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Towards Achieving Zero Waste at UBC : Food Service Ware Cheng, Andrea Jun 8, 2016

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportAndrea ChengTowards Achieving Zero Waste at UBC: Food Service WareEENG 8903June 08, 201612452167University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.	 i																																					 								 	Andrea	Cheng						June	8th,	2016			Bachelor	of	Technology	in	Environmental	Engineering	BCIT	School	of	Construction	and	the	Environment	British	Columbia	Institute	of	TechnologyTowards	Achieving	Zero	Waste	at	UBC:	Food	Service	Ware							 			 			Advisory	Committee		Industry	Sponsor	–	Bud	Fraser,	P.	Eng.	Water	and	Waste	Engineer	at	the	University	of	British	Columbia		Faculty	Advisor	–	Andrew	Marr,	P.	Eng.	Director	of	Solid	Waste	Planning	at	Metro	Vancouver		Program	Head	–	Lorne	Sampson,	BSc,	CPHI	(C)						Acknowledgements		I	would	like	to	thank	Andrew	Marr	and	Lorne	Sampson	for	their	support,	mentorship	and	expertise	throughout	this	project.	I	also	thank	Bud	Fraser	and	Liska	Richer	from	UBC	Campus	and	Community	Planning	for	providing	guidance	during	this	project	as	well	as	all	the	necessary	documents	and	information	to	conduct	food	service	ware	surveys	and	spot	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	stations.				 			 i	EXECUTIVE	SUMMARY		Single-use	food	service	ware	is	often	disposed	in	landfills,	incinerators	or	the	world’s	oceans	where	it	can	cause	numerous	adverse	effects	to	the	environment	and	humans.	These	adverse	effects	include	depletion	of	non-renewable	resources,	introduction	of	toxic	chemicals	into	the	environment,	generation	of	air	and	water	pollutants,	and	contribution	to	climate	change.	To	mitigate	these	impacts,	many	municipal	governments	are	developing	policies,	which	increase	the	use	of	recyclable	and	compostable	food	service	ware,	and	aim	to	divert	the	majority	of	food	service	waste	to	either	composting	or	recycling	facilities.	As	a	result,	institutions	need	to	transition	from	using	conventional	food	service	ware	to	either	reusable	options	or	compostable	and	recyclable	products.	The	University	of	British	Columbia’s	(UBC)	Point	Grey	campus,	located	in	Metro	Vancouver,	is	a	prime	example	of	an	institution	in	the	midst	of	this	transition.	Currently	within	UBC’s	waste	disposal	system,	there	is	significant	cross	contamination	between	its	composting	and	recycling	streams	and	it	is	striving	to	improve	the	source	separation	of	waste.	This	study	determined	what	compostable	and	recyclable	food	service	ware	products	UBC	should	provide	to	its	consumers	to	make	waste	sorting	more	efficient	and	decrease	contamination	in	the	campus	waste	collection	system.			Across	the	campus,	the	majority	of	food	service	ware	types	are	either	compostable	or	recyclable.	Straws	should	be	thrown	into	the	garbage	because	they	are	made	of	unmarked	plastic.	Other	food	service	ware	types	that	were	identified	as	garbage	include:	unmarked	plastic	cutlery,	biodegradable	plastics,	composite	paper	and	plastic	products,	aluminum-lined	sleeves	and	sandwich	toothpicks	lined	with	cellophane.	Targeted	spot	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	stations	determined	that	the	mean	percentage	of	item	types	correctly	sorted	across	the	campus	was	63%.	The	AMS	Nest,	Sauder	Exchange	Café	and	Vanier	Residence	Dining	Hall	had	correct	sorting	rates	of	50%	or	lower.	The	items	that	were	most	commonly	sorted	incorrectly	were:	coffee	cups,	coffee	cup	lids,	coffee	cup	sleeves,	paper	sleeves,	compostable	take-out	containers,	chequered	food	wrapping	paper,	compostable	Nature	bowl,	recyclable	Nature	bowl	lids	and	soiled	napkins.	Up	to	98%	of	the	waste	analyzed	during	the	spot	audits	was	from	the	main	campus.		In	response	to	the	findings	from	the	food	service	ware	surveys	and	targeted	spot	audits,	a	food	service	ware	management	plan	was	recommended	to	improve	waste	sorting	at	UBC’s	Vancouver	campus	over	the	next	two	years.	The	plan	has	the	following	goals:		 1. Make	service	policies	2. Increase	the	use	of	reusable/washable	ware	wherever	possible	and	increase	the	breadth	of	compostable	materials	on	campus	3. Increase	awareness	and	competence	of	correct	waste	sorting	practices	4. Test	compostability	of	new	and	prospective	products	5. Monitor	waste	sorting	practices	on	campus	6. Develop	and	implement	a	proper	documentation	and	data	management	system		UBC	will	accomplish	its	target	of	diverting	80%	of	its	waste	by	the	year	2020	through	the	achievement	of	these	goals	and	the	release	of	the	food	service	ware	procurement	guidelines	adapted	through	this	project.			 ii	TABLE	OF	CONTENTS			EXECUTIVE	SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………………………………...….	i	TABLE	OF	CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………………………….………...	ii	LIST	OF	TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………	iv	LIST	OF	FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…	iv	LIST	OF	APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………………………………..………	v	LIST	OF	ACRONYMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....	v	1.0					INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….	1	1.1	 Metro	Vancouver…………………………………………………………………………………………………	1	1.2	 The	City	of	Vancouver………………………………………………………………………………………….	4	1.3	 The	University	of	British	Columbia………………………………………………………………………	5	1.3.1					The	University	of	British	Columbia’s	waste	system…………………………………………	5	1.3.2					Recent	waste	composition	audits……………………………………………………………...……	8		2.0					THE	RESEARCH	PROBLEM	STATEMENT……………………………………………………...………	10	3.0					OBJECTIVES………………………………………………………………………………………………………...	10	4.0					TECHNOLOGY	REVIEW………………………………………………..………………………………………	11	4.1	 Types	of	food	service	ware	and	their	environmental	implications……………………….	11	4.1.1					Expanded	polystyrene…………………………………………………………………………………	11	4.1.2					Bio-based	plastic	polymers..…………………………………………………………………………	11	4.1.3					Life	Cycle	Assessments…………………...……………………………………………………………	13	4.2	 Food	service	ware	criteria	and	best	practices……………………………………………………..	14	4.3	 Important	considerations	for	sustainable	food	service	ware	contracts.........................	15	5.0					METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………………………………..	16	5.1	 ISO	14001:	2015……………………………………………………………………………………….……….	16	5.2	 Establishing	the	project’s	scope………………………………………………………………………….	17	5.2.1					Food	outlets	and	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services………….……………………	18		5.2.2					The	AMS	Nest………………...………...…………………………………………….……………………	20	5.2.3					Independently-run	and	chain	outlets……………………………...……….……………………	21	5.3	 Assessing	the	needs	of	food	vendors…………………………………………………………………..	22	5.4	 Conducting	targeted	spot	audits………………………………………………………………………...	22	5.5	 Data	analysis…………………………..………………………………………………………………………...	23		 iii	6.0					RESULTS……………..………………………………………………………………………………...…………....	24	6.1	 Food	service	ware	inventories	at	food	outlets…………………..………..……………………….	24	6.1.1					Food	outlets	and	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services………….……………………	24	6.1.2					The	AMS	Nest……………………...…...…………………………………………….……………………	26	6.1.3					Independently-run	and	chain	outlets…………...………………………….……………………	27	6.2	 Targeted	spot	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	Stations………………………………..…...…………………..	28	7.0					DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………………………………………………..	29	7.1	 Food	service	ware	to	replace………...…………………………………………….…………….……….	29	7.2	 Other	factors	that	affect	waste	sorting	practices	on	campus………………………………..	30	8.0					RECOMMENDATIONS….………………………………………………………………………………………	32	8.1	 Making	service	policies……………………………………………………………….…………….……….	32	8.1.1					Disposable	food	service	ware	procurement	guidelines…………….……………………	32	8.1.2					Other	proposed	policies…………...…………………………………………….……………………	36	8.2	 Reusable	food	service	ware	and	the	breadth	of	compostable	items……………………..	37	8.3	 Increasing	awareness	and	competence	of	correct	waste	sorting	practices..................	37	8.3.1					Communication	with	the	public…..………………………………………….……………………	37		8.3.2					Consistency	in	waste	sorting	infrastructure..…..……………………….……………………	38	8.4	 Testing	compostability	of	new	and	prospective	products……………..……………………..	39	8.5	 Monitoring	waste	sorting	practices	on	campus……………………………………….…………..	39	8.6	 Documentation	and	data	management	system……………………………..……………………..	40	9.0					CONCLUSION…………………………..………………………………………………………..………………...	41	BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………………………...............	42	APPENDICES............................................................................................................................................................	44												 iv	LIST	OF	TABLES		Table	1	–	Contamination	percentages	in	waste	sorting	streams	from	waste	audit	in	March	2013	at	the	Wesbrook	building	Table	2	–	Contamination	percentages	in	waste	sorting	streams	from	waste	audit	in	November	2013	at	outdoor	Sort	it	Out	stations	Table	3	–	Contamination	percentages	in	the	compost	streams	from	waste	audit	in	December	2013	at	Totem	Residence	Dining	Hall,	Gage	Residence,	Koerner	Library,	Caffé	Perugia	and	The	Loop	Café		Table	4	–	Health	Care	Without	Harm’s	Environmentally	Preferable	Purchasing	Hierarchy	Table	5	–	Surveyed	food	outlets	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services	Table	6	–	Surveyed	food	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services	Table	7	–	Surveyed	food	outlets	in	the	AMS	Nest	Table	8	–	Surveyed	food	outlets	that	are	independently	run	or	operated	by	chains	Table	9	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	disposable	cups	and	other	drink	containers	Table	10	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	disposable	food	service	ware	Table	11	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	disposable	cutlery	and	other	eating	utensils	Table	12	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	miscellaneous	disposable	food	service	items	Table	13	–	Summary	of	in-house	sorting	stations	that	do	not	match	UBC’s	Sort	it	Out	system	Table	14	–	Summary	of	documents	and	records	needed	for	the	food	service	ware	management	plan				LIST	OF	FIGURES		Figure	1	–	Diagrams	of	linear	and	circular	economies	Figure	2	–	The	City	of	Vancouver’s	progress	in	reducing	its	2008	landfill	and	incinerator	disposal	rate	by	50%	by	the	year	2020	Figure	3	–	Photo	of	UBC’s	four-waste-stream	outdoor	sorting	stations	Figure	4	–	Photo	of	UBC’s	four-waste-stream	indoor	sorting	stations		Figure	5	–	UBC’s	Sort	it	Out	waste	sorting	guide	Figure	6	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	cafés	and	bistros	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services		Figure	7	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	food	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services	Figure	8	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	food	outlets	in	the	AMS	Nest	Figure	9	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	independently-run	and	chain	food	outlets		Figure	10	–	Percentage	of	items	sorted	correctly	at	audited	Sort	it	Out	stations	throughout	UBC’s	main	campus										 v	LIST	OF	APPENDICES		Appendix	A	–	UBC’s	tentative	Food	Service	Ware	Guideline		Appendix	B	–	Summary	of	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	for	“Preferred”	Biobased	Products	according	to	Health	Care	Without	Harm	Appendix	C	–	Summary	of	Beyond	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	for	“More	Preferred”	Biobased	Products	according	to	Health	Care	Without	Harm	Appendix	D	–	Map	of	the	cafés	and	bistros	operated	by	UBC	Food	services	that	were	surveyed	Appendix	E	–	Map	of	the	independently-run	and	chain	food	outlets	that	were	surveyed	Appendix	F	–	Food	service	ware	survey	completed	at	designated	food	outlets	throughout	campus	Appendix	G	–	Map	of	locations	where	targeted	spot	checks	were	conducted.	The	numbers	indicate	how	many	audits	occurred	at	each	site	Appendix	H	–	Proposed	formatting	for	disposable	food	service	ware	guidelines	as	applied	to	food	take-out	containers				LIST	OF	ACRONYMS		AMS	 	 	 Alma	Mater	Society	ASTM	 	 	 American	Society	for	Testing	and	Material	BPI	 	 	 Biodegradable	Products	Institute	EPS	 	 	 Expanded	Polystyrene	ISO	 	 	 International	Organization	for	Standardization	LCA	 	 	 Life	Cycle	Assessment	PHA	 	 	 Polyhydroxyalkanoate	PHB	 	 	 Polyhydroxybutyrate	PLA	 	 	 Poly	Lactic	Acid	QSR	 	 	 Quick	Service	Restaurant	SBC	 	 	 Sustainable	Biomaterials	Collaborative	SHHS	 	 	 Student	Housing	and	Hospitality	Services	SOP	 	 	 Standard	Operating	Procedure	SUB	 	 	 Student	Union	Building	UBC	 	 	 University	of	British	Columbia										 1	1.0		 INTRODUCTION		Disposable	food	service	ware	(i.e.	paper	plates,	take-out	containers,	bowls,	cups	and	cutlery)	is	important	in	the	Quick	Service	Restaurant	(QSR)	or	fast	food	industry.	It	allows	QSRs	to	efficiently	serve	their	clientele	and	provides	consumer	convenience,	minimal	maintenance	and	reduced	dishwashing	needs.	However,	these	single-use	products	are	often	disposed	in	landfills,	incinerators	or	the	world’s	oceans	where	they	can	cause	multiple	adverse	effects	to	the	environment	and	humans.	These	adverse	effects	include	depletion	of	non-renewable	resources,	introduction	of	toxic	chemicals	into	the	environment,	generation	of	air	and	water	pollutants,	contribution	to	climate	change	and	contamination	of	food	from	leaching	chemicals	(Health	Care	Without	Harm,	2010).	