Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

UBC South Campus Stormwater Detention Facility : Detailed Design Report Deans, Joshua; Gill, Herman; Grant, David; Huang, Cliff; Ijaz, Asad; Liu, Jack Apr 7, 2016

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
18861-Deans_J_et_al_SEEDS_2016.pdf [ 8.58MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 18861-1.0343154.json
JSON-LD: 18861-1.0343154-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 18861-1.0343154-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 18861-1.0343154-rdf.json
Turtle: 18861-1.0343154-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 18861-1.0343154-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 18861-1.0343154-source.json
Full Text
18861-1.0343154-fulltext.txt
Citation
18861-1.0343154.ris

Full Text

 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportSouth Campus Stormwater Detention FacilityDetailed Design ReportAsad Ijaz, Cliff Huang, David Grant, Herman Gill, Jack Liu, Joshua Deans University of British ColumbiaCIVL 446April 7, 20162035 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 SWM000008 UBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTDETAILED DESIGN REPORT PREPARED BY:Team 14 April 7, 2016Joshua Deans Herman Gill David Grant Cliff Huang Asad Ijaz Jack Liu PREPARED FOR: Mr. Doug Doyle, P.Eng., Associate Director of Infrastructure and Services Planning, UBC SEEDS DISCLAIMER This work is intended solely for UBC SEEDS. The scope of work and related responsibilities are defined within the report. Any use which a third party makes of the work, or any reliance on or decisions to be made based on it, are the responsibility of such third parties. Decisions made or actions taken as a result of our work shall be the responsibility of the parties directly involved in the decisions or actions. This document has been prepared in good faith on the basis of information available at the date of publication without any independent verification. SMC Engineering does not guarantee or warrant the accuracy, reliability, completeness or currency of the information in this publication nor its usefulness in achieving any purpose. Readers are responsible for assessing the relevance and accuracy of the content of this publication. SMC Engineering will not be liable for any loss, damage, cost or expense incurred or arising by reason of any person using or relying on information in this publication. Products may be identified by proprietary or trade names to help readers identify particular types of products but this is not, and is not intended to be, an endorsement or recommendation of any product or manufacturer referred to. Other products may perform as well or better than those specifically referred to. The subject matter in this report may revisit or may wholly or partially supersede previous work developed by SMC Engineering.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 ii SWM000008 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SMC Engineering has prepared a detailed design report, as requested by UBC Social, Ecological, Economic Development Studies (SEEDS), of the UBC South Campus Stormwater Management System that intends to mitigate the key risks associated with the 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm event. The detailed design report, further developed on the preliminary design report, provides the methodology and reasoning utilized for designing the optimal solution that curtails the risk of cliff erosion along Foreshore Trail and mitigates overland flow on the UBC campus. The report intends to provide UBC SEEDS with an understanding of the design, cost, schedule, and construction practices required to complete the methods of risk mitigation associated with the 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm events.  An overall site assessment confirms the physical aspects of the site such as topography, land usage, and the key constraints. A set of six studies are commissioned, which analyze the technical, economic, regulatory, environmental, societal, and constructability performance of the design solution. In particular, the environmental considerations regarding turbidity, infiltration, and long-term sustainability are detailed and cross-referenced with anticipated design performances. Engineering solutions component to the mitigation system that are not common in the UBC region have been researched thoroughly; the documented performances have been scrutinized with practicing engineering judgment in order to provide reasonable benefits with regards to the six commissioned studies.  SMC Engineering has designed a system that consists of four detention tanks, a dry pond, and a system of permeable asphalt to manage, the 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm events. The cost estimate and project schedule indicate that this system is estimated to have a total initial direct and indirect construction cost of $5,573,000 with construction slated to start on May 2, 2016 with substantial completion on October 14, 2016. The system is anticipated to have a 90-year design life, and a life-cycle analysis determines the maintenance and repair costs throughout its lifespan.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. ii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ................................................................................................................................ vi 1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 SCOPE OF WORK ............................................................................................................................... 3 3.0 PROJECT OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................................... 5 3.1 Project Background ....................................................................................................................... 5 3.2 Site Overview and Constraints ...................................................................................................... 6 3.3 Design Criteria ............................................................................................................................... 8 3.4 Key Issues .................................................................................................................................... 10 3.5 Precedent Studies ....................................................................................................................... 12 3.5.1 UBC Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (ISMP) ..................................................... 12 3.5.2 UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis ........................................................................... 13 3.5.3 Overland Flow Route Assessment (OFRA) .......................................................................... 16 4.0 OVERVIEW OF DESIGN .................................................................................................................... 18 4.1 Layout .......................................................................................................................................... 18 4.2 Key Components ......................................................................................................................... 19 4.2.1 Detention Tanks .................................................................................................................. 19 4.2.2 Dry Pond .............................................................................................................................. 20 4.2.3 Permeable Asphalt .............................................................................................................. 20 4.3 Materials ..................................................................................................................................... 21 4.3.1 Detention Tanks .................................................................................................................. 21 4.3.2 Dry Pond .............................................................................................................................. 22 4.3.3 Permeable Asphalt .............................................................................................................. 22 4.4 Function ...................................................................................................................................... 23 4.5 Design Life ................................................................................................................................... 25 5.0 DESIGN RATIONALE ......................................................................................................................... 26 5.1 Detention Tanks .......................................................................................................................... 26 5.2 Dry Pond ...................................................................................................................................... 27 5.3 Permeable Asphalt ...................................................................................................................... 27 6.0 ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ...................................................................................................................... 29 6.1 Technical Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 29  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 iv SWM000008 6.1.1 Hydrotechnical .................................................................................................................... 29 6.1.2 Geotechnical ....................................................................................................................... 31 6.1.3 Structural............................................................................................................................. 32 6.2 Economic Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 33 6.3 Regulatory Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 37 6.3.1 ASTM International ............................................................................................................. 38 6.3.2 Canadian Standards Association (CSA) ............................................................................... 38 6.3.3 Master Municipal Construction Documents Association (MMCD) ..................................... 38 6.3.4 Metro Vancouver ................................................................................................................ 39 6.3.5 Ministry of Transportation (MoTI) ...................................................................................... 39 6.3.6 Occupation Health & Safety (OH&S) Regulations ............................................................... 40 6.3.7 Stormwater Quality ............................................................................................................. 40 6.3.8 University of British Columbia Guidelines .......................................................................... 41 6.3.9 University Neighbourhood Association (UNA) .................................................................... 42 6.4 Environmental Impact Analysis ................................................................................................... 42 6.4.1 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) ............................................................................ 42 6.4.2 Environmental Benefits ....................................................................................................... 43 6.4.3 Environmental Hazard Monitoring ..................................................................................... 44 6.5 Stakeholder Impact Analysis ....................................................................................................... 45 6.6 Constructability Analysis ............................................................................................................. 47 6.6.1 Design .................................................................................................................................. 48 6.6.2 Construction Schedule ........................................................................................................ 49 6.6.3 Drawings and Plans ............................................................................................................. 50 6.6.4 Clarifications and Changes .................................................................................................. 50 7.0 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND PLANS........................................................................................ 52 8.0 COST ESTIMATE ............................................................................................................................... 53 8.1 Contracting Strategy ................................................................................................................... 54 8.2 Estimate Methodology ................................................................................................................ 55 8.3 Quantities .................................................................................................................................... 56 9.0 CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE ............................................................................................................ 57 9.1 Development and Background ................................................................................................... 57 9.2 Work Breakdown Structure and Construction Sequencing ........................................................ 58 9.2.1 Detention Facilities ............................................................................................................. 58  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 v SWM000008 9.2.2 Roadworks........................................................................................................................... 59 9.3 Efficiencies and Contingencies .................................................................................................... 60 10.0 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................... 62 11.0 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................... 64 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 65 APPENDIX A – UBC INTEGRATED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN (2015) DOCUMENT SUMMARY .... 1 APPENDIX B – CALCULATED FLOOD LOCATION DATA .................................................................................. 2 APPENDIX C – DESIGN SCHEMATICS: DETENTION FACILITIES ...................................................................... 3 APPENDIX D – DESIGN SCHEMATICS: ROADWORKS ..................................................................................... 4 APPENDIX E – ARMTEC OIL/WATER SEPARATOR PRODUCT INFORMATION ................................................ 5 APPENDIX F – NILEX ROADRAIN PRODUCT INFORMATION .......................................................................... 6 APPENDIX G – STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) ANALYSIS ............................................... 7 APPENDIX H – GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 8 APPENDIX I – STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................... 9 APPENDIX J – COST ESTIMATE: DETENTION FACILITIES .............................................................................. 10 APPENDIX K – COST ESTIMATE: ROADWORKS ............................................................................................ 11 APPENDIX L – CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE: DETENTION FACILITIES ........................................................... 12 APPENDIX M – CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE: ROADWORKS ........................................................................ 13    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 vi SWM000008 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: UBC catchment areas ..................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 2: Main site locations ......................................................................................................................... 7 Figure 3: Infiltration limits........................................................................................................................... 11 Figure 4: Existing system performance ....................................................................................................... 14 Figure 5: Project locations .......................................................................................................................... 15 Figure 6: Overview of flood loss area in UBC South Campus ...................................................................... 17 Figure 7: Design feature locations .............................................................................................................. 19 Figure 8: Detention tank overview ............................................................................................................. 24 Figure 9: 100-year rainfall event model ...................................................................................................... 30  Table 1: Team responsibilities ...................................................................................................................... 2 Table 2: Risk assessment parameter ........................................................................................................... 16 Table 3: Detention tank capacities and dimensions ................................................................................... 20 Table 4: Permeable asphalt vs. conventional asphalt costs ....................................................................... 35 Table 5: Total South Campus Stormwater Management Project cost to UBC ........................................... 36 Table 6: Total premium South Campus Stormwater Management Project cost to UBC............................ 36 Table 7: Potential damage to UBC assets ................................................................................................... 37 Table 8: Factors to be monitored ............................................................................................................... 45 Table 9: Direct and indirect construction costs .......................................................................................... 53 Table 10: Direct and indirect construction costs ........................................................................................ 54 Table 11: Summary of labour rates ............................................................................................................. 56 Table 12: Detention facilities construction milestones .............................................................................. 57 Table 13: Roadworks construction milestones ........................................................................................... 57 Table 14: Detention facilities phasing dates ............................................................................................... 59 Table 15: Roadworks phasing dates ........................................................................................................... 59 Table 16: Project schedule contingencies ................................................................................................... 60   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 1 SWM000008 1.0  INTRODUCTION UBC Social, Ecological, Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) has requested a design report that addresses the current concerns of the South Campus Stormwater Management System, specifically, the 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm events. The project objectives are to manage the factors of overland flooding, damage to UBC assets, harm to the riparian habitats, and cliff erosion along the Wreck Beach region. This detailed design report represents an final step before the forthcoming construction phase. The report will provide information on the design and a detailed understanding of the recommended solution from SMC Engineering. In determining a solution, past information, including both client provided and self researched, has been studied to prepare a solution designed to mitigate the risks of large stormwater events. An investigation into site, design criteria, key issues, and precedent studies were made to ensure due diligence concerning existing conditions and situations. The technical analysis (hydrotechnical, geotechnical, and structural analyses) undertaken provides an understanding of how the stormwater flooding is mitigated. The solution analysis results in a complete mitigation of the 1 in 100-year storm event. These analyses provide the insight utilized to complete a description of the selected solution, materials required for construction and the overall functionality of the design. A regulatory analysis provides a framework of the various applicable forms of regulations that have the ability to govern the timeline, design, and success of this project. The environmental analysis details the current environmental risks, the environmental impact assessment that will take place during the construction phase of the project, and the benefits of the solution post-construction.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 2 SWM000008 The societal study outlines the benefits and risks to stakeholders before the implementation of the solution, the impacts of construction to stakeholders, and the overall benefits of implementing the solution. The constructability analysis is developed to ensure that the design, with aspects governed by the other studies, is constructible; potential areas of concern regarding certain methodologies are outlined as well. A cost estimate and construction schedule are prepared in relation to the aforementioned studies and are included in the appendices.  As a conclusion to the design process, the design rationale summarizes the entire design process and methodology. It is intended to give the reader an understanding of how the solution was developed and improved upon in a concise summarized section.  The team allocated to the preparation of this report consists of six engineering students with differing areas of expertise ranging from structural and geotechnical consulting, construction to material testing. Each member has been responsible for varying tasks for the completion of the design and their roles are assigned based on their specialties. The roles for the development of this report are as follows: Table 1: Team responsibilities Team MemberJoshua Deans Overview of Design, Stakeholder Impact Analysis,Hermanpreet GillExecutive Summary, Scope of Work, Design Rationale, Geotechnical Technical and Regulatory Analysis, and Lead Reviewer.David GrantEconomical and Constructability Analysis, Cost Estimate and Construction  Schedule. Cliff Huang Hydrotechnical Analysis of Design, Design RationaleAsad Ijaz Schematic drawings, Structural Analysis of design and Environmental Impact.Jack Liu Introduction, Project Overview, Design Development and Recommendation.Responsibilities Source: Table. Jack Liu. March 31, 2016.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 3 SWM000008 2.0  SCOPE OF WORK This report entails a comprehensive review of a detailed design that functions to mitigate risks for 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm events as outlined in Section 3.0 – Project Overview. The findings and the level of effort are outlined by the scope of work. This scope of work for the detailed design intends to give the reader a summary of the work undertaken to ensure an efficient and functional design is in. This section is intended to be a follow up of the scope of work completed for the preliminary design report and has been built forward from that document. The work was approached in three phases as follows: Phase I – Technical and Economic Analysis, Phase II – Associated Studies and Phase III – Construction. The following is a summary of the scope of work: Phase I – Technical and Economic Analysis   Technical Analysis Task 1: Refine solution sizing Task 2: Confirm SWMM analysis for solution  Task 3: Confirm building code reference studies to ensure design requirements Task 4: Detail material specifications of solution Task 5: Create a detailed drawing set  Economic Analysis (In conjunction with Phase III) Task 6: Analyze solution benefits in conjunction with cost estimate Task 7: Determine secondary and tertiary monetary benefits to UBC campus Task 8: Detail risk mitigation costs     UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 4 SWM000008 Phase II – Associated Studies  Environmental Study Task 9: Re-evaluate current environmental concerns Task 10: Establish an environmental impact assessment Task 11: Re-evaluate post construction environmental benefits and concerns Task 12: Detail environmental monitoring plan during construction   Stakeholder Impact Study Task 13: Confirm development of design based on stakeholder input  Task 14: Detail stakeholder benefits with detailed design   Constructability and Regulatory Study Task 15: Analyze difficulties in construction methodology Task 16: Cross-reference affecting regulations Phase III – Construction   Cost Task 17: Establish a refined cost estimate for direct costs Task 18: Re-assess indirect costs and contingency values  Schedule Task 19: Refine construction schedule based on new methodologies Task 20: Establish a construction risk contingency in days      UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 5 SWM000008 3.0  PROJECT OVERVIEW The following sections intend to provide a brief background of past and present issues and concerns with regards to the UBC stormwater system capacity. An overview of the site alongside a description of the goals, constraints, and key issues is summarized to ensure a fundamental understanding of the basis of this report is established. 3.1 Project Background With the current stormwater system, the quantity of overland flow and flooding during extreme events can cause damage to the University of British Columbia’s assets, riparian habitats and local businesses, and can result in cliff erosion leading to cliff failure. The existing UBC stormwater system contains a series of storm sewers, open drainage channels, and stream outfalls serving the majority of the developed areas of UBC’s campus. Through recent studies, such as the Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (ISMP) and Overland Flow Route Assessment (OFRA), it is illustrated that Wesbrook Village and Marine Drive at Wesbrook are specifically at risk to high floods and the effects of the run-offs can damage the existing infrastructure. Therefore, UBC currently faces challenges to withstand both 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm events. Ignoring these challenges could ultimately lead to the damaging of important structures such as the TRIUMF nuclear research facility. To mitigate these potential risks, UBC Infrastructure and Services Planning has suggested implementing a stormwater system that upgrades the overall capacity of the system, and has the ability to deal with 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm events.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 6 SWM000008 3.2 Site Overview and Constraints The site is located at the south end of the UBC campus and an aerial view can be seen in the Figure 1. The size of Wesbrook Village is roughly 250 acres, mostly surrounded by varying deciduous and evergreen tree specimens and is adjacent to the Pacific Spirit Regional Park and Musqueam First Nation Lands. Since 2005, this area has seen significant development due to an increasing demand for housing and Wesbrook Village is now considered the largest neighborhood – comprising of 40,000 people – on the UBC campus. Wesbrook Village consists of six parks, community centres, commercial, residential, and institutional buildings. As highlighted in blue in Figure 2, TRIUMF, Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics, is part of this region and the institute consists of many valuable library books archived from the Irving K. Barber Library.  