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Emissions from UBC air travel Nabors, Noni 2017-08-30

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportNoni NaborsEmissions from UBC Air Travel August 30, 201714812455University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.Emissions​ ​from​ ​UBC​ ​Air​ ​Travel Noni​ ​Nabors University​ ​of​ ​British​ ​Columbia GEOG​ ​447 Dr.​ ​Simon​ ​Donner  Submitted​ ​in​ ​partial​ ​fulfillment​ ​of​ ​GEOG​ ​447:​ ​Directed​ ​Studies And​ ​submitted​ ​to​ ​the​ ​UBC​ ​SEEDS​ ​Program  Special​ ​Thanks​ ​to: Dr.​ ​Simon​ ​Donner Seth​ ​Wynes Bud​ ​Fraser David​ ​Gill Jamee​ ​DeSimone Judith​ ​Fograscher Sandy​ ​Lapsky Cam​ ​Cronin Flora​ ​Lew Gillian​ ​Harris  Tara​ ​Martin                   Table​ ​of​ ​Contents  Executive​ ​Summary 3 Background​ ​and​ ​Objectives 4 Methodology 5 Results 7 Department​ ​of​ ​Geography 1​2 Department​ ​of​ ​Psychology 1​4 Institute​ ​for​ ​Resources,​ ​Environment​ ​and​ ​Sustainability 17 Department​ ​of​ ​Theatre​ ​and​ ​Film 19 Chan​ ​Centre​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Performing​ ​Arts 22 Mitigation​ ​Options 24 Conclusion 26 References 2​8                2 Executive​ ​Summary  Reducing​ ​greenhouse​ ​gas​ ​(GHG)​ ​emissions​ ​is​ ​increasingly​ ​recognized​ ​as​ ​a necessary​ ​step​ ​towards​ ​mitigating​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​(United​ ​Nations​ ​Framework Convention​ ​on​ ​Climate​ ​Change,​ ​2016).​ ​The​ ​University​ ​of​ ​British​ ​Columbia​ ​(UBC)​ ​has pledged​ ​to​ ​reduce​ ​GHG​ ​emissions​ ​by​ ​67%​ ​by​ ​2020​ ​compared​ ​to​ ​2007​ ​levels​ ​(UBC​ ​CAP 2010).​ ​Currently​ ​UBC​ ​is​ ​lacking​ ​a​ ​program​ ​to​ ​mitigate​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​air​ ​travel.​ ​Air travel​ ​produces​ ​2%​ ​of​ ​global​ ​emissions,​ ​but​ ​this​ ​number​ ​is​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​increase (Edwards​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2016).  The​ ​goal​ ​of​ ​this​ ​project​ ​was​ ​to​ ​quantify​ ​air​ ​travel​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​five​ ​UBC Vancouver​ ​Departments​ ​(Geography,​ ​Psychology,​ ​Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film,​ ​Chan​ ​Centre​ ​for​ ​the Performing​ ​Arts​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Institute​ ​for​ ​Resources,​ ​Environment,​ ​and​ ​Sustainability).​ ​A carbon​ ​calculator​ ​was​ ​created,​ ​and​ ​air​ ​travel​ ​information​ ​from​ ​an​ ​18-month​ ​period​ ​was analyzed.  In​ ​total,​ ​709​ ​trips​ ​were​ ​made​ ​with​ ​total​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​1070.25​ ​tCO2e.​ ​For reference,​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Geography​ ​building​ ​are​ ​estimated​ ​to​ ​be​ ​4.5-6​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​for the​ ​same​ ​period​ ​(Jamee​ ​DeSimone,​ ​personal​ ​communication,​ ​Nov​ ​2016).​ ​Many​ ​of​ ​these trips​ ​were​ ​indirect​ ​(i.e.​ ​with​ ​layovers).​ ​Had​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​been​ ​direct,​ ​emissions​ ​would​ ​have been​ ​981.93​ ​tCO2e.​ ​The​ ​primary​ ​trip​ ​purpose​ ​was​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference​ ​(412),​ ​followed by​ ​travel​ ​done​ ​by​ ​non-UBC​ ​travellers​ ​(144),​ ​for​ ​example​ ​a​ ​guest​ ​lecturer​ ​at​ ​UBC.​ ​Most trips​ ​(609)​ ​were​ ​economy​ ​class.​ ​Average​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​were​ ​1.51​ ​tCO2e,​ ​though​ ​this varies​ ​between​ ​departments.​ ​IRES​ ​reported​ ​the​ ​highest​ ​average​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​with​ ​2.02 tCO2e,​ ​while​ ​Psychology​ ​reported​ ​average​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​1.29​ ​tCO2e. It​ ​is​ ​recommended​ ​that​ ​economy​ ​class​ ​tickets​ ​be​ ​purchased​ ​for​ ​all​ ​UBC​ ​trips,​ ​and that​ ​direct​ ​flights​ ​be​ ​purchased​ ​whenever​ ​available.​ ​This​ ​will​ ​ensure​ ​that​ ​individual​ ​trip emissions​ ​are​ ​kept​ ​to​ ​a​ ​strict​ ​minimum.​ ​Furthermore​ ​it​ ​is​ ​recommended​ ​that​ ​trips​ ​be consolidated​ ​into​ ​fewer​ ​multi-purpose​ ​trips.​ ​Lastly​ ​the​ ​nature​ ​of​ ​non-UBC​ ​travellers work​ ​at​ ​UBC​ ​should​ ​be​ ​investigated,​ ​as​ ​they​ ​account​ ​for​ ​one​ ​fifth​ ​of​ ​total​ ​emissions.  3 Background​ ​and​ ​Objectives Anthropogenic​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​is​ ​a​ ​well-documented​ ​and​ ​well-researched​ ​global concern.​ ​The​ ​burning​ ​of​ ​fossil​ ​fuels,​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution​ ​to​ ​present​ ​time, releases​ ​greenhouse​ ​gases​ ​into​ ​the​ ​atmosphere,​ ​resulting​ ​in​ ​warmer​ ​temperatures worldwide.​ ​Greenhouse​ ​gases​ ​(GHG)​ ​concentrations​ ​are​ ​presently​ ​higher​ ​than​ ​at​ ​any other​ ​point​ ​in​ ​human​ ​history​ ​(Intergovernmental​ ​Panel​ ​on​ ​Climate​ ​Change,​ ​2014).​ ​As per​ ​the​ ​Paris​ ​Agreement,​ ​Canada​ ​is​ ​committed​ ​to​ ​limiting​ ​global​ ​temperatures​ ​to​ ​"well below​ ​2​ ​°C​ ​above​ ​pre-industrial​ ​level”​ ​(United​ ​Nations​ ​Framework​ ​Convention​ ​on Climate​ ​Change,​ ​2016).​ ​This​ ​ambitious​ ​target​ ​requires​ ​bold​ ​actions​ ​to​ ​limit​ ​the​ ​amount of​ ​GHGs​ ​emitted​ ​each​ ​year.​ ​Though​ ​the​ ​particular​ ​atmospheric​ ​effects​ ​of​ ​air​ ​travel,​ ​such as​ ​releasing​ ​GHGs​ ​directly​ ​into​ ​the​ ​upper​ ​atmosphere,​ ​are​ ​not​ ​fully​ ​understood,​ ​the increase​ ​in​ ​air​ ​travel​ ​and​ ​subsequent​ ​release​ ​of​ ​GHGs​ ​are​ ​alarming.​ ​Emissions​ ​from​ ​air travel​ ​account​ ​for​ ​2%​ ​of​ ​global​ ​emissions,​ ​and​ ​are​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​rise​ ​(Edwards​ ​et​ ​al., 2016).  