Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

An Investigation into the Application and Environmental Impact of the UBC Mugshare Program Pilcher, Sierra; Dixon, Jack; Kaczkowski, Gareth; Watt, Ryan Apr 7, 2016

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
18861-Pilcher_Sierra_et_al_SEEDS_2016.pdf [ 1.17MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 18861-1.0343223.json
JSON-LD: 18861-1.0343223-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 18861-1.0343223-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 18861-1.0343223-rdf.json
Turtle: 18861-1.0343223-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 18861-1.0343223-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 18861-1.0343223-source.json
Full Text
18861-1.0343223-fulltext.txt
Citation
18861-1.0343223.ris

Full Text

 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportGareth Kaczkowski, Jack Dixon, Ryan Watt, Sierra PilcherAn Investigation into the Application and Environmental Impact of the UBC Mugshare ProgramAPSC 262April 07, 201614412139University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. An Investigation into the Application and Environmental Impact of the UBC Mugshare Program   By Sierra Pilcher, Jack Dixon, Gareth Kaczkowski, Ryan Watt  Source: Thermos <http://www.thermos.com/imgs/product_imgs/NS100BK004_Thumb.png>  University of British Columbia APSC 262 April 7, 2016   An Investigation into the Application and Environmental Impact of the UBC Mugshare Program  A Formal Report   Submitted to Doctor Michael Hitch  APSC 262: Technology and Society II  Submitted by Sierra Pilcher, Jack Dixon, Gareth Kaczkowski, Ryan Watt    Faculty of Applied Science University of British Columbia April 7, 2016     ABSTRACT  “An Investigation into the Application and  Environmental Impact of the UBC Mugshare Program” By Sierra Pilcher, Jack Dixon, Gareth Kaczkowski, Ryan Watt  In order to evaluate the viability of the Mugshare program at the University of British                             Columbia’s Vancouver campus, the program should be analysed using a triple bottom line                         assessment involving environmental, social, and economical factors. The scope of this report is                         analyzing the public awareness of the program, the economic feasibility of the current deposit,                           and environmental impacts of using reusable stainless steel mugs. The methods used in this                           analysis are gathered from academic articles, and trusted web resources.   The topics mentioned above are examined in detail, with a slight emphasis on evaluating                           the presently used stainless steel mugs. The goal of the Mugshare program is to reduce the waste                                 created on campus by the incorrect disposal of single­use paper cups. Currently, the Mugshare                           program seeks to do this by lending out 14 ounce reusable stainless steel mugs with a five dollar                                   deposit. Stainless steel mugs are presently the best option for such a program, with long­term                             durability and little to no long­term adverse health hazards, however, the high energy                         consumption and emissions associated with production make it necessary to examine alternatives                       to ensure this is the best choice for the Mugshare program.   If stainless steel mugs will continue being used by the Mugshare program, the cost,                           design, and monitoring will need to be improved to further benefit the program. Currently, the                             deposit to participate in the program is five dollars, however if the program is going to continue                                 to be economically feasible, such a deposit should be raised. On a related note, the design of the                                   mug currently incorporates a rubber bottom, with a plastic lining. Such lining and rubber bottom                             should be removed to reduce the deterioration of the mug. A potential issue for the Mugshare                               program is the monitoring and tracking of the mugs. Efficient tracking methods such as                           implementing a barcode into the design of the mug, and linking said barcode to UBC student                               cards are outlined in this report.   TABLE OF CONTENTS   ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................................ii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.............................................................................................................iv GLOSSARY.........................................................................................................................................iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS............................................................................................................iv 1.0 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................1 2.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT.....................................................................................................2 2.1 CUP CHOICE....................................................................................................................2 2.2 WASHING..........................................................................................................................5 3.0 SOCIAL IMPACT..........................................................................................................................6 3.1 PARTICIPATION..............................................................................................................6 3.2 EXPANSION......................................................................................................................9 4.0 ECONOMICAL IMPACT...........................................................................................................11 4.1 PROGRAM ECONOMICS.............................................................................................11 4.2 CURRENT ECONOMIC SITUATION…………………………………….................11  5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS.............................................................................................................13 