These	concerns	have	pushed	many	municipal	governments	to	develop	policies,	which	increase	the	use	of	recyclable	and	compostable	food	service	ware,	and	aim	to	divert	the	majority	of	QSR	waste	to	either	composting	or	recycling	facilities.	As	a	result,	institutions	have	had	to	transition	from	using	conventional	food	service	ware	to	either	reusable	alternatives	or	compostable	and	recyclable	products.					1.1		 Metro	Vancouver		Metro	Vancouver	(formally	the	Greater	Vancouver	Regional	District)	is	committed	to	creating	a	sustainable	and	liveable	region	for	both	its	residents	and	businesses.	Since	the	late	1980s,	Metro	Vancouver	and	its	member	municipalities	have	operated	municipal	residential	recycling	programs,	municipal	recycling	depots,	backyard	compost	bin	distribution,	yard	waste	collection,	disposal	bans,	and	other	waste	management	efforts	in	the	residential,	institutional	and	commercial	sectors	(Garden	Heart	Productions,	2012).	In	addition,	Metro	Vancouver	provided	significant	feedback	to	the	provincial	Ministry	of	Environment	as	they	developed	many	extended	producer	responsibility	programs.	Currently,	the	Metro	Vancouver	region	disposes	of	over	a	million	tonnes	of	garbage	per	year,	and	food	along	with	other	compostable	organics	comprises	of	approximately	over	250,000	tonnes	per	year.	The	food	services	(restaurants,	cafeterias,	caterers,	etc.)	and	retail	food	sectors	(including	supermarkets	and	corner	stores)	are	the	largest	commercial	generators	of	food	waste	in	the	Lower	Mainland	(Metro	Vancouver,	2014).			As	diverting	all	food	waste	from	municipal	landfills	is	a	key	component	in	increasing	the	region’s	recycling	rate	from	55%	to	70%,	Metro	Vancouver	initiated	and	enforced	a	food	waste	disposal	ban	from	landfills	starting	on	January	1st	2015.	While	this	created	a	clear	policy	regarding	plate	scrapings	and	general	fruit,	vegetable,	meat	and	dairy	waste,	there	was	ambiguity	as	to	how	food	service	ware	and	food-soiled	paper	would	be	included	in	the	disposal	ban.	To	help	resolve	confusion	involving	food	service	ware	and	food-soiled	paper,	Metro	Vancouver	prudently	formed	a	Food-Soiled	Paper	Task	Group	in	the	fall	of	2013	to	discuss	the	logistics	of	incorporating	food	service	ware	and	food-soiled	paper	into	the	organic	waste	disposal	ban.	This	task	group	ensured	that	the	entire	restaurant	and	compostable	food	service	ware	supply	chain	was	represented,	including	small	and	large	businesses.	It	considered	perspectives	from	compostable	food	service	ware	manufacturers,	certifiers,	distributors,	property	managers,	waste	haulers,	organics	processors,	and	end		 2	users.	Metro	Vancouver	engaged	food	service,	restaurant	and	retail	food	sectors	through	interactive	workshops	to	identify	solutions,	build	capacity,	and	shift	practices	to	support	the	diversion	of	food	waste	from	landfills	within	the	region	(Metro	Vancouver,	2014).			Metro	Vancouver	is	striving	to	support	a	more	circular	economy,	where	resources	are	used	for	as	long	as	possible,	the	maximum	value	is	extracted	from	them	while	in	use,	and	materials	are	recovered	to	develop	regenerated	products	at	the	end	of	an	initial	product’s	life.	This	is	dichotomous	to	the	linear	economy,	in	which	raw	materials	are	extracted,	products	are	produced,	used	for	minutes	or	years,	and	then	disposed	in	a	landfill.		It	is	widely	accepted	that	the	linear	economic	system	wastes	resources,	exceeds	the	Earth’s	carrying	capacity,	and	causes	environmental	damage.	Figure	1	portrays	the	linear	and	circular	economies	as	it	applies	to	food	service	ware.	Metro	Vancouver	considers	its	current	economic	system	as	a	blend	of	both	economic	models	that	is	transitioning	from	purely	linear	to	circular.	A	more	circular	economy	will	yield	the	following	benefits:	waste	reduction,	more	use	from	resources	and	products,	solutions	for	resource	security	and	scarcity	issues,	and	reduction	of	negative	environmental	impacts	associated	with	production	and	consumption	(Metro	Vancouver,	2014).	As	the	circular	economy	is	an	idealized	model,	even	the	most	efficient	reflection	of	this	concept	will	not	be	100%	efficient.	Inevitably,	there	will	be	some	waste	material	that	cannot	be	recycled	or	composted,	and	would	be	most	suitably	disposed	through	energy	recovery	facilities	or	landfills.																						3			Figure	1	–	Linear	and	circular	economies.	Metro	Vancouver	is	striving	to	support	a	more	circular	economy,	where	resources	are	used	for	as	long	as	possible,	the	maximum	value	is	extracted	from	them	while	in	use,	and	materials	are	recovered	to	develop	regenerated	products	at	the	end	of	an	initial	product’s	life	(Metro	Vancouver,	2014).	 4	1.2		 The	City	of	Vancouver		In	2009,	the	City	of	Vancouver	launched	its	Greenest	City	2020	Action	Plan	to	engage	citizens	in	building	a	strong	local	economy,	vibrant	and	inclusive	neighbourhoods,	and	a	city	on	the	leading	edge	of	urban	sustainability.	The	plan	encompasses	10	goals	that	aim	to	minimize	residents’	ecological	footprints	and	address	other	environmental	issues.	The	fifth	goal	is	to	‘create	zero	waste’.	To	achieve	this	goal,	the	city	has	set	a	target	to	reduce	solid	waste	going	to	the	landfill	or	incinerator	by	50%	from	2008’s	levels	(City	of	Vancouver,	2012).	In	2008,	Vancouver	was	disposing	480,000	tonnes	of	solid	waste	via	landfill	or	incinerator	per	year	and	in	2013,	that	number	was	reduced	by	18%	to	394,600	tonnes	per	year	(City	of	Vancouver,	2015).	Figure	2	shows	the	progress	Vancouver	has	made	from	2008	to	2013	in	solid	waste	reduction.	The	city	has	achieved	its	waste	reduction	through	the	following	strategies:	collaborating	with	Metro	Vancouver	to	nurture	a	zero	waste	culture	through	community	engagement	programs;	capturing	compostables,	and	diverting	recyclable	paper,	glass,	metal	and	plastics	from	landfills	and	incinerators;	and	fostering	the	closed-loop	economy	that	the	region	is	moving	towards	(City	of	Vancouver,	2012).				Figure	2	–	The	City	of	Vancouver’s	progress	in	reducing	its	2008	landfill	and	incinerator	disposal	rate	by	50%	by	the	year	2020	(City	of	Vancouver,	2015).																				 5	1.3		 The	University	of	British	Columbia		1.3.1	 The	University	of	British	Columbia’s	waste	system		The	University	of	British	Columbia	(UBC),	which	is	over	400	hectares	in	size,	is	located	on	the	west	coast	of	Vancouver.	With	approximately	52,700	students,	and	15,200	faculty	and	staff,	the	campus	prioritizes	continually	improving	its	economic,	environmental	and	social	sustainability	(UBC	News,	2016).	UBC	is	minding	its	ecological	footprint	through	effective	energy	and	water	consumption,	transportation	management,	green	building	design,	environmentally	sound	laboratory	maintenance,	sustainable	food	systems,	a	zero	waste	action	plan	and	multiple	green	research	initiatives	(UBC	Sustainability,	2016).			UBC	sends	approximately	3,000	tonnes	of	waste	to	disposal	while	recycling	and	composting	approximately	another	3,000	tonnes	of	material	(UBC	Campus	and	Community	Planning,	2014).		In	congruence	with	the	regional	and	municipal	waste	reduction	goals,	UBC’s	Zero	Waste	Action	Plan	set	waste	diversion	goals	of	60%	by	2016	and	80%	by	2020.	To	achieve	these	goals,	the	campus	has	implemented	its	Sort	it	Out	program	to	enable	waste	sorting.	Since	2013,	UBC	has	replaced	473	solo	garbage	cans	with	199	sorting	stations	throughout	the	main	campus	both	inside	buildings	and	outdoors.	These	sorting	stations	include	bins	for	food	scraps	and	other	compostable	items,	recyclable	containers,	recyclable	paper	and	garbage	(UBC	Sustainability,	2015).	Please	refer	to	Figures	3	and	4	for	pictures	of	UBC’s	outdoor	and	indoor	sorting	stations,	and	Figure	5	for	a	disposal	guide	that	corresponds	to	each	of	the	four	sorting	streams	at	Sort	it	Out	stations.				Figure	3	–	UBC’s	sorting	stations,	which	are	situated	outdoors	throughout	the	campus.	The	four	waste	streams	are	food	scraps/compostable	items,	recyclable	containers,	recyclable	paper	and	garbage	(UBC	Sustainability,	2015).			 6		Figure	4	–	UBC’s	sorting	stations,	which	are	situated	in	buildings	throughout	the	campus.	The	four	waste	streams	are	food	scraps/compostable	items,	recyclable	containers,	recyclable	paper	and	garbage	(photo	taken	during	project).			UBC	Waste	Management	regularly	empties	the	compost,	recyclable	paper,	recyclable	containers	and	garbage	bins	at	the	Sort	it	Out	recycling	stations	throughout	the	main	campus,	and	collects	waste	from	all	campus	residences.	Cardboard,	bottles,	cans,	paper	and	other	plastic	products	are	transported	to	Metro	Materials,	where	they	are	repurposed	into	recycled	commodities.	Garbage	and	non-recyclable	items	are	sent	to	the	Vancouver	Transfer	Station	(UBC	Building	Operations,	2016b).	All	of	the	organic	waste	generated	at	UBC	is	sent	to	the	in-vessel	compost	unit	located	south	of	the	main	campus	creating	a	closed	loop	system.	UBC’s	compost	program	aims	to	transform	all	pre-consumer	food	waste	(raw	fruit	and	vegetable	scraps),	post-consumer	waste	(cooked	fruit	and	vegetable	scraps,	as	well	as	meat	and	dairy	products),	paper	plates,	paper	cups,	paper	towels,	napkins,	and	landscaping	green	waste	into	a	useful	soil	product	for	campus	gardeners	and	university	landscapes	(UBC	Building	Operations,	2016a).		The	in-vessel	composter	does	not	process	compostable	or	biodegradable	plastics.															7			 			 Figure	5	–	UBC’s	Sort	it	Out	waste	sorting	guide	(UBC	Sustainability,	2015).		 8	1.3.2	 Recent	waste	composition	audits		In	2013,	a	series	of	waste	audits	were	conducted	by	TRI	Environmental	Consulting	Inc.	to	gauge	the	composition	and	contamination	of	post-consumer	waste	on	the	main	campus.	The	following	tables	summarize	the	composition	of	contaminants	in	UBC’s	waste	stream.			Table	1	–	Contamination	percentages	in	waste	sorting	streams	from	waste	audit	in	March	2013	at	the	Wesbrook	building.	(TRI	Environmental	Consulting	Inc.,	2014)		Waste	stream	 Percentage	of	contamination	by	weight	Contaminants			Paper	 		46%	 -	Recyclable	plastic	film*	-	Non-compostable	paper	cups	-	Compostable	paper	cups	-	Old	corrugated	cardboard	(non-waxed)	-	Soiled	paper*			Recyclable	containers			39%	 -	Food	waste	with	non-compostable	packaging*	-	Compostable	food	waste*	-	Non-recyclable	plastics	-	Recyclable	plastic	films*	-	Expanded	polystyrene	-	Old	corrugated	cardboard	(non-waxed)	-	Soiled	paper			Organic	waste	 		21%	 -	Deposit	glass	beverage	containers*	-	Food	waste	with	non-compostable	packaging*	-	Recyclable	plastic	films*	-	Non-compostable	paper	cups*	-	Old	corrugated	cardboard	(non-waxed)	-	Mixed	papers	*	Indicates	major	contaminant		Table	2	–	Contamination	percentages	in	waste	sorting	streams	from	waste	audit	in	November	2013	at	outdoor	Sort	it	Out	stations.	(TRI	Environmental	Consulting	Inc.,	2013b)		Waste	stream	 Percentage	of	contamination	by	weight	Contaminants		Paper	 	67.8%	 -	Paper	cups*	-	Plastic	film*	-	Soiled	paper*	-	Food	waste*		Recyclable	containers	 	49.0%	 -	Soiled	paper*	-	Plastic	film*	-	Food	waste*	*	Indicates	major	contaminant			 9	Table	3	–	Contamination	percentages	in	the	compost	streams	from	waste	audit	in	December	2013	at	Totem	Residence	Dining	Hall,	Gage	Residence,	Koerner	Library,	Caffé	Perugia	and	The	Loop	Café.	(TRI	Environmental	Consulting	Inc.,	2013a)			Location	 Percentage	of	contamination	by	weight	Contaminants	Totem	Residence	Dining	Hall	 	0.44%	 -	Non-compostable	paper	cups	and	bowls			Gage	Residence	 	38.51%	 -	Food	waste	with	packaging*	-	Non-compostable	paper	cups	and	bowls	-	Plastic	bags	-	Metal		Koerner	Library	 	17.23%	 -	Food	waste	with	packaging*	-	Non-compostable	paper	cups	and	bowls*	-	Plastic	bags	-	Non-compostable	plastics*			Caffé	Perugia	 		52%	 -	Food	waste	with	packaging	-	Non-compostable	cups	and	bowls*	-	Non-waxed	cardboard*	-	Non-compostable	cutlery*	-	Plastic	bags	-	Metal	The	Loop	Café		 2.73%	 -	Non-compostable	paper	cups	and	bowls	-	Non-compostable	cutlery	*	Indicates	major	contaminant		In	March	2014,	Common	Energy,	a	student-run	organization	that	aims	to	incorporate	sustainability	into	all	aspects	of	the	UBC	community,	conducted	another	waste	audit	at	the	Student	Union	Building	(SUB).	The	SUB	was	selected	most	likely	due	to	the	high	amount	of	student	traffic	that	moves	through	it	on	a	daily	basis.	With	guidance	from	TRI	Environmental	Consulting,	Common	Energy	sorted	through	368.33	kg	of	waste	and	determined	that	50%	of	the	total	waste	was	sorted	correctly.	Of	the	50%	of	incorrectly	sorted	waste,	37%	was	food	scraps,	6%	was	recyclable	containers,	5%	was	recyclable	paper,	and	2%	was	considered	garbage	(Common	Energy	UBC,	2014).	Common	Energy	conducted	an	identical	waste	audit	in	March	2015	and	sorted	through	343.9	kg	of	waste.	Though	the	total	amount	of	waste	sorted	was	less	than	2014,	only	39%	of	the	waste	was	correctly	sorted.	This	lower	overall	correct	sorting	rate	was	attributed	to	inconsistency	in	sorting	signage	due	to	redesigns	made	within	the	year.	The	items	that	were	commonly	sorted	incorrectly	were:	coffee	cups,	chopsticks,	portion-packed	sauces,	expanded	polystyrene,	plastic	cutlery	(with	and	without	a	recycling	sign),	food	scraps,	soup	bowls,	sushi	containers	and	soft	plastics.	Common	Energy	also	suggested	avoiding	the	use	of	expanded	polystyrene	containers,	unmarked	plastic	food	containers,	waxed	paper	bags	and	waxed	paper	cups	because	they	are	considered	garbage	(Common	Energy	UBC,	2015).						 10	2.0		 THE	RESEARCH	PROBLEM	STATEMENT		As	Metro	Vancouver	banned	organic	waste	from	all	its	disposal	facilities	at	the	beginning	of	2015,	public	institutions	need	to	implement	waste	separation	protocols	that	follow	the	region’s	new	waste	policies.	