Figure 1: UBC catchment areas Source: UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis, Detention Analysis and System Optimization, p.9. Technical Report. GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. 2013.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 7 SWM000008  Figure 2: Main site locations Source: Digital Image. Jack Liu. Oct 18, 2015. Adapted from <www.google.ca/maps>. The cliff region of UBC is currently owned and operated by Metro Vancouver. Figure 1 can also provide visual aid that the majority of the flood loss will migrate from Wesbrook Village towards the cliff along SW Marine Drive. UBC is encompassed in four different catchments and is significantly isolated in terms of stormwater capacity from the surrounding region; this, in part, is associated with the terrain which includes steep slopes favoring a UBC isolated catchment area. The project itself falls into two UBC catchments, the UBC South and UBC South West catchments; an illustration of the various catchments can be seen in Figure 1.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 8 SWM000008 Large inflows of water can impact the ground conditions due to the characteristics of the site’s soil stratigraphy. The geological composition of this region consists largely of a surface layer of glacial till followed by a thin layer of porous Quadra sand. The combination of the layers can accumulate groundwater that seeps out the cliff face leading to cliff face erosion. Cliff erosion can also happen through construction developments. In the year 2004, UBC experienced a cliff failure when three landslides occurred during the Phase 1 construction of the Marine Drive residential building. 3.3 Design Criteria The stormwater system design criteria will be divided into primary and secondary criteria. The items in the primary criteria contain the key elements to develop a functioning solution that will mitigate flooding and cliff erosion in the situation of a 1 in 10 or 1 in 100-year storm event. The secondary criteria contain aspects that are highly desirable for the client and stakeholders but are not essential to the solution solving the key issues.  The stormwater management system primary criteria are as follows:  Reduce the amount of overland water flow during extreme events  Ensure the safeguarding of human life in extreme events occurring over the lifetime of the system  Improve the current environmental conditions of the natural hydrological cycle and the stream runoff from engineered systems The primary criteria that this report attempts to address, as listed above, are specific to the success of the recommended design and project goals. The main objective of the design is to reduce the amount of overland flow and flooding caused in the south campus as described in Section 3.1 – Project Background. Component to this criterion is the necessity to safeguard human life; the design needs to ensure the safety of occupants both directly as a result of the design and indirectly as a result of  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 9 SWM000008 construction or potential outcomes of natural disasters (i.e. the design needs not to create an additive risk in the event of high risk disasters). Lastly, the design should not only maintain but attempt to improve on current environmental aspects, this is something that is crucial to the longevity of the ecosystem in the UBC South Campus and is discussed in detail in Section 6.4 – Environmental Impact Analysis. The secondary criteria focus on aspects of the design, which are component to the primary criteria but not necessarily critical to achieving a functioning design. These criteria are studied for value engineering purposes and are as follow:  Minimize capital and long term maintenance costs of the project  Efficient space usage  Ensure future development and expansion can be incorporated The list above contains features that are highly desirable for the client but are not required for the completion of the stormwater facility design. To ensure the project payback periods are reasonable over the life of the project, the design will consider and analyze both initial capital and long term maintenance costs. This will be a significant portion of the analysis as UBC needs to approve budgetary allocations for project funding at various stages. Understanding that existing UBC land has the potential to be developed into high density occupational buildings in a short period of time has led to the prioritization within the secondary criteria for efficient space usage. The design needs to ensure current space usage is minimized and future development will be minimally impacted. The intention of this criteria is to ensure the design does not create a barrier which future developers and owners must work around, rather it be a design that is incorporated into the community development plan.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 10 SWM000008 3.4 Key Issues There are two key issues that need to be addressed based on the current information available through UBC SEEDS and research done by SMC Engineering. The first key issue is the increase in stormwater run-off resulting in cliff erosion along Wreck Beach and the second issue is the potential damage to existing infrastructures and severe flooding on SW Marine Drive.  The effects of a major storm event with the current management system will saturate the ground causing an increase in runoff along SW Marine Drive and lead to high risk cliff erosion along Wreck Beach. The results of this erosion can be severe in the sense an immediate cliff failure could occur, endangering all occupants of the beach. The majority of the surface runoff will be sourced from Wesbrook Village. According to the OFRA report, during a 1 in 100-year storm the magnitude of flooding ranges from 145 to 1470 m3 of water. Moreover, the surface runoff will eventually infiltrate through the soil to the lower aquifer, polluting the groundwater. Infiltration is an effective way to mitigate soil erosion and surface run-off, however, UBC only permits infiltration in certain regions throughout the campus. As seen in Figure 3, the green region is where infiltration is permitted, whereas, the red region cannot be infiltrated. Furthermore, as per UBC’s Integrated Stormwater Management Plan, infiltration cannot occur within 300 m from the face of the cliff. Direct mitigation of the cliff erosion is not feasible because the entirety of the Wreck Beach region is owned and maintained by Metro Vancouver. Therefore, the solution needs to ensure the mitigation of this runoff by attempting to reduce overland flow prior to the cliff location by means of storage, infiltration, and evaporation.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 11 SWM000008  Figure 3: Infiltration limits Source: Digital Image. Asad Ijaz. Oct 18, 2015. Adapted from <www.google.ca/maps>. The second key issue is protecting the assets in the south end of the campus from the severe surface runoffs from the 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm events. In addition to the residential and commercial neighborhoods, the south end campus region contains other important structures such as TRIUMF, Canada’s leading nuclear science research institute. This facility also archives a substantial amount of historic texts from the UBC library. The solution will need to ensure that the extreme stormwater events will not impact the buildings such that the structures become incapable of performing their intended purpose. The combination of cliff erosion and potential severe flooding of UBC assets leads to an increase in risk and potentially severe financial consequences for UBC and its surrounding neighbours. This report incorporates the key issues mentioned above throughout the entire design process and ensures they are a fundamental basis of all decisions made with regards to project solution.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 12 SWM000008 3.5 Precedent Studies Multiple documents have been reviewed prior to the development of the initial solutions for the UBCSouth Campus Stormwater Management System. These documents provided an overview of site and project constraints, further documentation and literature to study, as well as the technical findings of engineering firms commissioned to study the UBC South Campus region. The primary reports reviewed were the UBC Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (ISMP), the UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis, and the Overland Flow Route Assessment. The ISMP is a UBC document which outlines UBC’s plan and goals for stormwater management on campus and provides some basic site constraints. GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. developed the Stormwater Model System analysis; this report discusses potential solutions to the stormwater management issue at UBC. The Overland Flow Route Assessment report is a study completed by Urban Systems that provides an in-depth analysis of flood and water flow routes on the campus. The above mentioned documents are the initial basis of what the detailed design was developed on. The majority of the research was completed during a previous phase of study and is simply restated for background purposes.  3.5.1 UBC Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (ISMP) UBC’s Integrated Stormwater Management Plan is a document from 2015 that outlines the plan for UBC to manage the multiple facets of the stormwater system in the future. Several facets of this report, such as objectives and existing policy to study, are imperative in the consideration and design of a stormwater management system for UBC’s South Campus. These facets from the ISMP are integral in the applications of the top-down approach, as they relate to the client objectives, project objectives, and design constraints.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 13 SWM000008 The ISMP outlines the main objectives of stormwater management design to be: 1. Protection of campus assets from flooding, safeguard human life, prevention of overland flooding and downstream erosion across the cliffs. 2. Meet or exceed existing provincial and federal policies and standards. Protect the campus environmental values and minimise the impact of campus discharge on neighbouring watercourses. 3. Maintain or preferably enhance water quality at its boundaries at a level that meets or exceeds best practices for urbanized municipalities. 4. Incorporate the natural hydrologic cycle and natural systems approach into the long term planning and design of the stormwater system. Excerpts from the ISMP that are relevant to the project can be found in Appendix A. Details in this appendix include:  UBC stormwater policy content to consider,  Regulatory acts and laws that need to be adhered to,  Actions that are recommended for the creation of a stormwater management system,  Information and guidance on current conditions of the South Campus Region, and  Project constraints. 3.5.2 UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis The UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis report is an optimization analysis of the UBC stormwater system prepared by GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. for UBC. The objective of the document is to determine the stormwater system upgrades needed in order to minimize flooding volumes at key locations in the case of a 1 in 100 or 1 in 200-year storm event. In achieving this goal, it considers three potential   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 14 SWM000008 improvement scenarios for each location. These include:  Option 1: Offline detention only  Option 2: System optimization with inline storage  Option 3: System optimization with inline and offline storage In determining the initial conditions, the results of the 1 in 10, 1 in 100 and 1 in 200-year storm events were simulated, which identified the locations and volume of surface flooding in the four catchments (Figure 4). After this was determined, thirteen different project locations were identified based on the previous simulated results (Figure 5). The individual flood-loss volumes and locations were simulated in these thirteen different locations as well.  Figure 4: Existing system performance Source: UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis, Detention Analysis and System Optimization, p.11. Technical Report. GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. 2013.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 15 SWM000008  Figure 5: Project locations Source: UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis, Detention Analysis and System Optimization, p.21. Technical Report. GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. 2013. Once these values were found, the three potential improvement scenarios listed above were analyzed. Beginning with offline detention storage only, the detention tank volumes and locations were determined. Next, the system upgrades required to eliminate surface flooding were found, considering pipe upsize, pipe diversion, or when neither worked, the use of detention tanks. Lastly, for each chosen location, the optimal solution was identified by comparing relative cost of each solution. Based on the final optimization analysis it was found that for all but four locations the use of detention tanks would be more cost effective and thus more efficient. Following the optimization analysis, another analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the 1 in 100 and 1 in 200-year volumes in the future. This took into account current development site boundaries and projected future impervious area through to 2030. Using this information, the development areas were divided into 18 different development impact groups. In each of these areas, the different in current and future projected impervious area. Using this difference, once again, the increase in 1 in 100 and 1 in 200-year peak flows were found.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 16 SWM000008 The results of this study were closely referenced in the development of the conceptual designs. However, for the level of preliminary design, the aforementioned report has been utilized as a consistency check with the various forms of studies undertaken to achieve the successful solution. 3.5.3 Overland Flow Route Assessment (OFRA) UBC has previously hired Urban Systems to complete an Overland Flow Route Assessment (OFRA) which resulted in an integrated water management plan that reviews and assesses the current drainage system. The findings of this report have determined the long term feasibility of the current stormwater system and identifies locations where high volumes of anticipated overland flow will occur under major storm events. The findings outlined in this section were relied upon to determine areas of flood mitigation requirements and analysis of post construction reduction in overland flooding.  Urban System uses the data from LiDAR, a remote sensing technology, to generate a 3-D ground surface which assess area of potential risk due to overland flow. In conjunction with the 2-D flow analysis, a risk assessment and magnitude of impact of each location were made available. The ranking of the sequence of occurrence and magnitude of impact can be found in Table 2, as seen below. Table 2: Risk assessment parameter Rank 1 Very Likely to Occur Rank 1 Least SignificantRank 2 Likely to Occur Rank 2 Less SignificantRank 3 Less Likely Occur Rank 3 SignificantRank 4 Rarely Occur Rank 4 Most SignificantSequence of Occurrence Magnitude of ImpactRisk Assessment Parameter Source: Table. Jack Liu. Nov 30, 2015. Adapted from Overland Flow Route Assessment. An overview of the flood loss area in UBC South Campus can be seen in the figure below. Figure 6 shows that Area 7 to Area 10 are areas to be considered when a major storm event occurs. The  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 17 SWM000008 magnitude of flood loss in Area 7 is the largest with roughly 1270 m3 of water in a 1 in 100-year event. Area 8 contains the lowest magnitude of flood loss with 150 m3. The report notes that the highest risk for flooding occurs in Area 10, where the potential for a cease in traffic flow could occur. For a detailed list of all the areas and associated risks refer to Appendix B.  Figure 6: Overview of flood loss area in UBC South Campus Source: Overland Flow Route Assessment, p.9. Technical Report. Urban Systems. 2011.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 18 SWM000008 4.0  OVERVIEW OF DESIGN The design solution integrates multiple stormwater management elements, including the use of detention tanks, permeable asphalt and multi-use dry ponds. This section provides a general overview of the design, specifying the arrangement of the components, a description of the key components, the materials to be used, and how the components will function. 4.1 Layout The design spans between Hampton Place to SW Marine Drive in the south portion of UBC campus. The overall layout of the design components (and their respective volume capacities) are shown in Figure 7 below. Detention tanks are shown in red and the dry pond is shown in green. The orange dotted lines portray that sections of road that are to be replaced with permeable asphalt. For reference, permeable asphalt cannot be used within the 300 m of the cliffs, as mandated in the UBC ISMP. In total, there are four detention tanks and one dry pond to be added to UBC South Campus. They are located where the likelihood of flood mitigation is highest as determined by SWMM analysis.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 19 SWM000008  Figure 7: Design feature locations Source: Digital Image. Asad Ijaz. Dec 1, 2015. Adapted from <www.google.ca/maps>. 4.2 Key Components There are three key components to design of the project – detention tanks, a dry pond, and permeable asphalt. The sections below describe each component in detail. 4.2.1 Detention Tanks Detention tanks are the primary mode of flood mitigation for this design solution (see Appendix C for detention tank schematics). They are intended to handle the majority of the volume capacity in the  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 20 SWM000008 event of a major stormwater event. The individual tank capacities and dimensions are listed in Table 3 below, with locations in reference to Figure 7. Table 3: Detention tank capacities and dimensions Tank Capacity (m3) Length (m) Width (m) Height (m) A 70 6 5 3 B 1,100 16 16 5 C 210 9 9 3 D 4,000 30 30 4.5 Source: Table. Joshua Deans. February 20, 2016. For each tank, there will be Armtec VortClarex oil and grit (O/G) separators equipped upstream. These serve to increase effluent quality and reduce maintenance costs on the detention tanks (product details in Appendix E). The tanks have been set up as an on-line system, meaning that the benefits of filtration will be present throughout the local water system as the system will be consistently online.  4.2.2 Dry Pond A multi-use dry pond will be placed between West 16th Avenue and the Track & Field Oval in lieu of a small detention tank. Overall, the dry pond has a total capacity of 320 m3, with a base of 10 m by 32 m and a height of 1 m. Although the dry pond can withstand a small percentage of the total capacity needed, it promotes maintenance of the natural water cycle. It also adds aesthetic value and can be used as a community social hub when it is not being utilized during storm events. See Appendix C for dry pond details. 4.2.3 Permeable Asphalt The third component of the design is permeable asphalt. Its imperviousness allows water to infiltrate at a faster, more natural rate than traditional asphalt. The asphalt will be installed within the  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 21 SWM000008 infiltration limits set by the UBC ISMP. The permeable asphalt would need to be installed only once the current paved roads need replacing. For the purposes of this study, it is assumed that the remaining design life on all roads is less than two years, and therefore the replacement will begin as soon as construction is approved. A cross section of the permeable asphalt can be found in Appendix D. Nilex RoaDrain, a geotextile material, will be placed in the sublayer of pavement, particularly where oil and grease are most likely to collect (see Appendix F for Nilex RoaDrain product details). This will stimulate the flow of heavily contaminated water towards existing pipes, therefore leading to O/G separators. 4.3 Materials The following sections are intended to detail the materials required to construct each of the key components of the proposed design.  4.3.1 Detention Tanks The detention tanks are made up of a combination of shotcrete shoring walls with soil anchors, a cast-in-place concrete slab, and a pre-cast lid. The tanks also utilize an impervious interior liner. The methodology behind this construction is outlined in Section 6.6 – Constructability Analysis. The numerous O/G separators will be made of precast concrete and contain a pre assembled O/G separation mechanism. Piping in immediate connection between the O/G separators and detention tanks will be comprised of pre-cast C76 Concrete piping, readily available in the lower mainland. Piping associated with connecting the tanks to the existing system will consist of SDR 35 PVC piping for all diameters less than 600 mm. Concrete was chosen as the primary construction material for the tanks, in large part due to the relatively low increase in cost when designed to support above ground loads in comparison to precast or prefabricated tanks. However, cast-in-place concrete is very rigid and is prone to cracking, particularly in clay predominant soils. At this stage of study, it is unknown whether any of the detention  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 22 SWM000008 tank locations will be situated in clay and therefore an allowance has been made to waterproof the exterior each tank. The waterproof membrane on the tanks will ensure water does not create an environment for corrosion on the reinforcement of the cast-in-place concrete. This exterior waterproof membrane is in addition for the interior lining of the tank. 4.3.2 Dry Pond As the dry pond is quite simple, it will be the least demanding component in terms of material use. Underneath the top layer, three-inch drainage rocks will be placed to promote water infiltration through the top layer. The top layer will consist of soil and vegetation, primarily being grass and smaller plants. Storm water will be routed into the dry pond with a pre-cast concrete spillway, equipped with concrete blocks to reduce the speed of flood water. 4.3.3 Permeable Asphalt Permeable asphalt will replace a large percent of standard asphalt road surfaces. It works quite similar to standard asphalt, but contains less fine aggregates. Overall, porosity is increased and water is allowed to infiltrate at a much greater flow rate. The typical lifespan of permeable asphalt is typically greater than fifteen years in standard conditions (“Porous Asphalt Pavement”, 2014). Air voids in the material allow it to be more durable by alleviating cracking and freeze/thaw stress. The pores in the asphalt can clog over time, and can be maintained with the use of a vacuum truck.  Nilex RoaDrain is a geotextile subsurface drainage system that distributes water collected under paved road surfaces. This material will be placed underneath the permeable asphalt layer, primarily where contaminants are most likely to gather. RoaDrain prevents potholes, cracking and freeze-thaw damage that can occur in a heavy storm event. This will also prevent clogging of the permeable asphalt and support consistent drainage, decreasing water damage over the long term.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 23 SWM000008 4.4 Function During a large stormwater event, the detention tanks will retain the majority of the surge flow. Figure 8 showcases the components within the tank. The tank is made up of cast-in-place concrete and has a waterproof membrane to prevent seepage into the reinforcement or ground. Stormwater is contained within the tank and is slowly released over the period of 24 hours. The tanks have been positioned not only for maximum utilization, but also in regions close to existing piping infrastructure, effectively allowing the filtered stormwater to exit through the existing pipe network. In addition, Armtec Vortclarex O/G separators or equivalent will be installed upstream of the detention tank and will be housed in durable pre-cast concrete structures. Water flows enter through the inlet pipe, which contains a non-clog diffuser, and those flows are spread out. The O/G separator contains a solids baffle wall that captures sizeable solid waste. Further, a coalescing media provides a secondary form of remediation, collecting smaller oily contaminants and accumulating them into larger, and more buoyant, groups. These combined droplets float up to the water surface, where they are trapped above the outflow pipe, allowing for treated water to exit the system. A manhole above allows for cleanup via vacuum truck and water hose when needed. This system is only intended to be used during normal flows, and in the case of 1 in 10 or 1 in 100-year storm events, there will be a bypass valve to route the stormwater directly into the detention tank. Stormwater enters the detention tank either through the oil and grit separator outflow, or through the bypass pipe.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 24 SWM000008  Figure 8: Detention tank overview Source: Digital Image. Asad Ijaz. Dec 1, 2015. The dry pond is a large basin that is intended to be empty during normal operation, allowing for more useable space in the area. In major stormwater events, however, it will capture excess stormwater run-off and retain the water until the natural hydrologic cycle will facilitate evaporation into the atmosphere and, more importantly, infiltration into the ground water. As a precautionary measure, if the dry pond reaches a certain depth of water, an outflow pipe will direct water back into the stormwater system.  Permeable asphalt contributes to the maintenance of the natural hydrological cycle at UBC. It has an inherently high infiltration rate due to the open graded-ness of the aggregate that even when clogged the infiltration rate resides above 1 inch per hour of infiltration (“Porous Asphalt Pavement”, 2014). This asphalt system creates extremely favourable conditions for infiltration. Areas where a high likelihood of build oil and grease build up will have the Nilex RoaDrain leading into catch basins that will also have similar O/G separation apparatuses. The remainder of the Nilex RoaDrain will be placed in areas where the ground is likely to become saturated quicker and It will divert the infiltration to areas of  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 25 SWM000008 lower saturation likelihood. This infiltration relocation technique will prevent over-infiltration of the groundwater and help balance the geohydrology. 