As​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​ongoing​ ​Climate​ ​Action​ ​Plan,​ ​the​ ​University​ ​of​ ​British​ ​Columbia has​ ​pledged​ ​to​ ​reduce​ ​GHG​ ​emissions​ ​by​ ​67%​ ​by​ ​2020​ ​compared​ ​to​ ​2007​ ​levels​ ​(UBC CAP​ ​2010).​ ​Areas​ ​of​ ​focus​ ​include​ ​updating​ ​existing​ ​buildings,​ ​investing​ ​in​ ​green infrastructure,​ ​including​ ​LEED​ ​certified​ ​building,​ ​and​ ​fostering​ ​behavior​ ​change​ ​on​ ​and off​ ​campus.​ ​UBC​ ​pays​ ​a​ ​carbon​ ​tax​ ​of​ ​$25​ ​per​ ​ton​ ​of​ ​carbon-dioxide​ ​equivalents​ ​to​ ​the Provincial​ ​Government​ ​to​ ​offset​ ​its​ ​Scope​ ​1​ ​and​ ​Scope​ ​2​ ​emissions​ ​(Carbon​ ​Neutral Action​ ​Report,​ ​2015).​ ​Air​ ​travel​ ​emissions​ ​are​ ​qualified​ ​as​ ​Scope​ ​3​ ​and​ ​fall​ ​outside​ ​the offsets​ ​mandated​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Province​ ​(UBC​ ​CAP,​ ​2010).  UBC​ ​does​ ​not​ ​have​ ​a​ ​consolidated​ ​program​ ​to​ ​calculate,​ ​mitigate​ ​or​ ​offset emissions​ ​from​ ​university-related​ ​travel​ ​(UBC​ ​CAP,​ ​2010),​ ​which​ ​is​ ​integral​ ​to​ ​academic collaboration​ ​and​ ​administrative​ ​operations.​ ​Flights​ ​made​ ​through​ ​the​ ​UBC​ ​travel agent,​ ​North​ ​South,​ ​are​ ​used​ ​to​ ​estimate​ ​GHG-equivalents​ ​but​ ​this​ ​booking​ ​system​ ​is estimated​ ​to​ ​account​ ​for​ ​less​ ​than​ ​half​ ​of​ ​all​ ​travel​ ​done​ ​by​ ​UBC​ ​faculty​ ​and​ ​staff.  As​ ​part​ ​of​ ​UBC’s​ ​ongoing​ ​commitment​ ​to​ ​reducing​ ​emissions​ ​this​ ​project​ ​aims​ ​to 4 quantify​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​five​ ​UBC​ ​Vancouver​ ​Departments:​ ​Geography,​ ​Psychology, Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film,​ ​Chan​ ​Centre​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Performing​ ​Arts​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Institute​ ​for​ ​Resources, Environment,​ ​and​ ​Sustainability.​ ​It​ ​aims​ ​to​ ​provide​ ​a​ ​sample​ ​audit​ ​of​ ​UBC​ ​air​ ​travel emissions,​ ​to​ ​better​ ​understand​ ​travel​ ​patterns​ ​and​ ​motivations,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​suggest​ ​possible emissions​ ​mitigation​ ​options.  Methodology The​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Geography,​ ​the​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Psychology,​ ​the​ ​Department​ ​of Theatre​ ​and​ ​Film,​ ​the​ ​Institute​ ​for​ ​Resources,​ ​Environment,​ ​and​ ​Sustainability​ ​(IRES), and​ ​the​ ​Chan​ ​Centre​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Performing​ ​Arts​ ​provided​ ​travel​ ​requisition​ ​forms​ ​from January​ ​2015​ ​-​ ​June​ ​2016​ ​for​ ​analysis.​ ​Relevant​ ​flight​ ​information​ ​was​ ​recorded​ ​on​ ​a carbon​ ​calculator​ ​created​ ​on​ ​Excel​ ​(table​ ​1).​ ​Entering​ ​the​ ​airport​ ​codes​ ​of​ ​the​ ​departure city,​ ​the​ ​destination​ ​city,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​of​ ​the​ ​flight​ ​produced​ ​the​ ​associated emissions​ ​of​ ​that​ ​flights.​ ​This​ ​process​ ​was​ ​repeated​ ​for​ ​the​ ​total​ ​number​ ​of​ ​flights composing​ ​a​ ​trip​ ​(i.e.​ ​minimum​ ​two​ ​flights​ ​for​ ​a​ ​roundtrip​ ​flight).   Recorded​ ​Information Date​ ​on​ ​Requisition​ ​Form Requisition​ ​Number Origin​ ​Airport​ ​Code Destination​ ​Airport​ ​Code Name​ ​(later​ ​anonymized) Cost​ ​of​ ​trip Ticket​ ​Class Length​ ​of​ ​trip​ ​(nights) Purpose​ ​(primary​ ​and​ ​secondary) Additional​ ​flight​ ​information​ ​(e.g.​ ​multiple​ ​segments) Table​ ​1.​ ​Information​ ​recorded​ ​from​ ​departmental​ ​requisition​ ​forms   The​ ​equations​ ​used​ ​to​ ​calculate​ ​air​ ​travel​ ​emissions​ ​derive​ ​from​ ​the​ ​UK Department​ ​of​ ​Business​ ​Energy​ ​and​ ​Industrial​ ​Strategy​ ​and​ ​Department​ ​for Environment,​ ​Food​ ​and​ ​Rural​ ​Affairs​ ​(DEFRA)​ ​conversion​ ​factors​ ​(2016).​ ​The​ ​DEFRA conversion​ ​factors​ ​were​ ​chosen​ ​because​ ​of​ ​their​ ​prevalence​ ​in​ ​global​ ​emissions accounting.​ ​DEFRA​ ​includes​ ​the​ ​effects​ ​of​ ​radiative​ ​forcing​ ​in​ ​their​ ​factors.​ ​The conversion​ ​factors​ ​produce​ ​an​ ​estimate​ ​of​ ​an​ ​individual​ ​passenger’s​ ​share​ ​of​ ​total​ ​flight emissions.  5 Two​ ​characteristics​ ​of​ ​an​ ​individual​ ​trip​ ​are​ ​used​ ​to​ ​estimate​ ​the​ ​associated emissions:​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​(economy,​ ​economy​ ​plus,​ ​business​ ​and​ ​first​ ​class)​ ​and​ ​distance​ ​of flight​ ​(short​ ​haul​ ​[<463​ ​km],​ ​medium​ ​haul​ ​[463​ ​km<x<3700​ ​km],​ ​and​ ​long​ ​haul​ ​[>3700 km])(table​ ​2).​ ​First​ ​the​ ​distance​ ​between​ ​the​ ​departure​ ​city​ ​and​ ​the​ ​destination​ ​city​ ​is calculated​ ​using​ ​the​ ​great​ ​circle​ ​distance​ ​between​ ​the​ ​two,​ ​which​ ​is​ ​the​ ​shortest​ ​distance between​ ​two​ ​points​ ​on​ ​a​ ​sphere.​ ​The​ ​distance​ ​is​ ​then​ ​increased​ ​by​ ​8%​ ​to​ ​reflect​ ​the delays​ ​of​ ​real-time​ ​aviation,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​weather​ ​problems​ ​and​ ​holding​ ​patterns.​ ​Finally​ ​a conversion​ ​factor​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​and​ ​the​ ​distance​ ​of​ ​flight​ ​is​ ​applied​ ​to calculate​ ​the​ ​total​ ​kilograms​ ​of​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​equivalents​ ​(Kg​ ​CO​2​e)​ ​emitted.​ ​Final emissions​ ​are​ ​expressed​ ​in​ ​tons​ ​of​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​equivalent​ ​(tCO​2​e).  Long​ ​Haul Medium​ ​Haul Short​ ​Haul Economy​ ​Class  0.14678​ ​​Kg​ ​CO​2​e 0.16508​ ​​Kg​ ​CO​2​e  0.27867​ ​​Kg​ ​CO​2​e  Economy​ ​Plus  0.23484​ ​​Kg​ ​CO​2​e  0.24761​ ​​Kg​ ​CO​2​e Business​ ​Class  0.42565​ ​​Kg​ ​CO​2​e First​ ​Class  0.58711​ ​​Kg​ ​CO​2​e Table​ ​2.