Currently	within	UBC’s	waste	disposal	system,	there	is	still	significant	cross	contamination	of	recycling	streams	by	food	service	ware	–	for	example,	food	containers	that	contain	plastic	cutlery	put	into	composting	bins.	The	campus	has	over	40	food	services	that	offer	students,	staff	and	visitors	a	wide	spectrum	of	food	options.	UBC	is	looking	to	improve	the	source	separation	of	waste,	and	reduce	garbage	by	only	using	food	service	ware	that	is	either	recyclable	or	compostable,	and	using	food	service	ware	that	makes	waste	sorting	easier	for	consumers.	For	project	purposes,	food	service	ware	includes	paper	plates,	take-out	containers,	bowls,	hot	and	cold	drink	cups,	and	cutlery	provided	to	customers	by	food	service	outlets	that	typically	ends	up	in	the	campus	waste	management	system.	The	hypothesis	is	that	only	using	recyclable	and	compostable	food	service	ware	will	simplify	waste	sorting	at	UBC	and	will	decrease	the	amount	of	contamination	that	enters	campus	composting	and	recycling	streams.	Contamination	decreases	the	quality	of	waste	streams	and	can	damage	equipment	at	some	composting	facilities.	In	order	to	make	appropriate	management	changes,	the	campus	needs	data	on	current	food	service	ware	needs,	recyclable	and	compostable	food	service	ware	product	options,	as	well	as	how	much	of	the	food	service	ware	in	UBC’s	waste	system	originates	from	the	campus	itself.					3.0		 OBJECTIVES		The	primary	research	objective	was	to	determine	what	compostable	and	recyclable	food	service	ware	products	UBC	should	procure	to	decrease	contamination	in	composting	and	recycling	facilities	located	within	the	region.	This	research	was	supported	by	the	following	secondary	objectives:				• Survey	food	outlets	on	campus	with	respect	to	their	food	service	ware	needs	and	product	types	currently	being	used	as	well	as	analyze	the	results.			• Confirm	a	drafted	set	of	food	service	ware	criteria	(Appendix	A)	with	UBC	staff.			• Conduct	a	preliminary	assessment	of	how	much	of	the	food	service	ware	in	UBC’s	waste	system	is	from	on-campus	food	outlets	vs.	off-campus.		• Conduct	research	on	current	food	service	ware	products	and	compare	them	against	the	set	of	criteria	developed.		• Develop	recommendations	and/or	guidelines	for	food	service	ware	selection	and	procurement	based	on	research.								 11	4.0		 TECHNOLOGY	REVIEW		4.1		 Types	of	food	service	ware	materials	and	their	environmental	implications		4.1.1	 Expanded	polystyrene		Restaurants,	including	QSRs	provide	a	wide	range	of	food	service	ware	composed	of	various	types	of	materials.	Conventional	plastic	food	service	ware	is	derived	from	non-renewable	fossil	fuels	such	as	petroleum	products.	Expanded	polystyrene	(EPS)	is	a	common	conventional	plastic	that	is	used	to	make	take-out	food	containers	and	cups.	It	is	mass	produced	inexpensively	worldwide	and	used	for	its	lightweight,	stiffness	and	thermal	insulating	properties.	EPS	does	not	completely	degrade	into	the	environment	and	poses	a	complex	contamination	problem	for	municipalities	and	waste	management.	The	lightweight	material	makes	it	easier	to	be	dislodged	from	waste	bins	and	transported	elsewhere,	becoming	litter.	A	report	published	by	the	California	Integrated	Waste	Management	Board	in	2004	states	that	in	1999,	an	estimated	300,000	tonnes	of	polystyrene	was	landfilled	with	a	total	disposal	cost	of	$30	million.	Recycling	EPS	is	technically	feasible,	however	it	is	not	always	economically	viable	due	to	high	costs	in	hauling	and	the	lack	of	a	market	for	foam	materials.	Recycling	food	service	ware	made	from	polystyrene	is	also	difficult	because	of	contamination	from	food	(Nguyen,	2012).		EPS	persists	in	the	environment	posing	threats	to	marine	life	and	occupational	safety.	Pieces	of	polystyrene	often	resemble	food	to	many	marine	species	and	once	ingested,	can	cause	reduced	appetite,	reduced	nutrient	adsorption,	and	starvation.	The	synthetic	chemical	styrene	used	in	the	production	of	polystyrene	can	cause	significant	hazards	to	human	health.	Although	polystyrene	can	be	degraded,	it	releases	dangerous	products	like	styrene,	benzene,	toluene	and	acrolein.	Exposure	to	styrene	and	its	products	usually	occurs	in	occupational	settings.	It	can	be	absorbed	through	inhalation	and	skin	contact	causing	harm	to	the	central	nervous	system.	Symptoms	include	headaches,	fatigue,	dizziness,	drowsiness,	light-headedness,	confusion,	malaise,	difficulty	concentrating,	balance	disturbances	and	the	feeling	of	intoxication.	Workers	who	are	chronically	exposed	to	styrene	are	at	increased	risk	of	developing	depression,	kidney	dysfunction	and	cancer.	The	International	Agency	for	Research	on	Cancer	classifies	styrene	as	a	potential	human	carcinogen	(Nguyen,	2012).	Polystyrene	packaging	can	also	leach	molecules	of	styrene	into	food.	In	2011,	the	United	States	federal	government	added	polystyrene	to	its	list	of	chemicals	that	are	reasonably	anticipated	to	cause	cancer	(Responsible	Purchasing	Network,	2012).			4.1.2	 Bio-based	plastic	polymers		Other	plastics	are	composed	of	bio-based	polymers,	which	are	generated	from	natural	materials,	and	may	not	be	as	persistent	in	the	environment.	These	natural	materials	are	starches	from	corn,	potato,	tapioca,	rice	and	wheat;	oils	from	palm	seed,	linseed,	soybeans;	and	fermentation	products	like	polylactic	acid	(PLA),	polyhydroxyalkanoate	(PHA),	and	polyhydroxybutyrate	(PHB).					 12	Bio-based	and	compostable	food	service	ware	fall	into	four	main	categories:			• Cutlery	(knives,	forks,	spoons,	and	“sporks)	• Food	service	ware	(plates,	bowls,	cups,	etc.)	• Take-out	containers	(boxes,	clamshells,	and	other	types	of	containers	with	lids)	• Other	items	(straws,	food	service	gloves,	bags,	etc.)		 (Responsible	Purchasing	Network,	2012)		Biodegradability	is	defined	as	a	process	where	all	material	fragments	are	consumed	by	microorganisms	as	food	and	energy	sources.	Biodegradable	polymers	do	not	have	any	remaining	residuals	or	by-products	after	complete	degradation.	Some	additives	can	be	added	to	petroleum-based	polymers	causing	them	to	behave	similarly	to	biodegradable	plastics	by	fragmenting	in	soil.	Starches	and	degradable	additives	do	not	make	these	polymers	biodegradable	since	microorganisms	in	the	soil	solely	consume	the	starch	portion	of	the	plastic.	The	remaining	plastic	fragments	in	the	soil	may	take	many	decades	to	fully	disappear	and	can	cause	considerable	environmental	harm	to	animals	upon	ingestion	(California	State	University,	2007).			Biodegradability	also	indicates	that	degradation	will	occur	in	a	reasonable	time	frame.	A	practical	time	span	for	a	material	to	be	considered	biodegradable	is	one	growing	season	or	180	days.	The	speed	of	biodegradation	can	be	controlled	with	the	number	and	type	of	microbes,	the	humidity,	and	temperature	(California	State	University,	2007;	Nguyen,	2012).	As	traditional	petroleum-based	plastics	can	degrade	completely	in	about	100	years,	they	are	not	considered	biodegradable.	The	American	Society	for	Testing	and	Material	(ASTM)	considers	a	degradable	plastic	as	a	material,	which	is	degraded	completely	from	the	action	of	naturally	occurring	microorganisms	such	as	bacteria,	fungi,	and	algae.	True	biodegradable	plastics	should	behave	exactly	the	same	as	other	organic	materials	in	the	soil	like	sticks	and	leaves	(California	State	University,	2007).			Compostable	plastics	are	a	subset	of	biodegradable	plastics	and	have	a	more	rigorous	definition.	The	term	compostable	indicates	that	the	plastics	will	not	only	completely	degrade,	but	will	also	be	consumed	in	180	days	or	less	under	proper	composting	conditions.	The	ASTM	requires	that	compostable	plastics	degrade	by	biological	processes	yielding	carbon	dioxide,	water,	inorganic	compounds	and	biomass	within	the	appropriate	timeframe	without	leaving	behind	any	distinguishable	traces	or	toxic	residues	(California	State	University,	2007).			Tree	fibres	and	other	types	of	vegetation	can	also	be	used	to	produce	compostable	paper	products	like	plates,	cutlery	and	cups.	Bagasse,	which	is	extracted	from	sugarcane,	has	been	used	to	make	compostable	food	service	ware.	It	is	suitable	for	hot	and	cold	food,	and	is	heat	resistant	up	to	104°C.	Paper	and	paperboard	made	from	either	virgin	or	recycled	tree	fibres	and	coated	with	PLA	are	also	compostable	options	(Nguyen,	2012).							 13	4.1.3	 Life	Cycle	Assessments		In	addition	to	how	materials	degrade	after	disposal,	it	is	also	important	to	consider	a	material’s	overall	environmental	impact	as	it	is	produced	and	used.	Life	Cycle	Assessments	(LCA)	examine	the	environmental	impacts	of	every	stage	of	a	product’s	lifetime	from	“cradle	to	grave”.	In	2013,	Wachter	et	al.	conducted	a	LCA	analysis	of	dining	ware	at	the	Alfred	Packer	Grill,	University	of	Colorado	at	Boulder.	The	assessment	included	compostable	items	such	as	PLA	salad	bowls	and	forks	as	well	as	paper	soup	cups	and	sugarcane	clamshells.	They	also	examined	several	types	of	durable	ware	including	melamine	plates,	ceramic	plates,	and	plastic	soup	and	salad	bowls.	An	exchangeable	polypropylene	clamshell	take	out	container	was	also	included	in	the	analysis.	Environmental	impact	was	determined	using	the	GaBi	Educational	software	and	data	sourced	from	several	databases.	Impacts	were	quantified	under	the	following	parameters:	Global	Warming	Potential,	Eutrophication	Potential	and	Acidification	Potential.	Wachter	et	al.	determined	that	PLA	products	from	the	company	Eco	Products	have	a	larger	overall	impact	than	any	other	material	used	in	its	product	line	including	paper	soup	cups	and	bagasse	clamshells.	When	the	exchangeable	polypropylene	clamshells	were	compared	to	the	PLA	food	service	ware,	the	emissions	associated	with	the	PLA	were	significantly	lower.	The	largest	contributor	to	the	environmental	impact	of	the	PLA	containers	in	global	warming,	acidification	and	eutrophication	potentials	was	the	electricity	used	during	the	manufacturing	process	in	Asia	(Wachter	et	al.,	2013).			When	compostable	dishware	was	compared	to	reusable	dishware	for	a	single	use,	it	was	found	that	the	compostable	dishware	had	the	smaller	carbon	footprint	and	water	quality	impact.	As	the	number	of	uses	increases,	the	environmental	impact	of	some	compostable	products	surpasses	the	impact	of	reusable	dishware.	The	cost	and	environmental	impact	of	reusable	food	service	ware	decreases	with	the	number	of	times	it	is	used.	Therefore,	any	use	beyond	the	break-even	point	is	more	environmentally	favourable	and	cost-efficient.	Wachter	et	al.	recommend	shifting	to	reusable	food	service	ware	from	compostable	food	ware	to	save	money.	They	also	suggest	finding	domestically	produced	take-out	containers	that	are	more	durable	to	increase	reusability	and	decrease	environmental	impacts.	Compostable	items	are	the	most	ideal	take-out	option	for	customers	because	their	life	cycle	impacts	are	lower	on	a	one-time	use	basis	(Wachter	et	al.,	2013).	Generally,	bio-based	and	compostable	food	service	ware	is	expected	to	be	more	expensive	than	conventional	items	that	are	made	with	petroleum	products.	However,	these	additional	costs	may	be	offset	by	avoided	waste	disposal	costs	as	composting	services	often	cost	less	than	landfill	disposal	(Responsible	Purchasing	Network,	2012;	California	State	University,	2007;	Health	Care	Without	Harm,	2010).													 14	4.2		 Food	service	ware	criteria	and	best	practices		To	simplify	the	selection	process	of	food	service	ware,	the	organization	Health	Care	Without	Harm	has	created	an	Environmentally	Preferable	Purchasing	Hierarchy.	Health	Care	Without	Harm	is	an	international	coalition	whose	members	and	contributors	include	hospitals,	health	care	systems,	medical	professionals,	community	groups,	health-affected	constituencies,	labour	unions,	and	environmental	health	organizations	(Health	Care	Without	Harm,	2015).	The	organization’s	Environmentally	Preferable	Purchasing	Hierarchy	is	based	on	the	environmental	performance	of	the	products	across	their	life	cycle	and	is	summarized	in	Table	4.		Table	4	–	Health	Care	Without	Harm’s	Environmentally	Preferable	Purchasing	Hierarchy	(Health	Care	Without	Harm,	2010)		Most	Preferred	 Reusable	food	service	ware	More	Preferred	 Biobased	products	–	Meet	Beyond	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	Preferred	 Biobased	products	–	Meet	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	Less	Preferred	 Biobased	products	–	Do	not	meet	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	Least	Preferred	 Fossil	fuel-based	disposable	products		The	hierarchy	corresponds	to	two	sets	of	criteria	that	can	be	used	to	evaluate	prospective	biobased	products:	the	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	and	the	Beyond	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria.	These	sets	of	criteria	evaluate	what	materials	and	additives	are	put	into	the	food	service	ware	products,	whether	they	are	certified	by	an	acceptable	certification	organization,	and	whether	genetically	engineered	or	modified	feedstocks	have	been	used	to	generate	the	products	(Health	Care	Without	Harm,	2010).	Both	sets	of	criteria	are	included	in	the	Appendices	section	(Appendix	B	and	C)	and	explain	the	rationale	behind	their	components.		The	Sustainable	Biomaterials	Collaborative	(SBC)	also	provides	a	set	of	goals	and	steps	to	best	practices	for	the	following	stages	of	a	bioplastics	life	cycle:	Feedstock	Production	and	Transportation,	Processing	and	Manufacturing,	Product	Distribution	and	Use,	and	End	of	Product	Life.	Although	they	are	intended	for	the	procurement	of	biobased	plastics,	they	can	be	applied	to	all	food	service	ware	materials.	The	first	goal	in	Product	Distribution	and	Use	is	to	reduce	the	quantity	of	disposables	and	to	efficiently	use	reusable	ware	whenever	possible.	