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Urban Forestry Visioning Project Du, Denny; Sangha, Tasha; Smith, Ivy; Yu, Hui May 8, 2016

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportDenny Du, Hui Yu, Ivy Smith, Tasha SanghaUrban Forestry Visioning ProjectFRST/LARC 551/542May 08, 201614882157University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.(Aerial Views of Campus, UBC Centennial)URBAN FORESTRY V IS IONING PROJECTUNIVERSITY  OF  BRIT ISH COLUMBIADENNY DU,  TASHA SANGHA,  IVY  SMITH,  HUI  YU(Mapio.net)TABLE OF CONTENTS031305060415Project ObjectivesStrategy & FrameworkUBC Site AnalysisEvaluation MatrixBackground of the UBC Forest in PhotosImportance of the UBC ForestUBC Design GuidelinesTrees, Open Spaces & Green CorridorsParking Alternative Futures Scenarios0908 20211211Site Selection: The Agronomy CorridorSite Selection Rationale Evaluation of ScenariosReferencesCase StudiesSite PhotosThe objective of the urban forestry strategy is to design a sustainable UBC community that is resilient and adaptive to the effects of climate change. Our main intentions are twofold, considering areas of potential as well as the existing urban forests of UBC and how to create a cohesive vision that bridges with UBC Campus Planning’s current strategy. Specifically, our main objectives are: •	increase canopy cover with large scale tree planting and green space on UBC campus•	providing inviting and engaging environment for students and faculty (socializing, recreation, studying, commuting)•	create a climate resilient community by identifying impervious areas that could potentially be readapted to increase infiltration, keep students and residents cool and improve well-beingOverall, we have identified three key criteria for success with which we will evaluate our urban forestry vision: climate resiliency, low carbon community, and aesthetic/social values, which are discussed in depth in the second half of the report.Project ObjectivesUBC’s Urban Forest in PhotosUBC campus, 1947UBC campus, 1930 (unbraceyourself.com) (Aerial Views of Campus) (Aerial Views of Campus)(100.ubc.ca)UBC campus, present dayUBC Campus, 1975The following images illustrate the rapid development and decrease of the urban forest of UBC over the past century. As the campus has grown over the past decades, the urban forest has been continuously diminishing to give way to new housing and faculty buildings. Today, only several small patches of forest remain in tact. The importance of maintaining and increasing this canopy cover is discussed on the following page.The Importance of the Urban ForestUrban	 forests	 provide	 a	 range	 of	 benefits,	including environmental, aesthetic and social benefits.	The	following	is	an	in	depth	look	at	the opportunities provided by urban forests and why it is important to create a strong urban forestry strategy for UBC: Environmental Benefits1. Improving air quality 2. Trees absorb gaseous pollutants and greenhouse gases by leaf stomata.3. Trees intercept small airborne particles. Some particles can be adhered to leaf surface. Trees with hairy, rough leaf, and bark	 surfaces	 are	 efficient	 interceptors	(Scott).4. Trees transpire water and shade surface, resulting in lower temperature, reducing ozone level and energy cost. By shading asphalt surfaces and vehicles in parking lots, trees also reduce hydrocarbon emissions that are a major component of smog.5. Trees release oxygen by photosynthesis.Improving Hydrology 6. Tree canopies can intercept and store rainfall, reducing the amount of water reaching ground then thereby reducing ground	runoff.7. Trees can also protect water quality by reducing	runoff	during	rainfall	events	that	are responsible for most pollutant wash-off	into	receiving	waters.8. Trees	can	benefit	the	soil	at	campus.	Tree	roots	 can	 increase	 the	 rainfall	 infiltration	through	 the	 soil	 by	 creating	 fine	 root	channels, which also increases the water storage capacity of soil, reducing the risk of	surface	flow	(Cappiella).	9. Tree canopy interception of precipitation and transpiration can reduce soil erosion and soil moisture, improving soil properties and increasing its resilience to high rainfall input.Carbon sequestration, energy consumption and climate change10. Urban forest plays an important role in absorbing GHG (primary CO2) and mitigating the impacts of climate change (McPherson). Trees need CO2 to perform photosynthesis that sinks the surrounding atmospheric carbon into solid biomass and thereby directly resulting in reduction of GHG in the air.11. Trees	 are	 the	 highly	 effective	 green	element for reducing overheating in urban areas as they provide shades and perform evapotranspiration that increase air	moisture-cooling	effect.12. Urban forest reduces GHG indirectly. The natural shading of trees near buildings can reduce the demand of heating or cooling, which reduces the emissions produced by power plants.13. Instead of fossil fuel, the use of wood (e.g. residuals) as a biofuel also provides alternative energy source for campus consumptions.Other Environmental Benefits14. Trees and other