​ ​Emissions​ ​(Kg​ ​CO​2​e)​ ​per​ ​passenger​ ​km,​ ​based​ ​on​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​and​ ​flight​ ​distance​ ​(DEFRA)  Economy​ ​class​ ​tickets​ ​account​ ​for​ ​less​ ​of​ ​the​ ​plane’s​ ​total​ ​emissions​ ​than​ ​business class​ ​tickets,​ ​because​ ​they​ ​take​ ​up​ ​less​ ​of​ ​the​ ​total​ ​area​ ​on​ ​the​ ​plane.​ ​Thus​ ​an​ ​economy class​ ​ticket​ ​from​ ​Vancouver​ ​to​ ​San​ ​Francisco​ ​accounts​ ​for​ ​less​ ​CO​2​e​ ​than​ ​a​ ​first​ ​class ticket​ ​on​ ​the​ ​same​ ​flight.​ ​Interestingly​ ​short​ ​haul​ ​flights​ ​produce​ ​more​ ​emissions​ ​per passenger​ ​kilometre​ ​flown​ ​than​ ​long​ ​haul​ ​flights​ ​when​ ​economy​ ​class​ ​tickets​ ​are purchased.​ ​In​ ​this​ ​way​ ​an​ ​economy​ ​class​ ​ticket​ ​from​ ​Vancouver​ ​to​ ​Seattle​ ​produces more​ ​emissions​ ​per​ ​passenger​ ​kilometre​ ​than​ ​an​ ​economy​ ​class​ ​ticket​ ​from​ ​Vancouver to​ ​London.  Trips​ ​were​ ​coded​ ​by​ ​purpose:​ ​conference​ ​(CF),​ ​field​ ​work/research​ ​(FL),​ ​lecture/ business​ ​at​ ​another​ ​university​ ​(LT),​ ​university​ ​business​ ​(UB),​ ​other/unknown​ ​(OT),​ ​and non-UBC​ ​travelers​ ​(N).​ ​This​ ​final​ ​category​ ​included​ ​conferences​ ​hosted​ ​by​ ​UBC​ ​and non-UBC​ ​speakers​ ​invited​ ​to​ ​UBC​ ​Vancouver.​ ​When​ ​stated​ ​a​ ​secondary​ ​trip​ ​purpose was​ ​coded.​ ​An​ ​additional​ ​category​ ​was​ ​added​ ​as​ ​a​ ​secondary​ ​trip​ ​purpose:​ ​personal​ ​(P).  Trip​ ​emissions​ ​were​ ​divided​ ​into​ ​two​ ​categories:​ ​direct​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​and 6 indirect​ ​trip​ ​emissions.​ ​Direct​ ​trips​ ​do​ ​not​ ​have​ ​layovers,​ ​and​ ​by​ ​definition​ ​a​ ​direct round​ ​trip​ ​includes​ ​two​ ​flight​ ​segments.​ ​Indirect​ ​flights​ ​have​ ​layovers​ ​or​ ​multiple destinations.​ ​An​ ​indirect​ ​round​ ​trip​ ​could​ ​theoretically​ ​include​ ​infinite​ ​flight​ ​segments, though​ ​in​ ​this​ ​data​ ​set​ ​the​ ​maximum​ ​number​ ​of​ ​flight​ ​segments​ ​for​ ​an​ ​indirect​ ​trip​ ​was six.​ ​In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​compare​ ​the​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​direct​ ​and​ ​indirect​ ​trips,​ ​indirect​ ​trips’ emissions​ ​were​ ​calculated​ ​a​ ​second​ ​time​ ​as​ ​if​ ​they​ ​had​ ​been​ ​direct​ ​flights​ ​by​ ​calculating the​ ​emissions​ ​between​ ​the​ ​city​ ​of​ ​departure​ ​and​ ​the​ ​destination​ ​city.​ ​This​ ​was​ ​done​ ​to make​ ​possible​ ​emissions​ ​comparisons​ ​between​ ​direct​ ​trips​ ​and​ ​indirect​ ​trips.   Select​ ​assumptions​ ​were​ ​made​ ​to​ ​make​ ​the​ ​data​ ​workable:  ● Trips​ ​were​ ​assumed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​round​ ​trip ● When​ ​not​ ​otherwise​ ​indicated,​ ​a​ ​flight​ ​back​ ​to​ ​the​ ​departure​ ​city​ ​was​ ​assumed​ ​to be​ ​the​ ​same​ ​as​ ​the​ ​flight​ ​to​ ​the​ ​destination​ ​city ● Trips​ ​without​ ​a​ ​stated​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​were​ ​coded​ ​as​ ​economy-class​ ​tickets ● Flights​ ​were​ ​assumed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​at​ ​seating​ ​capacity ● The​ ​costs​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​purchased​ ​in​ ​foreign​ ​currency​ ​were​ ​converted​ ​into​ ​CAD​ ​based on​ ​the​ ​exchange​ ​rate​ ​of​ ​the​ ​date​ ​of​ ​the​ ​requisition​ ​form Results  Overall​ ​Findings The​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Psychology​ ​accounted​ ​for​ ​322​ ​trips,​ ​the​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Geography for​ ​276​ ​trips,​ ​IRES​ ​for​ ​63​ ​trips,​ ​the​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Theatre​ ​and​ ​Film​ ​for​ ​35​ ​trips​ ​and​ ​the Chan​ ​Centre​ ​for​ ​13​ ​trips,​ ​for​ ​a​ ​total​ ​of​ ​709​ ​trips​ ​between​ ​January​ ​2015​ ​and​ ​June​ ​2016 (table​ ​3).​ ​The​ ​departments’​ ​data​ ​were​ ​analyzed​ ​separately,​ ​and​ ​then​ ​combined​ ​for​ ​an aggregate​ ​assessment.​ ​In​ ​total​ ​the​ ​five​ ​departments​ ​emitted​ ​1070.25​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​from​ ​air travel​ ​over​ ​the​ ​18-month​ ​period,​ ​with​ ​average​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​1.51​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​(table​ ​3).   7  GEOG PSYCH IRES T&F Chan TOTAL Trips  276 322 63 35 13 709 Total Emissions (tCO​2​e​ ​) 453.97  415.24  127.56  56.97  16.50  1070.25  Direct​ ​Trip Emissions  (tCO​2​e​ ​) 428.95  379.19  108.86  49.84  15.08  981.93  Indirect​ ​to Direct Reduction​ ​in Emissions  5.51% 8.68% 14.66% 12.51% 8.6% 8.25% Total​ ​Cost​ ​of Trips  $317​ ​245 $237​ ​281 $63​ ​970 $30​ ​280 $8​ ​536 $657​ ​312 Average​ ​Trip Cost $1149.44 $736.90 $1015.40 $865.14 $517.32 $927.10 Average​ ​Trip Emissions (tCO2e) 1.64  1.29  2.02  1.63  1.27  1.51   Faculty/Staff Members 29  54 12 18 20 - Emissions​ ​per Faculty​ ​or Staff​ ​Member  (tCO2e) 22.70  7.69  10.63  3.16  1.27  - Table​ ​3.​ ​Comparison​ ​of​ ​emissions​ ​and​ ​costs​ ​data​ ​across​ ​all​ ​departments  Direct​ ​and​ ​Indirect​ ​Trips  Total​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​the​ ​five​ ​departments​ ​were​ ​1070.25​ ​tCO​2​e.​ ​Had​ ​all​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​been direct,​ ​that​ ​is​ ​to​ ​say​ ​without​ ​layovers​ ​or​ ​multiple​ ​destinations,​ ​the​ ​total​ ​emissions​ ​would have​ ​been​ ​981.93​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​a​ ​reduction​ ​of​ ​88.32​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​(table​ ​3). 8 Trip​ ​Length Of​ ​the​ ​709​ ​trips,​ ​538​ ​were​ ​under​ ​seven​ ​nights​ ​(Fig.​ ​1a).​ ​Of​ ​this​ ​sub-category,​ ​134​ ​trips were​ ​three​ ​nights​ ​and​ ​123​ ​were​ ​four​ ​nights​ ​(Fig.​ ​1b).   Figure​ ​1a.​ ​Length​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​​ ​(All​ ​Departments)​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Figure​ ​1b.