Next,	the	SBC	suggests	avoiding	unhealthy	exposures	from	products	during	use	and	after	use.	The	SBC	also	emphasizes	that	public	awareness	of	products	and	their	materials	as	well	as	creating	opportunities	for	sustainability	education	are	important	in	reducing	the	usage	of	conventional	fossil-fuel	based	products.	Selecting	products	from	local	manufacturers	and	suppliers	will	also	decrease	the	carbon	emissions	associated	with	distribution	(Sustainable	Biomaterials	Collaborative,	2009).		The	overall	goal	of	compostable	and	biobased	products	is	to	ensure	that	the	loop	is	closed	and	the	materials	are	cycled	back	at	the	end	of	the	product’s	life	to	be	reutilized.	The	most	preferred	post-consumer	options	are	closed	loop	recycling	and	composting	to	generate	a	safe	soil	amendment	product.	In	some	cases,	recycling	biobased	plastics	in	a	closed	loop	primary	recycling	system	can	represent	higher	value	end	use	than	composting	as	more	of			 15	the	energy	and	resources	embodied	in	the	product	are	reclaimed.	The	SBC	suggests	selecting	products	that	will	safely	and	rapidly	degrade	in	local	composters.	It	refers	to	ASTM’s	D6400-04	Standard	Specification	for	Compostable	Plastics	as	an	important	certification	to	seek	out	(Sustainable	Biomaterials	Collaborative,	2009).	The	ASTM	D6400	standard	certifies	compostable	plastics	and	ensures	that	they	will	degrade	in	municipal	and	industrial	aerobic	composting	facilities	over	a	180-day	time	period.	The	standard	evaluates	whether	bioplastics	and	products	made	from	bioplastics	degrade	at	a	rate	comparable	to	known	compostable	materials	and	ensure	biodegradation	of	these	products	will	not	contaminate	the	compost	site	nor	decrease	the	quality	of	the	finished	compost	(California	State	University,	2007).										4.3				Important	considerations	for	sustainable	food	service	ware	contracts		To	ensure	that	the	needs	of	customers,	food	service	locations	and	municipal	processing	facilities	are	met,	there	are	two	main	questions	that	need	to	be	answered:		 A. What	types	of	compostables	and	recyclables	do	contract	users	need?	B. What	types	of	compostables	and	recyclables	are	likely	to	be	accepted	in	composting	facilities	located	within	the	Metro	Vancouver	region?		To	answer	question	A,	the	types	of	food	service	ware	that	are	purchased	and	used	the	most	need	to	be	determined.	It	would	be	useful	to	consult	contract	usage	reports	and	records	to	gain	knowledge	of	the	highest	number	of	units	purchased	and	where	most	of	the	funds	are	being	spent.	The	goal	is	to	establish	which	types	of	items	are	the	most	important	to	contract	users.	It	is	also	important	to	consider	whether	contract	users	have	specific	design	and	performance	requirements	as	well	as	whether	customers	have	additional	preferences.	Design	requirements	may	include	the	size	or	shape	of	the	food	service	ware	as	well	as	temperature	tolerance	and	weight	capacity.	Anticipating	the	way	food	service	ware	users	will	dispose	their	waste	is	also	key.	Generally,	minimizing	the	amount	of	sorting	at	waste	bins	is	recommended.	Sorting	recyclables	from	compostables	will	require	extensive	labelling	and	signage.	Providing	100%	compostable	bins	will	increase	efficiency	in	high	traffic	locations	because	less	time	will	be	spent	sorting.	Identifying	opportunities	for	confusion	and	contamination,	and	preparing	corresponding	solutions	will	help	ease	the	transition	into	a	new	food	service	ware	contract	(Responsible	Purchasing	Network,	2012).		In	some	municipalities,	composting	facilities	may	only	accept	paper	and	wood-based	products,	some	may	only	accept	commercially	certified	products,	and	others	may	prefer	to	test	the	compostability	of	products	in	their	facilities	before	they	are	accepted.	Therefore,	question	B	is	equally	as	crucial	as	question	A.	Products	that	damage	composting	equipment	or	eventually	reach	the	landfill	defeat	the	purpose	of	selecting	compostable	food	service	ware.	It	will	be	important	to	determine	what	standards	of	compostability	the	composting	facilities	in	the	Metro	Vancouver	region	require.	It	is	useful	to	create	a	guide	of	products	that	are	already	approved	by	local	composters.							 16	If	composting	facilities	need	to	test	the	products,	the	following	details	will	need	to	be	established:		• Clarify	how	the	test	will	be	done	and	how	long	the	testing	period	will	be	• Learn	how	many	samples	the	composting	facilities	will	need	• Understand	how	compostability	and	acceptability	will	be	determined		As	products	are	deemed	acceptable	or	not	acceptable	to	local	composting	facilities,	keep	a	record	of	which	ones	to	exclude	from	the	contract’s	purchasing	list.	Creating	a	“red”	list	including	all	products	with	poor	environmental	performance	and	impact,	that	are	associated	with	health	risks,	and	are	not	compatible	with	local	composting	facilities	will	help	explain	to	contract	users	why	certain	products	are	no	longer	purchasable	(Responsible	Purchasing	Network,	2012).				5.0		 METHODOLOGY		5.1	 ISO	14001:	2015		ISO	14001	is	a	set	of	criteria	published	by	the	International	Organization	for	Standardization	(ISO)	that	outlines	requirements	for	environmental	management	systems.	The	standard	guides	organizations	to	continually	improve	their	environmental	performance	through	more	efficient	use	of	resources	and	reduction	of	waste.	The	framework	enables	organizations	to	achieve	accountability	with	stakeholders	and	exceed	their	expectations	of	environmental	integrity.		The	most	recent	revision	to	the	standard	in	2015	urges	organizations	to	prioritize	environmental	management	in	their	strategic	plans	as	well	as	develop	more	involvement	and	commitment	from	leadership.	There	is	a	greater	emphasis	on	the	need	for	life-cycle	thinking	to	ensure	consideration	of	environmental	impact	from	development	to	end-of-life	(International	Organization	for	Standardization,	2015).	ISO	14001:2015	includes	seven	main	themes:	Context	of	the	Organization,	Leadership,	Planning,	Support,	Operation,	Performance	Evaluation	and	Improvement	(Bureau	Veritas,	2015).			Understanding	an	organization	and	its	context	involves	determining	the	needs	of	stakeholders.	While	UBC’s	waste	reduction	context	has	been	outlined	in	sections	1.1	to	1.3,	food	service	ware	needs	across	campus	may	not	be	completely	understood	to	date	and	the	current	project	will	aid	in	providing	this	information.	Once	stakeholder	needs	are	considered,	adjustments	to	improve	environmental	performance	can	be	implemented	more	smoothly.	The	other	six	themes	of	ISO	14001:2015	will	be	applied	to	the	Recommendations	section	(section	8.0)	of	this	project	report.										 17	5.2		 Establishing	the	project’s	scope		This	project	used	Metro	Vancouver’s	Food-Soiled	Paper	Task	Group’s	work	(2014)	and	ISO	14001:2015	as	models	in	ensuring	that	all	food	service	vendors	on	UBC	campus	were	represented	and	their	food	service	ware	needs	were	considered.	Project	work	was	carried	out	in	consultation	with	representatives	from	UBC	Sustainability,	which	maintains	close	working	relationships	with	the	majority	of	the	food	vendors	on	the	main	campus.		UBC	has	a	wide	array	of	food	services	on	campus	that	are	managed	through	different	authorities.	The	majority	of	the	cafés	and	bistros	throughout	the	main	campus	are	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services,	an	extension	of	Student	Housing	and	Hospitality	Services	(SHHS).	UBC	Food	Services	also	manages	two	residence	dining	rooms,	five	food	trucks,	concessions	at	sports	arenas,	and	a	catering	service	through	Wescadia	(UBC	Food	Services,	2016).	The	food	outlets	in	the	Old	Student	Union	Building	and	the	Nest	are	operated	by	the	Alma	Mater	Society	(AMS),	which	is	committed	to	improving	the	educational,	social	and	personal	lives	of	students	at	UBC	(UBC	AMS,	2016).	The	campus	also	leases	out	commercial	space	to	franchises	and	chains	such	as	Starbucks,	Subway,	Tim	Horton’s,	White	Spot	Triple	O’s,	Bento	Sushi,	QOOLA	Frozen	Yogurt	Bar	and	LIQUID	Nutrition.	In	addition,	there	are	numerous	independently	owned	and	operated	food	services	throughout	the	campus.	These	locations	source	their	own	food	service	ware.				In	order	to	set	the	scope	of	investigation,	a	list	of	all	the	university’s	food	service	locations	was	compiled	and	the	following	aspects	were	considered:	which	management	group	operates	them,	whether	UBC	collects	their	waste,	whether	their	waste	enters	UBC’s	waste	system,	and	whether	UBC	has	control	or	leverage	over	their	purchasing.	The	inclusion	of	an	outlet	in	this	project	depended	on	two	major	criteria:	How	much	they	contribute	to	UBC’s	waste	system	and	how	much	influence	UBC	Sustainability,	UBC	Food	Services	and	the	AMS	have	over	their	purchasing	choices.	Generally,	QSRs	were	prioritized	over	“dine-in”	restaurants,	as	the	fast	food	outlets	were	expected	to	generate	the	most	waste	on	a	consistent	basis.	Therefore,	this	project	excluded	all	“dine-in”	restaurants	without	a	QSR	option,	sports	arena	concession	stands,	catering	services	and	convenience	stores	with	the	exception	of	the	newly	opened	Corner	Store	at	the	UBC	Bookstore.																			 18	5.2.1	 Food	outlets	and	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services		Eleven	cafés	or	bistros	were	selected	to	represent	UBC	Food	Services	based	on	geography	as	well	as	menu	composition.	UBC	Food	Services	operates	many	food	outlets	on	the	main	campus,	therefore	it	was	important	to	survey	locations	that	were	distributed	throughout	the	area	and	that	encompassed	all	menu	items	supplied	through	the	service.	The	food	outlets	included	in	Table	5	were	surveyed.		Table	5	–	Surveyed	food	outlets	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services.	The	information	on	type	of	cuisine	is	from	the	UBC	Food	Services	website	(2016).	Please	refer	to	Appendix	D	for	a	map	of	these	cafés	and	bistros.		Location	 Type	of	Cuisine	 Activity	Level			Caffé	Perugia	 Roast	chicken/sundried	tomato	salmon	with	salad	and	pasta,	classic	baked	and	tossed	pastas,	flatbreads,	soups,	salads	and	Italian-style	wraps	and	sandwiches,	pastries,	and	breakfast	sandwiches.			High		Ike’s	Café	 Coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads,	samosas,	pasta,	soup,	snack	items	 	High	Law	Café	 Sandwiches,	soups,	snacks,	beverages	 Low		The	Loop	Café	 Burritos	and	curry	dishes,	fresh	salad	bar,	pastries,	natural	iced	teas	and	lemonades,	coffee/tea	 	High		Mercante	 Traditional	Italian	pizzas	cooked	in	a	fiery-hot	stone	hearth	oven.	Pastas,	salads,	desserts	and	specialty	coffees.	 	High	Niche	Café	 House-made	soups,	sandwiches,	coffee/tea	and	snacks	 High	Reboot	 Breakfast	pastries,	coffee/tea,	soup,	salad,	samosas,	sandwiches	 Moderate	Sauder	Exchange	Café	 Breakfast	pastries,	coffee/tea,	soup,	salad,	samosas,	sandwiches	 High	Stir	it	Up	 Soup,	sandwiches,	paninis,	baked	goods	and	snacks	 Moderate		Totem	Residence	Dining	Hall	 Asian	cuisine,	daily	pasta,	pizza,	burgers,	made-to-order	sandwiches	and	sweet	desserts	 	High		Vanier	Residence	Dining	Hall	 Pasta,	fresh	deli	sandwiches,	made-to-order	omelettes,	pizza,	Asian	cuisine,	salad	bar,	healthy	smoothies	and	snacks		High	Activity	level	scale	(customers/week):	Low	–	0-200,	Moderate	–	200-500,	High	–	>500	*This	scale	is	based	off	of	estimates				 19	In	addition,	UBC	Food	Services	operates	five	food	trucks	that	are	distributed	on	a	rotational	basis	along	the	campus’s	busy	corridors.	These	food	trucks	were	also	surveyed	and	are	listed	in	Table	6.		Table	6	–	Surveyed	food	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services.	The	information	on	type	of	cuisine	is	from	the	UBC	Food	Services	website	(2016).		Food	Truck	 Type	of	Cuisine	 Activity	Level	It’s	About	Thai	 Pad	Thai,	cashew	salad,	curries	 Low	Roaming	Bowl	 Asian-inspired	chicken,	beef	and	vegetarian	noodle	and	rice	bowls	 Low	School	of	Fish	 Fish	tacos,	fish	and	chips,	grilled	Sockeye	salmon,	pasta	salad	 Low	The	Dog	House	 Hot	dogs	with	specialty	toppings	 Low		The	Hungry	Nomad	 Grill	cheese	sandwiches,	Montreal	poutine,	parmesan	fries,	chicken	tacos,	pulled	pork	sandwiches,	soup	 	High	Activity	level	scale	(customers/week):	Low	–	0-200,	Moderate	–	200-500,	High	–	>500	*This	scale	is	based	off	of	estimates																															 20	5.2.2	 The	AMS	Nest		As	the	newly	built	AMS	Nest	is	a	site	that	is	frequently	visited	by	many	students,	staff	and	visitors	on	daily	basis,	it	was	crucial	to	thoroughly	cover	all	food	service	ware	distributed	in	the	building.	All	eleven	of	the	food	services	located	in	the	Nest	were	surveyed	because	their	menus	heavily	differ	from	one	another.	These	outlets	are	listed	below	in	Table	7	and	include	both	locations	that	are	operated	by	the	AMS	as	well	as	commercial	spaces	that	are	leased	out	through	the	AMS	in	the	Nest.	These	outlets	are	identified	as	lessees	in	the	table.		Table	7	–	Surveyed	food	outlets	in	the	AMS	Nest.	The	information	on	type	of	cuisine	is	from	the	UBC	Food	Services	website	(2016).		Location	 Type	of	Cuisine	 Activity	Level	The	Delly		(Lessee)	 Indian,	Pakistani,	sandwiches,	salads	 High		Flip	Side	 Burger	and	fries	joint:	Hand-made	burgers	with	freshly	baked	potato	buns.	 	