ​considering​ ​the​ ​costs​ ​involved​ ​with​ ​each​ ​phase. In phase 1 of the implementation plan, the primary goal is to reduce the number of emissions per                  vehicle, and this will be done primarily through the replacement of combustion engine vehicles with               new, electric vehicles. Activities in this phase include the cost sharing purchasing program, data              collection implementation through telematics, and communication and branding of UBC Building Ops.            When looking at the cost sharing incentivization activity, key drivers include the cost of the new EVs                 themselves ($32,700), the government subsidisation of $11,000, and finally an implementation of            2.5% fleet replacement per quarter. Data collection is based off of an average monthly telematics cost                of $50 per vehicle, and $15 for integrating software. Finally, the communication and branding activities               are centrally focused around media buying, as well as the re-branding of decal graphics and               placements on vehicles themselves. In the next five years, Step 1 of the implementation plan will cost                 approximately​ ​$2.3​ ​million​ ​dollars. The goal of phase 2 is to reduce the number of vehicles on campus as a whole, which will be                    completed primarily through the implementation of the Veemo vehicle share program, as well as              supplementing that with additional bike lanes both on University Boulevard and Main Mall. Drivers of               the Veemo program include the actual use of the Veemos, charged at a rate of $0.29 per minute, and                   the adoption rate of UBC workers. Additionally, UBC will need to implement charging stations              throughout the campus, at an approximated cost of $50,000 per station. The cost structure of this                phase also includes an additional $500,000 budget for the building of new bike lanes, to be spread out                  among​ ​four​ ​quarters.​ ​Step​ ​2​ ​will​ ​cost​ ​approximately​ ​$1.6​ ​million​ ​in​ ​five​ ​years. The final phase of the implementation plan revolves around optimizing the route and operations of the                UBC fleet. This includes the actual integration of optimization programs, as well as the tracking of the                 frequency of vehicle visits per building in a given time period. The adoption of this program will be at a                    rate​ ​of​ ​25%​ ​in​ ​Year​ ​4,​ ​with​ ​costs​ ​at​ ​$15​ ​per​ ​month​ ​per​ ​vehicle,​ ​totalling​ ​just​ ​over​ ​$100,000. To​ ​complete​ ​the​ ​entire​ ​implementation​ ​plan​ ​will​ ​cost​ ​just​ ​over​ ​$4​ ​million​ ​in​ ​five​ ​years. 19 It​ ​is​ ​important​ ​to​ ​break​ ​down​ ​the​ ​cost​ ​savings​ ​into​ ​its​ ​constituent​ ​components: 1. Fuel​ ​cost​ ​savings​ ​from​ ​switching​ ​from​ ​fossil​ ​fuels​ ​to​ ​electricity;2. Maintenance​ ​and​ ​fuel​ ​cost​ ​savings​ ​from​ ​running​ ​fewer​ ​vehicles;​ ​and3. Maintenance​ ​and​ ​fuel​ ​cost​ ​savings​ ​from​ ​driving​ ​fewer​ ​kilometers​ ​per​ ​vehicle.Combining the cost savings from Steps 1 and 2, it is clear that there are significant cost                 savings of $0.72 per km just from switching to EVs. Furthermore, in Step 3, we layer on a                  40% reduction in the distance driven by all campus vehicles. Together, these measures             amount to significant fossil fuel savings which are estimated to have a Net Present Value of                approximately $39,134,000, using a discount rate of 2%. The total number of vehicles             required within the fleet of UBC Building Ops was determined by the current 225 vehicles,               with an incremental increase to 350 by Year 3. Key drivers of all three phases include the                 actual percentage of combustion engine vehicles being replaced, through a fuel           consumption​ ​rate​ ​of​ ​12.5​ ​kilometres​ ​per​ ​litre. 20 There​ ​are​ ​a​ ​few​ ​steps​ ​that​ ​UBC​ ​can​ ​take​ ​to​ ​start: Renting​ ​Veemo​ ​to​ ​students​ ​and​ ​staff: UBC Building Operations is subject to the limited budget each year. Thus, getting maximum              value for each dollar spent on Veemo Cars is crucial. Renting Veemo cars to students and                staff is one way to help maximize utilization. This also could offset Veemo costs for UBC by                 collecting rent from users. Thus, one of the next step is to explore the possibility of renting                 Veemo cars to students and staff during non-work hours. A survey is suggested to conduct               to​ ​see​ ​students​ ​and​ ​staff’s​ ​willingness​ ​to​ ​use​ ​Veemo​ ​Cars​ ​during​ ​evening​ ​hours.  