​ ​Trips​ ​Under​ ​Seven​ ​Nights​ ​​ ​(All ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Departments)  Trip​ ​Purpose  The​ ​primary​ ​trip​ ​purpose​ ​was​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference,​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​non-UBC​ ​travellers and​ ​doing​ ​field​ ​work​ ​(Fig.​ ​2a).​ ​University​ ​business​ ​was​ ​listed​ ​as​ ​the​ ​primary​ ​purpose​ ​for a​ ​single​ ​trip.​ ​Only​ ​67​ ​of​ ​the​ ​709​ ​trips​ ​had​ ​secondary​ ​purposes,​ ​the​ ​most​ ​popular​ ​being​ ​to attend​ ​a​ ​conference​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​fieldwork​ ​(Fig.​ ​2b).   Figure​ ​2a.​ ​Primary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Travel ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Figure​ ​2b.​ ​Secondary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Travel (All​ ​Departments)  ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​(All​ ​Departments)  9 Ticket​ ​class The​ ​vast​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​were​ ​economy​ ​class​ ​(Fig.​ ​3).​ ​However​ ​this​ ​includes​ ​a​ ​number of​ ​trips​ ​assumed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​economy​ ​due​ ​to​ ​missing​ ​trip​ ​information.    Figure​ ​3.​ ​Trip​ ​Ticket​ ​Class​ ​​ ​(All​ ​Departments)  Emissions​ ​and​ ​cost When​ ​plotted​ ​against​ ​each​ ​other,​ ​the​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​value​ ​between​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip emissions​ ​is​ ​extremely​ ​low​ ​(1.6E067)​ ​revealing​ ​that​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​are significantly​ ​related​ ​(figure​ ​4).​ ​However​ ​the​ ​R-square​ ​value​ ​is​ ​low,​ ​0.35,​ ​indicating​ ​the variance​ ​in​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​only​ ​explains​ ​35%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip​ ​emissions,​ ​and​ ​that​ ​there​ ​is a​ ​not​ ​a​ ​linear​ ​relationship.​ ​Trip​ ​cost​ ​is​ ​thus​ ​not​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​predictor​ ​of​ ​emissions.   Overall​ ​there​ ​is​ ​a​ ​significant​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​at​ ​each department.​ ​However​ ​the​ ​R-square​ ​value​ ​varies​ ​between​ ​departments​ ​(e.g.​ ​0.86​ ​for​ ​the Chan​ ​Centre,​ ​0.24​ ​for​ ​Geography).​ ​Trip​ ​cost​ ​is​ ​not​ ​a​ ​constant​ ​predictor​ ​of​ ​trip emissions.​ ​There​ ​are​ ​other​ ​factors​ ​influencing​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​and​ ​creating​ ​noise​ ​in​ ​the models.​ ​For​ ​instance,​ ​trip​ ​destinations​ ​and​ ​flying​ ​behaviours​ ​vary​ ​depending​ ​on​ ​the​ ​type of​ ​work​ ​performed​ ​by​ ​the​ ​department.  10  Figure​ ​4.​ ​Trip​ ​Cost​ ​and​ ​Trip​ ​Emissions​ ​(All​ ​Departments)  with​ ​R-Square​ ​of​ ​0.35​ ​and​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​of​ ​1.6E-067) Emissions​ ​and​ ​distance  The​ ​vast​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​were​ ​long​ ​haul,​ ​with​ ​average​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​1.66​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​(table​ ​4). There​ ​were​ ​only​ ​10​ ​short-haul​ ​trips​ ​made,​ ​with​ ​an​ ​average​ ​of​ ​0.27​ ​tCO​2​e.   Number​ ​of​ ​trips  Average​ ​Emissions per​ ​trip​ ​(tCO​2​e)  Standard​ ​Deviation  Short-haul​ ​trips (<463​ ​km)  10 0.27 0.40 Medium-haul​ ​trips (463<X<3700​ ​km) 120 0.92 0.94 Long​ ​haul​ ​trips (>3700​ ​km) 698 1.66 1.19 Table​ ​​ ​4.​ ​​ ​Average​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​based​ ​on​ ​trip​ ​distance     11 Department​ ​of​ ​Geography  The​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Geography​ ​had​ ​276​ ​trips​ ​with​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​453.97​ ​tCO​2​e   Direct​ ​and​ ​Indirect​ ​Trips  Total​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​Geography​ ​were​ ​453.​ ​97​ ​tCO​2​e.​ ​Had​ ​all​ ​Geography​ ​trips​ ​been direct​ ​trips​ ​emissions​ ​would​ ​have​ ​been​ ​428.97​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​a​ ​reduction​ ​of​ ​25.02​ ​tCO​2​e. However​ ​only​ ​74​ ​of​ ​the​ ​276​ ​requisition​ ​forms​ ​contained​ ​sufficient​ ​flight​ ​information​ ​to perform​ ​this​ ​analysis​ ​(87​ ​trips​ ​were​ ​already​ ​direct,​ ​while​ ​115​ ​lacked​ ​flight​ ​information).   Trip​ ​Length Of​ ​the​ ​276​ ​trips,​ ​188​ ​were​ ​under​ ​seven​ ​days​ ​(Fig.​ ​5a).​ ​Of​ ​those​ ​trips​ ​36​ ​were​ ​three​ ​days, 33​ ​were​ ​four​ ​days​ ​and​ ​31​ ​were​ ​two​ ​days​ ​(Fig.​ ​5b).​ ​The​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Geography​ ​was​ ​the first​ ​department​ ​to​ ​be​ ​audited.​ ​Initially​ ​trip​ ​length​ ​was​ ​recorded​ ​as​ ​days​ ​rather​ ​than nights,​ ​thus​ ​the​ ​shortest​ ​trip​ ​in​ ​Geography​ ​was​ ​listed​ ​as​ ​1​ ​night.     Figure​ ​5a.​ ​Length​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​(Geography) ​ ​Figure​ ​5b.​ ​Trips​ ​Under​ ​Seven​ ​Nights​ ​(Geography)  Trip​ ​Purpose The​ ​primary​ ​trip​ ​purpose​ ​was​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference,​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​work​ ​done​ ​by non-UBC​ ​travellers​ ​​ ​and​ ​doing​ ​field​ ​work​ ​(Fig.​ ​6a).​ ​​ ​Only​ ​26​ ​trips​ ​had​ ​a​ ​secondary purpose.​ ​Attending​ ​a​ ​conference​ ​was​ ​the​ ​most​ ​popular​ ​secondary​ ​purposes​ ​(Fig.​ ​6b).  12  Figure​ ​6a.​ ​Primary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips Figure​ ​6b.​ ​Secondary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips (Geography) (Geography)   Ticket​ ​Class The​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​were​ ​economy-class​ ​or​ ​assumed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​economy​ ​(Fig.