4.5 Design Life In this project solution, optimally assessing costs over the component design lives was a greater priority than focusing on upfront costs. The design life of the detention tanks and oil water separators is estimated to be 90 years (National Precast Concrete Association, 2011). As the detention tanks are most significant component of the system in terms of storm water management, their design life represents the overall design life of the entire stormwater management system. The design life of the dry pond was found to be to have an effective lifespan of approximately 25 years (Davenport, 2006). After this 25-year period, the area will need to be cleared of the accumulated sediment. A design life of twenty years is typical of permeable asphalt (Credit Valley Conservation, 2010), as compared to a lifespan of fifteen years for traditional asphalt (Boyer & Hensley, 1999). The design life of the permeable asphalt is one sixth of the overall project design life, meaning that the permeable asphalt will be replaced five times throughout the lifespan of the stormwater system. Likewise, the dry pond will need to be replaced four times through the lifespan of the stormwater system. The design life of permeable asphalt has a five-year advantage to that of traditional asphalt.     UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 26 SWM000008 5.0  DESIGN RATIONALE The current design incorporates multiple different components, each with their own rationale. In order to detail the design, each component has been carefully reasoned to ensure the most beneficial decisions are made in regards to stormwater mitigation and valued engineering. The following section will outline the design rationale for the detention tanks, dry pond, and the use of permeable asphalts. 5.1 Detention Tanks Utilizing cast-in-place concrete storage detention tanks is a traditional method in mitigating stormwater flooding. These tanks are capable of storing large volumes of excess water, and are relatively easy to construct. The locations of each tank is selected such that the underground structures would be efficiently used, convenient to construct, and constructed in location where the below grade land would not have been used otherwise. In addition, the implementation of a network of O/G separators upstream of the detention tanks would allow for a higher quality water being detained, but in addition, could also be bypassed in the event of a large flood. Overall, this design not only allows for efficient storage of excess stormwater, the O/G separators will allow the stored water to be released with higher quality, thus providing an environmentally sustainable solution. The reasoning behind the use of O/G separators is to allow for the stored water to be reused in other applications. Adding this component will lower the flow rate into the detention tanks as it takes time to separate the oil and grit from the water. Realizing this limitation, a bypass route is also implemented to ensure that the system will function at the maximum flow rate during a large rainfall event. Finally, the costs of implementing O/G separators to the system are small in comparison to the returned benefit of reduced turbidity and toxin content in the released water.  As the tanks will be underground, the land above can be repurposed and will be an added benefit to students and the public in general. Examples of this are seen on campus already, such as the  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 27 SWM000008 plaza in front of the AMS Nest, a small basketball court, and even a baseball arena. Creating a space that benefits the public will in turn also be a benefit to UBC. 5.2 Dry Pond The implementation of a dry pond is a creative solution that promotes the return of the natural hydrological cycle. UBC is a leader in sustainability, and such it is in UBC’s interest to explore alternative solutions. A dry pond functions similarly to a detention tank, but it is a more natural way of storing water. In short, it is a basin above ground that has a network of pipes to divert the water stored. In the case of a large stormwater event, the dry pond will fill up gradually while diverting the excess water into the upgraded stormwater system detention tanks.  Unlike the detention tanks, the dry pond is only expected to have significant amounts of water stored during larger stormwater events. As the dry pond is open, it would be unacceptable to have it flood in any circumstance. The location has been picked based off historical rainfall data to ensure it does not overflow, as that would be counter-productive. As a result, the addition of O/G separators will not be efficient and is therefore not included with a dry pond.  The land used to construct a dry pond is not as versatile as one used to construct a detention tank, but it can be repurposed as a scenic park. Dry ponds are quite rare in the lower mainland and this could be a unique viewpoint for the public - once again, benefitting the public is in UBC’s best interest. 5.3 Permeable Asphalt The rationale behind the permeable asphalt use stems from the value added to UBC with regards to the primary criteria of restoring the natural hydrological cycle. The permeable asphalt replaces existing asphalt for an initial capital premium cost but an overall cost savings over the design life of the entire project as detailed in the Section 6.2 – Economic Analysis. This design will promote the  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 28 SWM000008 return of infiltration into areas where infiltration was not accessible and provide several benefits to the users of the infrastructure.  In detail, the permeable asphalt in combination with the use of Nilex RoaDrain will promote the flow of surface run-off into the groundwater table. The Nilex RoaDrain is traditionally used as a facilitator of water flow below the asphalt surface, guiding it to catch basins and increasing permeability rates of the asphalt. However, SMC engineering understands that this concept of guiding the water to catch basins can be altered so that the surface water, once permeated to the road drain, can be guided to regions of traditionally lower infiltration. One of the identified concerns of the the current asphalt system at UBC is the differing levels of groundwater saturation occurring due to dominating surface flows and localized ponding. The permeable asphalt will provide an overall increase to the infiltration in the region, while the Nilex RoaDrain will aid in providing an even distribution of that infiltration - helping move forward with the restoration of the natural hydrological cycle.  There are distinct user benefits of the permeable asphalt over traditional asphalt. The open grade of the asphaltic concrete allows for better sound absorption and rut prevention. The latter of the two also promotes longevity in life and user satisfaction through smoother surfaces over a longer duration – a problem UBC commuters face all too often.  The combination of the benefits for the stakeholders and the increase in distributed infiltration make the permeable asphalt option feasible. The issue for implementation lies in the increase in upfront capital expenditures. However, if owners can recognize the long term cost savings based on design life research of the asphalts, it is almost undeniable that this aspect of the solution adds only value to the UBC stormwater management system.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 29 SWM000008 6.0  ANALYSIS OF DESIGN A multitude of items were analyzed in order to develop a design that meets all functional, safety, and regulatory needs. Analyses involved a technical component (hydrotechnical, geotechnical, and structural), an economic investigation, investigation into regulations, an environmental impact assessment, and a review of constructability. 6.1 Technical Analysis Detailed analyses have been completed in order to ensure safety and constructability of the design. There are three main technical analyses that are critically relevant to the project. This section details the hydrotechnical, geotechnical and structural analysis that have been completed while referencing appropriate appendices for calculation backups.  6.1.1 Hydrotechnical This portion of analysis relied on the use of the modelling software “Storm Water Management Model” (SWMM) developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Using EPA SWMM, the rainfall parameters inputted were based off of Environment Canada’s 100-year precipitation data to simulate an extreme event that would be considered a 100-year event (Environment Canada, 2014). Below in Figure 9 is a visual representation of the rainfall modelled.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 30 SWM000008  Figure 9: 100-year rainfall event model Source: Digital Image. Cliff Huang. Oct 12, 2015. The rainfall is consistently 2.5 mm (vertical axis in the rainfall intensity, mm/h) throughout the day, which is a large rainfall event by itself. There is a peak rainfall of 7 mm/h to simulate an extreme during the event. The rainfall input is the most crucial part of the modelling as all the pipe and detention tank parameters were made to match the existing SWMM model provided by UBC SEEDS. Using this as the primary rainfall pattern, the detention tanks are being utilized to a high percentage and there is no water backup occurring in the system.  Apart from the detention tanks, the dry pond is also incorporated into the model as a small storage tank at grade. As it was not requested by the client, the permeable asphalt was not incorporated into the model. Permeable asphalt has a lot more variance than a detention tank, but due to specific features of the Nilex RoaDrain, it will undoubtedly improve performance of the system. With the road drain placed under the permeable assault, water in high flow regions can be rerouted to other low flow regions to relieve the stress in certain junctions.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 31 SWM000008 Overall, the primary parameter that controls the model is rainfall. Experimenting with different rainfall patterns led to similar usages of the detention tanks and dry pond, so the system is in fact capable of taking on a large storm event without failure. Gradual increases in rainfall work best when using SWMM as the software discretizes the rainfall intervals, and having sudden spikes in rainfall would lead to inadequate results. The summary report from the SWMM simulation, as well as additional results, are available for examination in Appendix G. 6.1.2 Geotechnical With the available geotechnical information centered around Wesbrook Mall and Agronomy Road, significant interpolation had to be completed to make an attempt at understanding the anticipated ground conditions at the tank locations. Based on the Wesbrook Mall Geotechnical Report, the anticipated subsurface geology contains fluvial deposits and, to interpolate from the borehole data, layers of silts 3m below the surface elevation. The extent of the load will be transferred to the subsurface geology through a slab footing. For the purpose of this explanation, this report will look into what was completed for the largest tank located across the NSERC facility.  Input parameters for the required bearing capacity were calculated to be approximately 100 kPa. However, this 100 kPa factored load will only last for a short period of time as it is when the detention tank has reached full capacity. Analysis of immediate elastic and consolidation settlement are not considered in the design because the soil is overly consolidated. At full tank capacity the weight of the tanks will be less than the current anticipated soil weight by approximately 50%. Therefore, settlement will be in the recompression zone and be minimal such that the accuracy of either this assumption or an analysis with the available information will be of equivalent accuracy. Bearing capacity calculations can be reviewed in Appendix H, it is important to note that without further testing an  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 32 SWM000008 undrained shear strength of 30 kPa has been assumed based on experience of clayey and silty materials of consulted contractors in the point grey area of the Lower Mainland. Anchor designs have been completed using a 2 anchor system following Peck’s lateral earth pressure theories. The first row of anchors is 1.25 m below the surface and the following row of anchors is 1.875 m below the first row. The anchors are situated at 15 degrees below the horizontal and extend up to lengths of 12.5 m with bond lengths of 1.5 and 2 m for the top and bottom rows respectively. Bond lengths were determined utilizing typical anchor bond strengths in stiff silty-clays and an average friction angle of 25 degrees has been utilized. However, this analysis should be reviewed with great scrutiny as the geotechnical parameters have been estimated off of boreholes more than a kilometer away, and soil properties have been estimated by averaging historical ranges of silty-clay like deposits.  An accompanying seismic analysis was to be completed, however there has been a lack of relevant additional information provided between the issuance of the preliminary design report and detailed design report. The analysis, if undertaken with the available information, will provide no relevant guidance to the performance of the design. Further information on recommended steps to ensure design performance are outlined in Section 10.0 – Design Development and Recommendations.  6.1.3 Structural The four proposed stormwater detention tanks utilize the construction of both precast and cast-in-place concrete sections. The concrete structure is designed in accordance with CSA A23.3-04 code standards and in recommendation with the design guidelines listed in “Reinforced Concrete Design: A Practical Guideline” (Brzev and Pao, 2006). The precast concrete sections are designed at an expected 28-day compressive strength of 30 MPa. The compressive tests are to be conducted in accordance with testing standards ASTM C39/C39M. The unit weight of the concrete structures is assumed to be at a  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 33 SWM000008 conservative 22 kN/m3. The factored live and dead loads are determined according to the National Building Code 2005 (NBC 2005) clause C1.4.1.3.2. The structure of the detention tanks consists of a ceiling slab, square tied-eccentrically loaded columns and a floor slab. The steel rebar in the ceiling/floor slab will also be designed for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement requirements as per clause 7.8.1 and 7.8.3. The walls of the tank are to be substituted by a system of rock anchors and shotcrete walls, as discussed in Section 6.1.2 above. As such, the dead/live loads of the overburden soil and the weight of the ceiling slab will be carried solely by the concrete columns. Column designs are completed using the influence diagram method and the ceiling/floor slabs are designed in accordance with one-way slabs as outlined in Brzev & Pao and can be found in Appendix I. The shotcrete walls will be waterproofed to prevent leakage of soil contaminants into the tanks that would result in potential concrete deterioration.  Additional seismic designs of the structural tanks are dismissed on the reasoning that the soil analyses are lacking relevance. However, as described in the design development section, for UBC SEEDS to minimize the design uncertainty, additional seismic loading analyses are recommended to model the structural response of the detention tank with varying water levels within. 6.2 Economic Analysis Economic factors dictate the design of the UBC South Campus Stormwater Management System. A specific budget was not detailed by UBC SEEDS, but the notion that the budget for this project is limited was conveyed. SMC Engineering took the approach of combining a common stormwater management approach combined with a low-premium cost innovative solution to meet the client’s economic objectives and commitment to the environment. The UBC South Campus Stormwater Management System comprises of two main facets – detention tanks, dry pond, and permeable asphalt – with each having varying economic impacts in both  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 34 SWM000008 the short and long term. The detention tanks and dry ponds are a conventional stormwater management approach and are grouped together, for the purposes of this project, as detention facilities. The innovative solution, permeable asphalt, is referred to as roadworks. An emphasis was placed on reducing the overall economic expenditures with the project rather than the initial capital costs or future costs alone. Factors considered in detail were the design life and maintenance costs of the system. An outline of the economic considerations for each aspect of the proposed design is discussed in the following paragraphs along with an analysis of storm event exceedance probabilities.  The detention facilities were found to a have cost of $4,292,000 in total initial capital (construction; Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Management (EPCM); and owner costs) for the tanks, dry pond, and associated infrastructure required. As the oil/grit separators filter sediment and other particulates that may accumulate in the tank, maintenance of the tank itself will be negligible. Maintenance costs will be incurred with the oil/grit separators as they need to cleaned out when at capacity for holding oil or sediment. There is a minimal impact of maintenance costs with the dry pond due to the requirement of clearing only once every 25 years. The design life of the detention facilities system is estimated to be 90 years. As the most significant portion of the system in regards to stormwater mitigation, the design life of the detention facilities serves as the design life of the UBC South Campus Stormwater Management System as a whole. The permeable asphalt component is judged to have a total initial capital cost (construction, EPCM, and owner) of $5,846,000 with maintenance totalling $75,000 per. An average design life of 15 years is anticipated. The design life of the permeable asphalt is only a portion of the overall project design life, meaning that the permeable asphalt will be replaced five times in order for the system to operate at optimum efficiency during storm events. The existing asphalt network, that the permeable system is replacing, is nearing the end of its life span meaning that the implementation of the  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 35 SWM000008 permeable system should be seamless. A breakdown of costs comparing permeable asphalt to conventional asphalt can be seen below. Table 4: Permeable asphalt vs. conventional asphalt costs Design Life of AsphaltInitial Capital CostsFuture Capital CostsMaintenance CostsTotal 90-Year System Cost(Years) (C, EPCM, O) (C, EPCM, O) (M) (C, EPCM, O, M)Permeable Asphalt15 $5,846,000 5 $29,230,000 $75,000/Year $41,826,000Conventional Asphalt10 $4,447,000 8 $35,576,000 $30,000/Year $42,723,000Roadworks Premium5 $1,399,000 -3 -$6,346,000 $45,000/Year -$897,000ItemReplacements Over 90-Year System Life <All dollar values are in 2016 CAD.> Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. As seen in the table above, the premium costs over the system design results in cost savings for the permeable asphalt, and as such permeable asphalt serves as a cost effective solution. While the permeable asphalt incurs significantly higher capital costs relative to the detention facilities, it is still believed to be a monetarily sustainable option due to cost savings premium, with respect to the regular replacement cycle of the conventional asphalt, over the 90-year design life. The permeable asphalt allows UBC SEEDS to implement an economically friendly solution while also promoting UBC’s commitment towards greener solutions on campus. Due to the premium cost savings of the roadworks system, permeable asphalt was implemented wherever possible over the design area. This was to reduce the capacity burden on the detention facilities, and therefore lower costs for that section of the South Campus Stormwater Management System. The total initial capital costs, future capital costs of components, and total system cost incurred over the lifetime of each facet of the South Campus Stormwater Management System is summarised  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 36 SWM000008 below in Table 5. For the entire project over the design life of 90 years, the present day value of all costs incurred over lifetime is estimated to be $46,838,000. A more accurate depiction of the project costs, factoring in that permeable asphalt will only be a premium expense over conventional asphalt to UBC, can be see in Table 6. The total system cost over the 90-year design life, based on premium, is $4,115,000; this value provides a good representation of the financial commitment that UBC must allocate for the project. Table 5: Total South Campus Stormwater Management Project cost to UBC Initial Capital Costs Future Capital Costs Maintenance Costs Total 90-Year System Cost(C, EPCM, O) (C, EPCM, O) (M) (C, EPCM, O, M)Detention Facilities$4,292,000 $0 $8,000/Year $5,012,000Roadworks $5,846,000 $29,230,000 $75,000/Year $41,826,000Complete System$10,138,000 $29,230,000 $81,000/Year $46,838,000Item <All dollar values are in 2016 CAD.> Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. Table 6: Total premium South Campus Stormwater Management Project cost to UBC Initial Capital Costs Future Capital Costs Maintenance CostsTotal Premium 90-Year System Cost(C, EPCM, O) (C, EPCM, O) (M) (C, EPCM, O, M)Detention Facilities $4,292,000 $0 $8,000/Year $5,012,000Roadworks Premium $1,399,000 -$6,346,000 $45,000/Year -$897,000Complete System $5,691,000 -$6,346,000 $53,000/Year $4,115,000Item <All dollar values are in 2016 CAD.> Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 37 SWM000008 A comparison of the total estimated premium system cost over the design life relative to the expected value of damage to assets under present conditions is illustrated in Table 7. These values outline the 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year stormwater events and the effects of a singular occurrence; these expected damage values are preliminary and will be further explored in the detailed design phase. Also listed is the probability of exceedance – the percentage chance that the event occurs at least once over the lifespan. The estimated damage values provided are a conservative estimate based on surveys of campus assets; true damages are likely to be within an error range of 50% of the utilized values.  Table 7: Potential damage to UBC assets Value10-Year Event: Potential Damage Under Present Conditions $2,000,00010-Year Event: Probability of Exceedance over 90-Year Design Life 99.992%100-Year Event: Potential Damage Under Present Conditions $16,000,000100-Year Event: Probability of Exceedance over 90-Year Design Life 59.527%Event <All dollar values are in 2016 CAD.> Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. The overall premium costs of the system ($4,115,000) over the design life is considered a budget minded solution when compared to the potential damages of a 100-year storm event. The significant reduction of the overland flow and flooding from 10 and 100-year storm events resulting from the implementation of the South Campus Stormwater System delivers extensive value to the stakeholders of this project. In short, stakeholders are receiving asset protection and potential reduction in insurance costs from the implementation of the environmentally sensitive system. 6.3 Regulatory Analysis The site location, as described in Section 3.2 - Site Overview and Constraints, consists primarily of UBC South Campus which is governed by multiple different regulating bodies. This section is intended to outline the codes and regulations that are both followed and taken into consideration during the  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 38 SWM000008 current design phase and proposed construction phase. The specific regulating bodies are listed below in alphabetical order. 6.3.1 ASTM International Standardized material testing must be completed prior to and during the construction phase. According to ASTM International geotechnical material testing standards, the ground conditions have been analyzed in accordance with ASTM standards to ensure an accurate geotechnical model of the proposed sites prior to construction and acceptable quality control during construction. 6.3.2 Canadian Standards Association (CSA) The Canadian Standards Association provides a regulating guide code authority throughout Canada for many aspects of construction. The governing CSA standards pertaining to the detailed design consist of the following:  CSA Sustainable Stormwater Practices: Fundamentals  CSA Sustainable Stormwater Practices: Designing Road & Parking Lot Infiltration Systems  CSA CAN/CSA-A23.3-04 Concrete Design Standards The stormwater tank structural and seismic design, porous asphalt road section design and rainwater storage will be completed by complying with the CSA standards listed above. 6.3.3 Master Municipal Construction Documents Association (MMCD) The detailed design is to comply with the associated requirements in the Master Municipal Construction Documents (MMCD), which provides a standardized set of guidelines for design and construction in British Columbia. Components that must be designed abiding to the MMCD are structural and seismic designs, excavation, rock anchoring, asphalt milling, paving, storm drain piping, instrumentation, backfill and compaction are to be adopted in the form of supplementary design  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 39 SWM000008 guidelines. In addition, the design will be incorporating the Green Design Guidelines found within the MMCD to explore potential factors to enhance the sustainability of the preliminary design. At the federal level, the same capacity of design guidelines is available in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). In the case of a design specification conflict, priority will be given to the NBCC. 6.3.4 Metro Vancouver Metro Vancouver Regulations and Guidelines indirectly govern the UBC South Campus site location, as such, the Integrated Liquid Waste and Resource Management Plan (ILWRMP) regulates liquid waste management at UBC. The primary purpose of this report is to (1) provide guidelines for recycling liquid waste to use as a resource and (2) protect the environment and public by overseeing sewage and stormwater management (Metro Vancouver, 2010). The ILWRMP provides a comprehensive framework for stormwater management, and was used in creating the structure for the UBC ISMP as described in Section 4.2 – Key Components. As per the UBC Technical Guidelines outlined in Section 6.3.8 below, Metro Vancouver (GVRD) Sewer Use Bylaw No. 299 is also to be applied to design and implementation of stormwater practices. Bylaw No. 299 provides the framework to protect human health, safety and environment and restricting the discharge of stormwater in sewage channels (Metro Vancouver, 2007). 6.3.5 Ministry of Transportation (MoTI) For the scope of the proposed design and the associated constructability issues, the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoTI) Traffic Control Manual for Work on Roadways (MoTI, 1999) has been followed. This guideline suggests minimizing the traffic disturbance at the proposed site of the Wesbrook Village community during construction phase with the use of flaggers and traffic signage. MoTI has set out traffic control layouts for short duration work zones which are to be implemented as necessary. For purposes of the preliminary design, existing road infrastructure to be removed and  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 40 SWM000008 replaced is considered to follow the Standard Specifications for Highway Construction and associated highway sign standards. 