vegetation can reduce noise. Noise can be mitigated by urban forest as trees have the ability to absorb	 and	 reflect	 sound	 energy	 from	atmosphere. Study indicates that trees absorb more high-frequency noise which is most distressing to human.15. Urban forests provide important habitat for wildlife and improve biodiversity. They provide nesting sites, food (e.g. fruits, insects) for birds that are highly valued to communities (Tyrväinen).16. Urban	 trees	 create	 buffer	 zone	 between	pedestrians	 and	 traffic,	 and	 they	 can	shelter and protect road surfaces from high temperature during hot weather, reducing the road and street maintenance.The Non-Environmental Benefits Aesthetic: The existence and enhancement Eight	ecosystem	services	provided	by	urban	tree	canopy	identified	to	be	of	high	relevance	to	UBC		 	 	 																(Sutherland)of urban forest can add more diverse visual elements and features such as color, texture and forms to the urban landscape, which usually soften campus constructions and provide welcome and attractive environments by adding aesthetic values.Recreation, health and socialization: The green	space	offers	a	range	of	recreation	and	social opportunities to enjoy the green nature and release stress, promoting an active and healthier lifestyle for community. Other Social and Economic Benefits17. Reducing crime rates, violence and enhancing public safety18. Providing jobs and education related to urban forestry and the nature19. Providing local foods for residents and wildlife(University of British Columbia) (University of British Columbia)Figure 1: Open Spaces and Commons Network Figure 2: Street Trees of UBCSite Analysis and MappingRationale for Analysis MapsCurrently, UBC Campus Planning uses an overall design guide that not only provides guides for new development, but highlights overall campus-wide strategies that are used to unify and create cohesion for UBC as a whole. In order to begin to understand some of the urban forestry and green initiatives put in place by Campus and Community Planning, several maps were analyzed	 in	 detail.	 Specifically,	 our	 team	looked at current street tree strategies for the main UBC corridors, open space and green corridor strategies in place, as well as parking.  These maps were selected and analyzed in order to create a visioning strategy and scenario analysis that integrates with the current goals and strategies outlined by Campus and Community Planning.Open Space, Green Corridors and Street Trees (Figure 1,2)The open space and green corridor map highlights current and future green networks to be integrated within the campus. Currently, there are two notable green networks that run from east to west across campus, and several peripheral networks on secondary streets. The two major areas for future greenway development are north of main mall toward the Museum of Anthropology and at the southeast end of campus near the stadium.	 	An	area	of	opportunity	 identified	on	the	map	is	the	area	between	Pacific	Spirit	Park and Marine Drive/Wreck Beach. There are currently no green corridors that connect the north and south part of campus, aside from University Boulevard, which terminates at Wesbrook Mall and doesn’t connect the two peripheral forests.(Adapted from UBC Campus Plan)Photographs taken by Ivy SmithLegendsurface parking lots parking structures  existing forest UBC boundary 0m 100mScale: NSite Analysis and MappingParking on CampusThe street tree map highlights the street tree strategy put in place by UBC Campus Planning. Parking (Figure 3)Parking was mapped, as UBC still has numerous surface lots, that are not only entirely impervious, but house many cars on a daily basis. As UBC encourages and moves towards a walkable, pedestrian oriented campus, parking	was	 identified	 as	 an	 area	 of	 potential	for future urban forestry strategies. Tree Canopy Cover (Figure 4)In addition, iTree is an online tool that was used to calculate the green and grey space on campus and better understand the current tree canopy percentage. Currently, UBC canopy cover accounts for 31% of the campus, while the remaining area is characterized by impervious surface. Figure 3: Surface and Above Ground Parking Structures, UBC CampusAs calculated by iTree Rose Garden Underground ParkadeWest Parkade, Above-Ground StructureAgronomy Road, Surface Parking LotFigure 4: Overall Canopy Cover of UBC31% Canopy Cover(Adapted from UBC Campus Plan)Legendstudy site boundary  existing forest UBC boundary LegendExisting forest Study site Pacic Ocean Point Grey Neighbourhood UBC Campus CoreNew campus developments Proposed forest corridor0m 100mScale:NConnecting toexisting forestpatchConnecting toexisting forestpatchSite Selection and RationaleThe Agronomy Road corridor was selected as the site for our visioning project for several reasons. After further analysis of the UBC Design and Campus Planning Guide, Agronomy Road is a neglected lateral connection in the campus that has not been addressed as an area for current/future development by Campus Planning (see	 figure	 1).	 