6.0 CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................17 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................................19    LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES  Figure 1. Kilograms of Carbon Dioxide Produced Per Cup of Tea or Coffee..................2 Figure 2. Kilograms of CO2 Produced Per Kilogram of Common Material....................4 Figure 3. Survey Question #1............................................................................................7 Figure 4. Survey Question #4............................................................................................7 Figure 5. Survey Question #8............................................................................................9 Figure 6. Survey Question #6..........................................................................................10 Figure 7. Illustrative Representation of Malicious Thief................................................12 Figure 8. Survey Question #9..........................................................................................14 Table 1. Prices of Mugs…………………………………………………….................15  GLOSSARY  Mug A container capable of holding hot or cold liquid Umbracity Umbrella sharing service available on the Vancouver UBC campus  Ubyssey The UBC Vancouver Campus newspaper  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  UBC University of British Columbia  APSC Applied Science CO2 Carbon Dioxide KG Kilogram (unit of measurement) G Gram (unit of measurement) IT Information Technology ID Identification EIA Environmental Impact Assessment 1.0 INTRODUCTION    The University of British Columbia is one of the world’s leading universities in campus                             wide sustainability initiatives. To motivate students to take part in such initiatives, students of the                             Applied Science 262 class were asked to provide sustainable solutions for the Mugshare program                           implemented on campus in February of 2016.   The Mugshare program is an initiative in which an interested student can pay a five­dollar                             deposit to receive a Mugshare card, which will allow access to reusable mugs located at one of                                 Seedlings, Sprouts or Agora Cafe. Students will then return the mug within 3 days to any of the                                   participating cafes, at which they will wash the mug, and prepare it for further use. The overall                                 object of this program is to reduce the amount of waste generated by students’ use of disposable                                 cups.  At request of the stakeholder of this program, Allison Fung, our team investigated the                           viability of the Mugshare program, in the goal of providing recommendations on how to improve the                               project moving forward. In order to analyse the product and make appropriate recommendations, a                           triple bottom line assessment is conducted, which includes environmental, social and economical                       investigation. This report is investigating the application and environmental impact of the Mughare                         program.  In analysis of the triple bottom line assessment, multiple factors such as the deposit fee,                               tracking of the mugs, sustainability of the stainless steel material, and social awareness of the                              program are examined. By evaluation of these factors, a conclusion in terms of recommendations is                             founded; to possibly be implemented by the stakeholder into the Mugshare program.      2.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT   The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a proposed project or development                     evaluates the likely environmental impacts based on beneficial and adverse inter­related                     socio­economic, cultural and human­health impacts. These assessments are carried out so that both                         environmental and economic benefits may be attained. One of the main steps of an EIA is assessing                                 and evaluating the impacts and development of alternatives. This section of the report will look into                               alternative mug materials, as well as sanitization of the mugs.  It is clear that the idea of going green and protecting the environment is very well accepted                                 by consumers, however, having one change their habits proves to be a challenge. Consumers make                             self­benefiting decisions unless they feel public accountability (Green & Peloza, 2014). For this                         reason, consumers need to be made aware of and understand the facts associated with the production                               and use of disposable mugs as well as reusable mugs.  2.1 CUP CHOICE  As illustrated in Figure 1, the preparation of the cup has the most environmental impact for                               each type of coffee or tea one can purchase at a coffee shop, with the exception of black ground                                     coffee. This indicates how important it is that the mug or cup a consumer is given is environmentally                                   friendly.  Figure 1: Kilograms of Carbon Dioxide Produced Per Cup of Tea or Coffee  The production of one paper cup requires 4.1g of petroleum, 33g of wood, and 1.8g of                               chemicals such as chlorine, sodium hydroxide, bleach, sulfuric acid, and sulfur. As well, up to 20kg                               of waste metal salts are produced per tonne of cups made depending on the type of materials used.                                   After use, these cups cannot be recycled due to the polyethylene coating on the inside of the cups.                                   What’s more is that consumers rarely take the time to properly sort their cups, lids, and sleeves with                                   a mere 17% of the 1.5 million disposable cups used on UBC’s Vancouver campus each year sorted                                 into the proper waste bins provided  (Boyd, 2016).  