6.3.6 Occupation Health & Safety (OH&S) Regulations According to Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Regulation and Regulated Materials, the construction process must adhere to all applicable safety guidelines. For the scope of the proposed design, the OH&S regulations must apply for all excavating and shoring work, work done with heavy equipment and tools as well as confined space for the installation and maintenance of the detention tanks and accompanying oil and grit separators. Further regulations governing excavation requirements are provided by the Oil & Gas Activities ACT (OGAA) to regulate safety and excavation planning for the construction phase. All excavations are required to be obeyed by OGAA to ensure that existing nearby utilities are not affected. OH&S guidelines are enforced by WorkSafeBC, which administers the Workers Compensation Act for the BC Ministry of Labour. OH&S consists of the legal requirements that must be met as necessary under the inspection of WorkSafeBC. As such, for the duration of the construction phase, OH&S and WorkSafeBC BC are both to be followed. 6.3.7 Stormwater Quality Stormwater quality at UBC is governed and protected by federal and provincial regulations and legislatures. The federal regulations regulating stormwater management are the Fisheries Act and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. At the provincial level in British Columbia, the Water Act and the Environmental Management Act are applicable for managing stormwater runoff. The federal regulations overseeing water quality consist of the Fisheries Act which mandates what is permitted to be discharged into a body of water containing fish and aquatic life. It also regulates human activity in areas of close proximity to fish habitats ensuring toxic substances are not released into  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 41 SWM000008 a fish habitat. Likewise, the Canadian Environmental Protection Act regulates the disposal of solid waste into the environment. At the provincial level, the Water Act prohibits polluting water bodies within the provincial boundary. The BC Water Quality Guidelines contains recommended levels of various substances and materials for the protection of varied water uses in order to maintain an acceptable level of water quality. Additionally, the Environmental Management Act regulates waste management from municipal sources including planning for air contaminants, water resource management and solid waste management. 6.3.8 University of British Columbia Guidelines The primary governing body at the UBC South Campus location is the UBC Board of Governors which has imposed three primary guidelines to adhere to for stormwater design; Sustainable Development, Environmental Protection Compliance and UBC Technical Guidelines. Policy #5 – Sustainable Development is created by the Board of Governors to develop an environmentally safe campus and ensure ecologic, economic and social benefits of UBC operations. As such, the procedures laid out in Policy #5 will be conformed with as per the clients’ guidelines. The Environmental Protection Compliance (Policy #6) provides a formal framework to ensure compliance with all applicable environmental regulations of UBC operations and is taken into consideration to account for the environmental processes of the preliminary designs. UBC Technical Guidelines provides a site specific technical framework for each specific construction division and describing all governing regulations for each construction division. UBC Technical Guidelines – Division 02 Section 02720 lists describes the technical guidelines governing UBC storm drainage practices and is to be taken into account for the design and construction (permitting) phase.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 42 SWM000008 6.3.9 University Neighbourhood Association (UNA) Adhering to the University Neighbourhoods Association Construction Noise Control Bylaw, hours between 0730 hours to 1900 hours on any weekday that is not a holiday and between 0900 hours to 1700 hours on any Saturday that is not a holiday are permitted to allow for acceptable levels of construction noise (UBC, 2012). All other times, any and all construction noise is not permitted thereby affecting the construction scheduling. 6.4 Environmental Impact Analysis An assessment of environmental impacts of the project are not only important in the short term, but the long term as well. Effects from construction, as well as post-construction, are considered and analyzed. 6.4.1 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) conducted on the effects of implementing the proposed stormwater management plan has been completed for the detailed design. The EIA analyzes the potential environmental, health, and social impacts as a result of the construction phase by evaluating the impact of air quality and water quality discharged by construction and effects of site clearing and deforesting. The EIA has been administered in adherence to the Environmentally Responsible Construction and Renovation Handbook’s recommended regulations as well as UBC’s Land Use and Permitting Policy #92. The EIA conducted is not in accordance with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 2012 (CEAA2012) as the project boundaries are defined within UBC property lines. The air quality index in the immediate vicinity of the construction is expected to be reduced, primarily due to dust generated by bulk soil excavation, asphalt milling, and final grading. The effects of airborne dust will be mitigated by implementing the Best Management Practice’s associated with dust control.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 43 SWM000008 The water quality affected by the construction methods can include highly turbid water entering the streams, potential mechanical spillage of machines and equipment’s as well as concrete washouts. This will result in an impact on the water quality downstream of the construction sites as the water will be drained into the existing stormwater system in place. The negative impact of the construction on the water quality is to be mitigated by adhering to the water quality guidelines enforced by the Fisheries Act and the Canadian Environmental Management Act. Lastly, the potential removal of trees for excavation purposes at Tanks B, C and D will result in approximately 1200 m2 of deforestation. The possibility of replanting uprooted trees in UBC’s existing urban forest is rejected due to the high cost of said solution. Instead, tree retention will be practiced according to UBC’s Tree Removal and Replacement Policy and a notice of tree removal will be conducted for said locations. 6.4.2 Environmental Benefits The cast-in-place concrete stormwater tank facility provides minimal environmental impact benefits alone, and as such, they will be used in a treatment-train type system in conjunction with an oil and grit (O/G) separator. This treatment-train system will consist of a series of catch basins upstream to filter out large scale debris and an O/G separator to filter suspended particles and water insoluble contaminants prior to water being detained in the storage tank. The detention tank will also be designed to be completely drained following a storm event to avoid water stagnation and prevent potential insect and microorganism breeding (PUB, n.d.). The roadway upgrade to a system of permeable asphalt roadways will increase groundwater infiltration and will be the subject of high levels of water infiltration into the water table. Permeable asphalt provides a significant filtration benefit in repressing sediment, however, there is difficulty for the system to separate oil and grease retention prior to infiltration. The majority of the filtration will be  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 44 SWM000008 provided by the absorption, filtration and microbial decomposition at the base-subgrade interface as well as the subgrade filtration (“2004 Connecticut Stormwater Quality Manual”, 2004). A layer of impermeable road drain fabric where oil and grease buildup is likely will allow for water to be re-routed to catch basins and O/G separators with a higher volume capacity. This diversion will allow for the separation of oil from the water prior to percolation into the water table. The installation of a dry pond is intended to provide a low impact detention facility that can improve water quality and reduce overland flooding in less desirable areas. In practice, dry detention ponds have detention times of less than 24 hours and lack the time required for sufficient settling of suspended particles in the flood stream (“2004 Connecticut Stormwater Quality Manual”, 2004). As such, the dry pond will also employ a treatment-train approach to be able to mitigate the effects of suspended sediments. This will be achieved by placing a system of fine particle screens at the outflow pipe and small precast O/G separators downstream of the dry pond to maintain an acceptable quality of discharge water. Alternatively, the amount of water that will be contained in the dry pond for extended periods of time will allow for suspended particulates to settle and will be filtered by the subgrade soil layers to deliver an improved quality of water into the subsoil layers. 6.4.3 Environmental Hazard Monitoring Monitoring of environmental factors should be maintained throughout the lifespan of the design to analyze the environmental factors to ascertain if they are within an acceptable range as required by environmental regulations. The factors that are to be monitored are as follows:    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 45 SWM000008 Table 8: Factors to be monitored Factor to be Monitored Indicator Used to MonitorHydrogeology Groundwater levelsWater QualityMeasuring water turbidity and amount of fecal matter present in water as per the Canada Water Act Aquatic Biology Index of biotic integrity Source: Table. Asad Ijaz. Nov 29, 2015. Adapted from <http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-11/page-8.html#h-12>. Using the factors and indicators mentioned in Table 8, a lifetime assessment of the environmental impacts can be monitored allowing for potential risks to be reduced in a timely manner. For example, an increase in turbidity of discharged water could indicate potential maintenance required for the existing infrastructure. The results of the hazard monitoring would also provide beneficial cost analysis data for future impact studies and is highly recommended to be maintained over the life cycle of the system. 6.5 Stakeholder Impact Analysis In the process of this project, mitigating the potential impact on stakeholders and the community at large has been essential to the overall success. Many stakeholder studies have been performed to confirm that the preliminary design optimally meets their needs and addresses potential concerns. The stakeholders that are impacted by the design solution, either directly or indirectly include:  Metro Vancouver  Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure  Musqueam Indian Band  Pacific Spirit Park Society  TransLink  TRIUMF  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 46 SWM000008  UBC Neighborhood Association  UBC Properties Trust  UBC Students, Faculty, and Staff  Wreck Beach Preservation Society It is imperative that the values and opinions of the stakeholders listed above are considered in the design of the project. Numerous studies have been executed to better understand from the public’s point of view: the issues and risks associated with the existing system and construction of the new design, and the advantages received post construction. With these points, a comparison between the potential impacts and the stakeholders’ values and opinions can be made. Initially, study evaluated current risks for stakeholders if the updated system were not employed. The first issue is that a 1 in 100-year storm event is very likely to damage campus assets, harming many of the previously listed stakeholders. Also, flooding on the roads can prevent multiple modes of transportation (walking, biking, vehicle or transit) from safely and efficiently travelling to campus. Finally, the irreparable erosion concerns to the Wreck Beach cliff can impair many of the stakeholders dependent on its environmental assets. There are very few benefits for stakeholders if the design solution is not implemented, as the risks of flooding and cliff erosion are detrimental on all stakeholders involved. The primary benefit would be the lack of inconvenience due to construction. This would prevent temporary traffic and pedestrian detours, and most profoundly noise. Also, although the design solution hopes to maximize potential space for future expansion, it still uses space and will provide some minor conflict with expansions on campus. However, these are both quite minor compared to the previously mentioned risks incurred.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 47 SWM000008 The primary benefits of the employment of the design is the mitigation of flooding and cliff erosion risks, which already provides immense value to stakeholders. As flooding of the south campus inherently increases the risk for severe damage, the reduction of risk could cause a possible tangible reduction on insurance premiums. Another benefit to the system is the use of O/G separators which allow for higher quality stormwater released from the tanks to the online system. This will greatly benefit the Pacific Spirit Park Society and Metro Vancouver, as well as the public in general, by providing a cleaner and healthier environment.  This solution serves to maintain the hydrological cycle on campus with the use of permeable asphalt and dry pond, achieving the goals expressed in the Vancouver Campus Plan. The installation of permeable asphalt will likely have the greatest direct impact on stakeholders during construction phase. As paving occurs, the effected roads will need to be detoured or managed. Regardless of how much delays are mitigated, the traffic congestion will be the greatest source of stakeholder disturbance.  The dry pond is not linked to any major roadways or walkways and its construction is quite short in comparison with other component. The dry pond also benefits the community, as it acts as a social hub in dry weather, attracts students and visitors to an outdoor environment and provides more business to Wesbrook Village. Therefore, the dry pond is considered to be a low impact solution.  6.6 Constructability Analysis This section analyzes the constructability of the proposed stormwater management system. Topics covered include aspects of the design, construction schedule, site inspection, drawings and plans, as well as the process for clarifications and changes to design during the construction process.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 48 SWM000008 6.6.1 Design For the purposes of this constructability review the design has been broken down into four components – the four detention tanks, the dry pond, pipe network infrastructure, and the permeable asphalt roadworks. 6.6.1.1 Detention Tanks The four detention tanks in the system range from a depth of 3 m to 5 m, while their footprints range from 30 m2 to 900 m2. As these tanks are located underground they require significant excavation and installation of numerous soil anchors, it is highly recommended that an experienced civil contractor handles this facet. Walls of the tanks are proposed to be placed with shotcrete rather than conventional cast-in-place concrete. This enables a reduction to the amount of excavation required and allows for a smaller work site, which is beneficial considering fewer trees and other vegetation will need to be disturbed in the construction process due to the smaller footprint. The base of the tanks and columns will be conventional cast-in place. The tank lids, as well as the oil/grit separator tanks will be pre-cast for ease of installation purposes. The sizing of the pre-cast segments has been determined to ensure they can be transported on provincial roads with 53-foot tri-axle trailers without any special permits or pilot vehicle requirements. With the extensive amount of trucks and associated machinery involved in the construction of the detention tanks, it is recommended that the general contractor retains the services of a traffic management company. This is to ensure proper traffic flow and safety regulations are met. SMC engineering has not put forward a traffic management plan and has recommended that the contractor furthers on this aspect as it provides flexibility in terms of construction sequencing.   UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 49 SWM000008 6.6.1.2 Dry Pond The construction of the dry pond presents limited issues. The area in which the dry pond is to be constructed is clear of trees with adequate area around for the staging of equipment. The largest concern would likely be traffic management. However, with the proposed size of the pond being relatively small in comparison to the larger detention tanks, the traffic management should be typical of projects of similar nature. 6.6.1.3 Pipe Network Infrastructure Pipe network tie-ins are required to connect the detention tanks and dry pond to the existing stormwater system. Due to the sensitive and detailed nature of connecting to existing systems it is recommended a contractor with significant experience with this scope of work is selected to perform the work. Comprehensive coordination with the contractor will be required to convey information regarding existing utilities along where the new pipe is slated to be installed. Possible wet-tap connections will be required and the contractor will need to prepare a methodology statement that be approved by the client engineer at the time of construction. 6.6.1.4 Permeable Asphalt The permeable asphalt covers an extensive portion of UBC South Campus and will need to be performed in phases to minimise disruptions to regular traffic flow. The use of multiple phases will allow traffic management to be conducted in a more efficient manner, and reduce the amount of congestion during construction. A traffic management plan prepared by an engineer needs to be submitted and approved prior to construction. 6.6.2 Construction Schedule Breaking down the South Campus Stormwater Management System into the detention facilities system (detention tanks, dry pond, and pipe network infrastructure) and roadworks (permeable asphalt)  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 50 SWM000008 enables an aggressive approach with construction. Work on the detention facilities and the roadworks are both slated at the same time at the start of May. The resources and expertise required in the construction of the permeable asphalt is independent of that needed in the other processes required in the construction of the detention facilities; this facilitates the splitting of overall project scope and the multi-aspect start. For the detention facilities, items relating to the excavation and shoring relate to critical path. Delays in excavation of the sites will invariably lead to delays in the project. Emphasis during construction will be placed on the productivity of the excavation and shoring by potentially allocating a bonus % amount for finishing the excavation and concrete prior to a certain date. The critical path for the roadworks is the milling of the old asphalt. This means that although permeable asphalt may have a high learning curve for construction for a general contractor, there is room in the schedule to allow for this extension to work activities related to learning new methods for the permeable asphalt placing. 6.6.3 Drawings and Plans The detailed design drawings provide adequate instructions and guidance as to the construction of all facets of the South Campus Stormwater Management System. Relevant codes and standards have been followed to ensure construction processes, materials, and structures are to code. Should any issues arise in the plans from the client or contractors, the clarification and change process outlined in the next section should be followed. 6.6.4 Clarifications and Changes All queries regarding the design and drawings of the South Campus Stormwater Management from the selected general contracts and owners should be sent to the primary engineer (to be determined) from SMC Engineering assigned to the project. Queries should be submitted as formal  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 51 SWM000008 Requests for Information (RFI), and it is the responsibility of all parties to keep a log to track these documents. SMC Engineering will respond to all queries within a timely manner and notify all parties with the answered RFI. In the event of a change to design, SMC Engineering will issue a formal Construction Change Order (CCO) for review and signing of all parties. All parties must agree to, and sign off on the CCO before work that has been scheduled for change can proceed. The same process for keeping track of and notifying parties as used for RFIs will be used for CCOs.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 52 SWM000008 7.0  CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND PLANS A full compliment of construction drawings are readily available in the appendices. The drawings for detention facilities can be found in Appendix C and the drawings for the roadworks can be found in Appendix D. All construction drawings are based off the design work outlined in Section 6.0 – Analysis of Design.     UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 53 SWM000008 8.0  COST ESTIMATE The following section is intended to be read in conjunction with the cost estimates provided in Appendix J and Appendix K. Outlined is the general methodology, assumptions and parameters used to create the estimate for the identified solution. Table 9 summarizes the direct and indirect costs itemized by the Master Format 1995 divisions applicable to the project. Table 9: Direct and indirect construction costs Detention Facilities Cost Roadworks Cost Total Projects Cost($) ($) ($)Division 1: General Conditions 517,000 317,000 834,000Division 2: Sitework 1,466,000 2,896,000 4,362,000Division 3: Concrete 309,000 0 309,000Division 7: Thermal and Moisture Protection68,000 0 68,000Total Construction Direct & Indirect2,360,000 3,213,000 5,573,000Description <All dollar values are in 2016 CAD.> Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. Table 10 summarizes the construction; contractor; engineering, procurement, and project management (EPCM); and owner and contingency costs for the South Campus Stormwater Management Project.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 54 SWM000008 Table 10: Direct and indirect construction costs Detention Facilities Cost Roadworks Cost Total Projects Cost($) ($) ($)Total Construction Direct & Indirect 2,360,000 3,213,000 5,573,000Additional Contractor Direct & Indirect 248,000 337,000 585,000Contractor Overhead & Profit 521,000 711,000 1,232,000Engineering, Procurement, and Project Management (EPCM)375,000 511,000 886,000Total Owner and Contingency 788,000 1,074,000 1,862,000Total Initial Capital: Unescalated 4,292,000 5,846,000 10,138,000Description <All dollar values are in 2016 CAD.> Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. 8.1 Contracting Strategy Due the vast differences in scopes of work between the detention facilities (detention tanks and dry pond) and the roadworks (permeable asphalt), it is in recommended that UBC SEEDS tenders the two scopes of work as separate packages. Each contract is to be issued as a design-bid-build type and the entirety of the project work with respect to construction is deemed to be awarded to one general contractor per contract through an open tender system. Splitting the tenders allows for a more competitive bidding process due to the specialisations of general contractors in different fields of work. The dollar value of these proposed tenders are referred to as the “Total Project Direct and Indirect” value in the estimate summaries. The contractor direct and indirect costs have been calculated using a detailed bottom-up estimate. The estimate was developed using crews, equipment, supervision, and material specific to each of the construction tasks. Other associated costs with the project such as design engineering and site investigations have been estimated using percentages of the total project direct and indirect costs. These Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Management (EPCM)  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 55 SWM000008 percentages were based on historical cost relations between project direct and indirect costs and overall owner cost. Lastly, an allowance for owners cost and contingency has been established. The owner’s costs have been set to 7.5% of the total project costs and this is based on relative market rates for owners’ costs on similar scope projects in Canada. SMC Engineering recommends an owner’s contingency of 15% for covering scope risk and quantity growth that is allocated based on unknown information beyond the control of SMC Engineering. 8.2 Estimate Methodology The goal of this cost estimate is to provide the client with a reasonable dollar value of expected capital expenditure in the year 2016. Therefore, the estimate was developed in a manner which simulated a contractor bidding on the proposed project in an organized, experienced, and competitive environment. The majority of the estimate was developed from the bottom up, also known as “first principles”. However, allowances have been made for items such as small tools consumption, first aid supplies, traffic management, and general personal protective equipment (PPE) costs. The following is a summary of the labour rates utilized in developing the estimate; an assumed 50-minute effective working hour factor has been included in these rates.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 56 SWM000008 Table 11: Summary of labour rates Base Rate Benefits WCB Vacation EI + CPP + Government Total Rate($/hr) (%) (%) (%) (%) ($/hr)Labour 1 22.00 10 4 4 6.5 32.87Labour 2 24.20 10 4 4 6.5 36.15Labour 3 26.62 10 4 4 6.5 39.77Skilled Labour 1 27.00 10 4 4 6.5 40.34Skilled Labour 2 29.70 10 4 4 6.5 44.37Skilled Labour 3 32.67 10 4 4 6.5 48.81Operator 1 30.00 10 4 4 6.5 44.82Operator 2 33.00 10 4 4 6.5 49.30Operator 3 36.30 10 4 4 6.5 54.23Title <All dollar values are in 2016 CAD.> Source: Table. Herman Gill. Dec 2, 2015. Material rates have been verified by quotations from previous projects of similar size and scope. Equipment rates have been calculated using information provided by contractors and cannot be released due to confidentiality reasons. Rental rates for equipment not owned by the typical general contractor in the Lower Mainland, such as concrete pump trucks, have been taken from the B.C. Road Builders & Heavy Construction Association’s Blue Book Equipment Rental Rate Guide. GST and PST has been excluded from this estimate. 8.3 Quantities All quantities taken for the estimate are based on the construction drawings and detailed engineering calculations included within this document. Consideration has been made to standardized construction practices and is reflected within the quantities surveyed.      UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 57 SWM000008 9.0  CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE This section on the construction schedule is intended to be read in conjunction with the schedules provided in Appendix L and Appendix M. Provided are the details on the documents, assumptions and methods utilized to produce the schedules for the detention facilities (detention tanks and dry pond) and roadworks (permeable asphalt). The projects’ construction milestones are summarized below in Table 12 and Table 13. Table 12: Detention facilities construction milestones Description of Task DateConstruction Start Date May 2, 2016Project Completion (No Contingency) October 24, 2016Contingency Duration 10 Working DaysProject Completion Including Contingency November 7, 2016Detention Facilities Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. Table 13: Roadworks construction milestones Description of Task DateConstruction Start Date May 2, 2016Project Completion (No Contingency) July 14, 2016Contingency Duration 5 Working DaysProject Completion Including Contingency July 21, 2016Roadworks Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. 