In	 addition,	 this	 is	 an	 opportune	time to develop a visioning strategy, given the current construction of an international student housing high rise development on the south end of Agronomy. As we critically analyze how the UBC design guide has been implemented in recent projects along the Agronomy corridor, this international student residence can be used as a real-time example to explore the possibility of community amenity contributions the developers must contribute as compensation for construction. In addition, Agronomy Road is a transect through several notable nodes. It stands as the terminus of the Main Mall corridor, and also is home to the landscape architecture, and forestry faculties. The north end of Agronomy terminates at a housing node, and there is an opportunity to extend the corridor through the north end so faculty, students, as well as residents can reap the benefits	of	an	urban	forestry	strategy.	Moreover,	the area is predominantly impervious, and while according to the street tree map illustrated in the design guide (see map B), there is little presence of street trees along the corridor. The design guide also states that it considers both Agronomy and Main Mall, as well as Agronomy and Thunderbird two of the most important mixed use hubs to develop on campus. This is a goal we integrate in our visioning strategy below.Figure 3: Agronomy Road Site Boundary, University of British ColumbiaAgronomy Site AnalysisAgronomy Road represents a diverse and dynamic transect of the UBC campus that encompasses many	 different	 programs	 and	 user	 groups.	 The	corridor is home to many faculties, including land and food systems, forestry and pharmacy, as well as non-UBC businesses and residential units. There is a diverse range of working professionals, students, faculty, and families that live and work along the corridor. The site sits between two major forested areas, along the coast of Marine Drive as	well	 as	 Pacific	 Spirit	 Park.	 This	 is	 an	 area	 of	opportunity as Agronomy Road has the potential connect these two urban forests. Currently, the selected site consists of 25% canopy cover and the remaining percentage characterized by hardscape. Some of the notable sites along the corridor include a towering new international student residential development, the terminus of Main Mall (an important intersection on campus), a recently completed energy building, a large impervious plaza in front of the faculty of pharmacy and a vacant lot yet to be developed by the university (see page 11). We	have	 identified	two	nodes	along	the	corridor,	both of which represent two unique conditions and areas of potential for applying a visioning and future alternatives strategy.  The	first	node	is	a	vacant	lot	at	the	intersection	of	Agronomy Road and Wesbrook Village. Not only has this	intersection	been	identified	by	the	UBC	Design	Guide as a key node for mixed use development (reference), there is no development planned just yet for this lot. This represents an opportunity to re-envision this space as an urban forest, rather than the more likely scenario of another structure being built in its place. The surrounding area is also highly	dense	and	is	characterized	by	a	significant	amount of impervious surface, namely the pharmacy plaza to the southeast of the site. There are also many families and individuals who live close to this intersection who are not necessarily students or faculty. There is an opportunity to create an urban forest that accommodates and encourages interaction among all of these user groups.*Legendbuildingssite boundaryopen space nodemixed-use hub (as outlined by UBC Campus Planning)**International Housingunder constructionNew Energy BuildingLarge Impervious PlazaOpen Node/Vacant LotOpen Recreation Spaceparking structureparking lotparking lot pharmacyforestryOverall Layout Mapmedical sciences computer sciences Site Map*Legendbuildingssite boundaryopen space nodemixed-use hub (as outlined by UBC Campus Planning)**parking surfacesN0m 100mparking structureparking lotparkinglot pharmacyforestrylife sciences computer sciences International Housingunder constructionNew Energy BuildingLarge Impervious PlazaOpen Node/Vacant LotOpen Recreation SpaceWesbrook MallMain MallWest MallAgronomy Roadstudent residencesstudent residences Thunderbird residencesstudent residences The	second	node	identified	for	the	visioning	strategy	is the surface parking lot at the intersection of Agronomy and Main Mall. This is one of the last remaining surface parking lots on campus. The UBC Campus	 Planning	 division	 has	 identified	 this	 area	as a potential for an underground parking lot so the surface can be repurposed for future development (reference). This node is highly impervious and is characterized by heavy vehicular use. At the same time, as the terminus of Main Mall, there is heavy pedestrian use and open grassy space that is popular among students. There is an opportunity here to integrate urban forestry, reduce imperviousness, and improve aesthetic and wellbeing for students and faculty who frequent the area.Grey/Green SpaceCanopy Cover on Agronomy Road Overall Canopy