Along the same lines as paper cups are polystyrene cups. While less petroleum is required to                               make one cup than a paper cup (3.2g as opposed to 4.1g), the maximum amount of waste metal salts                                     that could be produced from paper cups (20 kg), and more waste gas is produced per tonne.   While it may be argued that ceramics are the best option as they produce significantly less                               carbon dioxide than stainless steel in production (0.69kg per kg of ceramic as opposed to 6.44kg per                                 kg of stainless steel), the durability and portability of the stainless steel mugs are large factors that                                 influence consumers’ decisions. Studies into environmentally conscious behaviour have found that                     the more reusable and portable a product is, the more likely people are to use it (Son et al., 2014).                                       These findings support the choice of stainless steel, as ceramic mugs are not portable or very                               durable. The same argument can be made for ceramic thermoses. While ceramic thermos have lids,                             they are often not a tight seal and spill while sips are being taken. This being said, there are                                     upcoming ceramic mugs with lids that combat this problem.     Figure 2: Kilograms of CO2 Produced Per Kilogram of Common Material   An example of such a mug would be the Corti​ça cork coffee mug. This ceramic mug is                                 insulated with cork to increase durability as well as retain heat. This product is still in early                                 development, but may want to be monitored as the kickstarter was 185% funded, exceeding                           expectations of the developers. The cork sleeve is easily removable, and both the lid and porcelain                               are machine washable.   At this moment, stainless steel is the best option for mug material, as ​Corti​ça mugs are                               $25.00 each and cannot be directly ordered in bulk. As well, stainless steel mugs are the most                                 insulated and durable, producing significantly less environmental strain than a paper cup after just 24                             uses.   2.2 WASHING The only disadvantage of these mugs is that the stainless steel retains some smell and taste as                                 well as stains if not washed out soon after usage.   This issue can be addressed in the way the mugs are washed. While both the lids and the                                   mugs should be properly sanitized in a high temperature dishwasher, prepping the mugs with a                             vinegar and baking soda paste before placing into the washing machine will eliminate any residual                             smell or taste retained by the steel. This would also ensure that not all cafe workers need to be                                     certified in food safety protocols, as a proper dishwasher will be used.    3.0 SOCIAL IMPACT  One of the aspects that needs to be highly considered is the social impact of the Mugshare                                 program on the students of UBC. The introduction and acceptance of this program relies a great                               deal on the reaction from the students at UBC and their willingness to adopt the initiative.   The Mugshare program was started by the Common Energy campaign team in response                         to a waste audit that was carried out on the old student union building. This campaign team is                                   student lead and, as such, is able to have insight into the wants and needs of the student body as a                                         whole.   The program aims to change the negative results from the audit, which showed 1.5                           million disposable cups being used each year on campus, with only 17% correctly sorted into the                               proper waste bins (Boyd, 2016). It is clear from these results that a social change is needed and                                   the Mugshare program is a good starting point. The base purpose of this project is to promote the                                   use of a reusable stainless steel mug instead of using disposable, one­time use cups from cafes on                                 campus. This will, in turn, reduce the amount of waste that is produced from the cups, lids, and                                   sleeves.   Students are able to sign out a reusable stainless steel mug when buying a drink from                               participating cafes. The student uses this mug and then returns it within a given timeframe for it                                 to be washed, and reused.  3.1 PARTICIPATION After a year of brainstorming, the initiative was officially opened last month in three                           participating cafes; Seedlings, Sprouts and Agora. One of the questions asked on a survey to                             participants carried out by our group was: “What motivated you to join the Mugshare?”. The                              results show that the majority of students, with 83.3% of answers, joined to reduce disposable                             cup waste (see figure below).      Figure 3: Survey Question #1  This suggests that the target audience for the program is people who are environmentally                           conscious, with a much smaller percent of the audience joining for convenience and functionality                           (33.3% and 41.7% respectively). This group of people is quite small and, as seen in Figure 4,                                 already use a reusable mug.         Figure 4: Survey Question #4   From these results and the fact that, as of now, there are only 34 participating members, it                                 is clear that the Mugshare program has a serious lack of student participation. For the Mugshare                               program to have a serious impact on the sustainability of UBC’s campus, the program needs to                               be brought to the attention of many more students. There are two major ways in which this could                                   be accomplished: advertisements and incentives. We believe that constant and positive                     reinforcement of the program will increase awareness of the project and encourage more students                           to join.   