9.1 Development and Background The provided schedules outline the estimated duration and sequencing of construction for the recommended solution. The schedule was developed based in part on the productivities which calculated the cost of construction as shown in Appendix J and Appendix K. Line items which did not have productivities to reference from were based on construction experience of both Herman Gill and  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 58 SWM000008 David Grant who have worked extensively with roadwork, excavations, and concrete structures in the past four years. The project schedule is broken into two packages (detention facilities and roadworks) due to the conclusion that the scopes of work in each package are different enough for the work to be bid on and constructed separately. Further discussion on this can be reviewed Section 8.1 – Contracting Strategy. 9.2 Work Breakdown Structure and Construction Sequencing The work breakdown structure (WBS) of the schedule is reflective of all the significant components required to complete the construction of the project. Due care was taken to ensure that the WBS was reflective of the scope of work during construction to assist in the client in visualization of the construction process. The WBS for the overall project indicates two separate streams of construction, (1) the detention facilities and (2) the roadworks. The two streams are independent of one another and delays in one will not affect the timeline of completion for the other. However, because the detention tanks and dry pond comprise of a significantly longer duration, it is evidently the critical path for the South Campus Stormwater Management Project. 9.2.1 Detention Facilities The WBS for the detention facilities splits the project down into main components and phases consisting of Phase 1 - Tank A, Phase 2 - Tank B, Phase 3 - Dry Pond, Phase 4 - Tank C, and Phase 5 - Tank D. The associated start and end dates can be seen in the table below, and a visualisation can be viewed in Appendix L.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 59 SWM000008 Table 14: Detention facilities phasing dates Description of Task Start Date End DateTotal Project (No Contingency) May 2, 2016 October 24, 2016Total Project Including Contingency May 2, 2016 November 7, 2016Phase 1 - Tank A May 2, 2016 May 17, 2016Phase 2 - Tank B May 18, 2016 June 29, 2016Phase 3 - Dry Pond June 8, 2016 June 23, 2016Phase 4 - Tank C June 27, 2016 July 20, 2016Phase 5 - Tank D July 11, 2016 October 21, 2016Detention Facilities - Phases Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. These phases were chosen based on the work cycles and repetitive systems within each section, and based on a critical path following excavation activities. 9.2.2 Roadworks The roadworks portion of work has a WBS that reflects five different phases. These phases were selected to distribute the work intro manageable and logical sequence packages. Critical path to these phases is the milling of existing asphalt. The start and end dates of the phases can be seen in Table 15; the visual representation of the phases are in Appendix M. Table 15: Roadworks phasing dates Description of Task Start Date End DateTotal Project (No Contingency) May 2, 2016 July 14, 2016Total Project Including Contingency May 2, 2016 July 21, 2016Phase 1 May 3, 2016 May 26, 2016Phase 2 May 18, 2016 June 10, 2016Phase 3 June 3, 2016 June 27, 2016Phase 4 June 20, 2016 July 13, 2016Roadworks - Phases Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 60 SWM000008 9.3 Efficiencies and Contingencies The schedules, at this detailed stage of design, are deemed accurate and representative as to the planning and coordination of work activities based on the evaluation of SMC Engineering. However, upon discussions with general contractors in the bidding process, further efficiencies may arise and time may be saved on the schedules due to the experience of the contractors in this type of work. For the purposes of the SMC Engineering schedules it has been assumed that the contractor(s) will be working sequentially on all tasks, and as per the UBC guidelines stated in Section 6.3 – Regulatory Analysis, from Monday to Friday 7:30 am to 5:00 pm excluding holidays.  While every reasonable effort has been made to mitigate risk, uncertainties are unavoidable and the potential for risk has been built into the schedule. In an attempt to include the uncertainties within the schedule, a schedule contingency was derived. First, a total dollar per day cost for the construction work was established based on the total direct and indirect costs of the project. Next, it was assumed that 50% of the owners’ contingency would be allocated toward schedule risk. Finally, the dollar value of the schedule contingency was divided by the dollar per day cost of construction to establish an estimated schedule contingency accounted for in the total initial capital cost. The resulting contingencies for the detention facilities and roadworks can be seen below in Table 16. Table 16: Project schedule contingencies Item Description Detention Facilities RoadworksDollar Per Day Construction Cost October 18, 1970 May 6, 2124Schedule Contingency Cost July 9, 2619 November 22, 2879Schedule Contingency Duration 10 Days 5 DaysSchedule Contingency Source: Table. David Grant. March 31, 2016. These contingencies have been reflected in the schedules and, conservatively, added to the total duration of the critical paths.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 61 SWM000008 It is important to note that this schedule was developed based on the assumption that work would begin at the start of May, 2016. The schedule does not account for delays associated with a change in start date. It should be noted that the delay of the start of construction could move the roadworks and prolong completion due to restrictions on paving in cold or wet weather and restrictions on traffic management during months where the fall and winter semesters are in session.      UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 62 SWM000008 10.0  DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS In order to come up with a further refined solution, the proposed design can be further developed with additional geotechnical and seismic information either through site investigations approved by the owner or previous documented analysis that has yet to be released to SMC Engineering. Prior to commencement of design of any project, a geotechnical investigation is normally carried to interpret the surface conditions for design purposes. However, a lack of relevant geotechnical information has been provided by the client and hence it is difficult to ensure that assumed design values are accurate enough for a typical detailed design level study. Component to the geotechnical analysis would be the seismic analysis of the support columns. Once again, because of difficulties ensuring the assumed design values for the geotechnical parameters are accurate, it is of little value to attempt a seismic analysis on how the columns will behave during large subduction earthquakes.  It is in the client’s best interest, and a serious recommendation of SMC Engineering, to perform a geotechnical evaluation of the locations where the proposed tanks are to be placed. The geotechnical study conducted in this report has been heavily based on the available geotechnical information centered around Wesbrook Mall and Agronomy Road, which required significant interpolation. The data collected from the interpolation may cause the stormwater retention tanks to be over or under designed. information surrounding the soil conditions, loading histories and water table locations will undoubtedly enhance the planning and development of the design.  UBC South Campus is prone to earthquake activities and the lack of seismic soil interaction information has hindered the seismic safety analysis which plays a role in the design life of the project as well. Seismic loading analysis need to be considered to ensure the longevity of the detention tanks. Excessive ground movements overtime can damage the underground detention tanks and could potentially crack the precast concrete panels or result in columns failing in flexure. When the tanks are  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 63 SWM000008 near capacity, the cracks have the potential of further expanding and weakening the structural integrity of the tanks such that the factor of safety falls below 1, resulting in a collapse. SMC Engineering recommends conducting field vibration measurements that would allow the correlation of seismic activity to the structural parameters for the detention tank material. In addition, an appropriate soil-detention tank modeling experiment is recommended to study the effects of seismic activity on tanks in empty and half-capacity situations. The combination of the described recommendations for the seismic design would assist in determining whether the design is capable of continued performance after a large seismic event.      UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 64 SWM000008 11.0 CONCLUSION The level of effort put into this study results in a sophisticated multi-faceted design solution completed to a level of detail that allows the tendering process to be undertaken. The design mitigates the risks regarding the 1 in 10 and 1 in 100-year storm event while providing added benefits by decreasing lifecycle costs for existing infrastructure and rehabilitating the natural hydrological cycle. The design solution consists of underground detention tanks A, B, C and D, a dry pond, and a system of road upgrades with use of permeable asphalt. The total project direct and indirect costs are estimated to be $5,573,000 and the construction is estimated to take 121 days.    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 65 SWM000008 REFERENCES Boyer, B., & Hensley, J. (1999). Life-Cycle Performance. Retrieved from http://cimlinepmg.com/files/education/Life_Cycle_Performance%20of%20Asphalt.pdf Brzev, S., & Pao, J. (2006). Reinforced concrete design: A practical approach. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall.  Credit Valley Conservation. (2010). Low Impact Development Stormwater Management Planning and Design Guide. Retrieved from http://www.creditvalleyca.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/LID-SWM-Guide-v1.0_2010_1_no-appendices.pdf Davenport, J. (2006). The Ecology of Transportation: Managing Mobility for the Environment. Springer Netherlands Environment Canada. (2014) Short Duration Rainfall Intensity – Duration – Frequency Data. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.tor.ec.gc.ca/Pub/Engineering_Climate_Dataset/IDF/IDF_v2.30_2014-12-21/IDF_Files__Fichiers/ EPA. (2014). Porous Asphalt Pavement. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/npdes/swbmp/Porous-Asphalt-Pavement.cfm GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. (2013). Ubc Stormwater Model System Analysis, Detention Analysis and System Optimization. Retrieved from UBC Connect. Government of Canada. (2015). Canada Water Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-11). Retrieved from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-11/page-8.html#h-12 Harvest H20. (n.d). Comparing Rainwater Storage Options. Retrieved from http://www.harvesth2o.com/rainwaterstorage.shtml  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016 66 SWM000008 Metro Vancouver. (2014). Integrated Liquid Waste Resource Management Plan. Retrieved from http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/liquid waste/LiquidWastePublications/ IntegratedLiquidWasteResourceManagementPlan.pdf Metro Vancouver. (2007). Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District Sewer Use Bylaw No. 299, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.metrovancouver.org/boards/Bylaws1/ GVSDD_Bylaw_299.pdf#search="164" National Precast Concrete Association. (2011). Precast Concrete Stormwater Management Structures. Retrieved from http://precast.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Precast-Concrete-Stormwater-Management-Technical-Brochure.pdf PUB. (n.d.). On-site Stormwater Detention Tank Systems. Retrieved from http://www.pub.gov.sg/ managingflashfloods/FMS/Documents/detentionTank.pdf State of Connecticut. (2004). Connecticut Stormwater Quality Manual. Retrieved from http://www.ct.gov/deep/lib/deep/water_regulating_and_discharges/stormwater/manual/CH11_PP_S 6.pdf University of British Columbia. (2013). UBC’s Integrated Stormwater Management Plan. Retrieved from UBC Connect. University of British Columbia. (2012). University Neighbourhoods Associate Bylaws for Noise Control and Enforcement and Disputes. Retrieved from http://bog2.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2012/09/ 3.2_2012.09_UNA-Bylaws1.pdf UBC Technical Guidelines. (2015) Storm Drainage. Retrieved from http://www.technicalguidelines.ubc.ca/Division_2/2015_Division_2_PDFs/02720-2015_Storm_Drainage.pdf Urban Systems. (2011). Overland Flow Route Assessment. Retrieved from UBC Connect.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX A – UBC INTEGRATED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN (2015) DOCUMENT SUMMARY   UBC INTEGRATED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN November 4, 2015 1 SMC Engineering UBC ISMP (2015) REPORT SUMMARY SMC Engineering has reviewed UBC’s Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (2015) for information pertinent to the design of the South Campus Stormwater Management System. Excerpts of information from the report that are relevant are as follows:  The ISMP outlines the main objectives of stormwater management design to be: 1. Protection of campus assets from flooding, safeguard human life, prevention of overland flooding and downstream erosion across the cliffs. 2. Meet or exceed existing provincial and federal policies and standards. Protect the campus environmental values and minimise the impact of campus discharge on neighbouring watercourses. 3. Maintain or preferably enhance water quality at its boundaries at a level that meets or exceeds best practices for urbanized municipalities. 4. Incorporate the natural hydrologic cycle and natural systems approach into the long term planning and design of the stormwater system. Existing stormwater policy content from UBC to review, study, and implement:  Sustainable Development Policy #6  OCP (1997)  The Comprehensive Community Plan (2000)  Vancouver Campus Plan (2008)  20-year Sustainability Strategy The ISMP requires the implementation of the following laws and regulations:  Water Act and the Environmental Management Act (BC Government)  Integrated Liquid Waste Management and Resource Plan (Metro Van) Multiple actions are recommended for implementation of new stormwater management systems:  Build detention facilities with capacities to manage the 100-year storm event adjacent to the discharge locations: Chancellor/Marine Intersection, South Campus, spot locations within campus.  Include oil/grit separators to minimize particulate matter released into the environment  Ensure developments minimize the stormwater that leaves the site and manage the outflow rates to lower levels in order to minimise the erosive forces on the discharges UBC INTEGRATED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN  November 4, 2015 2 SMC Engineering  Re-establish monitoring of the discharges for quantity and quality through the installation of data recording equipment and periodic water sampling/testing. Information and guidance on the current conditions are also provided:  Catchment areas o The 16th Avenue catchment: Catchment collects the stormwater from Main Mall, south of Agronomy Road, 16th Avenue, west of Wesbrook, a portion of the sports fields (including Thunderbird Stadium) and the Botanical Gardens. The primary discharge point is a seasonal creek located at the cliffs, within Pacific Spirit Park. Some of the drainage from the Botanical Gardens discharges through an adjacent creek. o West or Trail 7 Catchment: Catchment includes Thunderbird Park, Hawthorn Place, Totem Park Residence, and the UBC Botanical Gardens; The West Catchment outfall is the stream at Trail 7. o South Campus catchment: Catchment drains most the area south of 16th Avenue, as well as a portion of the Athletics Fields and the Hampton and Acadia neighbourhoods. A portion of the residential system component drains into a detention facility in Nobel Park before being released into the UBC storm system. The storm drainage is collected into a single pipe that leaves the campus boundary and discharges to the ditch that runs along the east side of the Ministry of Transportation Infrastructure Marine Drive corridor. The ditch has a culvert that crosses the driving lanes of the road and discharges the water into Booming Ground Creek. In the event of higher storm flows, approximately 20% of the flows will discharge to an unnamed creek to the north of Booming Ground creek. A detention facility may need to be sized in such a way that the release rate for a larger storm is limited to the culvert limit. The tank will need to detain 2500 to 3000 cubic meters of water, while limiting the release rate to approximately 1.2 cubic meters per second. The ISMP provides additional constraints and guidance in the development of solutions:  For natural creeks the measures to mitigate the effects of large flows through them should occur on campus rather than on Metro Vancouver or MOTI lands  No infiltration within 300m of the top of the cliffs  Wells into lower aquifer not plausible due to contamination and reactions with heavy metals leading to maintenance  Outfalls not preferred due to extra stakeholder engagement and legal issues  Roads are primary source of stormwater contaminants  Stormwater re-use systems not feasible due to unreasonable payback costs  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX B – CALCULATED FLOOD LOCATION DATA   1 SMC Engineering Calculated Flood Location Data   Summary of Flood Locations with Calculated Data    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX C – DESIGN SCHEMATICS: DETENTION FACILITIES  1:100 Year Flood LevelFor sub grade, see Note 4For outflow pipe, see Note 3For inflow pipe, see Note 3Dry Pond Elevation - South Face1:100 Year Flood LevelFor sub grade, see Note 7For Berms, See Note 5Dry Pond Elevation - West FaceFor inflow pipe, see Note 3For outflow pipe, see Note 3Dry Pond Site PlanFor Berms, See Note 5Downstream Filter, See Note 230000100020001000153°1000010002000153°14000100003000034000SEEDS2016-04-05N/AD1Note 2: Outflowfilter details TBDNote 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGDRY PONDELEVATION AND Note 3: Inflow and outflow channels dimensions TBDNote 4: Gradeelevation for dry pond to be levelledSITE PLANby landscapingNote 5: Bermsdimensions TBDNote 6: Drawingis issued for tenderNote 7: Retainexisting subgradeSEEDS2016-04-05N/AD2Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK ASITE PLANNote 2: Rock anchors groutspecs TBDNote 3: Drawingis issued fortenderAll rock anchors Typ.For column details, see DWG 13Inflow pipeOutflow pipe145x145mm ColumnsShotcrete wall details,see DWG 146000500015020002500200060003000250050003000SEEDS2016-04-05N/AD3Note 2: Anchordetails are shown in D14Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK AElevationNote 3: Rock anchors groutspecs TBDNote 4: Drawingis issued fortender1000200020014515010010002000200145150100Manhole AccessManhole AccessFor subgrade designSee Note 2Overburden soilOverburden soilFor Rock Anchors, See Note 2For Rock Anchors, See Note 2ELEVATION DRAWING (SOUTH FACE OF TANK)ELEVATION DRAWING (EAST FACE OF TANK)InflowPipeOutflowPipeInflowPipeOutflowPipe2000SEEDS2016-04-05N/AD4Note 2: Anchordetails are shownin DWG14Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK BSITE PLANNote 3: Rock anchors groutspecs TBDNote 4: Drawingis issued fortenderShotcrete wall details,see DWG 14For column details, see D13400016000160004000Cast in place columnsInflow pipe dim. TBDOutflow pipe dim. TBDSEEDS2016-04-05N/AD5Note 2: Anchordetails are shownin DWG14Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK BElevationNote 3: Rock anchors groutspecs TBDNote 4: Drawingis issued fortenderELEVATION DRAWING (WEST FACE OF TANK)10016000200010001601004000300For Rock Anchors, See Note 2For Rock Anchors, See Note 2Outflow Pipe Inflow PipeFor subgrade designSee Note 2For subgrade designSee Note 2ELEVATION DRAWING (SOUTH FACE OF TANK)160001000200040003001609000900030003000150Inflow pipeOutflow pipeFor column details, see DWG13Shotcrete wall details,see DWG14All rock anchors Typ.150x150mm ColumnsSEEDS2016-04-05N/AD6Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK CSITE PLANNote 2: Rock anchors groutspecs TBDNote 4: Drawingis issued fortenderFor subgrade designSee Note 2OutflowPipeInflowPipeFor Rock Anchors, See Note 2For Rock Anchors, See Note 2Overburden soilOverburden soilManhole AccessManhole AccessELEVATION DRAWING (WEST FACE OF TANK)ELEVATION DRAWING (SOUTH FACE OF TANK)InflowPipeOutflowPipe1000SEEDS2016-04-05N/AD7Note 2: Anchordetails are shownin DWG14Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK CElevationNote 3: Rock anchors groutspecs TBDNote 4: Drawingis issued for tender2000250150 300015010010002000250150 3000150100SEEDS700030000200030003000150x150 mm Column (Typ.)For column details, see DWG13Shotcrete wall details,see DWG142016-04-05N/AD8Note 2: Anchordetails are shownin DWG14Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK DSITE PLANNote 3: Rock anchors groutspecs TBDFor Rock Anchors, See Note 2 and 3Note 4: Drawingis issued fortenderAll  anchors typ.150Inflow pipe dimensions TBDOutflow pipe dimensions TBDCast in placeconcrete columnsSEEDS2016-04-05N/AD9Note 2: DesignDimensions are to be decidedNote 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGTANK DELEVATION PLANNote 3: Drawingis issued fortenderNote 4: Subgradecompaction TBDELEVATION DRAWING (EAST FACE OF TANK)For Inflow PipeSee Note 2For Outflow PipeSee Note 2ELEVATION DRAWING (NORTH FACE OF TANK)Manhole Access Manhole AccessOverburden Soil For Subgrade Design, see Note 4For Rock Anchors, See Note 2For Inflow PipeSee Note 230300100015030030001501001502000For Inflow PipeSee Note 2For Outflow PipeSee Note 2Manhole Access Manhole AccessOverburden Soil For Subgrade Design, see Note 4For Rock Anchors, See Note 23030010001503003000150100150200020M @ 60mm15M @ 30mm15M @ 80mm 15M @ 80mmTANK A TANK CTANK B TANK D15M @ 500mm15M @ 400mm15M @ 330mm15M @ 330mmSEEDS2016-04-05N/AD11Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGCEILING SLABCROSS SECTIONSNote 2: Drawingis issued fortenderTANK A TANK CTANK B TANK D15M @ 1000mm 15M @ 1000mm15M @ 1000mm15M @ 1000mm25M @ 135mm25M @ 135mm 10M @ 175mm10M @ 30mmSEEDS2016-04-05N/AD12Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGFLOOR SLABCROSS SECTIONSNote 2: Drawingis issued fortenderCross sections are typical for all tank columns8-15M8-25M8-30M8-25M10M @ 400mm10M @ 400mm10M @ 400mm 10M @ 240mm145 150160 145SEEDS2016-04-05N/AD13Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGCONCRETE CROSS SECTIONSNote 2: Drawingis issued for tenderTANK A TANK CTANK BTANK DCOLUMN2000300300Cast in place concrete floor slab20001250SEEDS2016-04-05N/AD14Note 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGROCK ANCHORDETAILSNote 2: Drawingis issued for tender1875Section typicalfor all rock anchorson Tank BNote 3: Groutspecification areTBDOverburden soils6" thick shotcretewall withdouble-wiredmeshFor tank elevationdetails, see DrawingsD9,D5,D7,D1675°75°12500120151500 UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX D – DESIGN SCHEMATICS: ROADWORKS  4" paved permeable asphalt150mm compacted granular baseNilex Roadrain, For details, see Appendix F250Fill with drainrock Note 5: For NilexRoadrain detail,see Appendix FSEEDS2016-04-05N/AD1Note 2: Roadsection is typicalNote 1: Dimensionare in milimetresSMCENGINEERINGROADWAYSECTIONNote 3: Subgrade dimensions anddetails TBDNote 4: Drawingis not Issued forConstructionSubgrade details TBD, see Note 3Dimensions Vary depending on road width UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX E – ARMTEC OIL/WATER SEPARATOR PRODUCT INFORMATION  _ARMTEC.COMOIL/WATERSEPARATION PRODUCTSOUR DEDICATED, TEAM OF ENGINEERS AND TECHNICAL EXPERTS WILL HELP YOU SELECT THE RIGHT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET YOUR REGULATIONS. WE ARE COMMITTED TO PRESERVING WATER RESOURCES BY PROVIDING CUSTOM, SITE-SPECIFIC STORMWATER TREATMENT SOLUTIONS.Improved performanceLow costEasy maintenance DurableDRAINAGE SOLUTIONS AND WATER TREATMENT/ STORMWATER TREATMENT - DETENTION SYSTEMS_OIL/WATER SEPARATION SYSTEMSArmtec’s stormwater management product line includes a variety of effective oil/water separation systems. Oil exists on impervious surfaces in a variety of forms: emulsified, free, attached to solids, or soluble. CONTECH Stormwater Solutions by Armtec help you meet regulations by capturing oil in stormwater and keep it on-site, away from the environmentTreatment systems remove trash, oil, heavy metals and other contaminants from surface drainage. Systems are installed in conjunction with a stormwater collection system, and are designed to meet site-specific flow, removal efficiency and target particle size requirements.Why Oil/Water Separation?