​ ​7).​ ​There​ ​were five​ ​economy-plus​ ​trips​ ​made​ ​and​ ​two​ ​business​ ​class​ ​trips.    Figure​ ​7.​ ​Trip​ ​Ticket​ ​Class​ ​(Geography)  Emissions​ ​and​ ​Cost  When​ ​analyzing​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​and​ ​cost,​ ​the​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​is​ ​very​ ​low​ ​(8.21E-18) indicating​ ​a​ ​significant​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​(Fig.​ ​8). However​ ​the​ ​R-squared​ ​value​ ​for​ ​Geography​ ​is​ ​only​ ​0.24,​ ​indicating​ ​that​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip cost​ ​explains​ ​24%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip​ ​emissions.​ ​Thus​ ​cost​ ​is​ ​not​ ​an​ ​adequate predictor​ ​of​ ​emissions​ ​for​ ​this​ ​department.   13  Figure​ ​8.​ ​Trip​ ​Cost​ ​and​ ​Trip​ ​Emissions​ ​(Geography)  with​ ​R-Square​ ​of​ ​0.24​ ​and​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​of​ ​​8.21E-18​)  Number​ ​of​ ​Travelers  There​ ​were​ ​154​ ​travelers​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Geography.​​ ​​Ten​ ​of​ ​these​ ​travelers​ ​were​ ​responsible​ ​for 147.6​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​and​ ​accounted​ ​for​ ​81​ ​trips​ ​of​ ​the​ ​276​ ​trips.  Department​ ​of​ ​Psychology  The​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Psychology​ ​had​ ​322​ ​trips​ ​with​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​415.24​ ​tCO2e. Direct​ ​and​ ​Indirect​ ​Trips  Total​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​Psychology​ ​were​ ​415.24​ ​tCO​2​e.​ ​Had​ ​all​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​been​ ​direct​ ​total emissions​ ​would​ ​have​ ​been​ ​379.19​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​a​ ​reduction​ ​of​ ​36.05​ ​tCO​2​e.  Trip​ ​Length Of​ ​the​ ​322​ ​trips,​ ​280​ ​were​ ​under​ ​seven​ ​nights​ ​(Fig.​ ​9a).​ ​Of​ ​this​ ​sub-category,​ ​83​ ​trips were​ ​three​ ​nights​ ​and​ ​73​ ​were​ ​four​ ​nights​ ​(Fig.​ ​9b). 14 ​ ​  Figure​ ​9a.​ ​Length​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​(Psychology)​ ​​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Figure​ ​9b.​ ​Trips​ ​Under​ ​Seven​ ​Nights  (Psychology) Trip​ ​Purpose  The​ ​primary​ ​trip​ ​purpose​ ​was​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference,​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​non-UBC​ ​travellers and​ ​field​ ​work​ ​(Fig.​ ​10a).​ ​Only​ ​26​ ​of​ ​the​ ​322​ ​trips​ ​had​ ​secondary​ ​purposes,​ ​the​ ​most popular​ ​being​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference,​ ​field​ ​work​ ​and​ ​personal​ ​reasons​ ​(Fig.​ ​10b).    Figure​ ​10a.​ ​Primary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Figure​ ​10b.​ ​Secondary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips (Psychology)​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​(Psychology)  Ticket​ ​class The​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​were​ ​economy​ ​class,​ ​though​ ​a​ ​large​ ​number​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​had unreported​ ​ticket​ ​classes​ ​(Fig.​ ​11).​ ​Psychology​ ​reported​ ​high​ ​numbers​ ​of​ ​economy​ ​plus (four),​ ​business​ ​(four)​ ​and​ ​mixed-class​ ​tickets​ ​(10).​ ​The​ ​trips​ ​in​ ​this​ ​final​ ​category contained​ ​the​ ​following:​ ​six​ ​economy/economy​ ​plus​ ​trips,​ ​three​ ​economy/economy plus/business​ ​class​ ​trips,​ ​and​ ​one​ ​economy​ ​plus/first​ ​class​ ​trip.​ ​This​ ​last​ ​trip​ ​is​ ​the​ ​only 15 trip​ ​in​ ​any​ ​department​ ​to​ ​include​ ​a​ ​first​ ​class​ ​ticket.    Figure​ ​11.​ ​Trip​ ​Ticket​ ​Class​ ​(Psychology)  Emissions​ ​and​ ​Cost  When​ ​comparing​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​the​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​value​ ​is​ ​close​ ​to​ ​zero (at​ ​7.87E-62),​ ​indicating​ ​that​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​are​ ​significantly​ ​related​ ​(Fig. 12).​ ​The​ ​R-square​ ​for​ ​Psychology​ ​is​ ​0.58,​ ​indicating​ ​that​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​explains​ ​about​ ​58%​ ​of the​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip​ ​emissions.​ ​Once​ ​again​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​is​ ​not​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​predictor​ ​of​ ​trip emissions.   Figure​ ​12.​ ​Trip​ ​Cost​ ​and​ ​Trip​ ​Emissions​ ​(Psychology)​ ​with​ ​R-Square​ ​of​ ​0.58​ ​and​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​of​ ​7.87E-62 16 Number​ ​of​ ​Travelers  There​ ​were​ ​188​ ​travelers​ ​in​ ​Psychology.​​ ​​Of​ ​these,​ ​12​ ​were​ ​responsible​ ​for​ ​108.46​ ​tCO​2​e of​ ​the​ ​total​ ​415.24​ ​tCO2e.​ ​One​ ​individual​ ​in​ ​Psychology,​ ​who​ ​was​ ​responsible​ ​for​ ​the only​ ​first​ ​class​ ​tickets​ ​in​ ​the​ ​data​ ​set,​ ​had​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​16.17​ ​tCO​2​e.  Institute​ ​for​ ​Resources,​ ​Environment​ ​and​ ​Sustainability  IRES​ ​had​ ​63​ ​trips​ ​with​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​127.56​ ​tCO2e. Direct​ ​and​ ​Indirect​ ​Trips  Total​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​IRES​ ​were​ ​127.56​ ​tCO​2​e.​ ​Had​ ​all​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​been​ ​direct​ ​total emissions​ ​would​ ​have​ ​been​ ​108.86​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​a​ ​reduction​ ​of​ ​18.7​ ​tCO​2​e.  Trip​ ​Length Of​ ​the​ ​63​ ​trips,​ ​37​ ​were​ ​under​ ​seven​ ​nights​ ​(Fig.​ ​13a).​ ​Of​ ​this​ ​sub-category,​ ​eight​ ​trips were​ ​four​ ​nights​ ​and​ ​there​ ​were​ ​seven​ ​two-night​ ​and​ ​seven​ ​five-night​ ​trips​ ​(Fig.​ ​13b)  Figure​ ​13a.​ ​Length​ ​of​ ​Trip​ ​(IRES) ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Figure​ ​13b.