Moderate	Granville	Island	Soup	Market	(Lessee)	 Salads,	soups	and	bread	 Moderate	The	Grand	Noodle	Emporium	 Classic	Chinese	take-out,	Noodle	bowls,	Hunan	Pork,	Pad	Thai	 Moderate	LIQUID	Nutrition	(Lessee)	 Smoothie	and	juice	bar	 Low		PALATE	 Vegan/Vegetarian	food:	salads,	gluten-free	sweet	and	savoury	treats,	paninis,	sandwiches,	wraps,	soups	 	Low	Peko	Peko	 Sushi,	Don	buri	bowls	and	bento	boxes	 Low	PieR^2	 Pizza	with	specialty	toppings	 Moderate	QOOLA	(Lessee)	 Frozen	yogurt,	savoury	waffles,	salads,	sandwiches	 Moderate	Uppercase	 Cookies,	baked	goods,	sandwiches,	bagels,	coffee,	tea	 Moderate	Lowercase	 Cookies,	baked	goods,	sandwiches,	bagels,	coffee,	tea	 Moderate	Activity	level	scale	(customers/week):	Low	–	0-200,	Moderate	–	200-500,	High	–	>500	*This	scale	is	based	off	of	estimates												 21	5.2.3	 Independently-run	and	chain	outlets		 	In	addition	to	UBC	Food	Services	and	the	AMS,	twelve	locations	run	by	chains	or	independent	groups	were	surveyed	because	they	are	situated	on	the	main	campus	and	also	contribute	to	UBC’s	waste	system.	These	food	outlets	are	listed	below	in	Table	8	and	a	map	is	available	in	Appendix	E.	Bento	Sushi,	Subway,	Tim	Horton’s	and	Triple	O’s	are	operated	through	UBC	Food	Services.	This	means	that	UBC	Food	Services	manages	the	staff	that	works	at	these	franchises	and	is	able	to	manage	menu	items,	food	service	ware	and	waste	bins	to	an	extent	to	align	with	UBC’s	sustainability	strategies.			Table	8	–	Surveyed	food	outlets	that	are	independently	run	or	operated	by	chains.	The	information	on	type	of	cuisine	is	from	the	UBC	Food	Services	website	(2016).		Location	 Type	of	Cuisine	 Activity	Level	Bean	Around	the	World	 Specialty	coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads	 High	Bento	Sushi	 Sushi,	rice	bowls,	noodle	bowls,	salmon	and	chicken	dishes	 Low	Boulevard	 Specialty	coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads	 High	Café	Ami	 Coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads,	soup	 Moderate	Café	MOA	(Museum	of	Anthropology)	 Coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads,	soup	 Moderate	Cornerstore/Peqish	 Coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads,	sushi	 High		Great	Dane	 Specialty	coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads,	soup	 High	Loafe	Café	 Specialty	coffee,	pastries,	sandwiches,	wraps,	salads,	soup	 High				Starbucks	Handcrafted	beverages	including	fresh-brewed	coffee,	hot	and	iced	espresso	beverages,	Frappuccino®	coffee	and	non-coffee	blended	beverages,	smoothies	and	teas.	Baked	pastries,	sandwiches,	salads,	oatmeal,	yogurt	parfaits	and	fruit	cups.				High	Subway	 Sandwiches,	soups,	salads	 High	Tim	Horton’s	 Coffee,	tea,	muffins,	donuts,	sandwiches	and	soups	 High	Triple	O’s	 Burgers,	fries,	salads,	soups	 High	Activity	level	scale	(customers/week):	Low	–	0-200,	Moderate	–	200-500,	High	–	>500	*This	scale	is	based	off	of	estimates						 22	5.3		 Assessing	the	needs	of	food	vendors		As	discussed	in	the	technology	review,	before	making	changes	to	food	service	ware	purchases,	it	is	important	to	establish	what	food	service	ware	items	vendors	will	need.	This	information	was	collected	through	a	food	service	ware	survey	and	in	consultation	with	campus	food	outlet	menus.	The	author	conducted	food	service	ware	surveys	as	well	as	analyzed	the	respective	data	and	results.	Each	of	the	food	outlets	was	visited	between	November	2015	and	February	2016	during	the	fall	and	winter	terms	when	the	food	outlets	were	operating	at	maximum	capacity.	After	examining	the	food	service	ware	used	at	a	particular	location,	the	survey	was	filled	out.	Whenever	possible,	product	brands	were	also	noted	down.		The	survey	covered	14	food	service	ware	categories	with	the	possibility	of	three	additional	items	if	they	were	found	during	a	visit	to	a	food	outlet.	The	full	survey	is	included	in	Appendix	F.		These	categories	are	listed	below:		 A. Hot	drink	cups	B. Hot	drink	lids	C. Cold	drink	cups	D. Cold	drink	lids	E. Bowls	(e.g.	soup,	rice,	noodles)	F. Bowl	lids	G. Food	take-out	containers	H. Plates	I. Boxes	and	trays	J. Utensils	(forks,	knives,	spoons)	K. Chopsticks	L. Straws	M. Paper	wrappers/sleeves	(e.g.	sandwiches,	burritos)	N. Napkins	O. Other	item	P. Other	item	Q. Other	item		5.4		 Conducting	targeted	spot	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	stations		In	addition	to	filling	out	food	service	ware	surveys	for	outlets	throughout	the	campus,	targeted	spot	audits	were	conducted	at	Sort	it	Out	stations	to	identify	the	likely	source	of	food	service	ware	and	whether	they	originated	from	campus	or	from	locations	off-campus.	This	also	offered	confirmation	of	what	products	are	actually	in	use	at	the	food	outlets.			The	author	conducted	a	total	of	14	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	stations	as	well	as	analyzed	the	respective	data	and	results.	Spot	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	stations	occurred	either	during	the	fall	term	in	November	2015	or	the	winter	term	in	January	2016	when	food	outlets	were	operating	at	maximum	capacity.	The	audits	included	all	four	bins	at	Sort	it	Out	stations	since	food	service	ware	could	have	ended	up	in	any	of	them.	Audits	were	conducted	in	locations	distributed	throughout	the	campus	and	occurred	either	inside	campus	food	outlets	or	in	close	proximity	to	them	depending	on	where	the	Sort	it	Out	stations	were	situated	(Appendix	G	portrays	these	locations).	Generally,	locations	that	were	busier	were	audited	more	than	once	at	different	sorting	stations.	The	audits	were	carried	out	between	11:00am	and	2:30pm	on	weekdays	to	ensure	peak	lunch	hours	were	appropriately	represented.	They	were	completed	by	taking	pictures	of	bin	contents	or	through			 23	observation	of	waste	sorting	that	occurred	at	the	sorting	stations.	The	pictures	of	bin	contents	allowed	easy	in-depth	analysis	after	the	data	was	collected.	Waste	sorting	at	the	Sort	it	Out	stations	was	also	observed	to	offer	insight	into	the	sorting	behaviours	that	occur	as	people	sort	their	waste.				5.5	 Data	analysis		Once	the	surveys	were	filled	out	for	all	of	the	food	outlets	listed	in	section	5.2,	the	data	was	inputted	into	Excel	tables	which	indicated	what	material	the	food	service	ware	items	were	made	of	and	which	sorting	stream	they	ought	to	be	sorted	into.	This	was	done	in	consultation	with	the	campus	Sort	It	Out	guide	(Figure	5),	City	of	Vancouver’s	Waste	Wizard	and	Bud	Fraser,	UBC’s	Waste	Engineer	at	Campus	and	Community	Planning.	The	City	of	Vancouver’s	Waste	Wizard	allows	a	user	to	search	for	a	type	of	item	and	provides	instructions	on	which	sorting	stream	the	item	ought	to	be	placed	into.	The	number	of	item	types	were	graphed	for	each	food	service	location	using	stacked	bar	graphs	to	show	how	many	types	of	items	were	expected	to	be	sorted	through	the	organics/compost,	recycled	containers,	recyclable	paper	and	garbage	streams.		Pictures	and	notes	from	the	spot	audits	were	used	to	create	lists	of	item	types	in	each	of	the	sorting	bins.	It	was	also	noted	whether	each	of	the	item	types	was	sorted	correctly.	The	numbers	of	item	types	that	were	sorted	correctly	at	each	sorting	station	were	graphed	as	percentages	for	easy	comparison.	Though	they	were	not	full	waste	composition	audits,	the	spot	checks	offered	valuable	insight	into	which	items	were	commonly	being	sorted	incorrectly	and	where	poorer	sorting	practices	were	occurring.																											 24	6.0	 RESULTS		6.1	 Food	service	ware	inventories	at	food	outlets		6.1.1	 Food	outlets	and	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services		The	following	two	figures	(Figure	6	and	Figure	7)	portray	the	number	of	food	service	ware	types	that	each	of	the	surveyed	UBC	Food	Services	outlets	and	food	trucks	uses.	Based	on	the	UBC	sorting	guide,	the	graph	colours	indicate	how	many	types	of	items	would	be	thrown	into	the	compost,	recyclable	containers,	recyclable	paper	and	garbage	streams	at	a	particular	outlet.	Across	the	campus,	the	majority	of	food	service	ware	types	are	either	compostable	or	recyclable.	Straws	would	always	be	thrown	into	the	garbage	because	they	are	made	of	unmarked	plastic.	The	Totem	Residence	Dining	Hall	uses	the	most	types	of	food	service	ware	and	it	is	worthy	to	note	that	the	food	trucks	use	significantly	less	types	of	food	service	ware.	Mercante,	Sauder	Exchange	Café	and	the	Totem	Residence	Dining	use	more	types	of	food	service	ware	that	would	be	thrown	into	the	garbage	stream.	These	items	include	unmarked	plastic	cutlery,	composite	paper	and	plastic	sleeves	from	Eco	Craft,	aluminum-lined	sleeves	and	sandwich	toothpicks	lined	with	cellophane.						Figure	6	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	selected	cafés	and	bistros	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services.	This	data	was	collected	in	November	2015.									0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Number of item types Food Service Ware Used by UBC Food Services Garbage Recyclable Paper Recyclable Containers Compost 		 25			Figure	7	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	food	trucks	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services.	This	data	was	collected	in	February	2016.																												0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 It's About Thai Roaming Bowl School of Fish The Dog House The Hungry Nomad Number of item types Food Service Ware used  at UBC Food Trucks  Garbage Recyclable Paper Recyclable Containers Compost 		 26	6.1.2	 The	AMS	Nest		Figure	8	shows	the	number	of	food	service	ware	types	that	each	of	the	outlets	in	the	AMS	Nest	uses.	While	these	food	services	use	fewer	types	of	food	ware	items	than	the	ones	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services,	there	is	a	greater	diversity	between	locations	because	their	menus	are	so	different.	The	Delly,	PALATE,	QOOLA,	Uppercase	and	Lowercase	use	more	types	of	food	service	ware	that	would	be	thrown	into	the	garbage	stream.	The	Delly	has	a	higher	amount	of	items	destined	for	the	landfill	because	a	large	fraction	of	them	are	compostable	or	biodegradable	plastics	from	the	company	Eco	Products.	These	plastics	are	made	from	biopolymers	that	are	designed	to	readily	break	down	but	are	considered	as	contaminants	in	both	the	compost	and	recyclable	containers	streams.	QOOLA	is	also	using	compostable	plastic	cups	and	biodegradable	spoons.	PALATE,	Uppercase	and	Lowercase	are	using	unmarked	plastic	spoons	as	well	as	composite	paper	and	plastic	sleeves	from	Eco	Craft,	which	would	be	sorted	into	the	garbage.	Unmarked	or	biodegradable	straws	are	also	used	at	all	the	outlets	in	the	Nest.				Figure	8	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	food	outlets	in	the	AMS	Nest.		 *Grand	Noodle	Emporium.	This	data	was	collected	in	January	2016.											0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Number of item types Food Service Ware Used at the AMS NEST  Garbage Recyclable Paper Recyclable Containers Compost 		 27	6.1.3	 Independently-run	and	chain	outlets		Figure	9	represents	the	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	at	the	independently-run	and	chain	food	services	on	campus.	For	most	of	these	outlets,	the	results	are	similar	to	the	results	from	locations	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services	and	in	the	AMS	Nest.	Café	MOA,	Great	Dane	and	Tim	Horton’s	use	more	types	of	food	service	ware	that	would	be	thrown	into	the	garbage	stream.	Café	MOA	and	Great	Dane	are	using	biodegradable	and	compostable	plastics,	which	are	not	compatible	with	UBC’s	compost	system.	Other	items	that	would	be	landfilled	from	Tim	Horton’s	and	other	outlets	in	this	category	include:	unmarked	plastic	cutlery,	unmarked	plastic	soup	bowl	lids,	unmarked	plastic	sleeves,	plastic	bags	and	unmarked	plastic	stir	sticks.	Unmarked	or	biodegradable	straws	are	also	used	at	these	food	services.			Figure	9	–	The	number	of	food	service	ware	types	used	by	independently-run	and	chain	food	outlets.	*Bean	Around	the	World.	This	data	was	collected	in	February	2016.			Key	observations	during	food	service	ware	surveys		While	completing	the	food	service	ware	surveys,	a	couple	key	observations	were	noted.	Although	some	food	outlets	do	not	use	cold	drink	cups	and	lids,	all	locations	offer	drinks	in	recyclable	bottles	and	cans.	In	addition,	out	of	the	39	surveyed	food	outlets,	10	offer	reusable	bowls,	plates,	cups	and	metal	cutlery	options	if	the	food	is	going	to	be	eaten	in-house.	These	food	services	are	listed	below:			• Caffé	Perugia	• Totem	Residence	Dining	Hall	• Vanier	Residence	Dining	Hall	• The	Grand	Noodle	Emporium	• Bean	Around	the	World	• The	Boulevard	• Café	Ami	• Café	MOA	• Great	Dane	• Loafe	Café	0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Number of item types Food Service Ware used  at Independent/Chain Outlets Garbage Recyclable Paper Recyclable Containers Compost 		 28	6.2	 Targeted	spot	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	stations		Figure	10	shows	the	percentages	of	item	types	correctly	sorted	at	audited	Sort	it	Out	stations.	In	total,	the	spot	audits	included	322	sorting	events.	A	sorting	event	is	defined	as	the	opportunity	to	place	an	item	in	a	given	bin	at	a	given	sorting	station.	If	the	item,	bin,	or	sorting	station	changed,	it	was	considered	a	different	sorting	event.	The	mean	percentage	of	item	types	sorted	correctly	across	the	campus	was	63%.	The	AMS	Nest,	Sauder	Exchange	Café	and	Vanier	Residence	Dining	Hall	had	correct	sorting	rates	of	50%	or	lower.	The	items	that	were	most	commonly	sorted	incorrectly	were:	coffee	cups,	coffee	cup	lids,	coffee	cup	sleeves,	paper	sleeves,	compostable	take-out	containers,	chequered	food	wrapping	paper,	compostable	Nature	bowls,	recyclable	Nature	bowl	lids	and	soiled	napkins.	Out	of	the	322	sorting	events,	seven	(2%)	involved	items	that	evidently	came	from	off-campus,	meaning	that	up	to	98%	of	the	items	analyzed	during	the	spot	audits	was	from	the	main	campus.	The	exact	percentage	of	items	from	on	campus	cannot	be	determined	as	the	origin	of	food	scrap	items	could	have	been	from	off-campus	as	well.	