• Oil spill risk management• Meets secondary containment requirements • Effective NPDES stormwater BMP• Oil spill prevention, control and countermeasure (SPCC) technologyThe Oil Stop Valve reduces the risk of catastrophic oil spills being released from your site. The fully adjustable float accommodates any oil type, oil depth, or alarm condition. A simple mechanism, few moving parts, and corrosion resistant stainless steel construction ensure long product life.How does it work?In a spill situation, free oil and stormwater flow into the manhole containment structure through the storm drain pipe inlet and stop valve. While the floating oil accumulates on the water surface in the structure, clean water exits through the skimmer pipe. As the layer of oil gets thicker, the stainless steel float, calibrated to the density of water, begins to sink in the lighter oil.When the accumulated oil reaches a predetermined depth, the float sinks, which triggers the lever and closes the stop valve. The closed valve prevents additional oil or stormwater from flowing through the structure and leaving the site until the unit is reset.TYPICAL APPLICATIONS• Utilities• Transformer yards• Bulk oil tank farms• Oil pipeline facilities• Truck loading racks• Locomotive fueling areas• Commercial filling stations• Maintenance facilitiesTARGET POLLUTANTS• Oil and grease• FuelKEY FACTS - OIL STOP VALVES• Uses existing storm drains and pipes as secondary containment modular manhold design simplifies installation• Requires no electrical power to operate, and only periodic inspection• Stainless steel materials and passive design with only one moving part ensures reliability• Acts as a standalone structure or works well in conjunction with an upstream oil/water separator such   as the VortClarex™ featured on the opposite page• Needs no operator adjustment         or monitoring• Is virtually maintenance freeOIL STOP VALVES__STOP VALVEMANHOLESTORM DRAININLET PIPESTAINLESSSTEEL FLOATACCUMULATED OILSKIMMER PIPEOUTLET PIPEOil Stop Valve_OIL/WATER SEPARATION SYSTEMSVortClarex™ employs innovative coalescing media to remove free oil from contaminated stormwater flows and help site owners comply with regulations. The system is ideally suited for sites where specific effluent targets are specified, or for sites where removal of oil and grease is the greatest concern. Conventional oil/water separators provide gravity separation by using baffles or T-sections, but are only effective on oil droplets greater than 150 microns. The VortClarex™ coalescing media maximizes surface area, increasing performance and effluent quality. It is typically sized to remove oil droplets as small as 60 microns, and achieve an effluent concentration of 10 mg/L or less. The VortClarex™ coalescing media is housed within a precast concrete vault. Unlike other oil/water separators constructed of fiberglass or steel, it does not require anti-floatation hold down straps or concrete traffic collars. Maintaining the system is easy using a standard water hose and vacuum truck, and the media can be cleaned either inside or outside the structure.How does it work?Flows enter the VortClarex™ system via a non-clog diffuser and are distributed across the chamber width. The influent passes over a solids baffle wall where settleable solids drop out, reducing the amount of solids in the flow as it enters the coalescing media. As the flow passes through the media, oily pollutants accumulate on the surface and come into contact with others to form larger, more buoyant droplets. These buoyant droplets rise upward through the media and are released near the water surface. The oil is trapped behind the outlet T-pipe, and treated water exits the system.KEY FACTS - VORTCLAREX™• Removes up to 99.9% of free oil• Releases effluent with a quality in the range of 10mg/L or less• Installs and maintains easily• Non-turbulent flow-through system increases separation• Minimal site work requires no hold down straps• Precast concrete structure ensures durabilityVORTCLAREX™HATCHMANHOLEINLET PIPENON-CLOGDIFFUSERSOLIDS BAFFLE WALLCOALESCING MEDIAOUTLET T-PIPEOUTLET PIPEVortclarex™ Vortclarex™ installation in progressArmtec / Drainage Solutions and Water Treatment / Stormwater Treatment - Detention Systems / Oil-Water Separation Systems | 2014-01PROD-C02-G09-Oil/Water-PG-01-E1-877-5-ARMTEC  |  ARMTEC.COMArmtec is a leading Canadian infrastructure and construction materials company combining creative engineered solutions, relevant advice, dedicated people, proven products and a national presence with  a local focus on exceptional customer service.Drawings and product details are for information  and/or illustrative purposes only and may vary. Please  contact your Armtec representative for the most  current product information._OIL/WATER SEPARATION SYSTEMSAVAILABLE MODELSDimensions Typical Sump DepthTreatment Flow Recommended Pipe SizeInlet/OutletVortClarex ft m ft m gpm lps in mmVCL30 6 x 3 1.8 x 0.9 3.75 1.14 110 6.9 6 150VCL40 8 x 4 2.4 x 1.2 3.75 1.14 150 9.6 6 150VCL60-1 12 x 6 3.7 x 1.8 3.58 1.09 225 14.2 8 200VCL60-2 12 x 6 3.7 x 1.8 3.58 1.09 440 27.7 10 250VCL80-1 16 x 8 4.9 x 2.4 3.25 0.99 300 18.9 12 300VCL80-2 16 x 8 4.9 x 2.4 3.42 1.03 620 39.1 12 300VCL80-3 16 x 8 4.6 x 2.4 3.42 1.03 880 55.5 12 300Diameter Typical Depth(Below Invert)TreatmentCapacityMax SizeInlet/OutletOil Stop Valve ft mm ft m gpm lps in mmOSV100† - - 100 6.3OSV148 4 1.22 4 1.22 100 6.3 4 102OSV160 5 1.52 4 1.22 100 6.3 4 102OSV300† - - 280 17.7OSV360 5 1.52 5 1.52 280 17.7 6 152OSV372 6 1.83 5 1.52 280 17.7 6 152OSV500† - - 500 31.5OSV560 5 1.52 5 1.52 500 31.5 8 203OSV572 6 1.83 5 1.52 500 31.5 8 203NOTE• Use this table to identify the appropriate configuration for         your site• Our engineers are available to assist you with your project†This model includes valve only, no structure UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX F – NILEX ROADRAIN PRODUCT INFORMATION  None Art Director  Project Mgr Client Proof Reader 1 Proof Reader 2Page No.InksPlaced Graphics Mode Eff ResJob No.ClientDescriptionTrimLive AreaBleedPrinted onCycle User NameLast SavedFontsFile NameFile PathPrinted ScaleFolded SizeGutter SizeFolded PanelsMadawaska-ME-9.tif  RGB  150 ppi  100% DSC00038.JPG  RGB  360 ppi  20% ORANGE_GRADIENT_BACK_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% ORANGE_GRADIENT_FRONT_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% Tensar_Logo_Red_CMYK.eps  100% TNSR_SYS_ROADDRAIN_WHT.eps  114.07% Tensar_Logo_White.eps  107.26% three_part_grouping.psd  RGB  480 ppi  62.45% Drainage_beneath_pavement.ai  100% Drainage_design.eps  55% RoadDrain_illo 2.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% RoadDrain_illo.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% IMG02.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100% big drainage problem.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100%74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMacintosh HD:Users:freelance:Desktop:74516:74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMechanical172.44% CX700_ProcessStore Production Notes:Allen WG5-29-2012 4:54 PM 1NoneNoneNone74516 ETensar Cyan Magenta Yellow Black PMS 469 CKlavika (OpenType; Regular, Bold, Light, Medium, Medium Italic, Regular Italic)RoaDrain Trifold24.75" w x 11" h24.75" w x 11" h25" w x 11.25" hFeatured ProjectsTensar International Corporation2500 Northwinds Parkway, Suite 500Alpharetta, Georgia 30009800-TENSAR-1tensarcorp.comSYSTEM OVERVIEWROADWAY  DRAINAGE SYSTEM©2012, Tensar International Corporation. Certain products and/or applications described or illustrated herein are protected under one or more U.S. patents. Other U.S. patents are pending, and certain foreign patents and patent applications may also exist. Trademark rights also apply as indicated herein. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, and its manner of use, is the sole responsibility of the user. Printed in the U.S.A. RD_BRO_5.12Distributed by:SHELL CANADA AIRPORT STRIP,  ATHABASCA SANDS, CANADAThe Challenge: The airport strip was built on top of problematic silty soils. Due to the presence of a high groundwater table and low temperatures, frost heave was a significant concern.The Solution: RoaDrain™ RD-7, a high strength drainage geocomposite with tri-planar structure, was selected for its ability to support heavy loads and its long-term high drainage capacity. The RoaDrain RD-7 benefits were immediately obvious as it removed water from the pavement structure while providing excellent compressive strength. RoaDrain RD-7 also provided a capillary break and separation between the subgrade and base course. The project was completed ahead of schedule and below budget.HIGHWAY 35 ROAD RECONSTRUCTION, OWATONNA, MINNESOTAThe Challenge: Significant deformation and rutting of the roadway surface was observed shortly after the initial construction of this roadway section. Limited excavation revealed that underground springs and perched water within sand lenses were saturating the subgrade and  road base materials, thereby compromising the structural integrity of the roadway.The Solution: The RoaDrain product was specified due  to its ability to efficiently collect water and provide total coverage of the road section. It was determined that the collection capacity and high flow rate of RoaDrain would be sufficient to keep the base aggregates dry and that the compressive strength of RoaDrain would be sufficient for long term serviceability and short-term installation stresses.BODEGA HIGHWAY,  SONOMA COUNTY, CALIFORNIAThe Challenge: Bodega Highway is located half a mile east of the Bohemian Highway in Sonoma County. The roadways in this area are prone to water intrusion. In the winter, the road tends to freeze causing a serious hazard.The Solution: The Sonoma County Public Works Depart-ment elected to use the engineered solution of RoaDrain. The RoaDrain layer between the aggregate base and the silty subgrade soils provided an excellent drainage path.  It also provided separation and strength to the pavement section. The RoaDrain product effectively removed the water from the roadway, thus creating a safer road.SOUTHWEST PARKWAY, AUSTIN, TEXASThe Challenge: A six lane stretch of Southwest Parkway underwent a major redesign and reconstruction. A 2,940 foot section in the middle of the problematic roadway  was exposed to underground water that infiltrated its structural base course. This saturation contributed to premature failure of the pavement.The Solution: The RoaDrain Roadway Drainage System was specified under the base course as a drainage  conduit to channel the groundwater to a collection system. The RoaDrain solution has proven to deliver  a valuable performance aspect to the reconstructed highway design section. None Art Director  Project Mgr Client Proof Reader 1 Proof Reader 2Page No.InksPlaced Graphics Mode Eff ResJob No.ClientDescriptionTrimLive AreaBleedPrinted onCycle User NameLast SavedFontsFile NameFile PathPrinted ScaleFolded SizeGutter SizeFolded PanelsMadawaska-ME-9.tif  RGB  150 ppi  100% DSC00038.JPG  RGB  360 ppi  20% ORANGE_GRADIENT_BACK_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% ORANGE_GRADIENT_FRONT_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% Tensar_Logo_Red_CMYK.eps  100% TNSR_SYS_ROADDRAIN_WHT.eps  114.07% Tensar_Logo_White.eps  107.26% three_part_grouping.psd  RGB  480 ppi  62.45% Drainage_beneath_pavement.ai  100% Drainage_design.eps  55% RoadDrain_illo 2.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% RoadDrain_illo.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% IMG02.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100% big drainage problem.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100%74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMacintosh HD:Users:freelance:Desktop:74516:74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMechanical172.44% CX700_ProcessStore Production Notes:Allen WG5-29-2012 4:54 PM 2NoneNoneNone74516 ETensar Cyan Magenta Yellow Black PMS 469 CKlavika (OpenType; Regular, Bold, Light, Medium, Medium Italic, Regular Italic)RoaDrain Trifold24.75" w x 11" h24.75" w x 11" h25" w x 11.25" hThe RoaDrain product is a synthetic subsurface drainage layer (SSDL) comprised of a tri-planar structure with thermally bonded nonwoven geotextile filters on both sides. ˴ Nonwoven geotextile offers separation and filtration ˴  Tri-planar geonet core ensures a void-maintaining structure with high compressive strengthWater retention within a pavement layer is a primary cause of pavement failure. Without adequate underlying drainage, a pavement section is likely to fail prematurely. When an open-graded aggregate base layer is specified, there can be challenges with the migration of fines from the subgrade. The RoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System from Tensar International Corporation (Tensar) is the engineered solution that consists of a synthetic subsurface drainage layer (SSDL) providing a flow rate up to five times greater than a typical open-graded base layer. The product features a tri-planar geonet core with durable, nonwoven geotextile filters laminated to the top and bottom sides. The result is a SSDL that maintains a flow void and outperforms open-graded base layers in the functions of drainage, longevity, ease of installation and cost. ROADRAIN IS AN INNOVATIVE SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM THAT IS ENGINEERED TO: ˴ Quickly remove subsurface water ˴  Provide an economic alternative to open-graded  drainage aggregate ˴  Produce high in-plane flow rates resulting in decreased drainage time ˴ Successfully control moisture in a weak subgrade ˴ Provide a void-maintaining structure ˴  Provide excellent compressive stiffness that resists deformation ˴ Prevent migration of fines through synthetic separation ˴  Install quickly and easily to reduce the construction schedule ˴  Work with less processed structural fill for lower  material cost ˴  Allow for roll installation parallel to center line of the road due to 45º channel orientation. ˴ Provide a capillary breakROADRAIN IS AVAILABLE IN DIFFERENT GRADES SUITABLE TO FIT A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS: ˴  Roadways, parking lots and paved walkways  • Under aggregate base course  • Directly beneath PCC  • Capillary break (beneficial to Northern climates)  • PCC joint repair ˴  Embankments and dike drainage (beneficial in areas  with a high water table) ˴ Alternative to granular blanket drains ˴ Channel drains ˴ Detention ponds ˴ Under concrete slabs ˴ Airport runways and taxiways  ˴ Railway facilities ˴ Wherever aggregate drainage material is usedRoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System: Enhance Pavement Performance with Synthetic Aggregate Engineered for Better Drainage Built for Proven PerformanceBy providing excellent drainage, the RoaDrain™ System is the solution that greatly extends the life of pavements and reduces maintenance costs. Easily installed, the RoaDrain System can be placed under the base course or under Portland Cement Concrete (PCC). Below are illustrations of these various placements:DRAINAGE BENEATH PAVEMENT SURFACEPlaced directly beneath the pavement surface,  the RoaDrain System rapidly removes water  from the pavement. The RoaDrain System  provides excellent drainage as defined by  AASHTO, (50% of the water is removed  from the pavement structure within  two hours.) RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositePCC PavementSubgradeDRAINAGE BENEATH BASE COURSEInstalled under the base course, the RoaDrain System shortens the drainage path, requiring  less select base material. Drainage provided  by the RoaDrain System allows for an increase  in the structural support design value of the pavement system through modification of  the drainage coefficient or “m” values on  PCC and asphalt pavement applications.RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositeAC PavementBase aggregateSubgradeCAPILLARY BREAK BENEATH FROST-SUSCEPTIBLE SOILSThe RoaDrain Systems acts as a capillary break  at lower depths under frost-susceptible soils  to help eliminate frost-heave.RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositeFrost susceptible soilAC PavementBase aggregateSubgradeDrainage  MediaPermeability, k (ft/day)Flow Rate2 (ft3/day/ft)RoaDrain 56,700 304 in. OGBL 1,000 – 3,000 6 – 201  Flow rate at 2% gradient2  SSDL transmissivity is tested along the primary flow direction with the boundary conditions as follows: steel plate/Ottawa sand/SSDL/Ottawa sand/steel plate, one hour seating period @ 5,000 psfExperience You Can Rely OnTensar is the leader for geosynthetic products created especially for roadway improvement. We have developed products and technologies that have been at the forefront of the geotechnical industry for nearly three decades. As a result, you can rely on  our systems and design expertise. Our products are backed by the most thorough quality assurance practices in the industry.  And, we provide comprehensive design assistance for every Tensar system.For more information about the RoaDrain™ System, please call 800-TENSAR-1, visit www.tensarcorp.com or e-mail  info@tensarcorp.com. We are happy to supply you with additional system information, complete installation and design  guidelines, product specifications, preliminary cost estimates, summaries of completed projects, and much more.Property RD-5 RD-7Net Core Thickness,  mil (mm) 280 (7.1) ±10% 300 (7.6) ±10%Geotextile Weight* 6 oz/sy 8 oz/syGeotextile Strength Exceeds Class 2 Exceeds Class 1Geotextile AOS,  US Std Sieve (mm) 70 (0.212) 80 (0.150)Permittivity, sec- 1.4 1.11Water Flow Rate, gpm/ft (l/min/m2) 110 (4481) 90 (3675)2Transmissivity  (loading condition) 5,000 psf 15,000 psfPavement Fatigue  (# of cycles before  cracks propagate)N/A 3000Other Details RD-5 RD-7Roll Size 12.75 ft x 200 ft (3.89 m x 61 m)Roll Area 283.33 sy (237.29 sm)Approximate  Roll Weight 1,000 lbs 1,200 lbsConcreteAsphaltNon-woven geotextileNon-woven geotextileSubgradeSubgradeBase courseTri-planar geonet coreTri-planar geonet coreThe RoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System can replace the open graded stone base layer (OGBL) within a drainage design.High compressive strengthMinimal geotextile intrusionTri-planar geonetSpecifications for RoaDrain 5 (RD-5) and RoaDrain 7 (RD-7)SubgradeConcreteslabOpen graded base layerSteel reinforcementVapor  barrierReplaced byDrainage design featuring open graded base layer (OGBL)RoaDrain™ net core with tri-planer void-maintaining structure*Typical value measured prior to bonding.None Art Director  Project Mgr Client Proof Reader 1 Proof Reader 2Page No.InksPlaced Graphics Mode Eff ResJob No.ClientDescriptionTrimLive AreaBleedPrinted onCycle User NameLast SavedFontsFile NameFile PathPrinted ScaleFolded SizeGutter SizeFolded PanelsMadawaska-ME-9.tif  RGB  150 ppi  100% DSC00038.JPG  RGB  360 ppi  20% ORANGE_GRADIENT_BACK_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% ORANGE_GRADIENT_FRONT_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% Tensar_Logo_Red_CMYK.eps  100% TNSR_SYS_ROADDRAIN_WHT.eps  114.07% Tensar_Logo_White.eps  107.26% three_part_grouping.psd  RGB  480 ppi  62.45% Drainage_beneath_pavement.ai  100% Drainage_design.eps  55% RoadDrain_illo 2.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% RoadDrain_illo.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% IMG02.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100% big drainage problem.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100%74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMacintosh HD:Users:freelance:Desktop:74516:74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMechanical172.44% CX700_ProcessStore Production Notes:Allen WG5-29-2012 4:54 PM 2NoneNoneNone74516 ETensar Cyan Magenta Yellow Black PMS 469 CKlavika (OpenType; Regular, Bold, Light, Medium, Medium Italic, Regular Italic)RoaDrain Trifold24.75" w x 11" h24.75" w x 11" h25" w x 11.25" hThe RoaDrain product is a synthetic subsurface drainage layer (SSDL) comprised of a tri-planar structure with thermally bonded nonwoven geotextile filters on both sides. ˴ Nonwoven geotextile offers separation and filtration ˴  Tri-planar geonet core ensures a void-maintaining structure with high compressive strengthWater retention within a pavement layer is a primary cause of pavement failure. Without adequate underlying drainage, a pavement section is likely to fail prematurely. When an open-graded aggregate base layer is specified, there can be challenges with the migration of fines from the subgrade. The RoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System from Tensar International Corporation (Tensar) is the engineered solution that consists of a synthetic subsurface drainage layer (SSDL) providing a flow rate up to five times greater than a typical open-graded base layer. The product features a tri-planar geonet core with durable, nonwoven geotextile filters laminated to the top and bottom sides. The result is a SSDL that maintains a flow void and outperforms open-graded base layers in the functions of drainage, longevity, ease of installation and cost. ROADRAIN IS AN INNOVATIVE SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM THAT IS ENGINEERED TO: ˴ Quickly remove subsurface water ˴  Provide an economic alternative to open-graded  drainage aggregate ˴  Produce high in-plane flow rates resulting in decreased drainage time ˴ Successfully control moisture in a weak subgrade ˴ Provide a void-maintaining structure ˴  Provide excellent compressive stiffness that resists deformation ˴ Prevent migration of fines through synthetic separation ˴  Install quickly and easily to reduce the construction schedule ˴  Work with less processed structural fill for lower  material cost ˴  Allow for roll installation parallel to center line of the road due to 45º channel orientation. ˴ Provide a capillary breakROADRAIN IS AVAILABLE IN DIFFERENT GRADES SUITABLE TO FIT A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS: ˴  Roadways, parking lots and paved walkways  • Under aggregate base course  • Directly beneath PCC  • Capillary break (beneficial to Northern climates)  • PCC joint repair ˴  Embankments and dike drainage (beneficial in areas  with a high water table) ˴ Alternative to granular blanket drains ˴ Channel drains ˴ Detention ponds ˴ Under concrete slabs ˴ Airport runways and taxiways  ˴ Railway facilities ˴ Wherever aggregate drainage material is usedRoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System: Enhance Pavement Performance with Synthetic Aggregate Engineered for Better Drainage Built for Proven PerformanceBy providing excellent drainage, the RoaDrain™ System is the solution that greatly extends the life of pavements and reduces maintenance costs. Easily installed, the RoaDrain System can be placed under the base course or under Portland Cement Concrete (PCC). Below are illustrations of these various placements:DRAINAGE BENEATH PAVEMENT SURFACEPlaced directly beneath the pavement surface,  the RoaDrain System rapidly removes water  from the pavement. The RoaDrain System  provides excellent drainage as defined by  AASHTO, (50% of the water is removed  from the pavement structure within  two hours.) RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositePCC PavementSubgradeDRAINAGE BENEATH BASE COURSEInstalled under the base course, the RoaDrain System shortens the drainage path, requiring  less select base material. Drainage provided  by the RoaDrain System allows for an increase  in the structural support design value of the pavement system through modification of  the drainage coefficient or “m” values on  PCC and asphalt pavement applications.RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositeAC PavementBase aggregateSubgradeCAPILLARY BREAK BENEATH FROST-SUSCEPTIBLE SOILSThe RoaDrain Systems acts as a capillary break  at lower depths under frost-susceptible soils  to help eliminate frost-heave.RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositeFrost susceptible soilAC PavementBase aggregateSubgradeDrainage  MediaPermeability, k (ft/day)Flow Rate2 (ft3/day/ft)RoaDrain 56,700 304 in. OGBL 1,000 – 3,000 6 – 201  Flow rate at 2% gradient2  SSDL transmissivity is tested along the primary flow direction with the boundary conditions as follows: steel plate/Ottawa sand/SSDL/Ottawa sand/steel plate, one hour seating period @ 5,000 psfExperience You Can Rely OnTensar is the leader for geosynthetic products created especially for roadway improvement. We have developed products and technologies that have been at the forefront of the geotechnical industry for nearly three decades. As a result, you can rely on  our systems and design expertise. Our products are backed by the most thorough quality assurance practices in the industry.  And, we provide comprehensive design assistance for every Tensar system.For more information about the RoaDrain™ System, please call 800-TENSAR-1, visit www.tensarcorp.com or e-mail  info@tensarcorp.com. We are happy to supply you with additional system information, complete installation and design  guidelines, product specifications, preliminary cost estimates, summaries of completed projects, and much more.Property RD-5 RD-7Net Core Thickness,  mil (mm) 280 (7.1) ±10% 300 (7.6) ±10%Geotextile Weight* 6 oz/sy 8 oz/syGeotextile Strength Exceeds Class 2 Exceeds Class 1Geotextile AOS,  US Std Sieve (mm) 70 (0.212) 80 (0.150)Permittivity, sec- 1.4 1.11Water Flow Rate, gpm/ft (l/min/m2) 110 (4481) 90 (3675)2Transmissivity  (loading condition) 5,000 psf 15,000 psfPavement Fatigue  (# of cycles before  cracks propagate)N/A 3000Other Details RD-5 RD-7Roll Size 12.75 ft x 200 ft (3.89 m x 61 m)Roll Area 283.33 sy (237.29 sm)Approximate  Roll Weight 1,000 lbs 1,200 lbsConcreteAsphaltNon-woven geotextileNon-woven geotextileSubgradeSubgradeBase courseTri-planar geonet coreTri-planar geonet coreThe RoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System can replace the open graded stone base layer (OGBL) within a drainage design.High compressive strengthMinimal geotextile intrusionTri-planar geonetSpecifications for RoaDrain 5 (RD-5) and RoaDrain 7 (RD-7)SubgradeConcreteslabOpen graded base layerSteel reinforcementVapor  barrierReplaced byDrainage design featuring open graded base layer (OGBL)RoaDrain™ net core with tri-planer void-maintaining structure*Typical value measured prior to bonding.None Art Director  Project Mgr Client Proof Reader 1 Proof Reader 2Page No.InksPlaced Graphics Mode Eff ResJob No.ClientDescriptionTrimLive AreaBleedPrinted onCycle User NameLast SavedFontsFile NameFile PathPrinted ScaleFolded SizeGutter SizeFolded PanelsMadawaska-ME-9.tif  RGB  150 ppi  100% DSC00038.JPG  RGB  360 ppi  20% ORANGE_GRADIENT_BACK_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% ORANGE_GRADIENT_FRONT_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% Tensar_Logo_Red_CMYK.eps  100% TNSR_SYS_ROADDRAIN_WHT.eps  114.07% Tensar_Logo_White.eps  107.26% three_part_grouping.psd  RGB  480 ppi  62.45% Drainage_beneath_pavement.ai  100% Drainage_design.eps  55% RoadDrain_illo 2.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% RoadDrain_illo.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% IMG02.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100% big drainage problem.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100%74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMacintosh HD:Users:freelance:Desktop:74516:74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMechanical172.44% CX700_ProcessStore Production Notes:Allen WG5-29-2012 4:54 PM 2NoneNoneNone74516 ETensar Cyan Magenta Yellow Black PMS 469 CKlavika (OpenType; Regular, Bold, Light, Medium, Medium Italic, Regular Italic)RoaDrain Trifold24.75" w x 11" h24.75" w x 11" h25" w x 11.25" hThe RoaDrain product is a synthetic subsurface drainage layer (SSDL) comprised of a tri-planar structure with thermally bonded nonwoven geotextile filters on both sides. ˴ Nonwoven geotextile offers separation and filtration ˴  Tri-planar geonet core ensures a void-maintaining structure with high compressive strengthWater retention within a pavement layer is a primary cause of pavement failure. Without adequate underlying drainage, a pavement section is likely to fail prematurely. When an open-graded aggregate base layer is specified, there can be challenges with the migration of fines from the subgrade. The RoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System from Tensar International Corporation (Tensar) is the engineered solution that consists of a synthetic subsurface drainage layer (SSDL) providing a flow rate up to five times greater than a typical open-graded base layer. The product features a tri-planar geonet core with durable, nonwoven geotextile filters laminated to the top and bottom sides. The result is a SSDL that maintains a flow void and outperforms open-graded base layers in the functions of drainage, longevity, ease of installation and cost. ROADRAIN IS AN INNOVATIVE SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM THAT IS ENGINEERED TO: ˴ Quickly remove subsurface water ˴  Provide an economic alternative to open-graded  drainage aggregate ˴  Produce high in-plane flow rates resulting in decreased drainage time ˴ Successfully control moisture in a weak subgrade ˴ Provide a void-maintaining structure ˴  Provide excellent compressive stiffness that resists deformation ˴ Prevent migration of fines through synthetic separation ˴  Install quickly and easily to reduce the construction schedule ˴  Work with less processed structural fill for lower  material cost ˴  Allow for roll installation parallel to center line of the road due to 45º channel orientation. ˴ Provide a capillary breakROADRAIN IS AVAILABLE IN DIFFERENT GRADES SUITABLE TO FIT A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS: ˴  Roadways, parking lots and paved walkways  • Under aggregate base course  • Directly beneath PCC  • Capillary break (beneficial to Northern climates)  • PCC joint repair ˴  Embankments and dike drainage (beneficial in areas  with a high water table) ˴ Alternative to granular blanket drains ˴ Channel drains ˴ Detention ponds ˴ Under concrete slabs ˴ Airport runways and taxiways  ˴ Railway facilities ˴ Wherever aggregate drainage material is usedRoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System: Enhance Pavement Performance with Synthetic Aggregate Engineered for Better Drainage Built for Proven PerformanceBy providing excellent drainage, the RoaDrain™ System is the solution that greatly extends the life of pavements and reduces maintenance costs. Easily installed, the RoaDrain System can be placed under the base course or under Portland Cement Concrete (PCC). Below are illustrations of these various placements:DRAINAGE BENEATH PAVEMENT SURFACEPlaced directly beneath the pavement surface,  the RoaDrain System rapidly removes water  from the pavement. The RoaDrain System  provides excellent drainage as defined by  AASHTO, (50% of the water is removed  from the pavement structure within  two hours.) RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositePCC PavementSubgradeDRAINAGE BENEATH BASE COURSEInstalled under the base course, the RoaDrain System shortens the drainage path, requiring  less select base material. Drainage provided  by the RoaDrain System allows for an increase  in the structural support design value of the pavement system through modification of  the drainage coefficient or “m” values on  PCC and asphalt pavement applications.RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositeAC PavementBase aggregateSubgradeCAPILLARY BREAK BENEATH FROST-SUSCEPTIBLE SOILSThe RoaDrain Systems acts as a capillary break  at lower depths under frost-susceptible soils  to help eliminate frost-heave.RoaDrain™ drainage geocompositeFrost susceptible soilAC PavementBase aggregateSubgradeDrainage  MediaPermeability, k (ft/day)Flow Rate2 (ft3/day/ft)RoaDrain 56,700 304 in. OGBL 1,000 – 3,000 6 – 201  Flow rate at 2% gradient2  SSDL transmissivity is tested along the primary flow direction with the boundary conditions as follows: steel plate/Ottawa sand/SSDL/Ottawa sand/steel plate, one hour seating period @ 5,000 psfExperience You Can Rely OnTensar is the leader for geosynthetic products created especially for roadway improvement. We have developed products and technologies that have been at the forefront of the geotechnical industry for nearly three decades. As a result, you can rely on  our systems and design expertise. Our products are backed by the most thorough quality assurance practices in the industry.  