​ ​Trips​ ​Under​ ​Seven​ ​Nights​ ​​ ​(IRES)  Trip​ ​Purpose  The​ ​primary​ ​trip​ ​purpose​ ​was​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference,​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​fieldwork​ ​(Fig.​ ​14a). Only​ ​13​ ​of​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​had​ ​secondary​ ​purposes,​ ​the​ ​most​ ​popular​ ​being​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a conference​ ​​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​fieldwork​ ​(Fig.​ ​14b).   17  Figure​ ​14a.​ ​Primary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​(IRES)​ ​​ ​​ ​Figure​ ​14b.​ ​Secondary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​(IRES) Ticket​ ​class All​ ​trips​ ​made​ ​by​ ​IRES​ ​were​ ​economy-class,​ ​aside​ ​from​ ​five​ ​trips​ ​with​ ​unreported​ ​ticket classes​ ​(Fig.​ ​15).  Figure​ ​15.​ ​Trip​ ​Ticket​ ​Class​ ​(IRES)  Emissions​ ​and​ ​Cost  When​ ​plotted​ ​against​ ​each​ ​other,​ ​the​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​value​ ​for​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip emissions​ ​is​ ​5.88E-18,​ ​once​ ​again​ ​indicating​ ​a​ ​significant​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​trip​ ​cost and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​(Fig.​ ​16).​ ​The​ ​R-square​ ​value​ ​is​ ​0.71,​ ​which​ ​is​ ​stronger​ ​than​ ​previous departments.​ ​There​ ​is​ ​less​ ​noise​ ​in​ ​the​ ​data​ ​than​ ​in​ ​previous​ ​departments.​ ​For​ ​IRES​ ​71% of​ ​the​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​is​ ​explained​ ​by​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip​ ​costs.  18  Figure​ ​16.​ ​Trip​ ​Cost​ ​and​ ​Trip​ ​Emissions​ ​(IRES)  with​ ​R-Square​ ​of​ ​0.71​ ​and​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​of​ ​​5.88E-18  Number​ ​of​ ​Travelers  There​ ​were​ ​28​ ​travelers​ ​in​ ​IRES.​​ ​​Of​ ​these,​ ​six​ ​were​ ​responsible​ ​for​ ​71.93​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​of​ ​the total​ ​127.56​ ​tCO2e. Department​ ​of​ ​Theatre​ ​and​ ​Film Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film​ ​had​ ​for​ ​35​ ​trips​ ​with​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​56.97​ ​tCO​2​e. Direct​ ​and​ ​Indirect​ ​Trips  Total​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film​ ​were​ ​56.97​ ​tCO​2​e.​ ​Had​ ​all​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​been​ ​direct total​ ​emissions​ ​would​ ​have​ ​been​ ​49.84​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​a​ ​reduction​ ​of​ ​7.13​ ​tCO​2​e.  Trip​ ​Length Of​ ​the​ ​35​ ​trips,​ ​22​ ​were​ ​under​ ​seven​ ​nights​ ​(Fig.​ ​17a).​ ​Of​ ​this​ ​sub-category,​ ​seven​ ​trips were​ ​three​ ​nights​ ​and​ ​there​ ​were​ ​four​ ​four-night​ ​and​ ​four​ ​six-night​ ​trips​ ​(Fig.​ ​17b).  19  Figure​ ​17a.​ ​Length​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​(Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film)​ ​Figure​ ​17b.​ ​Trips​ ​Under​ ​Seven​ ​Nights ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​(Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film)  Trip​ ​Purpose  The​ ​primary​ ​trip​ ​purpose​ ​was​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference,​ ​followed​ ​fieldwork​ ​(Fig.​ ​18a).​ ​Only two​ ​of​ ​the​ ​35​ ​trips​ ​had​ ​secondary​ ​purposes,​ ​both​ ​being​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference​ ​(Fig.​ ​18b).  Figure​ ​18a.​ ​Primary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips ​ ​Figure​ ​18b.​ ​Primary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips (Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film) ​ ​(Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film)   Ticket​ ​class All​ ​trips​ ​made​ ​by​ ​Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film​ ​were​ ​economy-class,​ ​aside​ ​from​ ​one​ ​trip​ ​with​ ​an unreported​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​(Fig.​ ​19).  20  Figure​ ​19.​ ​Trip​ ​Ticket​ ​Class​ ​(Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film)  Emissions​ ​and​ ​Cost  When​ ​comparing​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​the​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​value​ ​for​ ​Theatre​ ​and Film​ ​is​ ​9E-09,​ ​once​ ​again​ ​indicating​ ​a​ ​significant​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip emissions​ ​(Fig.​ ​20).​ ​The​ ​R-square​ ​value​ ​is​ ​0.65,​ ​indicating​ ​that​ ​65%​ ​of​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip emissions​ ​can​ ​be​ ​explained​ ​by​ ​variance​ ​in​ ​trip​ ​costs.   Figure​ ​20.​ ​Trip​ ​Cost​ ​and​ ​Trip​ ​Emissions​ ​(Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film)​ ​with​ ​R-Square​ ​of​ ​0.65​ ​and​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​of​ ​9E-09  21 Number​ ​of​ ​Travelers  There​ ​were​ ​22​ ​travelers​ ​in​ ​Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film.​​ ​​Of​ ​these,​ ​two​ ​were​ ​responsible​ ​for​ ​28.04 tCO​2​e​ ​of​ ​the​ ​total​ ​56.97​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​with​ ​a​ ​combined​ ​13​ ​trips.  Chan​ ​Centre​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Performing​ ​Arts  The​ ​Chan​ ​Centre​ ​had​ ​for​ ​13​ ​trips​ ​with​ ​emissions​ ​of​ ​16.50​ ​tCO​2​e.  Direct​ ​and​ ​Indirect​ ​Trips  Total​ ​emissions​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Chan​ ​Centre​ ​were​ ​16.50​ ​tCO​2​e.​ ​Had​ ​all​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​been​ ​direct total​ ​emissions​ ​would​ ​have​ ​been​ ​15.08​ ​tCO​2​e,​ ​a​ ​reduction​ ​of​ ​1.42​ ​tCO​2​e.  Trip​ ​Length Of​ ​the​ ​13​ ​trips,​ ​11​ ​were​ ​under​ ​seven​ ​nights​ ​(Fig.​ ​21a).