Items	from	off-campus	included:	pizza	boxes	from	San	Remo	and	Pizza	Hut,	miscellaneous	cardboard	packaging,	an	expanded	polystyrene	takeout	container,	a	ZARA	bag,	a	Little	Burgundy	bag	and	another	miscellaneous	plastic	retail	bag.			Figure	10	–	Percentage	of	items	sorted	correctly	at	audited	Sort	it	Out	stations	throughout	UBC’s	main	campus.	The	bracketed	numbers	indicate	how	many	types	of	items	were	sorted	at	each	sorting	station.	Audits	were	conducted	in	November	2015	and	January	2016.							 29	Key	observations	during	spot	audits	at	Sort	it	Out	stations		While	conducting	the	spot	audits,	several	observations	were	noted	about	the	sorting	behaviours	that	occurred	as	people	sorted	their	waste.	On	two	separate	occasions,	individuals	were	seen	placing	all	their	food	service	ware	including	compostable	items	and	recyclable	items	into	paper	bags	or	plastic	bags,	and	disposing	the	bags	as	a	whole	item	into	one	of	the	bins.	When	this	occurred,	the	items	were	considered	not	sorted	properly.	Some	people	who	sorted	incorrectly	also	appeared	in	a	hurry	or	distracted	while	looking	at	their	phones.	On	other	occasions,	people	appeared	confused	about	which	bin	to	place	their	items	into	and	they	started	looking	into	the	bins	for	guidance.	Incorrect	sorting	was	also	triggered	when	the	bins	at	sorting	stations	were	full,	usually	at	locations	that	were	very	busy	during	peak	lunch	hours.	In	these	cases,	people	left	their	items	on	top	of	the	correct	bin	or	put	their	items	into	another	bin	at	the	station	that	still	had	room.	In	addition,	although	the	Sort	it	Out	stations	are	widely	distributed	throughout	the	campus,	in-house	disposal	stations	in	some	of	the	independently-run	and	chain	outlets	are	still	solely	garbage	bins	or	don’t	align	with	the	Sort	it	Out	system.	A	full	list	of	these	locations	is	included	in	the	Recommendations	section	(section	8.3.2).					7.0	 DISCUSSION		7.1	 Food	service	ware	to	replace		As	the	project	survey	results	show	that	the	majority	of	the	food	service	ware	used	at	UBC	is	either	compostable	or	recyclable,	the	campus’s	effort	to	minimize	its	waste	through	the	garbage	stream	is	very	apparent.	Following	their	waste	audit	in	March	2014,	Common	Energy	recommended	that	the	AMS	stop	using	expanded	polystyrene	and	waxed	paper	bags.	These	changes	have	successfully	been	implemented	as	the	AMS	Nest	opened	in	June	2015.	Expanded	polystyrene	and	waxed	papers	are	also	not	being	used	anywhere	else	on	the	main	campus.			Currently,	the	items	that	would	be	thrown	into	the	garbage	and	landfilled	are:	unmarked	plastic	cutlery,	composite	paper	and	plastic	sleeves,	aluminum-lined	sleeves,	toothpicks	lined	with	cellophane,	compostable	or	biodegradable	plastics,	unmarked	plastic	soup	bowl	lids,	unmarked	plastic	sleeves,	plastic	bags	and	unmarked	plastic	stir	sticks.	There	are	compostable	or	recyclable	alternatives	that	could	easily	replace	these	items	without	compromising	function.	Plastic	products	ought	to	be	marked	with	a	recycling	sign	and	number,	and	should	not	be	compostable	or	biodegradable.	This	would	minimize	confusion	and	communicate	to	users	that	these	items	should	to	be	thrown	into	the	recyclable	containers	bin.	While	biodegradable	and	compostable	plastics	are	reasonable	solutions	in	other	cities,	they	currently	do	not	break	down	in	UBC’s	in-vessel	composter	and	would	not	be	compatible	at	composting	facilities	in	the	Metro	Vancouver	region.	Unmarked	plastic	sleeves,	aluminum-lined	sleeves	and	composite	sleeves	could	be	replaced	with	compostable	plain	paper	sleeves.	Composite	items	that	are	made	from	multiple	types	of	materials	are	not	ideal	because	they	cause	confusion	about	how	they	ought	to	be	sorted.	In	most	cases,	people	will	not	take	the	time	to	dissect	these	items	and	they	will	end	up			 30	contaminating	the	composting	stream	or	one	of	the	recycling	streams.	In	the	case	of	the	paper	and	plastic	sleeves,	the	March	2013	waste	audit	at	Wesbrook	Building	identified	plastic	films	as	major	contaminants	indicating	that	they	do	not	currently	belong	in	any	of	UBC’s	sorting	streams	aside	from	the	garbage.	In	addition,	plastic	stir	sticks	could	be	replaced	with	plain	wooden	stir	sticks	or	the	raw	fettuccini	noodles	used	within	UBC	Food	Services.			7.2	 Other	factors	that	affect	waste	sorting	practices	on	campus		The	survey	results	also	show	that	some	food	outlets	are	using	more	types	of	food	service	ware	than	others	and	it	was	noted	that	the	diversity	of	items	within	the	AMS	Nest	is	greater	than	diversity	at	cafés	and	bistros	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services.	In	2014,	Menzer	et	al.	conducted	a	study	at	the	University	of	California	at	Santa	Barbara	to	identify	factors	that	influence	personal	waste	sorting	practices.	They	found	that	though	signage	played	a	part	in	helping	people	sort,	other	components	affected	sorting	behaviours	as	well.	The	more	diverse	a	food	service	ware	supply	is,	the	more	confusing	and	complex	it	is	for	individuals	to	sort	and	dispose	of	their	items	correctly.	A	higher	diversity	of	food	service	ware	items	also	makes	it	difficult	to	design	signage	that	incorporates	enough	variety	of	materials	to	be	effective.	As	discussed	in	section	6.2,	the	items	most	commonly	sorted	incorrectly	are	disposable	coffee	cups,	coffee	cup	lids	and	coffee	cup	sleeves.	This	is	likely	caused	by	the	necessity	to	separate	the	coffee	cup	sleeve	from	the	coffee	cup	and	throw	them	in	two	separate	bins.	Eliminating	the	coffee	cup	sleeve	would	solve	this	issue.	In	the	Nest,	Uppercase	and	Lowercase	use	sleeveless	coffee	mugs	and	as	a	result,	coffee	cup	sleeves	were	not	among	the	contaminants	seen	during	spot	audits	at	the	Sort	it	Out	stations	in	the	Nest.	In	addition,	the	larger	and	more	variable	a	customer	base	is,	the	more	difficult	it	is	to	establish	familiarity	with	products.	Familiarity	with	products	is	an	important	component	in	consistently	sorting	items	correctly	(Menzer	et	al.,	2014).		These	factors	would	help	explain	why	correct	sorting	rates	were	poorer	at	the	AMS	Nest	and	the	Vanier	Residence	Dining	Hall.		Since	the	Nest	and	its	food	services	recently	opened	in	2015,	the	students,	staff	and	visitors	most	likely	have	not	become	familiar	with	the	food	service	ware	types	that	are	available	there.	Although	the	Nest	is	a	building	that	is	frequently	visited	by	many	students,	staff	and	visitors,	it	is	not	guaranteed	that	these	individuals	visit	it	on	a	daily	basis.	This	would	heavily	affect	their	familiarity	with	the	food	service	ware	distributed	there.	At	residences	like	Vanier	and	Totem,	the	students	who	live	there	change	from	year	to	year,	which	decreases	familiarity	with	food	service	ware	items	used	at	their	dining	halls.	The	food	service	ware	types	are	more	consistent	within	the	cafés	and	bistros	managed	by	UBC	Food	Services.	The	higher	correct	sorting	rates	can	be	attributed	to	this	consistency,	as	people	are	most	likely	more	familiar	with	items	from	these	locations.				Menzer	et	al.	(2014)	also	noticed	that	plastic	bags	and	the	availability	of	single	receptacle	garbage	cans	discouraged	people	from	sorting	their	waste	correctly.	As	noticed	during	this	project,	individuals	tend	to	group	all	their	waste	items	into	plastic	bags	and	throw	the	bags	away	as	single	units.	Although	many	of	UBC’s	single	garbage	cans	have	been	removed,			 31	garbage	cans	that	are	located	in-house	at	some	food	services	and	outdoors	will	still	cause	people	to	incorrectly	sort	their	compostable	and	recyclable	items.		It	would	also	be	ideal	to	improve	signage	at	Sort	it	Out	stations,	ensure	that	bins	are	accessible	to	handicapped	members	of	the	public	and	ensure	that	bin	hole	sizes	are	adequately	sized	to	fit	a	variety	of	items.	Signage	at	the	Sort	it	Out	bins	currently	covers	a	few	items	in	the	form	of	basic	icons.	The	icons	and	supporting	text	ought	to	be	larger	so	that	people	can	start	thinking	about	how	they	will	sort	their	items	before	they	get	to	the	bins.	The	signage	also	doesn’t	include	items	like	straws	or	cardboard,	which	means	people	need	to	use	their	own	judgement	on	where	these	items	ought	to	go.	The	question	assigned	to	the	garbage	stream,	“STOP	Is	that	really	garbage?”,	also	requires	the	public	to	know	what	UBC	Campus	and	Community	Planning	considers	garbage.	It	is	a	subjective	question	because	different	people	have	variable	understandings	of	what	they	consider	as	“garbage”.	It	would	be	much	more	helpful	if	the	sign	at	the	garbage	bins	included	visuals	of	items	that	confirmed	which	items	UBC	Campus	and	Community	Planning	categorizes	as	garbage.			The	Sort	it	Out	stations	are	currently	tall	enough	to	house	large	square	disposal	bins	but	the	current	height	might	not	be	fully	functional	for	shorter	people	like	children	and	individuals	that	use	wheelchairs.	These	people	may	not	be	able	to	see	the	signage	on	top	of	the	bins	at	the	back	or	reach	the	holes	on	top.		Incorrect	sorting	rates	could	also	indicate	that	though	signage	is	a	key	strategy	to	help	people	sort,	it	shouldn’t	be	the	only	way	correct	sorting	practices	are	communicated	to	them.	Sometimes	individuals	will	be	distracted	as	they	dispose	their	waste,	therefore	other	educational	tools	should	be	available	to	increase	overall	comprehension	of	correct	waste	sorting	practices.																										 32	8.0	 RECOMMENDATIONS		In	response	to	the	findings	from	the	food	service	ware	surveys	and	targeted	spot	audits,	the	following	food	service	ware	management	plan	is	recommended	to	improve	waste	sorting	at	UBC’s	Vancouver	campus	over	the	next	two	years.			The	plan	has	the	following	goals:		 1. Make	service	policies	2. Increase	the	use	of	reusable/washable	ware	wherever	possible	and	increase	the	breadth	of	compostable	materials	on	campus	3. Increase	awareness	and	competence	of	correct	waste	sorting	practices	4. Test	compostability	of	new	and	prospective	products	5. Monitor	waste	sorting	practices	on	campus	6. Develop	and	implement	a	proper	documentation	and	data	management	system			8.1	 Making	service	policies		Service	policies	will	provide	a	formal	statement	that	in	operating	all	their	food	outlets,	UBC	will	use	food	service	ware	that	can	either	be	recyclable	or	compostable	and	that	will	be	compatible	with	the	campus	and	regional	processing	systems.	Publishing	these	policies	will	explain	to	staff,	students	and	visitors	why	specific	choices	and	actions	need	to	be	made	in	the	future.	They	will	help	guide	decision-making	throughout	the	entire	campus.				8.1.1	 Disposable	food	service	ware	procurement	guidelines		UBC	Sustainability	and	Campus	and	Community	Planning	set	many	of	the	campus’s	sustainability	goals	and	facilitate	related	public	engagement	initiatives.	Campus	and	Community	Planning	intends	to	provide	the	campus	with	a	set	of	guidelines	that	will	help	food	services	select	appropriate	food	service	ware	items.		The	current	version	of	UBC’s	Food	Service	Ware	Guideline	(Appendix	A)	offers	food	service	staff	and	management	information	about	preferred	characteristics	and	acceptable	food	service	ware	items	to	include	as	well	as	which	types	of	items	to	avoid.	The	results	from	this	project	will	assist	in	the	reformatting	of	the	current	guidelines.															 33	The	following	tables	are	an	improved	set	of	disposable	food	service	ware	guidelines	that	address	each	type	of	item	separately	to	minimize	confusion.			Table	9	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	disposable	cups	and	other	drink	containers		(adapted	from	Appendix	A,	May	2016)		Type	of	item	 Preferred	 Acceptable	 Avoid				Hot	drink	cups	• Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)	• Coated	paper	cups**			Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)			• Expanded	polystyrene	• Composite	items**		Hot	drink	lids	 Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)		N/A	 • Compostable	plastic	items	• Unmarked	plastic			Cold	drink	cups	and	containers		Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)	• Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)	• Glass	and	metal	deposit	containers	• Expanded	polystyrene	• Plastic-coated	paper	• Composite	items**	• Compostable	plastic	items		Cold	drink	cup	lids	 Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)		N/A	 • Compostable	plastic	items	• Unmarked	plastic	*	Certified	compostable	means	certified	by	Biodegradable	Products	Institute					(BPI),	BSI	Biodegradable	Solutions	and	other	recognized	standards	**	Coated	paper	coffee	cups	are	recyclable	at	UBC	***	Composite	items	are	products	that	are	made	from	more	than	one	type	of	material	(For	example:	plain	paper	and	plastic	film)	N/A	=	Not	applicable														 34	Table	10	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	disposable	food	service	ware				(adapted	from	Appendix	A,	May	2016)		Type	of	item	 Preferred	 Acceptable	 Avoid			Bowls	(e.g.	soup,	rice,	noodles)		Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)		Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)	• Expanded	polystyrene	• Plastic-coated	paper	• Composite	items**	• Compostable	plastic	items		Bowl	lids	 Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)		N/A	 • Unmarked	plastic	• Compostable	plastic	items	• Composite	items**			Food	take-out	containers		Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)		Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)	• Expanded	polystyrene	• Plastic-coated	paper	• Composite	items**	• Compostable	plastic	items			Plates	 	Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)			N/A	 • Expanded	polystyrene	• Plastic-coated	paper	• Composite	items**	• Compostable	plastic	items			Boxes	and	