And, we provide comprehensive design assistance for every Tensar system.For more information about the RoaDrain™ System, please call 800-TENSAR-1, visit www.tensarcorp.com or e-mail  info@tensarcorp.com. We are happy to supply you with additional system information, complete installation and design  guidelines, product specifications, preliminary cost estimates, summaries of completed projects, and much more.Property RD-5 RD-7Net Core Thickness,  mil (mm) 280 (7.1) ±10% 300 (7.6) ±10%Geotextile Weight* 6 oz/sy 8 oz/syGeotextile Strength Exceeds Class 2 Exceeds Class 1Geotextile AOS,  US Std Sieve (mm) 70 (0.212) 80 (0.150)Permittivity, sec- 1.4 1.11Water Flow Rate, gpm/ft (l/min/m2) 110 (4481) 90 (3675)2Transmissivity  (loading condition) 5,000 psf 15,000 psfPavement Fatigue  (# of cycles before  cracks propagate)N/A 3000Other Details RD-5 RD-7Roll Size 12.75 ft x 200 ft (3.89 m x 61 m)Roll Area 283.33 sy (237.29 sm)Approximate  Roll Weight 1,000 lbs 1,200 lbsConcreteAsphaltNon-woven geotextileNon-woven geotextileSubgradeSubgradeBase courseTri-planar geonet coreTri-planar geonet coreThe RoaDrain™ Roadway Drainage System can replace the open graded stone base layer (OGBL) within a drainage design.High compressive strengthMinimal geotextile intrusionTri-planar geonetSpecifications for RoaDrain 5 (RD-5) and RoaDrain 7 (RD-7)SubgradeConcreteslabOpen graded base layerSteel reinforcementVapor  barrierReplaced byDrainage design featuring open graded base layer (OGBL)RoaDrain™ net core with tri-planer void-maintaining structure*Typical value measured prior to bonding.None Art Director  Project Mgr Client Proof Reader 1 Proof Reader 2Page No.InksPlaced Graphics Mode Eff ResJob No.ClientDescriptionTrimLive AreaBleedPrinted onCycle User NameLast SavedFontsFile NameFile PathPrinted ScaleFolded SizeGutter SizeFolded PanelsMadawaska-ME-9.tif  RGB  150 ppi  100% DSC00038.JPG  RGB  360 ppi  20% ORANGE_GRADIENT_BACK_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% ORANGE_GRADIENT_FRONT_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% Tensar_Logo_Red_CMYK.eps  100% TNSR_SYS_ROADDRAIN_WHT.eps  114.07% Tensar_Logo_White.eps  107.26% three_part_grouping.psd  RGB  480 ppi  62.45% Drainage_beneath_pavement.ai  100% Drainage_design.eps  55% RoadDrain_illo 2.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% RoadDrain_illo.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% IMG02.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100% big drainage problem.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100%74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMacintosh HD:Users:freelance:Desktop:74516:74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMechanical172.44% CX700_ProcessStore Production Notes:Allen WG5-29-2012 4:54 PM 1NoneNoneNone74516 ETensar Cyan Magenta Yellow Black PMS 469 CKlavika (OpenType; Regular, Bold, Light, Medium, Medium Italic, Regular Italic)RoaDrain Trifold24.75" w x 11" h24.75" w x 11" h25" w x 11.25" hFeatured ProjectsTensar International Corporation2500 Northwinds Parkway, Suite 500Alpharetta, Georgia 30009800-TENSAR-1tensarcorp.comSYSTEM OVERVIEWROADWAY  DRAINAGE SYSTEM©2012, Tensar International Corporation. Certain products and/or applications described or illustrated herein are protected under one or more U.S. patents. Other U.S. patents are pending, and certain foreign patents and patent applications may also exist. Trademark rights also apply as indicated herein. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, and its manner of use, is the sole responsibility of the user. Printed in the U.S.A. RD_BRO_5.12Distributed by:SHELL CANADA AIRPORT STRIP,  ATHABASCA SANDS, CANADAThe Challenge: The airport strip was built on top of problematic silty soils. Due to the presence of a high groundwater table and low temperatures, frost heave was a significant concern.The Solution: RoaDrain™ RD-7, a high strength drainage geocomposite with tri-planar structure, was selected for its ability to support heavy loads and its long-term high drainage capacity. The RoaDrain RD-7 benefits were immediately obvious as it removed water from the pavement structure while providing excellent compressive strength. RoaDrain RD-7 also provided a capillary break and separation between the subgrade and base course. The project was completed ahead of schedule and below budget.HIGHWAY 35 ROAD RECONSTRUCTION, OWATONNA, MINNESOTAThe Challenge: Significant deformation and rutting of the roadway surface was observed shortly after the initial construction of this roadway section. Limited excavation revealed that underground springs and perched water within sand lenses were saturating the subgrade and  road base materials, thereby compromising the structural integrity of the roadway.The Solution: The RoaDrain product was specified due  to its ability to efficiently collect water and provide total coverage of the road section. It was determined that the collection capacity and high flow rate of RoaDrain would be sufficient to keep the base aggregates dry and that the compressive strength of RoaDrain would be sufficient for long term serviceability and short-term installation stresses.BODEGA HIGHWAY,  SONOMA COUNTY, CALIFORNIAThe Challenge: Bodega Highway is located half a mile east of the Bohemian Highway in Sonoma County. The roadways in this area are prone to water intrusion. In the winter, the road tends to freeze causing a serious hazard.The Solution: The Sonoma County Public Works Depart-ment elected to use the engineered solution of RoaDrain. The RoaDrain layer between the aggregate base and the silty subgrade soils provided an excellent drainage path.  It also provided separation and strength to the pavement section. The RoaDrain product effectively removed the water from the roadway, thus creating a safer road.SOUTHWEST PARKWAY, AUSTIN, TEXASThe Challenge: A six lane stretch of Southwest Parkway underwent a major redesign and reconstruction. A 2,940 foot section in the middle of the problematic roadway  was exposed to underground water that infiltrated its structural base course. This saturation contributed to premature failure of the pavement.The Solution: The RoaDrain Roadway Drainage System was specified under the base course as a drainage  conduit to channel the groundwater to a collection system. The RoaDrain solution has proven to deliver  a valuable performance aspect to the reconstructed highway design section. None Art Director  Project Mgr Client Proof Reader 1 Proof Reader 2Page No.InksPlaced Graphics Mode Eff ResJob No.ClientDescriptionTrimLive AreaBleedPrinted onCycle User NameLast SavedFontsFile NameFile PathPrinted ScaleFolded SizeGutter SizeFolded PanelsMadawaska-ME-9.tif  RGB  150 ppi  100% DSC00038.JPG  RGB  360 ppi  20% ORANGE_GRADIENT_BACK_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% ORANGE_GRADIENT_FRONT_US.eps  CMYK  300 ppi  100% Tensar_Logo_Red_CMYK.eps  100% TNSR_SYS_ROADDRAIN_WHT.eps  114.07% Tensar_Logo_White.eps  107.26% three_part_grouping.psd  RGB  480 ppi  62.45% Drainage_beneath_pavement.ai  100% Drainage_design.eps  55% RoadDrain_illo 2.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% RoadDrain_illo.psd  CMYK  615 ppi  65% IMG02.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100% big drainage problem.tif  CMYK  300 ppi  100%74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMacintosh HD:Users:freelance:Desktop:74516:74516_RoaDrain_TriFold.inddMechanical172.44% CX700_ProcessStore Production Notes:Allen WG5-29-2012 4:54 PM 1NoneNoneNone74516 ETensar Cyan Magenta Yellow Black PMS 469 CKlavika (OpenType; Regular, Bold, Light, Medium, Medium Italic, Regular Italic)RoaDrain Trifold24.75" w x 11" h24.75" w x 11" h25" w x 11.25" hFeatured ProjectsTensar International Corporation2500 Northwinds Parkway, Suite 500Alpharetta, Georgia 30009800-TENSAR-1tensarcorp.comSYSTEM OVERVIEWROADWAY  DRAINAGE SYSTEM©2012, Tensar International Corporation. Certain products and/or applications described or illustrated herein are protected under one or more U.S. patents. Other U.S. patents are pending, and certain foreign patents and patent applications may also exist. Trademark rights also apply as indicated herein. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, and its manner of use, is the sole responsibility of the user. Printed in the U.S.A. RD_BRO_5.12Distributed by:SHELL CANADA AIRPORT STRIP,  ATHABASCA SANDS, CANADAThe Challenge: The airport strip was built on top of problematic silty soils. Due to the presence of a high groundwater table and low temperatures, frost heave was a significant concern.The Solution: RoaDrain™ RD-7, a high strength drainage geocomposite with tri-planar structure, was selected for its ability to support heavy loads and its long-term high drainage capacity. The RoaDrain RD-7 benefits were immediately obvious as it removed water from the pavement structure while providing excellent compressive strength. RoaDrain RD-7 also provided a capillary break and separation between the subgrade and base course. The project was completed ahead of schedule and below budget.HIGHWAY 35 ROAD RECONSTRUCTION, OWATONNA, MINNESOTAThe Challenge: Significant deformation and rutting of the roadway surface was observed shortly after the initial construction of this roadway section. Limited excavation revealed that underground springs and perched water within sand lenses were saturating the subgrade and  road base materials, thereby compromising the structural integrity of the roadway.The Solution: The RoaDrain product was specified due  to its ability to efficiently collect water and provide total coverage of the road section. It was determined that the collection capacity and high flow rate of RoaDrain would be sufficient to keep the base aggregates dry and that the compressive strength of RoaDrain would be sufficient for long term serviceability and short-term installation stresses.BODEGA HIGHWAY,  SONOMA COUNTY, CALIFORNIAThe Challenge: Bodega Highway is located half a mile east of the Bohemian Highway in Sonoma County. The roadways in this area are prone to water intrusion. In the winter, the road tends to freeze causing a serious hazard.The Solution: The Sonoma County Public Works Depart-ment elected to use the engineered solution of RoaDrain. The RoaDrain layer between the aggregate base and the silty subgrade soils provided an excellent drainage path.  It also provided separation and strength to the pavement section. The RoaDrain product effectively removed the water from the roadway, thus creating a safer road.SOUTHWEST PARKWAY, AUSTIN, TEXASThe Challenge: A six lane stretch of Southwest Parkway underwent a major redesign and reconstruction. A 2,940 foot section in the middle of the problematic roadway  was exposed to underground water that infiltrated its structural base course. This saturation contributed to premature failure of the pavement.The Solution: The RoaDrain Roadway Drainage System was specified under the base course as a drainage  conduit to channel the groundwater to a collection system. The RoaDrain solution has proven to deliver  a valuable performance aspect to the reconstructed highway design section.  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX G – STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) ANALYSIS   1 SMC Engineering SWMM Analysis  With the SWMM model provided by UBC SEEDS, SMC Engineering implemented storage tanks and ran a simulation.  The following images are for additional reference, and is intended for those with experience using SWMM.  Locations of storage tanks  2 SMC Engineering SWMM Analysis   Rain model used to simulate a 100-year event  Volumes and flows of main components after a 24 hour simulation  3 SMC Engineering SWMM Analysis   Inflows to the storage tanks after they have reached capacity   Sub-surface flooding statistics  UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX H – GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS  3.75 1.8752.5 1.253.75 1.87510 518 kN/m^300 m Exists below influence zone, ie. Below footing5 m1.25 m depth3.125 m depth10‐2025Pressure, p 27 kN/m^2 0.3*y*H Angle 15 DegreesTH1 47.8125 kN/m Length 12.5 mTH2 59.0625 kN/mTransfer Load 30 kN/mBond Length 1.59375 m TH1Bond Length 1.96875 m TH2Anchor DesignSPT RangePhiAssumptionsCalculation GeometrySoil Unit Weight, yCohesion, CWater TableHAnchor 1 Anchor 2 UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX I – STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS  INPUT CALCULATION CONSTANTS18 30 0.8 0.0022 400 0.9 2E+116 0.85 2036 0.65 0.00356000 300200 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 20130 1018.10 7.40 ‐ 43 943.12 6.85 7% 6041 941.09 6.84 0% GOOD GOOD75 GOOD GOOD115 46 GOOD GOOD400 200500 1650022 399 Point 1 2 3 4 566 320 C (mm) 59 66 80 33 422 52.5 E_s1 0 0 0 0 0141 93 E_s2 0 0 0 0 059 f_s1 (Pa) 75676 143182 240625 ‐413636 ‐17500021025 f_s2 (Pa) ‐400000 ‐281061 ‐109375 ‐1262121 ‐841667145 Cr (N) 119835 134363 162864 67181 855041% Fr_s1 (N) 64 122 205 ‐352 ‐149210.25 Fr_s2 (N) ‐340 ‐239 ‐93 ‐1073 ‐71525 P_r (kN) 120 134 163 66 85500 Mr_c (Nmm) 5513753 5750728 5944536 3873008 45829938 Mr_s1 (Nmm) 1286 2434 4091 ‐7032 ‐297540 GOOD Mr_s2 (Nmm) 6800 4778 1859 21456 1430811 400 Mr (kNm) 5.52 5.76 5.95 3.89 4.59Structural Design Calculations for Holding Tank ACrack Control Check?Temperature ReinforcementMin Reinforcement Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Max Tension Reinforcement Requirement?Cover (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)alphabeta Efective Depth [d] (mm)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)# of barsBar Diameter (mm)Bar Spacing (mm)Thickness of Slab [h] (mm)Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Soil Unit Weight (kN/m3)Soil Depth (m)Weight of Overburden (kPa)Maximum Size Aggregate (mm)Ceiling SlabConcrete Compressive Strength [fc'] (MPa)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Length of Tank (m)Iterative ProcedureColumn‐to‐Column Width (m)Total Tank Width (mm)As_min (mm2)S_max (mm)Spacing (mm)Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)Temperature/Shrinkage RebarBar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)SUMMARYTension RebarMax Concrete Compressive StrainMaximum Steel StrainD_1 (mm)D_2 (mm)Steel Young Modulus (Pa)Steel Compressive Strength [fy] (MPa)φsφcFlexural Strength Requirement?P_r0 (kN)P_rmax (kN)Rebar diameter of 20 mm at 60 mm spacingRebar diameter of 16 mm at 500 mm spacingUnit Weight of Concrete (kN/m3)Weight of Concrete Slab (kN)Number of Columns per RowColumn Eccentric Load [P] (kN)Column DesignRebar diameter of 25 mm at  mm spacingTie Diameter (mm)Side Length (mm)Transverse Reinforcement Tie Size Requirement?C_b (mm)Column Size (mm2)Min Reinforcement RatioLongitudinal Rebar Area (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)Bar Area (mm)Number of Longitudinal RebarConcrete Cover (mm)SUMMARYLongitudinal RebarTie Spacing (mm)Rebar diameter of 11 mm at 400 mm spacingTransvers Rebar (Tie)100 50030 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 25646.28 14.09 ‐ 211 760.09 16.57 18% 1350.5 803.49 17.51 6% GOOD3 GOOD47 10 GOODGOOD5.9 GOOD50 GOOD37.5200 200500 161000Spacing (mm)Floor SlabThickness of Slab [h] (mm)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Weight of Ceiling Slab Per Metre (kN)Weight of Concrete Columns Per Metre (kN)Height of Column (m)Total Applied Load Per Metre (kN/m)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Iterative ProcedureCover (mm) Efective Depth [d] (mm)SUMMARYTension Rebar Rebar diameter of 25 mm at 135 mm spacingTemperature/Shrinkage Rebar Rebar diameter of 16 mm at 1000 mm spacingTemperature ReinforcementAs_min (mm2) Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)S_max (mm) Bar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)Flexural Strength Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Crack Control Check?Max Tension Reinforcement Requirement?Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)# of barsBar Spacing (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)Min Reinforcement Requirement?0204060801001201401601800.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0Axial Load (kN)Resisting Moment (kNm)Column Interaction DiagramAsad Ijaz:Corner bars bent at 90 degree hooksINPUT CALCULATION CONSTANTSStructural Design Calculations for Holding Tank B18 30 0.8 0.0022 400 0.9 2E+1116 0.85 2036 0.65 0.003516000 200300 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 16230 1023.02 5.57 ‐ 54 932.01 5.08 9% 8072 930.99 5.07 0% GOOD GOOD75 GOOD GOOD217 73 GOOD GOOD600 200500 16333Temperature/Shrinkage RebarBar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)SUMMARYTension RebarMax Concrete Compressive StrainMaximum Steel StrainSteel Young Modulus (Pa)Steel Compressive Strength [fy] (MPa)φsφcFlexural Strength Requirement?Rebar diameter of 16 mm at 80 mm spacingRebar diameter of 16 mm at 333 mm spacingCeiling SlabConcrete Compressive Strength [fc'] (MPa)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Length of Tank (m)Iterative ProcedureColumn‐to‐Column Width (m)Total Tank Width (mm)As_min (mm2)S_max (mm)Spacing (mm)Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)Crack Control Check?Temperature ReinforcementMin Reinforcement Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Max Tension Reinforcement Requirement?Cover (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)alphabeta Efective Depth [d] (mm)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)# of barsBar Diameter (mm)Bar Spacing (mm)Thickness of Slab [h] (mm)Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Soil Unit Weight (kN/m3)Soil Depth (m)Weight of Overburden (kPa)Maximum Size Aggregate (mm)22 486 Point 1 2 3 4 5264 389 C (mm) 67 93 71 33 94 55 E_s1 0 0 0 0 0210 105 E_s2 0 0 0 0 067 f_s1 (Pa) 123810 286022 157746 ‐466667 ‐357777825600 f_s2 (Pa) ‐400000 ‐90323 ‐335211 ‐1527273 ‐7466667160 Cr (N) 150100 208915 159494 74131 202181% Fr_s1 (N) 147 340 188 ‐555 ‐4258256 Fr_s2 (N) ‐476 ‐107 ‐399 ‐1817 ‐888530 P_r (kN) 150 209 159 72 7700 Mr_c (Nmm) 7494784 7970115 7663706 4829648 15355278 Mr_s1 (Nmm) 3683 8509 4693 ‐13883 ‐10643940 GOOD Mr_s2 (Nmm) 11900 2687 9973 45436 22213311 400 Mr (kNm) 7.51 7.98 7.68 4.86 1.65100 50030 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 25724.46 15.79 ‐ 217 884.87 19.29 22% 1350.7 960.85 20.94 9% GOOD5 GOOD53 9 GOODGOOD6.7 GOOD50 GOOD37.5200 200500 161000SUMMARYTension Rebar Rebar diameter of 25 mm at 135 mm spacingTemperature/Shrinkage Rebar Rebar diameter of 16 mm at 1000 mm spacingRebar diameter of 11 mm at 400 mm spacingTemperature ReinforcementAs_min (mm2) Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)S_max (mm) Bar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)Flexural Strength Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Crack Control Check?Max Tension Reinforcement Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)# of barsBar Spacing (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)Min Reinforcement Requirement?Transvers Rebar (Tie)Floor SlabTie Spacing (mm)Thickness of Slab [h] (mm)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Weight of Ceiling Slab Per Metre (kN)Weight of Concrete Columns Per Metre (kN)Height of Column (m)Total Applied Load Per Metre (kN/m)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Iterative ProcedureCover (mm) Efective Depth [d] (mm)Unit Weight of Concrete (kN/m3)Weight of Concrete Slab (kN)Number of Columns per RowColumn Eccentric Load [P] (kN)Spacing (mm)Column DesignRebar diameter of 30 mmTie Diameter (mm)Side Length (mm)Transverse Reinforcement Tie Size Requirement?C_b (mm)Column Size (mm2)Min Reinforcement RatioLongitudinal Rebar Area (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)Bar Area (mm)Number of Longitudinal RebarConcrete Cover (mm)SUMMARYLongitudinal RebarD_1 (mm)D_2 (mm)P_r0 (kN)P_rmax (kN)0501001502002500.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0Axial Load (kN)Resisting Moment (kNm)Column Interaction DiagramAsad Ijaz:Corner bars bent at 90 degree hooksINPUT CALCULATION CONSTANTSStructural Design Calculations for Holding Tank C18 30 0.8 0.0022 400 0.9 2E+119 0.85 2036 0.65 0.00359000 200250 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 16180 735.29 5.34 ‐ 43 671.73 4.88 9% 3041 670.86 4.87 0% GOOD GOOD75 GOOD GOOD167 45 GOOD GOOD500 200500 16400Temperature/Shrinkage RebarBar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)SUMMARYTension RebarMax Concrete Compressive StrainMaximum Steel StrainSteel Young Modulus (Pa)Steel Compressive Strength [fy] (MPa)φsφcFlexural Strength Requirement?Rebar diameter of 16 mm at 30 mm spacingRebar diameter of 16 mm at 400 mm spacingCeiling SlabConcrete Compressive Strength [fc'] (MPa)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Length of Tank (m)Iterative ProcedureColumn‐to‐Column Width (m)Total Tank Width (mm)As_min (mm2)S_max (mm)Spacing (mm)Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)Crack Control Check?Temperature ReinforcementMin Reinforcement Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Max Tension Reinforcement Requirement?Cover (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)alphabeta Efective Depth [d] (mm)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)# of barsBar Diameter (mm)Bar Spacing (mm)Thickness of Slab [h] (mm)Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Soil Unit Weight (kN/m3)Soil Depth (m)Weight of Overburden (kPa)Maximum Size Aggregate (mm)22 428 Point 1 2 3 4 5123.75 342 C (mm) 78 92 108 48 303 27.5 E_s1 0 0 0 0 0149 123 E_s2 0 0 0 0 078 f_s1 (Pa) 0 0 0 298958 5833322500 f_s2 (Pa) ‐400000 ‐232065 ‐93981 ‐1086458 ‐2158333150 Cr (N) 164172 193752 227448 101088 631801% Fr_s1 (N) 0 0 0 102 20225 Fr_s2 (N) ‐136 ‐79 ‐32 ‐369 ‐73415 P_r (kN) 164 194 227 101 62200 Mr_c (Nmm) 6553832 6510067 6004627 5398099 38855708 Mr_s1 (Nmm) 0 0 0 4828 94220 GOOD Mr_s2 (Nmm) 6460 3748 1518 17546 3485711 240 Mr (kNm) 6.56 6.51 6.01 5.42 3.92100 10030 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 11684.16 14.91 ‐ 914 819.38 17.86 20% 300.5 876.68 19.11 7% GOOD3 GOOD50 11 GOODGOOD6.3 GOOD50 GOOD44.5200 200500 161000SUMMARYTension Rebar Rebar diameter of 11 mm at 30 mm spacingTemperature/Shrinkage Rebar Rebar diameter of 16 mm at 1000 mm spacingRebar diameter of 11 mm at 240 mm spacingTemperature ReinforcementAs_min (mm2) Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)S_max (mm) Bar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)Flexural Strength Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Crack Control Check?Max Tension Reinforcement Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)# of barsBar Spacing (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)Min Reinforcement Requirement?Transvers Rebar (Tie)Floor SlabTie Spacing (mm)Thickness of Slab [h] (mm)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Weight of Ceiling Slab Per Metre (kN)Weight of Concrete Columns Per Metre (kN)Height of Column (m)Total Applied Load Per Metre (kN/m)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Iterative ProcedureCover (mm) Efective Depth [d] (mm)Unit Weight of Concrete (kN/m3)Weight of Concrete Slab (kN)Number of Columns per RowColumn Eccentric Load [P] (kN)Spacing (mm)Column DesignRebar diameter of 15 mmTie Diameter (mm)Side Length (mm)Transverse Reinforcement Tie Size Requirement?C_b (mm)Column Size (mm2)Min Reinforcement RatioLongitudinal Rebar Area (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)Bar Area (mm)Number of Longitudinal RebarConcrete Cover (mm)SUMMARYLongitudinal RebarD_1 (mm)D_2 (mm)P_r0 (kN)P_rmax (kN)0501001502002500.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0Axial Load (kN)Resisting Moment (kNm)Column Interaction DiagramAsad Ijaz:Corner bars bent at 90 degree hooksINPUT CALCULATION CONSTANTSStructural Design Calculations for Holding Tank D18 30 0.8 0.0022 400 0.9 2E+1130 0.85 2036 0.65 0.003530000 200300 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 16230 575.45 4.18 ‐ 33 522.65 3.80 9% 8041 522.21 3.79 0% GOOD GOOD75 GOOD GOOD217 44 GOOD GOOD600 200500 1633322 399 Point 1 2 3 4 5495 320 C (mm) 59 77 73 22 2110 52.5 E_s1 0 0 0 0 0158 93 E_s2 0 0 0 0 059 f_s1 (Pa) 75676 222727 196575 ‐970455 ‐105000021025 f_s2 (Pa) ‐400000 ‐140909 ‐186986 ‐2243182 ‐2383333145 Cr (N) 119835 156757 148613 44788 427521% Fr_s1 (N) 64 189 167 ‐825 ‐893210.25 Fr_s2 (N) ‐340 ‐120 ‐159 ‐1907 ‐202625 P_r (kN) 120 157 149 42 40500 Mr_c (Nmm) 5513753 5933237 5892521 2803704 26955018 Mr_s1 (Nmm) 1286 3786 3342 ‐16498 ‐1785040 GOOD Mr_s2 (Nmm) 6800 2395 3179 38134 4051711 400 Mr (kNm) 5.52 5.94 5.90 2.83 2.72100 10030 As (mm2) a (mm) % Change 11724.32 15.79 ‐ 1017 884.64 19.28 22% 1750.7 960.55 20.94 9% GOOD4.5 GOOD53 12 GOODGOOD6.6 GOOD50 GOOD44.5200 200500 161000SUMMARYTension Rebar Rebar diameter of 11 mm at 175 mm spacingTemperature/Shrinkage Rebar Rebar diameter of 16 mm at 1000 mm spacingRebar diameter of 11 mm at 400 mm spacingTemperature ReinforcementAs_min (mm2) Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)S_max (mm) Bar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)Flexural Strength Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Crack Control Check?Max Tension Reinforcement Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)# of barsBar Spacing (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)Min Reinforcement Requirement?Transvers Rebar (Tie)Floor SlabTie Spacing (mm)Thickness of Slab [h] (mm)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Weight of Ceiling Slab Per Metre (kN)Weight of Concrete Columns Per Metre (kN)Height of Column (m)Total Applied Load Per Metre (kN/m)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Iterative ProcedureCover (mm) Efective Depth [d] (mm)Unit Weight of Concrete (kN/m3)Weight of Concrete Slab (kN)Number of Columns per RowColumn Eccentric Load [P] (kN)Spacing (mm)Column DesignRebar diameter of 25 mmTie Diameter (mm)Side Length (mm)Transverse Reinforcement Tie Size Requirement?C_b (mm)Column Size (mm2)Min Reinforcement RatioLongitudinal Rebar Area (mm2)Bar Diameter (mm)Bar Area (mm)Number of Longitudinal RebarConcrete Cover (mm)SUMMARYLongitudinal RebarTemperature/Shrinkage RebarBar Diameter [TEMP] (mm)SUMMARYTension RebarMax Concrete Compressive StrainMaximum Steel StrainD_1 (mm)D_2 (mm)Steel Young Modulus (Pa)Steel Compressive Strength [fy] (MPa)φsφcFlexural Strength Requirement?P_r0 (kN)P_rmax (kN)Rebar diameter of 16 mm at 80 mm spacingRebar diameter of 16 mm at 333 mm spacingCeiling SlabConcrete Compressive Strength [fc'] (MPa)Approximate Efective Depth [d] (mm)Factored Moment [Mf] (kNm)Length of Tank (m)Iterative ProcedureColumn‐to‐Column Width (m)Total Tank Width (mm)As_min (mm2)S_max (mm)Spacing (mm)Bar Area [TEMP] (mm2)Crack Control Check?Temperature ReinforcementMin Reinforcement Requirement?Max Bar Spacing Requirement?Max Tension Reinforcement Requirement?Cover (mm)Moment Resistance (kNm)alphabeta Efective Depth [d] (mm)Bar Area [Ab] (mm2)# of barsBar Diameter (mm)Bar Spacing (mm)Thickness of Slab [h] (mm)Max Bar Area Requirement? (TEMP)Soil Unit Weight (kN/m3)Soil Depth (m)Weight of Overburden (kPa)Maximum Size Aggregate (mm)0204060801001201401601800.