The first way, as mentioned above, is advertising; a method that has been very successful                             for other campus initiatives. We believe that one of the main reasons for lack of participation is                                 the lack of awareness around campus and this could be fixed by posters and articles. An article                                 was already published in the Ubyssey, however there is a lot of untapped potential in the form of                                   other news sites and websites around campus. One such website that can be utilised is the                               facebook groups for each respective graduating year. These groups each contain upwards of                         20,000 members, making a single advertising post viewable to an extremely large audience.   A vital part of this method of advertising is appealing to the new round of first year                                 students arriving in September of 2016. As seen in Figure 5, it was indicated that almost ¼ of the                                     current participants are leaving UBC this year and will therefore not continue with the program.                             As such, we believe that appealing to the first year students will bring a lot of new participants                                   and improvements to the program. An easy way to accomplish this is to put posters around the                                 first year dormitories during move­in and the first few weeks of school. This will increase brand                               awareness and make a name for the program with students.   Figure 5: Survey Question #8  The second method of increasing participation is positive reinforcement through                   incentives. Incentives could be provided to students once they sign up for the program as well as                                 through the course of the semester. Such incentives could include an entrance into a raffle to win                                 items such as a Starbucks gift card. We believe a raffle is a good idea as it appeals to the masses                                         with only a small payout, and is therefore a very appealing and cost effective method. The appeal                                 of a prize for signing up for the program could increase participation amongst students.   To ensure that the program is fully utilised and students do not just sign up and forget                                 about it, we also believe that incentives should be offered throughout their membership. Such                           examples could include an award for the person with the most returns over a certain time period                                 and, if possible, discounts at certain participating cafes for using the mug. This discount is                             already available in certain cafes on campus including ‘The Loop Cafe’ and is therefore plausible                             for the program.   3.2 EXPANSION Regardless of the amount of advertising that is carried out, we believe that it is essential for                                 the Mugshare program to expand into many more cafes for it to be successful. As mentioned above,                                 the program is currently only available in 3 participating cafes: Seedlings, Sprouts and Agora. These                             cafes are very small in terms of sales per day in comparison with other cafes and vendors around                                    campus. Survey results illustrated in Figure 6 show that the main areas that students want the                               Mugshare program to expand into the most are: The Nest, Tim Hortons and Starbucks. The answers                               to this question were as expected as these locations see the most foot traffic and coffee sales.                                          Figure 6: Survey Question #6  Inability to expand into these locations is an issue that will hopefully be resolved with time,                               as UBC Food Services will need to see evidence of a successful, running program. With growth and                                 improvement of the program, we recommend looking into further expanding the program. If the                           program is accepted into the major coffee suppliers on campus, we believe that this would                             enormously increase participation and effectiveness of the program as a whole.        4.0 ECONOMICAL IMPACT  The analysis of the economical impacts of this program is vital as these factors determine                             whether or not the program will grow and be able to provide the benefits listed in the social and                                     environmental impact sections. The analysis was carried out primarily with the Mugshare program’s                         longevity in mind, thus analyzed the benefits/deficits of the program’s current economical model and                           practices. 4.1 PROGRAM ECONOMICS The current economic model in place for the program is based around a $5 membership fee.                               This deposit grants the customer a membership card, which must be turned in to receive a mug with                                   one’s beverage, and is given back upon returning one’s mug to one of the participating cafes. At the                                   end of a student’s academic term, they may turn in their card to recover their initial membership fee.                                   Currently, the program utilizes only stainless steel travel mugs and can support up to 60 members. 