​ ​Of​ ​this​ ​sub-category,​ ​five​ ​trips were​ ​four​ ​nights​ ​and​ ​there​ ​were​ ​two​ ​three-night​ ​and​ ​two​ ​five-night​ ​trips​ ​(Fig.​ ​21b).   Figure​ ​21a.​ ​Length​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​(Chan​ ​Centre)​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Figure​ ​21b.​ ​Trips​ ​Under​ ​Seven​ ​Nights​ ​(Chan ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Centre)   Trip​ ​Purpose  The​ ​primary​ ​trip​ ​purpose​ ​was​ ​to​ ​attend​ ​a​ ​conference,​ ​followed​ ​by university/administrative​ ​business​ ​(Fig.​ ​22).​ ​None​ ​of​ ​the​ ​trips​ ​had​ ​a​ ​secondary​ ​purpose.  22  Figure​ ​22.​ ​Primary​ ​Purpose​ ​of​ ​Trips​ ​(Chan​ ​Centre)   Ticket​ ​class All​ ​trips​ ​made​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Chan​ ​Centre​ ​were​ ​economy-class,​ ​aside​ ​from​ ​one​ ​trip​ ​with​ ​an unreported​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​(Fig.​ ​23).  Figure​ ​23.​ ​Trip​ ​Ticket​ ​Class​ ​(Chan​ ​Centre)  Emissions​ ​and​ ​Cost  The​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​value​ ​is​ ​1.7E-05,​ ​once​ ​again​ ​indicating​ ​a​ ​significant​ ​relationship between​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​and​ ​trip​ ​emissions​ ​(Fig.​ ​24).​ ​The​ ​R-square​ ​value​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Chan​ ​Centre​ ​is 23 0.86,​ ​the​ ​highest​ ​of​ ​any​ ​of​ ​the​ ​departments.​ ​Here​ ​trip​ ​cost​ ​is​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​predictor​ ​of​ ​trip emissions,​ ​though​ ​there​ ​are​ ​only​ ​13​ ​data​ ​points​ ​in​ ​this​ ​department​ ​to​ ​analyze.   Figure​ ​24.​ ​Trip​ ​Cost​ ​and​ ​Trip​ ​Emissions​ ​(Chan​ ​Centre)  with​ ​R-Square​ ​of​ ​0.86​ ​and​ ​Significance​ ​of​ ​F​ ​of​ ​​1.7E-05  Number​ ​of​ ​Travelers  There​ ​were​ ​six​ ​travelers​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Chan​ ​Centre.​​ ​​Of​ ​these,​ ​two​ ​were​ ​responsible​ ​for​ ​12.63 tCO​2​e​ ​of​ ​the​ ​total​ ​16.50​ ​tCO​2​e.​ ​with​ ​a​ ​combined​ ​nine​ ​trips.   Mitigation​ ​Options Mitigation​ ​experiments​ ​were​ ​performed​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​how​ ​certain​ ​trip​ ​characteristics contribute​ ​to​ ​total​ ​emissions,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​determine​ ​the​ ​reduction​ ​in​ ​emissions​ ​if​ ​certain​ ​trip types​ ​were​ ​eliminated.​ ​Eliminating​ ​a)​ ​0​ ​night​ ​and​ ​1​ ​night​ ​trips,​ ​b)​ ​o,​ ​1​ ​and​ ​2-night​ ​trips, c)​ ​short​ ​haul​ ​trips​ ​(>463​ ​km​ ​one​ ​way),​ ​d)​ ​trips​ ​under​ ​700​ ​km​ ​one​ ​way​ ​and​ ​e)​ ​trips​ ​made by​ ​non-UBC​ ​travelers​ ​(i.e.​ ​purpose​ ​code​ ​“N”).​ ​Travel​ ​by​ ​non-UBC​ ​travelers​ ​contributed the​ ​most​ ​to​ ​total​ ​emissions​ ​out​ ​of​ ​the​ ​five​ ​categories,​ ​at​ ​214.74​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​(table​ ​5).​ ​Short haul​ ​trips​ ​and​ ​trips​ ​under​ ​700​ ​km​ ​contributed​ ​the​ ​least​ ​to​ ​total​ ​emissions.   24  Number​ ​of​ ​Trips Emissions Percentage​ ​of​ ​Total Emissions Short​ ​Haul​ ​Trips 29 23.60​ ​tCO​2​e 2.2% Trips​ ​Under​ ​700 km 34 28.23​ ​tCO​2​e 2.6% 0​ ​and​ ​1​ ​night 40 45.91​ ​tCO​2​e 4.3% 0,​ ​1​ ​and​ ​2​ ​night 109 114.78​ ​tCO​2​e 10.7% Non-UBC Travelers  142  214.74​ ​tCO​2​e 20.1%  Table​ ​5.​ ​Effects​ ​​ ​of​ ​eliminating​ ​various​ ​trip​ ​types​ ​on​ ​total​ ​emissions  Policy​ ​Options​ ​to​ ​Reduce​ ​GHGs  Non-UBC​ ​Travelers  Emissions​ ​could​ ​be​ ​reduced​ ​by​ ​one​ ​fifth​ ​if​ ​non-UBC​ ​affiliates​ ​flights​ ​were​ ​eliminated. Better​ ​understanding​ ​of​ ​the​ ​nature​ ​and​ ​frequency​ ​of​ ​non-UBC​ ​affiliates​ ​travelling​ ​to UBC​ ​is​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​determine​ ​whether​ ​or​ ​not​ ​this​ ​is​ ​feasible.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​not​ ​clear​ ​whether​ ​this pattern​ ​is​ ​typical​ ​across​ ​UBC​ ​departments​ ​or​ ​among​ ​other​ ​universities.​ ​Regardless, emissions​ ​from​ ​non-UBC​ ​affiliates​ ​account​ ​for​ ​the​ ​highest​ ​percentage​ ​of​ ​total​ ​emissions based​ ​on​ ​primary​ ​purpose.   Economy​ ​Class​ ​Only  Economy​ ​class​ ​flights​ ​for​ ​all​ ​distances​ ​travelled​ ​produce​ ​the​ ​lowest​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​emissions per​ ​passenger​ ​kilometer.​ ​Creating​ ​a​ ​policy​ ​encouraging​ ​or​ ​requiring​ ​economy​ ​class flights​ ​would​ ​ensure​ ​that,​ ​regardless​ ​of​ ​destination,​ ​emissions​ ​are​ ​kept​ ​at​ ​a​ ​strict minimum​ ​for​ ​each​ ​trip.   Multi-Purpose​ ​Trips​ ​and​ ​Consolidated​ ​Trips  Encouraging​ ​multi-purpose​ ​trips​ ​to​ ​minimize​ ​overall​ ​distance​ ​traveled​ ​could​ ​also​ ​reduce emissions.​ ​Only​ ​12%​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​listed​ ​a​ ​secondary​ ​purpose,​ ​though​ ​it​ ​is​ ​possible​ ​travelers 25 did​ ​not​ ​explicitly​ ​list​ ​secondary​ ​purposes​ ​on​ ​their​ ​requisition​ ​forms.​ ​Furthermore replacing​ ​repeat​ ​trips​ ​to​ ​the​ ​same​ ​destination​ ​with​ ​a​ ​consolidated​ ​trip​ ​could​ ​be encouraged.​ ​Such​ ​trips​ ​could​ ​be​ ​extended​ ​over​ ​a​ ​longer​ ​time​ ​period​ ​with​ ​a​ ​reduction​ ​in the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​flights​ ​and​ ​thus​ ​emissions.​ ​This​ ​may​ ​be​ ​a​ ​challenge​ ​to​ ​those​ ​whose research​ ​is​ ​time-sensitive​ ​or​ ​who​ ​have​ ​obligations​ ​in​ ​multiple​ ​destinations.   Direct​ ​Flights​ ​Only  As​ ​demonstrated​ ​by​ ​the​ ​indirect​ ​versus​ ​direct​ ​trip​ ​analysis,​ ​direct​ ​trips​ ​produce​ ​less GHGs.​ ​Direct​ ​trips​ ​should​ ​be​ ​purchased,​ ​wherever​ ​feasible.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​also​ ​an​ ​attractive option​ ​to​ ​travelers​ ​who​ ​would​ ​spent​ ​less​ ​time​ ​waiting​ ​in​ ​airports​ ​or​ ​in​ ​transit​ ​to​ ​their final​ ​destination.   