Cover of UBCAgronomy Site Analysistree canopyLegendgreen spacebuildingsparking structureparking lotparking lot pharmacyforestryGrey/Green Site MapN0m 100mtree canopyLegendgreen spacebuildingsparking structureparking lotparking lot pharmacyforestryGrey/Green Site MapN0m 100m25% Canopy Cover31% Canopy CoverAs calculated by iTree As calculated by iTree Photographs taken by Ivy SmithSite CharacterAgronomy Site AnalysisNew international student housing building Terminus of Main MallEnergy building Large impervious plazaCity of London City of Toronto“Plant More, Protect More, Maintain Better” Sustaining and Expanding Toronto’s Urban Forestconcept of “right tree, right place” is fundamental to urban forest management. It suggests that suitable tree species should be selected to match their intended function and available growing space conditions.Under 4 principles, the Urban Forest Strategy consists of 18 Strategic Goals and their associated Actions, with priority and time frame. For example, achieve appropriate canopy cover across the community; Preserve and enhance local natural biodiversity; Maintain publicly owned trees to maximize current and	future	benefits	provided	to	the	site;	Consult	and	cooperate with large private landholders to embrace city-wide urban forest goals and objectives.The key lesson from this case study is that evaluating the current urban forest project is an approach to measure potential opportunities for a new project. The existing UBC plan can be used as a based scenario -“if we do not change anything”. The tree species selection and 4 principles also provide suggestions on high sustainability for long-term urban forestry strategy. The City of London has been known as “the Forest City” when it was described as city built in the middle of a forest. It has an extensive urban forest that provides social, health, environmental and economic benefits	 to	 the	community	but	 it	 is	 under	pressure	from urban growth, economic challenges. Elevating the importance of the urban forest in London enhances its reputation as a place where people want to live, work and play, and create an environment that is resilient to change. The City of London urban forest strategy is developed to provide the vision and strategic direction for long-term education, planning, planting, protection and maintenance of trees, woodlands, green space in the City of London. The strategy describes the background of urban forest in City	of	London,	the	definition	and	benefits	of	urban	forest, and more importantly, it outlines the principles of urban forest strategy, evaluates the performance of current urban forest program and highlights Londoners’ Concerns and Vision for the Urban forest.There are 4 principles that provide overall guidance in developing the strategy: plant more, protect more, maintain better, and engage the community The The City of Toronto has been called “a city within a park” with a range of 26.6% to 28% tree canopy cover. However, some potential threats to urban forest have been recognized and need to be addressed. Key challenges and issues to sustaining and expanding Toronto’s urban forest include forest health threats (pests), balancing urbanization Impacts and sustaining the urban forest, climate change impacts and increasing Public Awareness of the Value and Sensitivity of the urban Forest.There are 6 strategic goals:1. Increase canopy cover (to 40%)2. Achieve equitable distribution 3. Increase biodiversity 4. Increase awareness 5. Promotes stewardship and education6. Improve monitoring This urban forest management plan aims to achieve the long-term vision: Toronto’s diverse urban forest provides the vital green infrastructure that creates healthy neighborhoods, supports habitat and Examples	of	canopy	cover	differences	in	two	neighbourhoods.	Old	North	neighbourhood	on	the	left	is	a	mature canopy with 39% cover; Sunningdale neighbourhood on the right is a young canopy with 5% cover.Palmerston Avenue, Toronto. 1908 (left) and 2002 (right)(City of London)(Toronto Strategic Forest Management Plan)biodiversity,	 promotes	 clean	 air	 and	 water,	 offers	opportunities for recreation and education, fosters economic prosperity and enhances quality of life for everyone in the city.In conclusion, two case studies show similarities. Increasing canopy cover is the most fundamental to urban forestry planning. Maintaining, monitoring, evaluating and community engagement are important parts to achieve higher, long-term sustainability. Increasing biodiversity and multi-species can improve the resilience of the community. Toronto’s strategic forest management plan suggests that there is an interaction climate change and urban forest. We need to	take	into	account	the	influence	of	climate	change	on trees in urban area. Moreover, it is important to consider the opportunities for both existing area and potential areas. There may be a bigger opportunity for new area in UBC as the population is expected to increase stably in the future and expansion of campus is also predictable. Case StudiesLOW CARBON CLIMATE RESILIENT SOCIAL / AESTHETIC CURRENT FUTURE DO-NOTHING (50yr)FUTURE RESILIENT (50 yr) CRITERIA SCENARIOS Evaluation Matrix Strategy + FrameworkEvaluation Matrix for Assessing Future Alternative ScenariosEvaluation Matrix A simple evaluation matrix was used to determine and assess the future alternative scenarios of the areas along the Agronomy Road Corridor. Representations of the current and future scenarios were based on a set of evaluative criteria. Three criteria were used to inform the composition of elements within the representations: The visioning exercise demonstrates the presence or absence of these criteria in the current, future do-nothing and future resilient scenarios. The future scenarios were generated projecting estimated changes 50 years into the future. 