4.2 CURRENT ECONOMIC SITUATION The program started relatively recently (February of 2016), thus is still relatively small in                           size and awareness, with 34 current members. At this scale, the program cannot be considered stable                               or well established, as to be expected in its early stages. The program is only offered at a select few small student run cafes on campus which are not                                   very well known to the student body. Students have expressed that they would like for the program                                 to expand to the popular chains on campus. The mugs currently in use are a stainless steel variety, costing $14 per mug. Researching                             alternative suppliers is deemed necessary as this cost is quite high for the program to be successful. The current system for checking in and out mugs is very low­tech and it is difficult to track                                   an individual mug once checked out. The possibility of theft is especially a concern due to the mugs                                    costing $9 more than the membership fee. This means that every cup stolen or lost is a $9 deficit for                                       the Mugshare program, or a potential $9 profit for a malicious customer. This issue is seen as                                 relatively high priority.  Figure 7: Illustrative Representation of Malicious Thief        5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS  To combat the issue of the limited awareness, more aggressive advertising is needed. There                           are many way this could be carried out, including: ● Posters placed in public areas with high traffic ● Events displayed prominently on campus, actively engaging and encouraging students to join the program ● Cashiers actively suggesting that people join the program in the early stages ● Advertising logos on checked out cups To address the issue of limited program adoption on campus, direct communication and                         collaboration with UBC Food Services will be necessary. This will allow for the program to operate                               at the more popular places on campus, making the program more accessible to students and therefore                               encouraging more people to join out of convenience. At this time, pushing for the expansion into                               UBC Food Services is likely to be unfruitful as it may create complications regarding cup                             distribution as well as require updating employees on their new responsibilities. For this reason, the                             program should be established and somewhat expanded first before approaching UBC Food Services                         so as to have more of a case for the benefits of adoption of the program. Additionally, UBC Food                                     Services is more likely to accept a program if it attracts significant amounts of positive attention,                               which will come with growth of the program. To address the issue of mug expense, we have addressed two potential strategies. One would                             be to increase the initial deposit fee, so as to cover the cost of the mug. As seen in Figure 8, the                                           survey conducted indicated that the majority of students would be willing to pay up to $10, twice the                                   current amount, for the deposit.          Figure 8: Survey Question #9 Although this would mitigate losses, lost mugs would still be a loss for the program and would not                                   fix the problem in its entirety. A larger deposit to cover all potential losses to the program might turn                                     away possible participants, therefore, we deem it essential to seek cheaper mugs in the future. Table                               1 includes a variety of potential options and their prices.             Name  Price per unit (Bulk Quantity Required) Source Oggi 5068.3 Lustre Stainless Steel Travel Mug, 14­Ounce, Black 7.99 (1)  https://www.amazon.ca/Oggi­5068­3­Lustre­Stainless­14­Ounce/dp/B000LWC3NO/ref=sr_1_8?ie=UTF8&qid=1459901183&sr=8­8&keywords=stainless+steel+travel+mug 14oz Travel Mug Stainless Steel Thermal Hot & Cold Travel Drinks Cup Mug Thermos 8.52 (1)  https://www.amazon.ca/Travel­Stainless­Thermal­Drinks­Thermos/dp/B00IYJAR9S/ref=sr_1_12?ie=UTF8&qid=1459901364&sr=8­12&keywords=stainless+steel+travel+mug 16 oz. Budget Stainless Steel Insulated Travel Mug 9.84 (12) 4.56 (50) 3.74 (100) https://www.discountmugs.com/NEWproduct/st65­16­oz.­stainless­steel­insulated­travel­mugs/ Promotional 450ML cheap buy bulk travel mugs, brushed finished stainless steel coffee mug 5.26 (100)  http://www.alibaba.com/product­detail/Promotional­450ML­cheap­buy­bulk­travel_60217752957.html?spm=a2700.7724857.29.3.uCFB0L&s=p Hot Selling custom cheap stainless steel bulk coffee travel mugs 0.92­2.23 (500)  http://www.alibaba.com/product­detail/Hot­Selling­custom­cheap­stainless­steel_60045488585.html?spm=a2700.7724857.29.178.uCFB0L Table 1: Prices of Mugs    In response to the current issue with tracking mugs and their members, we suggest using a                               software­based system connected to students’ and staffs’ UBC Campus­Wide­Login accounts. In our                       proposed system, mugs will all be given a unique barcode which will be scanned upon check out or                                   return. The data will then be stored and tracked using a simple database. This implementation would                               be very similar to the UmbraCity model in which students take out an umbrella and are expected to                                   return it within several days. If one fails to return the umbrella on time, a late fee is charged to their                                         account. This fee increases for every consecutive day an umbrella is late until the cost of the                                 umbrella is covered. This will require little effort on the cafe’s side, as baristas will simply have to                                   run a barcode scanner over a mug before sending it off with a student. The challenge then becomes                                   obtaining the software and utilizing it effectively so as to keep students liable for their mug usage. Our recommended method of solving these issues comes in the form of one single solution:                             hand the implementation off to an engineering Capstone project team to develop the                         hardware/software combination. This would keep the work on campus to maintain a sense of                           community in the program, as well as keep costs low as professional software development can be                               costly. Integration into the already existing UBC Campus­Wide­Login system would be optimal in                         ensuring any accrued fees will be paid along with one’s student fees. Additionally, providing one’s                             student ID to check out a mug could prove to be the most efficient. Extensive collaboration is                                 required between the program’s software team and the UBC IT department to allow for the software                               to have access to student accounts.         