Carbon​ ​Offsets Lastly,​ ​the​ ​purchase​ ​of​ ​carbon​ ​offsets​ ​is​ ​worth​ ​consideration.​ ​UBC​ ​pays​ ​$25/tonne​ ​to offset​ ​Scope​ ​1​ ​and​ ​Scope​ ​2​ ​emissions​ ​(UBC​ ​Carbon​ ​Neutral​ ​Action​ ​Report,​ ​2015).​ ​This amounted​ ​to​ ​42​ ​846​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​in​ ​2015​ ​(UBC​ ​Vancouver​ ​Campus,​ ​2015​ ​Greenhouse​ ​Gas Emissions​ ​Inventory),​ ​at​ ​a​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​over​ ​one​ ​million​ ​dollars.​ ​Offsetting​ ​1070.25​ ​tCO​2​e would​ ​cost​ ​$26​ ​756.25,​ ​or​ ​the​ ​equivalent​ ​of​ ​28.9​ ​trips​ ​made​ ​at​ ​the​ ​average​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​a​ ​trip.  Conclusion This​ ​report​ ​quantified​ ​air​ ​travel​ ​emissions​ ​and​ ​analyzed​ ​related​ ​information​ ​from​ ​five UBC​ ​Vancouver​ ​departments​ ​(Geography,​ ​Psychology,​ ​IRES,​ ​Theatre​ ​&​ ​Film​ ​and​ ​the Chan​ ​Centre)​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​travel​ ​patterns​ ​and​ ​highlight​ ​possible​ ​emissions​ ​mitigation options.​ ​In​ ​total,​ ​over​ ​an​ ​18-month​ ​period,​ ​1070.25​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​were​ ​emitted​ ​from​ ​air​ ​travel. For​ ​reference,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​estimated​ ​that​ ​the​ ​building​ ​emissions​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Department​ ​of Geography​ ​are​ ​4.5-6​ ​tCO​2​e​ ​for​ ​the​ ​same​ ​period​ ​(Jamee​ ​DeSimone,​ ​personal communication,​ ​Nov​ ​2016).​ ​Though​ ​air​ ​travel​ ​emissions​ ​are​ ​not​ ​mandated​ ​to​ ​be​ ​offset the​ ​same​ ​way​ ​building​ ​emissions​ ​are,​ ​there​ ​are​ ​reasonable​ ​reductions​ ​that​ ​can​ ​be​ ​made to​ ​address​ ​air​ ​travel​ ​emissions​ ​at​ ​UBC.  26  Positive​ ​Signals  Overall​ ​the​ ​departments​ ​are​ ​minimizing​ ​emissions​ ​on​ ​flights​ ​by​ ​purchasing​ ​economy class​ ​on​ ​the​ ​vast​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​flights.​ ​This​ ​ensures​ ​that,​ ​regardless​ ​of​ ​destination​ ​or frequency,​ ​emissions​ ​are​ ​at​ ​the​ ​lowest​ ​possible​ ​level​ ​per​ ​trip.​ ​However​ ​emissions​ ​can​ ​be further​ ​reduced​ ​by​ ​decreasing​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​made,​ ​though​ ​this​ ​presents institutional​ ​and​ ​cultural​ ​challenges​ ​particular​ ​to​ ​academia​ ​when​ ​travel​ ​is​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the work​ ​experience.  Cost​ ​and​ ​Emissions  Though​ ​there​ ​is​ ​a​ ​significant​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​trips​ ​and​ ​emissions,​ ​cost​ ​is​ ​not a​ ​reliable​ ​predictor​ ​of​ ​emissions.​ ​To​ ​accurately​ ​assess​ ​emissions​ ​more​ ​information beyond​ ​cost,​ ​including​ ​ticket​ ​class​ ​and​ ​number​ ​of​ ​flight​ ​segments,​ ​is​ ​needed.   Next​ ​Steps  Whether​ ​or​ ​not​ ​an​ ​institutional​ ​mitigation​ ​policy​ ​is​ ​made​ ​to​ ​address​ ​air​ ​travel emissions,​ ​faculty​ ​and​ ​staff​ ​can​ ​and​ ​should​ ​be​ ​made​ ​aware​ ​of​ ​their​ ​personal​ ​emissions. Though​ ​few​ ​and​ ​far​ ​between,​ ​the​ ​travelers​ ​purchasing​ ​business​ ​and​ ​first-class​ ​tickets had​ ​startlingly​ ​high​ ​emissions​ ​compared​ ​to​ ​their​ ​economy-class​ ​counterparts.​ ​Simple changes​ ​to​ ​minimize​ ​emissions​ ​can​ ​be​ ​made​ ​without​ ​dramatically​ ​altering​ ​flying​ ​habits: purchasing​ ​direct​ ​flights​ ​where​ ​available,​ ​continuing​ ​to​ ​book​ ​economy-class​ ​tickets​ ​and consolidating​ ​multiple​ ​purposes​ ​into​ ​one​ ​trip.         27 References  Department​ ​of​ ​Business​ ​Energy​ ​&​ ​Industrial​ ​Strategy.​ ​(2016).​ ​​2016​ ​Government​ ​GHG  Conversion​ ​Factors​ ​for​ ​Company​ ​Reporting:​ ​Methodology​ ​Paper​ ​for Emissions​ ​Factors.​​ ​London,​ ​UK:​ ​Government​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​Kingdom.   Edwards,​ ​H.A.,​ ​Dixon-Hardy,​ ​D.,​ ​&​ ​Wadud,​ ​Z.​ ​(2016).​ ​Aircraft​ ​cost​ ​index​ ​and​ ​the​ ​future  of​ ​carbon​ ​emission​ ​from​ ​air​ ​travel.​ ​Applied​ ​Energy,​ ​164,​ ​553-562. Retrieved​ ​from: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.0​58   Herndon,​ ​S.C.,​ ​Shorter,​ ​J.G.,​ ​Zahniser,​ ​M.S.,​ ​Nelson,​ ​D.D.,​ ​Jayne,​ ​J.,​ ​Brown,​ ​R.C.,​ ​...  Kolb,​ ​C.E.​ ​(2004).​ ​​NO​ ​and​ ​NO​2​​ ​emission​ ​ratios​ ​measured​ ​from​ ​in- use​ ​commercial​ ​aircraft​ ​during​ ​taxi​ ​and​ ​takeoff​.​ ​Environmental Science​ ​&​ ​Technology,​ ​28,​ ​6078-6084.   Intergovernmental​ ​Panel​ ​on​ ​Climate​ ​Change.​ ​(2014).​ ​Climate​ ​Change​ ​2014​ ​Synthesis  Report.​ ​Retrieved​ ​from: https://www.ipcc.ch/news_and_events/docs/ar5/ar5_syr_headlines​_en.pdf   United​ ​Nations​ ​Framework​ ​Convention​ ​on​ ​Climate​ ​Change.​ ​(2016).​ ​​Report​ ​of​ ​the  Conference​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Parties​ ​on​ ​its​ ​twenty-first​ ​session,​ ​held​ ​in​ ​Paris  from​ ​30​ ​November​ ​to​ ​13​ ​December​ ​2015.​ ​​Retrieved​ ​from: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/10a01.pdf   University​ ​of​ ​British​ ​Columbia.​ ​(2015a).​ ​​2015​ ​Carbon​ ​Neutral​ ​Action​ ​Report.​​ ​Retrieved from:  https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/UBCCarbonNeutralActionReport201_0.pdf   University​ ​of​ ​British​ ​Columbia.​ ​(2015b).​ ​​2015​ ​Greenhouse​ ​Gas​ ​Emissions​ ​Inventory​.  Retrieved​ ​from: https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/UBCGHGInventory_​2015.pdf   University​ ​of​ ​British​ ​Columbia.​ ​(2010).​ ​​Climate​ ​Action​ ​Plan​ ​2010.​ ​​Retrieved​ ​from: https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/uploads/CampusSus​tainability/CS_PDFs/PlansReports/Plans/UBCClimateActionPlan.pdf   28 


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