1. Climate Resilience This criteria includes:•	 Balancing the grey-green spaces, to create sites that respond and adapt to high or low amounts of rainfall, allowing the site to appropriately manage storm water. •	 A diversity of tree and plant species to create vegetation populations that are adapted to changing climatic conditions and can withstand disease and natural disturbance.•	 Promoting diverse animal populations through habitat creation and food source availability. •	 Erosion control and slope/bank stabilization. 2. Low Carbon This criteria includes:•	 Providing shade and shelter on the street level and for buildings to reduce energy cost of artificial	heating	and	cooling	systems.	•	 Changing behaviors by creating more opportunities for active transportation and minimal spaces for single occupancy vehicular	traffic.	•	 Carbon sequestration potential of tree populations and understory vegetation materials.•	 Air pollution and quality control. 3. Social Values •	 Appealing visual aesthetics. •	 Providing spaces for social interactions, strengthening the social community. •	 Offering	recreational	and	educational	opportunities. •	 Promoting	psychological	and	health	benefits.	•	 Offering	a	diversity	of	programmed	areas	on	site	to allow optimal use of the site. •	 Noise	buffer	and	absorption.	•	 Cultural and spiritual values. It is important to consider some of the key elements of UBC’s design guidelines. These pivotal guides are used as a basis for all constructed projects undertaken on campus, and thus have an important and lasting impact on our campus community. We have highlighted several key components of the design guide that can be used as a basis upon which we evaluate our future alternative scenarios in the second	half	of	the	project.	Specifically,	we	look	at the ‘sustainability guidelines’ section of the guide. Some of the key components of the sustainability guidelines include:Sustainability GuidelinesA. Social, Economic and Environmental Considerations — All projects must be designed to integrate sustainable best practices in design including:i. An emphasis on social sustainability to bring students,	staff,	faculty,	localneighbourhood residents, and visitors together for academic, recreational, cultural and leisure activities.ii. Consideration of economic sustainability through use of design and material selection strategies	that	promote	cost-effective,	durable,	and low maintenance buildings and public realm improvementsiii. Environmental sustainability through energy and water demand management, rainwater management; respect for the forested setting for habitat and recreation; encouragement of horticultural diversity and low water-use landscaping; health and well being; and showcasing of learning, research, and demonstration projects.B.	All	projects	must	develop	specific	sustainable	design strategies and targets based on goals identified	in	individual	project	design	briefs.C. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) — All buildingprojects, including major renovations, on institutional campus lands must be designed to achieve	LEED.	Gold	certification	or	equivalent	certification:	In	addition,	some	LEED	credits	are	mandatory for projects at UBC. See Appendix 2: UBC LEED Implementation Guide.D. Sustainability Best Practice Building Design — To maximize the environmental sustainability and	construction	and	operating	cost	efficiencies,	all projects are to follow Sustainability Best Practice Building Design Guidelines itemized in Section 2.3.10 of this document.E. Living Lab Sustainability Opportunities — As part of UBC’s Living Lab objectives, all new buildings,	additions,	and	significant	renovations	will be encouraged to embrace innovation and managed experimentation in their design and construction.F. UBC Climate Action Plan — All projects will follow supplementary technical sustainability design	 criteria	 identified	 in	 the	 UBC	 Climate	Action Plan, as amended from time to time.G. Stormwater Management — All projects are to follow the stormwaterguidelines below:i. Where possible, public amenity will be combined with surface (ponds, swales,rain gardens) and rooftop (green roof, re-use system) stormwater facilities such that multiple benefits	 are	 realized,	 including	 potable	 water	or energy savings, and stormwater volume reduction	or	flow	control.ii. Stormwater may be directed to the deep aquifer at all locations on campus.iii.	 