trays	 	Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)			N/A	 • Expanded	polystyrene	• Plastic-coated	paper	• Composite	items**	• Compostable	plastic	items	Paper	wrappers/sleeves	(e.g.	sandwiches,	burritos,	wraps)	Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)		Chequered	Poly	Lactic	Acid-coated	paper	 • Plastic-coated	paper	• Aluminum	foil	• Waxed	paper	• Composite	items**	*	Certified	compostable	means	certified	by	Biodegradable	Products	Institute					(BPI),	BSI	Biodegradable	Solutions	and	other	recognized	standards		**	Composite	items	are	products	that	are	made	from	more	than	one	type	of	material	(For	example:	plain	paper	and	plastic	film)	N/A	=	Not	applicable			 35	Table	11	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	disposable	cutlery	and	other	eating	utensils	(adapted	from	Appendix	A,	May	2016)		Type	of	item	 Preferred	 Acceptable	 Avoid		Forks,	knives	and	spoons	 • Certified*	compostable	wood,	bamboo	or	fibre	• Plain,	uncoated	wood	or	bamboo	Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)		• Compostable	plastic	items	• Unmarked	plastic		Chopsticks	 • Certified*	compostable	wood,	bamboo	or	fibre	• Plain,	uncoated	wood	or	bamboo			N/A	 	• Plastic-coated	products	• Unmarked	plastic	*	Certified	compostable	means	certified	by	Biodegradable	Products	Institute					(BPI),	BSI	Biodegradable	Solutions	and	other	recognized	standards		N/A	=	Not	applicable			Table	12	–	Revised	procurement	guidelines	for	miscellaneous	disposable	food	service			items	(adapted	from	Appendix	A,	May	2016)		Type	of	item	 Preferred	 Acceptable	 Avoid		Straws	 	To	be	determined	 	• Unmarked	plastic	 	• Compostable	plastic	items				Stir	sticks	 • Certified*	compostable	wood,	bamboo	or	fibre	• Plain,	uncoated	wood	or	bamboo	• Fettucini	noodles			N/A	 	• Compostable	plastic	items	• Unmarked	plastic		Napkins	 Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)		N/A	 	N/A		Bags	 Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)		N/A	 • Compostable	plastic	items	• Unmarked	plastic	*	Certified	compostable	means	certified	by	Biodegradable	Products	Institute					(BPI),	BSI	Biodegradable	Solutions	and	other	recognized	standards		N/A	=	Not	applicable				 36	In	addition	to	providing	these	procurement	guidelines,	it	would	also	be	helpful	to	include	notes	on	which	brands	and	products	are	generally	preferred	choices	accompanied	with	pictures	of	approved	items	by	Campus	and	Community	Planning.	They	should	be	acceptable	products	already	in	use	on	campus	and	familiar	to	the	campus	population.	This	would	help	food	service	management	and	staff	find	easy	alternatives	efficiently	without	having	to	do	their	own	research.	Each	item	included	in	the	guideline	should	include	a	symbol	that	indicates	which	sorting	stream	it	must	be	thrown	into.	The	guideline	should	also	explain	why	particular	types	of	products	including	compostable	or	biodegradable	plastics	and	composite	products	are	not	suitable	for	UBC’s	waste	sorting	system.	The	guideline	in	Appendix	A	indicates	that	certified	compostable	products	are	accepted	on	campus	but	as	seen	with	many	of	the	plastic	products	from	Eco	Products,	though	they	are	certified	as	compostable,	they	would	cause	contamination	in	the	campus	composting	stream.	Please	refer	to	Appendix	H	for	an	adapted	version	of	the	procurement	guidelines	for	food	take-out	containers	where	all	these	additional	aspects	are	applied.		The	final	version	of	the	procurement	guidelines	would	include	all	items	covered	in	Tables	9	to	12	with	similar	formatting	as	that	displayed	in	Appendix	H.	When	the	final	version	of	the	guideline	is	completed,	it	should	be	distributed	to	all	food	service	outlets	and	released	online	to	ensure	it	is	highly	accessible	to	stakeholders.			8.1.2	 Other	proposed	policies		To	compliment	the	release	of	the	disposable	food	service	ware	procurement	guidelines,	Campus	and	Community	Planning	could	develop	a	system	that	tests	and	documents	current	and	prospective	products	to	ensure	they	are	compatible	with	the	local	in-vessel	composter.	The	campus	could	also	develop	a	set	of	technical	guidelines	prescribing	how	in-house	sorting	bins	ought	to	look	like	to	align	with	the	campus’s	Sort	it	Out	waste	system.	The	following	aspects	should	be	considered:	number	of	sorting	bins	included,	signage	and	colour	coding.	As	UBC	leases	out	commercial	spaces	to	food	services,	it	would	be	beneficial	to	make	a	policy	that	gives	Campus	and	Community	Planning	the	right	to	request	that	businesses	stop	using	certain	food	service	ware	items	or	in-house	disposal	bins.	This	circumstance	would	be	applicable	if	UBC	collects	their	waste,	if	the	items	cause	confusion	among	customers	and	if	they	cause	contamination	at	sorting	stations.	Currently,	Metro	Vancouver	has	no	authority	to	tell	businesses	what	food	service	ware	items	to	use.	They	offer	guiding	information	on	their	website	and	state	that	businesses	need	to	confirm	with	their	waste	collectors	as	well	as	regional	recycling	and	composting	facilities	whether	or	not	items	are	acceptable	(personal	communication	with	Andrew	Marr	on	March	18th	2016).	Since	UBC	supplies	waste	collection	services	to	businesses	within	main	campus	limits	and	operates	the	in-vessel	composter	on	South	Campus,	it	must	have	more	authority	over	what	they	collect.										 37	8.2	 Reusable	food	service	ware	and	the	breadth	of	compostable	items		The	Results	section	(section	6.1)	identified	10	food	service	locations	that	offer	reusable	plates,	cups,	bowls	and	cutlery.	It	is	recommended	that	current	and	prospective	food	services	also	consider	the	use	of	reusable	ware,	as	this	would	ultimately	reduce	the	amount	of	waste	entering	UBC’s	waste	collection	system.		Since	compostable	and	biodegradable	plastics	are	not	compatible	with	UBC’s	composting	system	and	composting	facilities	in	the	Metro	Vancouver	region,	it	is	recommended	that	UBC’s	food	service	staff	and	management	phase	out	the	use	of	these	products	to	minimize	confusion	and	contamination	at	the	Sort	it	Out	stations.	All	plastic	bags	could	be	replaced	with	paper	bags	to	decrease	the	amount	of	bags	thrown	into	the	garbage	and	encourage	the	public	to	sort	their	waste.	Once	Campus	and	Community	Planning	releases	their	disposable	food	service	ware	procurement	guidelines,	it	is	recommended	that	food	service	staff	and	management	review	and	revise	their	food	service	ware	inventories	and	replace	problematic	items	with	more	recognizable	recyclable	and	compostable	products.	This	should	be	done	in	consultation	with	Campus	and	Community	Planning	that	can	offer	the	appropriate	support,	information	and	resources.	If	staff	are	not	sure	whether	a	food	service	ware	item	is	acceptable	or	not,	they	must	check	with	UBC	Sustainability	or	UBC	Waste	Management	to	ensure	it	will	not	cause	contamination	in	composting	and	recycling	streams.	Even	though	an	item	meets	ASTM	6400	requirements	for	compostability,	it	might	not	be	suitable	for	processing	in	local	composting	facilities	since	they	may	use	different	equipment,	technologies	and	methodology.	As	a	result,	acceptability	varies	from	city	to	city.			It	is	also	recommended	that	food	services	make	a	long-term	goal	of	reducing	the	number	of	food	ware	types	that	they	use	and	increasing	the	breadth	of	compostable	materials	used	provided	they	are	acceptable	at	local	facilities.	Reducing	the	diversity	in	food	service	ware	products	would	help	the	public	become	familiar	with	items	faster	and	sort	them	correctly	on	a	consistent	basis.	It	would	also	be	ideal	for	UBC	Food	Services,	the	AMS	and	the	independently-run	food	services	to	share	product-specific	information	and	consolidate	which	items	are	purchased	across	the	main	campus.	Offering	a	larger	breadth	of	compostable	food	service	ware	items	would	allow	users	to	group	their	items	together	and	decrease	the	amount	of	food	contamination	in	the	recyclable	containers	sorting	stream.	Items	such	as	coffee	cup	sleeves	and	straws	could	be	further	phased	out	of	inventories	to	increase	waste	reduction	in	the	future.				8.3	 Increasing	awareness	and	competence	of	correct	waste	sorting	practices		8.3.1		 Communication	with	the	public		It	is	recommended	that	UBC	Sustainability	continue	to	communicate	with	the	campus	about	how	to	correctly	sort	items	at	Sort	it	Out	stations.	UBC	Sustainability	could	equip	the	campus	with	tools	to	assist	the	public	appropriately	sort	waste.	The	City	of	Vancouver’s	interactive	Waste	Wizard	is	a	notable	example	as	it	allows	a	user	to	search	for	a	type	of	item	and	provides	instructions	on	which	sorting	stream	the	item	ought	to	be	placed	into.	Also,	a	promotional	video	briefly	outlining	how	to	sort	the	campus’s	food	service	ware	items	would	help	teach	students,	staff	and	visitors	how	to	properly	sort	waste	and			 38	familiarize	them	with	the	types	of	items	at	UBC	food	outlets.	Videos	and	other	online	marketing	strategies	would	make	it	easier	to	rapidly	raise	awareness	about	the	campus’s	waste	sorting	system	and	any	changes	that	would	occur	through	social	media.			8.3.2	 Consistency	in	waste	sorting	infrastructure			Another	way	to	ensure	proper	awareness	of	the	Sort	it	Out	system	is	to	establish	consistency	in	infrastructure	throughout	the	campus.	This	would	ultimately	increase	public	familiarity	of	the	system.	Since	single	garbage	cans	are	still	available	outdoors	and	in	some	buildings	on	campus,	it	is	recommended	that	UBC	Building	Operations	continue	to	replace	these	receptacles	with	one	type	of	Sort	it	Out	station.	It	is	also	suggested	that	the	colour	coding	at	these	stations	and	the	appearance	of	these	stations	be	as	consistent	as	possible	to	help	students,	staff	and	visitors	gain	familiarity	with	the	campus	sorting	system.	Waste	collection	staff	should	also	be	trained	how	to	properly	sort	waste	according	to	the	four	streams	and	empty	sorting	bins	more	frequently	during	peak	lunch	hours	to	avoid	incorrect	sorting	at	stations.	As	another	longer-term	goal,	food	services	with	single	in-house	garbage	cans	must	eventually	provide	recycling	bins	and	compost	bins	with	appropriate	waste	pick-ups	through	UBC	Waste	Management.	Table	13	summarizes	food	outlets	that	either	have	single	in-house	garbage	cans	or	sorting	stations	that	don’t	match	UBC’s	Sort	it	Out	system.		Table	13	–	Summary	of	in-house	sorting	stations	that	do	not	match	UBC’s	Sort	it	Out	system.		Food	service	location	Description	of	issue	Starbucks	on	East	Mall	and	Agronomy	Road	 This	Starbucks	currently	has	two	in-house	stations.	Both	have	two	unlabelled	bins	in	which	all	waste	is	thrown.				Tim	Horton’s	in	the	Forest	Sciences	Building	The	current	sorting	station	has	two	bins	designated	for	bottles	and	other	recyclables,	one	for	garbage	and	another	one	for	compostable	items,	which	isn’t	used	(it	is	permanently	covered	by	a	plastic	food	tray).	This	sorting	station	does	have	Sort	it	Out	signage	but	would	benefit	from	larger	signs	that	are	more	visible	and	recognizable	to	customers.			QOOLA	in	the	Nest	 The	current	sorting	station	has	two	bins:		• One	designated	for	compostable,	biodegradable	and	recyclable	items	(smoothie	cups	and	lids,	coffee	cups,	paper	plates,	napkins,	yogurt	cups	and	lids,	sample	yogurt	cups	and	all	biodegradable	eating	utensils)	• A	second	bin	designated	for	“trash“	such	as	smoothie	straws		Uppercase,	Lowercase,	Flip	Side	and	The	Delly	in	the	Nest	These	food	services	in	the	Nest	have	single	garbage	receptacles	at	their	condiments	sections	but	would	allow	for	the	collection	of	all	items	provided	by	each	respective	location.			 39		8.4	 Testing	compostability	of	new	and	prospective	products		As	discussed	in	section	8.1.2,	it	is	recommended	that	Campus	and	Community	Planning	develop	a	standard	operating	procedure	(SOP)	to	test	and	document	current	and	prospective	compostable	products	to	ensure	they	are	compatible	with	the	local	in-vessel	composter	on	South	Campus.	The	SOP	would	describe	how	the	test	would	be	done	and	include	the	following	details:		• Who	or	which	staff	members	would	conduct	the	tests	• Outline	the	training	that	is	needed	to	conduct	the	tests	• Describe	how	many	samples	of	a	particular	product	will	be	needed	for	the	test	• The	length	of	the	test	period	• Define	how	compostability	and	acceptability	will	be	determined		All	tests	would	be	conducted	at	the	composter	on	South	Campus	and	proper	training	would	be	provided	to	ensure	all	tests	are	done	consistently.				8.5	 Monitoring	waste	sorting	practices	on	campus		In	order	to	determine	how	all	the	proposed	changes	are	affecting	the	campus	waste	management	system,	Campus	and	Community	Planning	will	need	to	monitor	food	service	ware	procurement	and	waste	sorting	practices	through	waste	composition	audits.	It	is	recommended	that	UBC	keep	track	of	the	most	commonly	incorrectly	sorted	food	service	ware	items,	the	quality	of	compost	product	generated	from	the	in-vessel	composter,	and	which	items	are	degrading	the	compost	quality.	This	will	enable	Campus	and	Community	Planning	to	evaluate	the	campus’s	performance	and	make	further	improvements	that	are	necessary	to	achieve	its	policies	and	waste	diversion	goals.																						 40	8.6	 Documentation	and	data	management	system		To	properly	implement	this	food	service	ware	management	plan,	the	following	documents	and	records	described	in	Table	14	will	need	to	be	retained	for	future	reference	with	an	online	data	management	system.	This	is	not	an	exhaustive	list	and	includes	the	major	documents	or	records	that	are	relevant	to	this	project.		Table	14	–	Summary	of	documents	and	records	needed	for	the	food	service	ware	management	plan.		