Talking​ ​to​ ​50​ ​drivers​ ​in​ ​UBC​ ​Building​ ​Operations Drives play an important role in our strategy implementation, especially for the intake of              Veemo. Through face-to-face interviews with drivers, UBC Building Operations could          understand how the implementation goes, what adjustments could be made, and what            improvements​ ​can​ ​be​ ​done.  Renegotiate​ ​yearly​ ​budget​ ​with​ ​UBC Budget is crucial for achieving climate goals. If UBC Building Operations has more capital on               hand, GHG emission target could be hit faster by the larger uptake of clean energy vehicles.                The sooner replacing older vehicles with ones that run on fossil fuels, the earlier              zero-emissions goal could be achieved. It is recommended to renegotiate with UBC in             exploration​ ​of​ ​expanding​ ​annual​ ​budget. Initiating​ ​conversations​ ​with​ ​faculties It is recommended to begin speaking with each faculty to find out their pain points with the                 current system and what their needs are. This serves better to align incentives among              departments and Building Operations by creating shared values. The positive results could            solve​ ​the​ ​potential​ ​resistance​ ​from​ ​departments. 21 22 UBC Building Op’s current business model is based on attempting to centralize all vehicles              on the UBC campus. Though the value proposition should be quite compelling to faculties,              and the cost savings prove to be quite significant, the majority of the UBC groups have not                 opted to be included in this centralization. The main hypothesis for this lack of integration               stems from its inconvenience. Faculties find it much more convenient to own their own              vehicles, that they can take whenever and wherever without having to go through the              cumbersome registration, pick up and drop off. Our recommendations above aim to tackle,             and​ ​work​ ​around​ ​this​ ​discrepancy. 23 *​ ​3​ ​is​ ​high,​ ​1​ ​is​ ​low.This​ ​competitive​ ​analysis​ ​looks​ ​at​ ​alternatives​ ​and​ ​substitutes​ ​for​ ​UBC​ ​Building​ ​Ops.​ ​As​ ​you can​ ​see,​ ​Building​ ​Ops​ ​poses​ ​great​ ​cost​ ​savings. 24 Political ● Current​ ​taxation​ ​policy● Carbon Tax: It is applied to the purchase or use of fuels in the province. It is designed to                  incentivize people and business to innovate cost-efficient methods of reducing emissions and           to​ ​pay​ ​less​ ​carbon​ ​tax.● Grants,​ ​funding​ ​and​ ​initiatives● Clean energy vehicle Point of Sale Incentive Program: It offers up to $5,000 off the purchase               price​ ​of​ ​an​ ​electric​ ​vehicle,​ ​and​ ​up​ ​to​ ​$6000​ ​for​ ​a​ ​hydrogen​ ​fuel​ ​cell​ ​vehicle.● BC SCRAP-IT Program: It is a voluntary early retirement vehicle program that encourages BC             residents to replace their old polluting vehicles with cleaner energy vehicles. The program            aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to lower exhaust pollutants. Incentives are up             to​ ​$6000​ ​for​ ​new​ ​electric​ ​vehicles​ ​and​ ​$3,000​ ​for​ ​used​ ​electric​ ​vehicles.● Future​ ​political​ ​support● CEV charging infrastructure program: This program could potentially help with the expansion           of​ ​EV​ ​infrastructure.Economic: ● There​ ​is​ ​Increasing​ ​demand​ ​of​ ​clean​ ​technology​ ​and​ ​clean​ ​energy● Falling​ ​canadian​ ​currency​ ​is​ ​disadvantaged​ ​when​ ​purchasing​ ​import​ ​vehicles.● Decreasing​ ​supply​ ​of​ ​fossil​ ​fuel​ ​may​ ​drive​ ​fuel​ ​price​ ​up.Social: ● People​ ​have​ ​growing​ ​​ ​awareness​ ​towards​ ​sustainability,​ ​especially​ ​high-educated​ ​people.● A​ ​buying​ ​trend​ ​for​ ​clean​ ​energy​ ​vehicle​ ​is​ ​prevalent,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​electric​ ​vehicles.● Lifestyle change: people, especially Generation Y, have high willingness to use car-sharing,           car-pooling​ ​or​ ​similar​ ​service​ ​if​ ​they​ ​were​ ​readily​ ​available​ ​and​ ​convenient.Technological: ● Telematics integrated use of telecommunications with information and communication        technology.● In-memory computing technology helps in expanding capabilities in data analysis. It enables           fleet management to accelerate processing all the incoming data, such as fuel consumption,            idling​ ​time​ ​and​ ​gas​ ​purchases,​ ​and​ ​generating​ ​reports​ ​faster.● Artificial​ ​intelligence:​ ​AI​ ​techniques​ ​are​ ​adopted​ ​gradually​ ​in​ ​fleet​ ​logistics.