Passive	 infiltration	 to	 the	 upper	 aquifer	 is	permitted only in those locations east of Main Mall Greenway and south of Crescent Road.H. Water Managementi. All new buildings are to be designed to work with	existing	fire	flow	capacity.System upgrades shall only be considered as the last alternative.ii. Developments are to collect and use rainwater and stormwater where possible for appropriate uses such as irrigation or other non-potable uses.iii. Developments are to minimize the consumption of potable water by eliminating its use where and when it is not necessary, and by	maximizing	efficiencies	in	its	distribution	and	use.iv. Developments shall minimize domestic, institutional, and industrial wastewater transported	off	site	by	reducing	volume,	reusing	or treating on-site.v. All new buildings are to be designed to follow and support UBC’s waste management objectives and infrastructure.I. All new buildings are to be designed to follow and support UBC’s waste management objectives and infrastructure.J. All new buildings shall provide performance monitoring (metering) infrastructure for the following systems:i. Waterii. Electric: to allow discrete monitoring of lighting, plug loads and mechanical systemsiii. ThermalK. All new building performance monitoring equipment shall be compatible with UBC’s data collection system and building design shall include display features for building occupants and passersby to show building performance.L. Street Trees: Street tree planting for all primary and secondary streets must be consistent with Map 3-9 Street Trees. These choreographed selections will, over time, bring beauty and coherence to the campus while still allowing a wide range of seasonal colour, scale, and biodiversity. Gateways, special places and routes are accentuated. Consistency along significant	 spines	 enhances	 character	 place-making	and	way-findingStrategy + FrameworkAn Analysis of UBC’s Design Guidelines(UBC Campus Plan Design Guidelines)FUTURE ALTERNATIVES SCENARIOS(research.ubc.ca)Existing Conditions Site 1: Wesbrook @ Agronomy Site 2: Agronomy and Main Mall Surface Parking Lot High Maintenance VegetationImpervious Surfaces Leading to Increased RunoSmall, Ornamental Trees with Little Biodiversity ValueContinued High Rise Construction In Adjacent AreasHigh-rise Mixed Use Development11122334455Site 1: Wesbrook @ Agronomy “Business as Usual” ScenarioAssumptionsIn this scenario, it is assumed that a multistory mixed use development will inhabit this vacant site within the next 50 years. This mirrors the current level and pace of development that can be seen throughout campus today. In addition, the buildings would be mixed use, as the UBC Campus Planning has goals for the Wesbrook and Agronomy Road intersection to be a mixed use hub in the overall campus plan. They would also	 be	 LEED	 certified,	 as	 the	 campus	 design	 guide	 has	 a	requirement	 for	 all	 new	 projects	 to	 be	 LEED	 gold	 certified	or higher. Planting would be characterized by an adequate amount of open space, with street tree planting to likely be ornamental species (as currently seen further down Agronomy Road).	Vegetated	buffer	strips	would	likely	be	predominantly	grass, otherwise boxwood planting as seen in front of the Life Sciences building. Regardless, there is little biodiversity value in either grass or boxwood. In addition, neighboring open space (seen at the bottom of the image) would potentially be filled	with	additional	residential	towers.	Evaluation and Trade-offsThe	most	important	trade-off	in	this	example	is	that	the	current	permeable lot would be converted to a development site, adding density but reducing potential for natural, green open spaces. In turn, there would be reduced opportunity to plant large canopied trees that could help mitigate the impacts of the amount of hard surface at this particular intersection. Additionally,	 significant	 impermeable	 surface	 would	 leave	little room for diverse understory planting that could support a	 range	 of	 species	 including	 birds,	 butterflies	 and	 bees.	Overall, there are several positive elements of the campus design guide that could potentially manifest on this vacant lot within the next 50 years. Increased density as an adaptive strategy to climate change, low maintenance planting, low irrigation needs, and stormwater collection, are just a few of the strategies that could take place in the “business as usual” scenario. However, the overall sustainability guide in the UBC Design Guidelines suggests that there is less of a focus on increasing canopy cover and biodiversity, and rather, more of an	effort	on	ensuring	a	cohesive	street	tree	strategy	as	outlined	by the guide, which would lead to more of a monoculture of trees, increasing susceptibility to disease. These components represent the downside of the “business as usual” scenario..Douglas Fir, Cedar, Salal, FernsPermeable Paving on Pedestrian RouteExpanded Bike Lane with Permeable PaversUnderstory to Support BiodiversiyMulch and Moss groundcover to sup-port stormwater