6.0 CONCLUSIONS   The Mugshare program’s implementation of reusable cups has the capabilities to reduce both                         energy emissions and the amount of waste generated by students on campus. The program has the                               potential to be successful in both its popularity, and its impact on the reduction of waste, however it                                   faces several challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the future success of the program. The                                 concerns currently facing the program include: lack of awareness for the program, inefficient                         tracking of the mugs, the deterioration of the mug coating, and the current price of the initial deposit.   To fully maximize the impact of the Mugshare program, expansion into UBC Food Services                           is necessary. The survey conducted demonstrates that participants in the program would like Tim                           Hortons, Starbucks and The Nest to be among participating venues. An expansion to such venues                             would vastly increase public awareness of the project, as the current participating cafes are, for the                               most part, unknown to a large portion of the student community. Additionally, public awareness                           campaigns and ads should be launched in popular public areas, such as the Nest, to increase                               participation in the program. Incentive rewards should be put in place to motivate students to join,                               including entry into a raffle upon signing up.    Under evaluation of similar campus wide programs such as the UmbraCity model, and the                           Dalhousie University Mugshare, the program should look to implement barcodes on each of their                           mugs in order to efficiently track mugs once they have been signed out by a member of the program.                                     Such barcodes should be printed or etched onto the mugs to ensure durability, and should be linked                                 to students UBC Campus­Wide­Login accounts to improve accessibility and ease of use of the                           program.    As aesthetics are not of serious concern, as founded by our survey, the mug should have no                                 coating as to reduce residual build­up in the dishwashers, and to reduce the deterioration of the cup’s                                  rubber bottom. While stainless steel is currently the best option, further effort may want to be put                                 into monitoring the development of Corti​ça ceramic and cork mugs.  As shown by Figure 7, participants in the program suggest that the deposit be increased to                               $10. This would reduce loss of mugs due to theft, and would allow the program a larger budget for                                     purchase of more mugs and widespread advertising.        REFERENCES  ●  Boyd, Y. (2016, March 15). Mugshare seeks to reduce the ~1.5 million disposable cups used on UBC campus each year. Retrieved April 05, 2016, from http://ubyssey.ca/culture/mugshare­reducing­disposable­cups­since­1918/?platform=hootsuite  ● Convention on Biological Diversity. What is Impact Assessment? Retrieved April 05, 2016, from https://www.cbd.int/impact/whatis.shtml ● LOCOG Guidelines on Carbon Emissions of Products and Services. Retrieved April 05, 2016, from http://www.atkinsglobal.com/~/media/Files/A/Atkins­Global/Attachments/corporate/twenty­twelve/locog­guidelines­on­carbon­emissions­of­products­and­services.pdf ● Fung, A., & Collins, C, Kaczkowski, G., Pilcher, S., Dixon, J., Hollingworth, M., Evans, D., Nowell, J., Watt, R., Karna, A., Fenn, L., Edgar, J. (2016, March 23). UBC Mugshare; Participant Feedback. Retrieved April 05, 2016, from https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1De4B1aXrRL3A6DrUwPmTPaNMmxLSSFrDqk0udxKtu7M/edit?usp=forms_home  ●  Guo, R., Irish, N., Poirier­McKiggan, R., & Stafford, J. (april 17, 2015). A Mug­Share Program at Dalhousie University. Retrieved April 5, 2016, from https://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/science/environmental­science­program/ENVS 3502 projects/2015/MugShare.pdf.  ● Tcharnyi, A., Chen, A., Song, R., & Hashemi, Z. (2012, August 23). An investigation into transportable coffee mug for UBC SUB green vending machines. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0108435 ●  Razza, F., Fieschi, M., Innocenti, F., & Bastioli, C. (n.d.). Compostable cutlery and waste management ­ An LCA approach. ​US National Library of Medicine National  Institutes of Health​. Retrieved April 5, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18952413  ●  Potting, J., & Van der Harst, E. (june 20, 2015). Facility arrangements and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups. Retrieved April 5, 2016.  ● Green, T., Peloza, J. (2014) Finding the Right Shade of Green: The Effect of Advertising Appeal Type on Environmentally Friendly Consumption, Journal of Advertising. Retrieved April 5, 2016. ● Teh, J., Pan, R., Dong, S., Gozali, S., Eng, S., Wong, W., Ong, Y. (2007) Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign. Retrieved April 5, 2016. ●  Wylie, B. (2015). Mugs vs. Paper Cups: Nitty­gritty. Retrieved April 5, 2016 from https://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=28765  ● Son, J., Shu, L. (2014). The mechanical transformation and environmentally conscious behavior . Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing. Retrieved April 5, 2016. ● http://sims.wikia.com/wiki/Burglar  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0343223/manifest

Comment

Related Items