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0Axial Load (kN)Resisting Moment (kNm)Column Interaction DiagramAsad Ijaz:Corner bars bent at 90 degree hooksSample Calculations – Structural Designs Slab Design Approximate Effective Depth: 𝑑𝑑𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 = ℎ − 70 [mm] Factored Load [Clause NBCC2005 C1.4.1.3.2]: 𝑤𝑤 = 1.25DL+1.5LL Factored Moment Resistance: 𝑀𝑀𝑓𝑓 = 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙28  Actual Effective Depth: 𝑑𝑑 = ℎ − 𝑐𝑐 − 𝑑𝑑𝑏𝑏2  Approximated Area of Steel Rebar: (𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠)𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 = 𝑀𝑀𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦∅𝑠𝑠 �𝑑𝑑 −𝑎𝑎2� Thickness of Tension Block: 𝑎𝑎 = 𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦∅𝑠𝑠(𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠)𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝛼𝛼𝑏𝑏∅𝑐𝑐𝑓𝑓′𝑐𝑐 Resisting Moment: 𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 = 𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦∅𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 �𝑑𝑑 − 𝑎𝑎2� Rebar Spacing: 𝑠𝑠 = Max � 1.4𝑑𝑑𝑏𝑏1.4MSA30 mm �   Crack Control Parameter: 𝑧𝑧 = 0.6𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦�2𝑠𝑠(ℎ − 𝑑𝑑)23  Maximum Tension Reinforcement Check [Clause A23.3 C1.10.5.2]: 𝑎𝑎𝛽𝛽�𝑑𝑑≤700700 + 𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦 Minimum Reinforcement Required [Clause A23.3 C1.7.8.1]: 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 ≥ 0.002𝑏𝑏ℎ Maximum Rebar Spacing Required [Clause A23.3 C1.7.4.1.2]: 𝑠𝑠 ≤ Min �500 mm3ℎ � Flexural Strength Requirement [Clause A23.3 C1.8.1.3]: 𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑎 ≥ 𝑀𝑀𝑓𝑓 Crack Control Parameter Requirement [Clause A23.3 C1.10.6.1]: 𝑧𝑧 < 25,000 N mm�  (For Exterior Exposure) Maximum Rebar Area Requirement (For Temperature Rebar)  [Clause A23.3 C1.7.8.1 and C1.7.8.3]: 1000(𝐴𝐴𝑏𝑏)TEMP𝑠𝑠TEMP≥ (𝐴𝐴𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚)TEMP   Column Design Number of Columns/Row 𝑛𝑛 = Length of TankColumn-to-Column Width Column Size 𝐴𝐴𝑐𝑐 = 𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑠2 (For Square Columns) Longitudinal Rebar Area 𝐴𝐴𝑙𝑙 = 𝑟𝑟𝐴𝐴𝑐𝑐  Rebar Spacing: 𝑠𝑠 = Max � 1.4𝑑𝑑𝑏𝑏1.4MSA30 mm � Tie Spacing: 𝑠𝑠tie = Min � 16𝑑𝑑𝑏𝑏48𝑑𝑑tie400 mm�  Tie Size Requirement [Clause A23.3 C1.7.6.5.1 and C1.7.6.5.2]: 𝑑𝑑tie > 0.3𝑑𝑑𝑏𝑏    Glossary ℎ = Height of Slab DL = Dead Load LL = Live Load 𝑙𝑙 = Length of Slab Section (Typically 1 m) 𝑐𝑐 = Concrete Cover (Typically 75 mm) 𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦 = 400 Mpa (Steel Yield Strength) ∅𝑠𝑠 = 0.85 ∅𝑐𝑐 = 0.65 𝑏𝑏 = Width of Slab Section 𝑓𝑓′𝑐𝑐 = 30 MPa (Concrete Compressive Strength) 𝛼𝛼 = 0.80 𝛽𝛽 = 0.90 𝑠𝑠 = Rebar Spacing 𝐴𝐴𝑏𝑏 = Area of Rebar 𝑑𝑑𝑏𝑏 = Diameter of Rebar MSA = Maximum Size Aggregate (Typically 20 mm) 𝑟𝑟 = Minimum Reinforcement Ratio (Typically 1-4%) 𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑠 = Side Length (For square columns)    UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX J – COST ESTIMATE: DETENTION FACILITIES Contractor Direct 1,843,021$                   Contractor Indirect 517,126$                      A Contractor Direct and Indirect 2,360,000$                   2,360,000$                   % of A Contractor Escalation (%) 2.5% 59,000$                        % of A Contractor Contingency (%) 6.0% 141,600$                      % of A Contractor Bonding (%) 1.0% 23,600$                        % of A Contractor Insurance (%) 1.0% 23,600$                        B Additional Contractor D & I 248,000$                      248,000$                      C Project Direct Sub-Total 2,608,000$                   % of C Overhead  5.0% 130,000$                      % of C Profit 15.0% 391,000$                      D Total Project Direct and Indirect 3,129,000$                   % of D Project Management Cost 7.0% 219,030$                      % of D Design Engineering Cost 4.0% 125,160$                      % of D Site Investigations Cost 1.0% 31,290$                        E EPCM 375,000$                      375,000$                      F Total Project (Direct, Indirect, & EPCM) 3,504,000$                   % of F Owner Cost 7.5% 262,800$                      % of F Owner Contingency 15.0% 525,600$                      G Total Owner and Contingency: 788,000$                      788,000$                      H Total Initial Capital: Unescalated (Q2 2016) 4,292,000$                   Note: Subtotals and Totals rounded to 1,000UBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTDETAILED DESIGNCOST ESTIMATE SUMMARY TABLECurrency: CAD-Canada-Dollar                    March 31, 2016DETENTION FACILITIESSUBDIVISION SUBDIVISION TITLE ITEM DESCRIPTION SUBTOTAL ($) TOTAL01145 Construction Safety 64,506$        First Aid Supplies 0.5 % OF DIR 9,215PPE and General Safety 0.5 % OF DIR 9,215Health and Safety Signage 0.5 % OF DIR 9,215Traffic Management 2.0 % OF DIR 36,86001310 Project Management and Coordination 308,000$      Project Manager One for duration of project 5.6 MONTH 84,000Project Coordinator One for duration of project 5.6 MONTH 44,800Site Superintendent One for duration of project 5.6 MONTH 67,200Chief Safety Officer / First Aid One for duration of project 5.6 MONTH 56,000Foreman One for duration of project 5.6 MONTH 56,00001352 Environmental Procedures 28,000$        Environmental Maintenance General site maintenance 5.6 MONTH 28,00001410 Regulatory Requirements 5,000$          City Permits 1.0 LS 5,00001500 Temporary Facilities and Controls 111,621$      Site Office Mobilization/demobilization 3.0 EA 11,250Site Office Monthly rental 5.6 MONTH 8,400Tool Shed Mobilization/demobilization 3.0 EA 6,000Tool Shed Monthly rental 5.6 MONTH 4,480Temporary Fencing Monthly rental 5.6 MONTH 5,600Temporary Signage Allowance 1.0 LS 5,000Temporary Power Setup for Site Allowance 1.0 LS 10,000Misc. Contractor Facilities and Controls Allowance 1.0 % OF DIR 18,430Waste Management Monthly fee 5.6 MONTH 5,600Small Tools Monthly rental 2.0 % OF DIR 36,860DIVISION 01 – TOTAL 517,126$      02014 Tree Preservation 10,000$        Tree Preservation 1 LS 10,00002100 Site Preparation 110,000$      Layout and Survey Detention Tanks and Dry Pond 1 LS 110,00002300 Earthworks 1,189,642$  Soil Removal - Excavation 149 M3 2,099Soil Removal - Trucking 149 M3 3,720Soil Removal - Disposal 149 M3 2,678Soil Anchors 22 EA 22,000Fill Material - Source Material 18 M3 360Fill Material - Trucking 18 M3 203DIVISION 02 – SITEWORKUBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTDETENTION FACILITIESDATE: 2016-03-31QUANTITYDIVISION 01 – GENERAL CONDITIONSTank ADETAILED COST ESTIMATESUBDIVISION SUBDIVISION TITLE ITEM DESCRIPTION SUBTOTAL ($) TOTALUBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTDETENTION FACILITIESDATE: 2016-03-31QUANTITYDETAILED COST ESTIMATEFill Material - Placing 18 M3 258Soil Removal - Excavation 1,743 M3 24,585Soil Removal - Trucking 1,743 M3 43,573Soil Removal - Disposal 1,743 M3 31,372Soil Anchors 128 EA 128,000Fill Material - Source Material 154 M3 3,080Fill Material - Trucking 154 M3 1,733Fill Material - Placing 154 M3 2,207Soil Removal - Excavation 371 M3 5,232Soil Removal - Trucking 371 M3 9,273Soil Removal - Disposal 371 M3 6,676Soil Anchors 36 EA 36,000Fill Material - Source Material 49 M3 980Fill Material - Trucking 49 M3 551Fill Material - Placing 49 M3 702Soil Removal - Excavation 5,384 M3 75,947Soil Removal - Trucking 5,384 M3 134,603Soil Removal - Disposal 5,384 M3 96,914Soil Anchors 240 EA 240,000Fill Material - Source Material 540 M3 10,800Fill Material - Trucking 540 M3 6,075Fill Material - Placing 540 M3 7,737Soil Removal - Excavation 360 M3 5,078Soil Removal - Trucking 360 M3 9,000Soil Removal - Disposal 360 M3 6,480Soil Removal - Excavation 2,763 M3 38,974Soil Removal - Trucking 2,763 M3 69,075Soil Removal - Disposal 2,763 M3 49,734Fill Material - Source Material 2,500 M3 50,000Fill Material - Trucking 2,500 M3 28,125Fill Material - Placing 2,500 M3 35,82002720 Storm Drainage 56,768$        Tank A 63 M 1,337Tank B 18 M 382Tank C 21 M 446Tank D 60 M 1,273Dry Pond 145 M 3,077Tank A 63 M 3,130Tank B 18 M 894Tank C 21 M 1,043Tank D 60 M 2,981Tank BTank CTank DDry PondStorm DraininagePipes (Supply)Pipes (Installation)SUBDIVISION SUBDIVISION TITLE ITEM DESCRIPTION SUBTOTAL ($) TOTALUBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTDETENTION FACILITIESDATE: 2016-03-31QUANTITYDETAILED COST ESTIMATEDry Pond 145 M 7,204Tank A 1 EA 5,000Tank B 2 EA 10,000Tank C 1 EA 5,000Tank D 3 EA 15,00002920 Clearing and Grubbing 10,000$        Clearing and Grubbing Entire project 1 LS 10,00002930 Planting of Trees, Shrubs and Groundcover 5,000$          Trees, Shrubs, and Groundcover (Supply and Install) Entire project 1 LS 5,00002935 Sodded Lawns 14,010$        Tank A 42 M2 315Tank B 289 M2 2,168Tank C 100 M2 750Tank D 900 M2 6,750Dry Pond 537 M2 4,02802970 Hard Landscaping 70,000$        Hard Landscaping Entire project 1 LS 70,000DIVISION 02 – TOTAL 1,465,420$  03100 Concrete Forms and Accessories 9,339$          Tank A - Columns 5 EA 146Tank B - Columns 51 EA 1,434Tank C - Columns 16 EA 454Tank D - Columns 261 EA 7,30603200 Concrete Reinforcement 97,925$        Tank A and oil/water separator tank 1,203 KG 3,187Tank B and oil/water separator tank 11,426 KG 30,278Tank C and oil/water separator tank 2,933 KG 7,773Tank D and oil/water separator tank 21,391 KG 56,68703300 Cast-In-Place Concrete 35,498$        Supply 15 M3 1,088Place/Finish Shotcrete 11 M3 436Place/Finish Base 3 M3 113Supply 82 M3 6,140Place/Finish Shotcrete 52 M3 2,074Place/Finish Base 28 M3 983Supply 28 M3 2,070Place/Finish Shotcrete 18 M3 724Place/Finish Base 9 M3 310Supply 193 M3 14,496FormworkManholes (Install and Supply)Sodded Lawn (Supply and Install)DIVISION 03 – CONCRETERebar (Supply and Install)Tank ATank BTank CTank DSUBDIVISION SUBDIVISION TITLE ITEM DESCRIPTION SUBTOTAL ($) TOTALUBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTDETENTION FACILITIESDATE: 2016-03-31QUANTITYDETAILED COST ESTIMATEPlace/Finish Shotcrete 88 M3 3,528Place/Finish Base 99 M3 3,53603400 Pre-Cast Concrete 166,530$      Tank A 2 EA 5,261Tank B 6 EA 28,750Tank C 3 EA 16,446Tank D 10 EA 101,072Tank A 1 EA 3,750Tank B 1 EA 3,750Tank C 1 EA 3,750Tank D 1 EA 3,750DIVISION 03 – TOTAL 309,292$      07100 Subgrade Waterproofing 53,520$        Tank A and oil/water separator tank 126 M2 1,890Tank B and oil/water separator tank 832 M2 12,480Tank C and oil/water separator tank 270 M2 4,050Tank D and oil/water separator tank 2,340 M2 35,10007900 Sealants 14,790$        Tank A 15 M 450Tank B 112 M 3,360Tank C 36 M 1,080Tank D 330 M 9,900DIVISION 07 – TOTAL 50,470$        1,843,021$  517,126$      Oil/Water Separator Box System (Complete)Tank DCONTRACTOR DIRECT - TOTALCONTRACTOR INDIRECT - TOTALDIVISION 07 – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTIONTank Lining / Waterproofing (Supply and Install)Sealing Precast Concrete Panels (Supply and Install)Panels for Top of Tanks (Supply and Install) UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX K – COST ESTIMATE: ROADWORKS   Contractor Direct 2,896,293$                   Contractor Indirect 316,779$                      A Contractor Direct and Indirect 3,213,000$                   3,213,000$                   % of A Contractor Escalation (%) 2.5% 80,325$                        % of A Contractor Contingency (%) 6.0% 192,780$                      % of A Contractor Bonding (%) 1.0% 32,130$                        % of A Contractor Insurance (%) 1.0% 32,130$                        B Additional Contractor D & I 337,000$                      337,000$                      C Project Direct Sub-Total 3,550,000$                   % of C Overhead  5.0% 178,000$                      % of C Profit 15.0% 533,000$                      D Total Project Direct and Indirect 4,261,000$                   % of D Project Management Cost 7.0% 298,270$                      % of D Design Engineering Cost 4.0% 170,440$                      % of D Site Investigations Cost 1.0% 42,610$                        E EPCM 511,000$                      511,000$                      F Total Project (Direct, Indirect, & EPCM) 4,772,000$                   % of F Owner Cost 7.5% 357,900$                      % of F Owner Contingency 15.0% 715,800$                      G Total Owner and Contingency: 1,074,000$                   1,074,000$                   H Total Initial Capital: Unescalated (Q2 2016) 5,846,000$                   Note: Subtotals and Totals rounded to 1,000UBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTDETAILED DESIGNCOST ESTIMATE SUMMARY TABLECurrency: CAD-Canada-Dollar                    March 31, 2016ROADWORKS (PERMEABLE ASPHALT)SUBDIVISION SUBDIVISION TITLE ITEM DESCRIPTION SUBTOTAL ($) TOTAL01145 Construction Safety 101,370$      First Aid Supplies 0.5 % OF DIR 14,481PPE and General Safety 0.5 % OF DIR 14,481Health and Safety Signage 0.5 % OF DIR 14,481Traffic Management 2.0 % OF DIR 57,92601310 Project Management and Coordination 88,800$        Project Manager One for duration of project 2.4 MONTH 36,000Site Superintendent One for duration of project 2.4 MONTH 28,800Foreman / First Aid One for duration of project 2.4 MONTH 24,00001352 Environmental Procedures 8,400$          Environmental Maintenance General site maintenance 2.4 MONTH 8,40001410 Regulatory Requirements 5,000$          City Permits 1.0 LS 5,00001500 Temporary Facilities and Controls 113,209$      Site Office Mobilization/demobilization 2.0 EA 4,800Site Office Monthly rental 2.4 MONTH 3,600Tool Shed Mobilization/demobilization 2.0 EA 2,400Tool Shed Monthly rental 2.4 MONTH 1,920Temporary Fencing Monthly rental 2.4 MONTH 1,200Temporary Signage Allowance 1.0 LS 5,000Temporary Power Setup for Site Allowance 1.0 LS 5,000Misc. Contractor Facilities and Controls Allowance 1.0 % OF DIR 28,963Waste Management Monthly fee 2.4 MONTH 2,400Small Tools Monthly rental 2.0 % OF DIR 57,926DIVISION 01 – TOTAL 316,779$      02005 Road 2,467,253$  Material 12,220 M3 195,520Trucking 12,220 M3 137,475Install/Laydown 12,220 M3 152,493Material 20,000 M2 60,000Install/Laydown 20,000 M2 16,562Asphalt Layer Supply/Install 12,600 TON 1,890,000Line Painting 19,003 M 15,20302100 Site Preparation 50,000$        Layout and Survey Road 1 LS 50,00002200 Demolition 379,041$      Milling of Asphalt 42,000 M2 240,441Material Removal (Trucking) 6,300 M3 126,000DETAILED COST ESTIMATEUBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTROADWORKS (PERMEABLE ASPHALT)DATE: 2016-03-31QUANTITYDIVISION 01 – GENERAL CONDITIONSDIVISION 02 – SITEWORKSubgrade LayerRoaDrain System (Drainage System)RoadwaySUBDIVISION SUBDIVISION TITLE ITEM DESCRIPTION SUBTOTAL ($) TOTALDETAILED COST ESTIMATEUBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENTROADWORKS (PERMEABLE ASPHALT)DATE: 2016-03-31QUANTITYMaterial Removal (Disposal) 6,300 M3 12,600DIVISION 02 – TOTAL 2,896,293$  2,896,293$  316,779$      CONTRACTOR DIRECT - TOTALCONTRACTOR INDIRECT - TOTAL UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX L – CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE: DETENTION FACILITIES   PHASING SEQUENCE – DETENTION FACILITIES  Figure: Phasing sequence – detention facilities Source: Digital Image. David Grant. March 31, 2016. Adapted from <www.google.com>.   ID Task Name Duration Start Finish1 UBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENT 131 days Mon 16-05-02 Mon 16-11-072 Project Start 0 days Mon 16-05-02 Mon 16-05-023 Mobilization 1 day Mon 16-05-02 Mon 16-05-024 Secondary Mobilization 1 day Fri 16-06-24 Fri 16-06-245 Demobilization 1 day Mon 16-10-24 Mon 16-10-246 Project Completion (w/o Contingency) 0 days Mon 16-10-24 Mon 16-10-247 Contingency 10 days Tue 16-10-25 Mon 16-11-078 Project Completion (w/ Contingency) 0 days Mon 16-11-07 Mon 16-11-079 DETENTION FACILITIES 120 days Mon 16-05-02 Fri 16-10-2110 PHASE 1 - TANK A 12 days Mon 16-05-02 Tue 16-05-1711 Main Tank Works 12 days Mon 16-05-02 Tue 16-05-1712 Clearing and Grubbing + Tree Protection 1 day Mon 16-05-02 Mon 16-05-0213 Site Survey and Layout 10 days Tue 16-05-03 Mon 16-05-1614 Excavation 1 day Wed 16-05-04 Wed 16-05-0415 Soil Anchor Installation 1 day Thu 16-05-05 Thu 16-05-0516 Wall Rebar (North and East) 1 day Fri 16-05-06 Fri 16-05-0617 Shotcrete Walls (North and East) 1 day Mon 16-05-09 Mon 16-05-0918 Wall Rebar (South and West) 1 day Fri 16-05-06 Fri 16-05-0619 Shotcrete Walls (South and West) 1 day Mon 16-05-09 Mon 16-05-0920 Pad and Column Rebar 1 day Tue 16-05-10 Tue 16-05-1021 Column Forming 1 day Tue 16-05-10 Tue 16-05-1022 Pad and Column Pour 1 day Wed 16-05-11 Wed 16-05-1123 Oil/Water Separator Install 1 day Thu 16-05-12 Thu 16-05-1224 Manhole Install 1 day Thu 16-05-12 Thu 16-05-1225 Pre-Cast Cover Install 1 day Fri 16-05-13 Fri 16-05-1326 Backfill 1 day Mon 16-05-16 Mon 16-05-1627 Landscaping 1 day Tue 16-05-17 Tue 16-05-1728 Pipe Network Tie-In 5 days Fri 16-05-06 Thu 16-05-1229 Pipe Network Excavation 2 days Fri 16-05-06 Mon 16-05-0930 Pipe Network Install 1 day Tue 16-05-10 Tue 16-05-1031 Pipe Network Backfill 2 days Wed 16-05-11 Thu 16-05-1232 PHASE 2 - TANK B 30 days Wed 16-05-18 Wed 16-06-2933 Main Tank Works 30 days Wed 16-05-18 Wed 16-06-2934 Clearing and Grubbing + Tree Protection 1 day Wed 16-05-18 Wed 16-05-1805-0210-2411-0722 27 02 07 12 17 22 27 01 06 11 16 21 26 01 06 11 16 21 26 31 05 10 15 20 25 30 04 09 14 19 24 29 04 09 14 19 24 29 03 08 13 182016 May 2016 June 2016 July 2016 August 2016 September 2016 October 2016 NovemberTaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyExternal TasksExternal MilestoneDeadlineProgressManual ProgressUBC South Campus Stormwater ManagementDetention FacilitiesConstruction SchedulePage 1Date: Thu 16-03-31Reviewed By: HGID Task Name Duration Start Finish35 Site Survey and Layout 26 days Thu 16-05-19 Fri 16-06-2436 Excavation 6 days Fri 16-05-20 Mon 16-05-3037 Soil Anchor Installation 3 days Tue 16-05-31 Thu 16-06-0238 Wall Rebar (North and East) 3 days Fri 16-06-03 Tue 16-06-0739 Shotcrete Walls (North and East) 1 day Wed 16-06-08 Wed 16-06-0840 Wall Rebar (South and West) 3 days Wed 16-06-08 Fri 16-06-1041 Shotcrete Walls (South and West) 1 day Mon 16-06-13 Mon 16-06-1342 Pad and Column Rebar 2 days Tue 16-06-14 Wed 16-06-1543 Column Forming 2 days Thu 16-06-16 Fri 16-06-1744 Pad and Column Pour 1 day Mon 16-06-20 Mon 16-06-2045 Oil/Water Separator Install 1 day Tue 16-06-21 Tue 16-06-2146 Manhole Install 1 day Tue 16-06-21 Tue 16-06-2147 Pre-Cast Cover Install 1 day Wed 16-06-22 Wed 16-06-2248 Backfill 1 day Fri 16-06-24 Fri 16-06-2449 Landscaping 3 days Mon 16-06-27 Wed 16-06-2950 Pipe Network Tie-In 3 days Fri 16-06-03 Tue 16-06-0751 Pipe Network Excavation 1 day Fri 16-06-03 Fri 16-06-0352 Pipe Network Install 1 day Mon 16-06-06 Mon 16-06-0653 Pipe Network Backfill 1 day Tue 16-06-07 Tue 16-06-0754 PHASE 3 - DRY POND 12 days Wed 16-06-08 Thu 16-06-2355 Dry Pond Main Works 8 days Wed 16-06-08 Fri 16-06-1756 Dry Pond Site Survey and Layout 3 days Wed 16-06-08 Fri 16-06-1057 Dry Pond Excavation 2 days Thu 16-06-09 Fri 16-06-1058 Dry Pond Landscaping 5 days Mon 16-06-13 Fri 16-06-1759 Pipe Network Tie-In 9 days Mon 16-06-13 Thu 16-06-2360 Dry Pond Pipe Network Excavation 4 days Mon 16-06-13 Thu 16-06-1661 Dry Pond Pipe Network Install 2 days Thu 16-06-16 Fri 16-06-1762 Dry Pond Pipe Network Backfill 5 days Fri 16-06-17 Thu 16-06-2363 PHASE 4 - TANK C 17 days Mon 16-06-27 Wed 16-07-2064 Main Tank Works 17 days Mon 16-06-27 Wed 16-07-2065 Clearing and Grubbing + Tree Protection 2 days Mon 16-06-27 Tue 16-06-2866 Site Survey and Layout 13 days Wed 16-06-29 Mon 16-07-1867 Excavation 1 day Thu 16-06-30 Thu 16-06-3068 Soil Anchor Installation 2 days Mon 16-07-04 Tue 16-07-0522 27 02 07 12 17 22 27 01 06 11 16 21 26 01 06 11 16 21 26 31 05 10 15 20 25 30 04 09 14 19 24 29 04 09 14 19 24 29 03 08 13 182016 May 2016 June 2016 July 2016 August 2016 September 2016 October 2016 NovemberTaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyExternal TasksExternal MilestoneDeadlineProgressManual ProgressUBC South Campus Stormwater ManagementDetention FacilitiesConstruction SchedulePage 2Date: Thu 16-03-31Reviewed By: HGID Task Name Duration Start Finish69 Wall Rebar (North and East) 1 day Wed 16-07-06 Wed 16-07-0670 Shotcrete Walls (North and East) 1 day Fri 16-07-08 Fri 16-07-0871 Wall Rebar (South and West) 1 day Thu 16-07-07 Thu 16-07-0772 Shotcrete Walls (South and West) 1 day Fri 16-07-08 Fri 16-07-0873 Pad and Column Rebar 1 day Mon 16-07-11 Mon 16-07-1174 Column Forming 2 days Tue 16-07-12 Wed 16-07-1375 Pad and Column Pour 1 day Thu 16-07-14 Thu 16-07-1476 Oil/Water Separator Install 1 day Fri 16-07-15 Fri 16-07-1577 Manhole Install 1 day Fri 16-07-15 Fri 16-07-1578 Pre-Cast Cover Install 1 day Mon 16-07-18 Mon 16-07-1879 Backfill 1 day Tue 16-07-19 Tue 16-07-1980 Landscaping 1 day Wed 16-07-20 Wed 16-07-2081 Pipe Network Tie-In 3 days Wed 16-07-06 Fri 16-07-0882 Pipe Network Excavation 1 day Wed 16-07-06 Wed 16-07-0683 Pipe Network Install 1 day Thu 16-07-07 Thu 16-07-0784 Pipe Network Backfill 1 day Fri 16-07-08 Fri 16-07-0885 PHASE 5 - TANK D 72 days Mon 16-07-11 Fri 16-10-2186 Main Tank Works 65 days Wed 16-07-20 Fri 16-10-2187 Clearing and Grubbing + Tree Protection 5 days Wed 16-07-20 Tue 16-07-2688 Site Survey and Layout 48 days Wed 16-07-27 Tue 16-10-0489 Excavation 17 days Thu 16-07-28 Mon 16-08-2290 Soil Anchor Installation 5 days Tue 16-08-23 Mon 16-08-2991 Wall Rebar (North and East) 4 days Tue 16-08-30 Fri 16-09-0292 Shotcrete Walls (North and East) 1 day Tue 16-09-06 Tue 16-09-0693 Wall Rebar (South and West) 4 days Tue 16-09-06 Fri 16-09-0994 Shotcrete Walls (South and West) 1 day Mon 16-09-12 Mon 16-09-1295 Pad and Column Rebar 7 days Tue 16-09-13 Wed 16-09-2196 Column Forming 7 days Thu 16-09-22 Fri 16-09-3097 Pad and Column Pour 1 day Mon 16-10-03 Mon 16-10-0398 Oil/Water Separator Install 1 day Tue 16-10-04 Tue 16-10-0499 Manhole Install 1 day Tue 16-10-04 Tue 16-10-04100 Pre-Cast Cover Install 2 days Wed 16-10-05 Thu 16-10-06101 Backfill 3 days Fri 16-10-07 Wed 16-10-12102 Landscaping 7 days Thu 16-10-13 Fri 16-10-2122 27 02 07 12 17 22 27 01 06 11 16 21 26 01 06 11 16 21 26 31 05 10 15 20 25 30 04 09 14 19 24 29 04 09 14 19 24 29 03 08 13 182016 May 2016 June 2016 July 2016 August 2016 September 2016 October 2016 NovemberTaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyExternal TasksExternal MilestoneDeadlineProgressManual ProgressUBC South Campus Stormwater ManagementDetention FacilitiesConstruction SchedulePage 3Date: Thu 16-03-31Reviewed By: HGID Task Name Duration Start Finish103 Pipe Network Tie-In 5 days Mon 16-07-11 Fri 16-07-15104 Pipe Network Excavation 2 days Mon 16-07-11 Tue 16-07-12105 Pipe Network Install 1 day Wed 16-07-13 Wed 16-07-13106 Pipe Network Backfill 2 days Thu 16-07-14 Fri 16-07-15107 Detention Tanks and Dry Pond Completion 0 days Fri 16-10-21 Fri 16-10-21 10-2122 27 02 07 12 17 22 27 01 06 11 16 21 26 01 06 11 16 21 26 31 05 10 15 20 25 30 04 09 14 19 24 29 04 09 14 19 24 29 03 08 13 182016 May 2016 June 2016 July 2016 August 2016 September 2016 October 2016 NovemberTaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyExternal TasksExternal MilestoneDeadlineProgressManual ProgressUBC South Campus Stormwater ManagementDetention FacilitiesConstruction SchedulePage 4Date: Thu 16-03-31Reviewed By: HG UBC South Campus Stormwater Management Plan April 7, 2016  SWM000008 APPENDIX M – CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE: ROADWORKS  PHASING SEQUENCE – ROADWORKS  Figure: Phasing sequence – roadworks Source: Digital Image. David Grant. March 31, 2016. Adapted from <www.google.com>.  ID Task Name Duration Start Finish1 UBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER MANAGEMENT 57 days Mon 16-05-02 Thu 16-07-212 Project Start 0 days Mon 16-05-02 Mon 16-05-023 Mobilization 1 day Mon 16-05-02 Mon 16-05-024 Demobilization 1 day Thu 16-07-14 Thu 16-07-145 Project Completion (w/o Contingency) 0 days Thu 16-07-14 Thu 16-07-146 Contingency 5 days Fri 16-07-15 Thu 16-07-217 Project Completion (w/ Contingency) 0 days Thu 16-07-21 Thu 16-07-218 ROADWORKS 50 days Tue 16-05-03 Wed 16-07-139 Phase 1 17 days Tue 16-05-03 Thu 16-05-2610 Road Survey and Layout 16 days Tue 16-05-03 Wed 16-05-2511 Milling of Road 11 days Tue 16-05-03 Tue 16-05-1712 Subgrade Layer 10 days Thu 16-05-05 Wed 16-05-1813 RoaDrain System Install 10 days Mon 16-05-09 Fri 16-05-2014 Asphalt 10 days Wed 16-05-11 Wed 16-05-2515 Line Painting 2 days Wed 16-05-25 Thu 16-05-2616 Phase 2 17 days Wed 16-05-18 Fri 16-06-1017 Road Survey and Layout 16 days Wed 16-05-18 Thu 16-06-0918 Milling of Road 11 days Wed 16-05-18 Thu 16-06-0219 Subgrade Layer 10 days Fri 16-05-20 Fri 16-06-0320 RoaDrain System Install 10 days Wed 16-05-25 Tue 16-06-0721 Asphalt 10 days Fri 16-05-27 Thu 16-06-0922 Line Painting 2 days Thu 16-06-09 Fri 16-06-1023 Phase 3 17 days Fri 16-06-03 Mon 16-06-2724 Road Survey and Layout 16 days Fri 16-06-03 Fri 16-06-2425 Milling of Road 11 days Fri 16-06-03 Fri 16-06-1726 Subgrade Layer 10 days Tue 16-06-07 Mon 16-06-2027 RoaDrain System Install 10 days Thu 16-06-09 Wed 16-06-2228 Asphalt 10 days Mon 16-06-13 Fri 16-06-2429 Line Painting 2 days Fri 16-06-24 Mon 16-06-2730 Phase 4 17 days Mon 16-06-20 Wed 16-07-1331 Road Survey and Layout 16 days Mon 16-06-20 Tue 16-07-1232 Milling of Road 11 days Mon 16-06-20 Tue 16-07-0533 Subgrade Layer 10 days Wed 16-06-22 Wed 16-07-0634 RoaDrain System Install 10 days Fri 16-06-24 Fri 16-07-0805-0207-1407-2122 27 02 07 12 17 22 27 01 06 11 16 21 26 01 06 11 16 21 262016 May 2016 June 2016 JulyTaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyExternal TasksExternal MilestoneDeadlineProgressManual ProgressUBC South Campus Stormwater ManagementRoadworks (Permeable Asphalt)Construction SchedulePage 1Date: Thu 16-03-31Reviewed By: HGID Task Name Duration Start Finish35 Asphalt 10 days Tue 16-06-28 Tue 16-07-1236 Line Painting 2 days Tue 16-07-12 Wed 16-07-1337 Roadworks Completion 0 days Wed 16-07-13 Wed 16-07-13 07-1322 27 02 07 12 17 22 27 01 06 11 16 21 26 01 06 11 16 21 262016 May 2016 June 2016 JulyTaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyExternal TasksExternal MilestoneDeadlineProgressManual ProgressUBC South Campus Stormwater ManagementRoadworks (Permeable Asphalt)Construction SchedulePage 2Date: Thu 16-03-31Reviewed By: HG

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0343154/manifest

Comment

Related Items