inltrationIncrease Tree Canopy along Road MediansReplace Grass strips along sidewalk with native planting112233446677Benches and Fixed Seating85588Site 1: Wesbrook @ Agronomy “Resilient” ScenarioAssumptionsThe resilient scenario represents a radical, though potentially realistic example of what the vacant lot could look like should a full scale urban forestry strategy be adopted. Instead of populating the site with tower development, the permeable site would remain permeable and become a forest patch. Tree canopy cover would increase dramatically, cooling the predominantly paved area and providing a social space for users. The site would be divided into 3 major forest patches with ample walking room between, to ensure the area felt safe enough for students to walk through at night. Instead of following the slightly limiting street tree strategy utilized by UBC, site planting would be inspired by the Western Coastal Hemlock Zone, that is characterized by cedars, hemlock trees, salal, sword fern and other native species. This plant and tree selection would then support an abundance of species and become a site rich in biodiversity. The forest patch could also be an ecological connector that linked the two disconnected forests to the north and south of the campus, allowing birds, animals and other insects to establish habitat. This is a stronger scenario than one provided by a static and uniform street tree strategy that could result in rapid spread of disease. Additionally, pedestrian circulation and bike paths would be converted	 to	 permeable	 paving,	 allowing	 water	 to	 infiltrate	directly into the ground. The bike path would widen to take up one	vehicular	 lane,	 reducing	 traffic	and	potentially	encouraging	walking/cycling as the dominant form of transportation. Evaluation and Trade-offsThe	major	 trade-off	 in	 the	 resilient	 scenario	 is	 that	UBC	would	have to trade density for open space. However, as reinforced in this project, the value of open space is immense, especially if open spaces begin to integrate increased forest canopy cover. While	this	lot	may	not	house	classrooms,	apartments,	or	offices,	it is contributing to student life by cleaning the air, reducing heat	island	effect,	providing	shaded	social	spaces	for	students,	increasing permeability and water collection, and many other benefits.	In	relation	to	the	UBC	Design	Guide,	the	site	is	literally	and	 figuratively	 becoming	 a	 living	 lab,	 integrating	 a	 dynamic	ecological	patch	that	provides	environment	and	social	benefits,	as well providing research opportunities for the faculties that are located along agronomy (Land and Food Systems, Life Sciences, Forestry). In short, it is creating a living laboratory for these	students.	In	addition,	considering	the	significant	increase	in	density attributed to the new international student housing project on the south end of Agronomy Road, this vacant site could be considered a community amenity contribution opportunity for the developer. Thus, in the face of such great amount of construction occurring along Agronomy, it is essential that some space get preserved as open, green, and natural. Typical new development Single species of tree planted in unfavourable conditions Driving culture supported through road conguration (lack of bike lanes) Large areas of impermeable or low permeability paving Underground parking supporting vehicular transportation to campus 12345123452Site 2: Agronomy and Main Mall Surface Parking Lot “Business as Usual” ScenarioIn this “Business as Usual” scenario,UBC design guidelines were used to guide the visioning scenario elements. Typical UBC campus new development trends are shown here to show how the surface paking area may appear if it were to be developed according to development history on campus. Stormwater retention pond also functions as gathering space Living building with green roof has smaller footprint Increased tree canopy cover with diverse forest (age and speceis) Permeable plaza123451234675Designated cycling lane  6Safe and inviting forest trails and access promotes outdoor classroom and recreational uses  7Solar panels produce energy for new building operations Site 2: Agronomy and Main Mall Surface Parking Lot “Future Alternative” ScenarioThis visioning scenario imagines the potential of the surface parking lot on Main Mall and Agronomy Road. This scenario incorporates  green infrastructure and buildings, an increased and more diverse canopy cover as well as more chances for human nature interaction right on campus.In this scenario building footprint has been traded for increased natural space. We suggest to compensate for this lost building square footage potential, existing campus buildings are	retrofitted	to	incorporate	higher	density	floor	space.	