● EnerGuide in Canada Label for Vehicles is the official Government of Canada mark for rating              and labelling the energy consumption or energy efficiency of products. Customers can look up             vehicle’s fuel consumption, fuel economy, annual fuel cost and environmental impacts before           making​ ​purchasing​ ​decision.25 *Please​ ​see​ ​explanation​ ​in​ ​slide​ ​3Summary​ ​of​ ​tapped​ ​and​ ​untapped​ ​market 26 Five​ ​year​ ​breakdown​ ​of​ ​costs​ ​for​ ​key​ ​drivers​ ​of​ ​Step​ ​1​ ​of​ ​the​ ​implementation​ ​plan. Five​ ​year​ ​breakdown​ ​of​ ​costs​ ​for​ ​key​ ​drivers​ ​of​ ​Steps​ ​2​ ​and​ ​3​ ​of​ ​the​ ​implementation​ ​plan. 27 Sensitivity​ ​analysis​ ​of​ ​potential​ ​cost​ ​savings​ ​of​ ​the​ ​5​ ​year​ ​implementation​ ​plan. Illustrative​ ​graph​ ​of​ ​largest​ ​consumers​ ​of​ ​fossil​ ​fuels,​ ​by​ ​category. 28 Telematic devices is generally a system that you install in your car that records information               about your driving habits, such as the number of miles you drive, your speed, and how                quickly you brake. These systems can also assess the time of day when you drivel. This                information will be of value in the long-term. Many departments may be reluctant of the               implementation of these devices and If the operating group does not see value added to the                bottom line, the level of support for this cost is diminished. The pros and cons of having                 these​ ​devices​ ​installed​ ​in​ ​your​ ​department's​ ​vehicles​ ​are​ ​as​ ​follows: Pros: ● Records​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​kilometres​ ​driven​ ​annually● Records​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​times​ ​a​ ​driver​ ​brakes​ ​hard​ ​or​ ​accelerates​ ​quickly● Records​ ​the​ ​time​ ​of​ ​day​ ​that​ ​a​ ​car​ ​is​ ​driven● Information​ ​will​ ​be​ ​readily​ ​available​ ​to​ ​you​ ​onlineCons: ● Information​ ​could​ ​be​ ​used​ ​against​ ​the​ ​driver● The​ ​usage​ ​of​ ​your​ ​vehicles​ ​will​ ​be​ ​tracked● Ongoing​ ​monthly​ ​cost​ ​that​ ​ranges​ ​from​ ​$30-80/month.29 Visualization​ ​of​ ​UBC’s​ ​ideal​ ​vehicle​ ​mix,​ ​prior​ ​to​ ​VeloMetro​ ​implementation. Proof​ ​of​ ​VeloMetro’s​ ​Veemo​ ​launch​ ​at​ ​UBC​ ​in​ ​Spring​ ​of​ ​2017. 30 Framework of UBC’s Aurora Artificial Intelligence network. Appendix is not meant to be             instructive,​ ​but​ ​rather​ ​demonstrative​ ​that​ ​such​ ​an​ ​AI​ ​exists​ ​and​ ​is​ ​actively​ ​being​ ​developed. Visualization​ ​of​ ​Kotter’s​ ​8​ ​Steps​ ​to​ ​Managing​ ​Change. 31 Main benefits and risks for a campus cap & trade policy designed to align faculty and                Building​ ​Ops’​ ​incentives. A​ ​non-exhaustive​ ​summary​ ​of​ ​literature​ ​referenced​ ​throughout​ ​the​ ​presentation. 32 Canadian companies such as “Molok” and “Underground Disposal Systems LTD” have           revolutionized the field of waste collection. Companies such as these have create a system              that used gravity to compression waste emphasizing a deep collection method that is clean              and tidy. This advanced technology achieves an average of a 2:1 compaction ratio             compared to normal garbages and disposal systems. While only 40% of the system is seen,               60% is found underground. There is less need for emptying, therefore it reduces emissions              and the impact on the environment. These companies provide all different sizes and colours              to​ ​be​ ​aesthetically​ ​pleasing.  33 The B.C. SCRAP-IT program is a voluntary early retirement vehicle program that provides             incentives to help British Columbians to replace their higher polluting vehicles with cleaner             forms of transportation. The incentive program is designed to reduce greenhouse gas            emissions across the province by offering $6000 towards a new electric vehicle. As of              December​ ​2016,​ ​the​ ​program​ ​has​ ​scrapped​ ​41,083​ ​vehicles.  Clean Energy Vehicle Program is funded by the province of British Columbia and provides              point-of-sale incentives battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This program is            intended to encourage and accelerate the adoption of clean energy vehicles in British             Columbia for both their environment and economic benefits. The vehicle incentive in the             CEV Program enables the purchaser or lessee of an eligible vehicle to receive a before tax                point​ ​of​ ​sale​ ​vehicle​ ​incentive​ ​of​ ​up​ ​to​ ​$5,000.  34 


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