Also	this	natural	area	offers	an	outdoor	classroom and outdoor learning space bringing students outside to learn. Visioning Results andRecommendationsBased on our analysis of the future alternative scenarios, we have outlined 5 recommendations that should be incorporated into the Design Guidelines to better protect UBC’s urban forest and move the community towards a more resilient and adaptive future:1. Biodiversity guidelines should be included within the ‘Sustainability Guidelines’ portion of the design guide. That is, an overall goal addressing the need for diverse plant species, and consideration for larger ecological systems that support animals, pollinators, and other integral components of our ecosystem.2. There should be a goal outlining current canopy cover percentages and future percentage cover goals, especially given the amount of development that takes place on campus. This percentage goals should be evaluated every year to ensure that construction is not harming UBC’s urban forest. Also, developers should be responsible for ensuring canopy cover percentage does not diminish as a result of construction. 3. UBC Planning’s current street tree strategy should be removed and revised with a more dynamic, diverse and resilient strategy.  Currently, the street tree strategy is characterized by uniform and aesthetically pleasing species that are planted along entire streets. Rather than focusing on aesthetic qualities and trees as tools for wayfinding,	UBC	should	consider	a	less	‘uniform’	strategy,	and implement one which allows for ecologically valuable species that prevent spread of disease and are resilient in the face of natural disturbance. Additionally, there should be guidelines for designing and planting a rich understory that complements the street tree strategies. Rather than opting for grass, the guidelines should address planting of other native and biodiversity rich species that promote pollinators, birds and other ecologically valuable species. 4. The campus design guidelines should address eliminating	 grass	 buffers	 between	 street	 and	 road	 to	accommodate for more resilient and multifunctional use. This could be a rich shrub layer, rain gardens that collect stormwater, or a native seed mix that is a low maintenance alternative to grass. Overall, the use of grass should be decreased and replaced with one of these more sustainable and resilient options.Note: calculations are an approximation and were calculated using a scaled map and polygons to determine surface area of tree canopyTotal Site Surface Area:Current Canopy Cover AreaCurrent Canopy Cover %New Canopy Cover AreaTotal Canopy Cover New Canopy Cover %30,644 SQFT OF ADDED CANOPY COVER56,338 SQFT OF ADDED CANOPY COVER448,327 sqft.112, 081 sqft.25%86,982 sqft.119,063 sqft.44%5. Finally, given the amount of development on campus, UBC Campus Planning should consider enacting a strict public amenity contribution strategy for any development on campus. For example, the new international student housing building on Agronomy Road should be required to contribute to either canopy cover goals or open space on campus, given the scale and footprint of the building. Existing open space or new vacant spaces could be potential sites for such contribution. Above: Agronomy Road re-imagined as a green corridor with dense tree canopyReferencesCappiella, K.; Schueler, T.; Wright, T. 2005. Urban watershed forestry manual. Ellicot City, MD: Center for Watershed Protection.McPherson,	G.,	Simpson	J.,	Peper,	P.,	Crowell,	A.,	Xiao,	Q.(2010).	Northern	California	Coast	Community	Tree	Guide:	Benefits,	Costs,	and	Strategic	Planting.	United	States	Department	of	Agriculture,	CA.Scott,	K.I.;	Simpson,	J.R.;	McPherson,	E.G.	1999.	Effects	of	tree	cover	on	parking	lot	microclimate	and	vehicle	emissions.	Journal	of	Arboriculture.	25(3):	129–142.Simpson,	J.R.;	McPherson,	E.G.	2007.	San	Francisco	Bay	Area	State	of	the	Urban	Forest	Report.	Albany,	CA:	U.S.	Department	of	Agriculture,	Forest	Service,	Pacific	Southwest	Research	Station.Sutherland, Ira. UBC Tree Canopy Study. Rep. University of British Columbia SEEDS 2012, n.d. Web.Tyrväinen,L.	Pauleit,	S.,	Seeland,	K.,	Vries,	S.	(2005).	Chapter	4:	Benefits	and	Uses	of	Urban	Forests	and	Trees.	Urban	forest	and	trees.	Springer,	New	York.University	of	British	Columbia.	University	of	British	Columbia	Campus	Plan	Design	Guidelines.	Rep.	University	of	British	Columbia,	n.d.	Web.	<http://planning.ubc.ca/sites/planning.ubc.ca/files/documents/planning-services/policies-plans/VCPUpdate2014_Part3.pdf>.Photo SourcesAerial Views of Campus. N.d. UBC Centennial, Vancouver. UBC Centennial. Web.City of London. “Urban Forest Strategy.” Urban Forest Strategy. City of London, n.d. Web. <https://www.london.ca/residents/Environment/Trees-Forests/Pages/Urban-Forest-Strategy.aspx>.City of Toronto. “Strategic Forest Management Plan - Strategic & Service Plans - Community Involvement | City of Toronto.” Strategic Forest Management Plan. City of Toronto, n.d. Web. <http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=9fe3874e1fc01410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=efb31d94f4301410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD>.Mapio.net.	Pacific	Spirit	Regional	Park.	N.d.	Vancouver.	Nature	Trail.	Web.	<http://mapio.net/s/1244054/>.(Un)Brace Yourself. University of British Columbia. 1930. Vancouver. (Un)Brace Yourself. Web.

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