Document/Record	 Description				Current	policies		Current	policies	will	be	available	online	for	campus	staff,	students	and	the	general	public	to	access.	The	policies	will	cover	all	aspects	that	pertain	to	food	service	ware	procurement	and	waste	collection	at	Sort	it	Out	stations.	The	most	relevant	ones	are:	the	food	service	ware	procurement	guidelines,	food	service	policies,	the	campus	sorting	guide	and	technical	guidelines	regarding	Sort	it	Out	stations.		Non-compostability	reports	 As	UBC	tests	which	food	service	ware	products	are	compatible	with	the	in-vessel	composter	on	South	Campus,	non-compostability	reports	will	need	to	be	provided	to	all	food	service	management	to	inform	them	that	certain	products	should	not	be	purchased	and	explain	why	the	products	are	not	acceptable.		Waste	composition	audit	reports	and	progress	reports	Waste	audit	reports	and	progress	reports	will	detail	UBC’s	performance	in	reducing	its	waste	and	achieving	optimal	waste	sorting	practices.	They	will	each	describe	overall	waste	diversion	rates	and	composition	of	contaminants	found	as	well	as	any	modifications	that	need	to	be	added	to	the	waste	management	system	as	a	whole.		Inventory	lists	from	all	food	service	locations	Updated	inventory	lists	will	need	to	be	documented	to	keep	track	of	costs	and	food	service	ware	needs	at	all	outlets.	This	will	also	keep	Campus	and	Community	Planning	informed	on	how	much	food	service	ware	and	what	types	of	food	service	ware	are	entering	the	UBC	waste	system	on	a	monthly	and	annual	basis.																 41	9.0	 CONCLUSION		UBC	is	making	significant	strides	towards	its	goal	of	diverting	80%	of	its	waste	by	the	year	2020.	Its	implementation	of	the	Sort	it	Out	program	and	elimination	of	expanded	polystyrene	use	throughout	the	main	campus	demonstrates	the	campus’s	capacity	for	post-consumer	waste	sorting	and	overall	waste	reduction.	In	support	of	this	campus-wide	commitment,	this	project	successfully	identified	what	types	of	food	service	ware	are	used	at	the	university’s	food	outlets	and	outlined	how	the	institution	can	further	improve	its	waste	sorting	efforts.	It	provides	UBC’s	management	with	the	data	needed	to	select	food	service	ware	that	students,	staff	and	visitors	can	easily	sort	without	confusion.	It	is	recommended	that	university	staff	continue	to	communicate	and	engage	with	the	rest	of	the	community	to	raise	awareness	of	the	environmental	implications	of	proper	waste	sorting	practices.		Selecting	the	most	appropriate	food	service	ware	products	for	the	UBC	Vancouver	campus	will	require	balancing	energy	and	materials	costs,	social	and	environmental	consciousness,	environmental	regulations,	compatibility	with	local	processing	facilities,	product	performance	and	customer	satisfaction.	Purchasing	compostable	and	recyclable	products	is	one	aspect	of	the	solution,	as	it	needs	to	be	accompanied	by	public	education	and	outreach	as	well	as	ensuring	that	the	Metro	Vancouver	region	has	the	infrastructure	to	compost	or	recycle	products	at	the	end	of	their	intended	use.	Achieving	UBC’s	2020	waste	reduction	target	of	80%	will	require	the	cooperation	and	open-mindedness	of	students,	faculty	and	food	service	staff	as	well	as	the	awareness	that	all	members	of	the	university’s	population	have	an	important	role	to	play	in	ensuring	that	this	target	is	attained.																										 42	BIBLIOGRAPHY		Bureau	Veritas.	(2015).	ISO	14001:2015	Top	Management	-	Environmental	Managers	Technical	Guide.	From	Bureau	Veritas:	http://www.us.bureauveritas.com/d1080c74-6dd6-4c2b-91de-856e6324f9dc/bv-technical-guide-iso-14001-2015.pdf?MOD=AJPERES	California	State	University.	(2007).	Performance	Evaluation	of	Environmentally	Degradable	Plastic	Packaging	and	Disposable	Food	Service	Ware	-	Final	Report.	Retrieved	February	15,	2015	from	California's	Department	of	Resources	Recycling	and	Recovery:	http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/Publications/Documents/Plastics/43208001.pdf	City	of	Vancouver.	(2012).	Greenest	City	2020	Action	Plan.	Retrieved	June	2015	from	City	of	Vancouver:	http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/greenest-city-action-plan.pdf	City	of	Vancouver.	(2015).	Zero	Waste.	Retrieved	July	2015	from	City	of	Vancouver:	http://vancouver.ca/green-vancouver/zero-waste.aspx#waste-measurement	Common	Energy	UBC.	(2015).	Summary	Report.		Common	Energy	UBC.	(2014).	UBC	Student-Run	Waste	Audit	2014.		Garden	Heart	Productions.	(2012).	Metro	Vancouver	-	ON-SITE	COMPOSTING	TECHNOLOGY	REVIEW.	Retrieved	June	2015	from	Metro	Vancouver:	http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/MV-ON-SITECOMPOSTINGTECHNOLOGYREVIEWOct2012.pdf	Health	Care	Without	Harm.	(2015).	About	us.	Retrieved	June	10,	2015	from	Health	Care	Without	Harm:	https://noharm-uscanada.org/content/us-canada/about-us	Health	Care	Without	Harm.	(2010).	Choosing	Environmentally	Preferable	Food	Service	Ware.	Retrieved	March	9,	2015	from	Health	Care	Without	Harm:	http://noharm.org/lib/downloads/food/EPP_Food_Svc_Ware.pdf	International	Organization	for	Standardization.	(2015).	Introduction	to	ISO	14001:2015.	From	International	Organization	for	Standardization:	http://www.iso.org/iso/introduction_to_iso_14001.pdf	Menzer,	L.,	Parnell-Wolfe,	I.,	O'Carroll,	M.,	&	Perkins,	D.	(2014).	Campus	Design	and	Facilities.	From	University	of	California	Santa	Barbara:	http://www.facilities.ucsb.edu/files/docs/UCSB_R3C_Behavioral_Economics_of_Personal_Waste%20Sorting_Practices.pdf	Metro	Vancouver.	(2014).	Final	Report	-	Food-Soiled	Paper	Task	Group.		Nguyen,	L.	D.	(2012).	An	Assessment	of	Policies	on	Polystyrene	Food	Ware	Bans.	Retrieved	January	20,	2015	from	San	Jose	State	University:	http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1265&context=etd_projects	Responsible	Purchasing	Network.	(2012).	Green	Purchasing	Opportunities:	Compostable	Food	Service	Ware.	Retrieved	February	15,	2015	from	Responsbile	Purchasing	Network:	http://www.responsiblepurchasing.org/private/naspo/oas/compostable_service_ware.pdf					 43	Sustainable	Biomaterials	Collaborative.	(2009).	Guidelines	for	Sustainable	Bioplastics.	Retrieved	February	20,	2015	from	Sustainable	Biomaterials:	http://www.sustainablebiomaterials.org/documents/SBCGuidelinesforSustainableBioplasticsMay2009Vers1.0.pdf	TRI	Environmental	Consulting	Inc.	.	(2014).	Wesbrook	Building	Waste	Composition	Study.		TRI	Environmental	Consulting	Inc.	(2013).	Organics	Waste	Composition	Study.		TRI	Environmental	Consulting	Inc.	(2013).	Outdoor	Recycling	Stations	Waste	Composition	Study.		UBC	Alma	Mater	Society.	(2016).	About	the	AMS.	From	UBC	Alma	Mater	Society:	http://www.ams.ubc.ca/studentsociety/	UBC	Building	Operations.	(2016).	Composting.	From	UBC	Buidling	Operations	-	Composting:	http://www.buildingoperations.ubc.ca/sustainability/zero-waste/composting/	UBC	Building	Operations.	(2016).	Waste	Pick-Up.	From	UBC	Building	Operations	-	Waste	Management:	http://www.buildingoperations.ubc.ca/business-units/municipal/waste-management/waste-pick-up/	UBC	Campus	and	Community	Planning.	(2014).	UBC	Vancouver	Campus	Zero	Waste	Action	Plan.	From	UBC	Sustainability:	https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/uploads/CampusSustainability/CS_PDFs/RecyclingWaste/Zero_Waste_Action_Plan%202014%2010%2003%20final.pdf	UBC	Food	Services.	(2016).	Places	to	Eat.	From	UBC	Food	Services:	http://www.food.ubc.ca/places-to-eat/	UBC	News.	(2016).	UBC	Overview	and	Facts	2015/16.	From	UBC	News:	http://news.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/2016_867_Factsheet_update4.pdf	UBC	Sustainability.	(2016).	Campus	Initiatives.	From	UBC	Sustainability:	https://sustain.ubc.ca/campus-initiatives	UBC	Sustainability.	(2015).	SORT	IT	OUT.	Retrieved	July	2015	from	UBC	Sustainability:	http://sustain.ubc.ca/campus-initiatives/recycling-waste/sort-it-out	Wachter,	B.,	Creighton,	A.,	Schmitz,	M.,	&	Thayer,	F.	(2013).	A	Life	Cycle	Analysis	and	Cost	Comparison	of	Dining	Ware	in	the	Alfred	Packer	Grill.	Retrieved	January	20,	2015	from	Environmental	Studies	at	University	of	Colorado	Boulder:	http://www.colorado.edu/envs/sites/default/files/attached-files/Chapter_4_Life_Cycle_Analysis_and_Cost_Comparison.pdf															 44																	APPENDICES																											 45	Appendix	A	–	UBC’s	tentative	Food	Service	Ware	Guideline				 Campus + Community Planning   Sustainability & Engineering 3331 – 2260 West Mall Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4 zero.waste@ubc.ca  26 March 2015  UBC Food Service Ware Guideline The best option for reducing waste is reusable food and drink containers including mugs, plates, cutlery etc.  For single use food containers and cutlery, the preferred choices below allow easier sorting by customers and by composting and recycling facilities, less contamination of compost with non-compostable materials, and less contamination of recyclables with food. Preferred products are: ƒ Compostable, fibre-based (e.g., wood, paper or bamboo) products  for all food items ƒ Recyclable products for all drink containers. *Please avoid products made of “compostable plastic” as these are not compatible with UBC’s composting system* Single Use Product Guideline Category Preferred Acceptable Avoid  Food plates and bowls ƒ Certified* compostable paper or other fibre (plain, uncoated paper)  ƒ Other certified compostable materials ƒ Recyclable plastic (marked with recycling symbol & number 1-5) ƒ Styrofoam ƒ Plastic coated paper plates Food utensils & cutlery ƒ Certified compostable wood, bamboo or fibre ƒ Plain, uncoated wood or bamboo ƒ Recyclable plastic (marked with recycling symbol and number 1-5) ƒ Non-recyclable or unmarked ƒ Compostable plastic Food wrappers, bags (e.g., sandwich or pita wrapper) ƒ Certified compostable paper ƒ Plain, uncoated paper ƒ Plastic film (clean only, where soft plastics recycling is available) ƒ Non compostable coated paper, waxed paper ƒ Paper/plastic composites, paper bags with plastic windows Drink containers and cups ƒ Recyclable plastic (marked with recycling symbol & number 1-5) ƒ Glass and metal deposit containers ƒ Coated paper coffee cups** ƒ Other recyclable containers ƒ Compostable paper or fibre-based cups ƒ Styrofoam ƒ Compostable plastic Other containers, boxes and trays ƒ Plain, uncoated cardboard/paper ƒ Certified compostable  fibre ƒ Recyclable plastic (marked with recycling symbol and number 1-5) ƒ Non-recyclable or unmarked ƒ Compostable plastic *Certified compostable means certified to BPI, CCME/BNQ (see logos to the right) or other recognized compostable standards (different than biodegradable). Many certified products are now readily available. If a product is biodegradable, it must also be certified compostable in order to be accepted on campus.  **Coated paper coffee cups are recyclable at UBC. 		 46	Appendix	B	–	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	for	“Preferred”	Biobased	Products	(Health	Care	Without	Harm,	2010)	 								 47	Appendix	C	–	Beyond	Baseline	Sustainability	Criteria	for	“More	Preferred”	Biobased	Products		(Health	Care	Without	Harm,	2010)		 	48	Appendix	D	–	Map	of	the	cafés	and	bistros	operated	by	UBC	Food	Services	that	were	surveyed.	Map	of	UBC	modified	March	2016.	Reboot	Café	Niche	Café		The	Loop	Café		Totem	Residence	Dining	Hall		Vanier	Residence	Dining	Hall			Caffé	Perugia		Ike’s	Café		Law	Café		Sauder	Exchange	Café		Mercante		SGr	It	Up	Café			 	49	Appendix	E	–	Map	of	the	independently-run	and	chain	food	outlets	that	were	surveyed.	Map	of	UBC	modified	March	2016.		Starbucks	Subway		Café	MOA		Bean	Around	the	World			Café	Ami		Boulevard		Great	Dane		City	Square/Peqish	Triple	O’s		Loafe	Café		Tim	Horton’s		Bento	Sushi				 	50	Appendix	F	–	Food	service	ware	survey	completed	at	designated	food	outlets	throughout	campus	(listed	in	section	5.2).		Food	Outlet	Service	Ware	Survey	Food	outlet	name:____________________________________________________	Date:	______________________________				Time:	__________________________	A. Hot drink cups Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ C. Cold drink cups Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ E. Bowls (e.g. soup, rice, noodles) Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  B. Hot drink lids Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ D. Cold drink lids Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ F. Bowl lids Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 		 	51		G. Food take-out containers Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  I. Boxes and Trays Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  K. Chopsticks Plain wood or bambooRecyclable Plastic (stamped with a recycling number)Coated wood or bamboo Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticOther (specify) _______________________ Product name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 					H. Plates Certified Compostable paper or other fibreRecyclable Plastic (marked with a recycling number)Conventional coated paper Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticExpanded PolystyreneProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  J. Utensils (forks, knives, spoons) Plain wood or bambooRecyclable Plastic (stamped with a recycling number)Coated wood or bamboo Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticOther (specify) _______________________Product name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   L. Straws Recyclable Plastic (stamped with a recycling number)Compostable Plastic	Unmarked PlasticOther (specify) ____________________Product name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________       		 	52				M. Wrappers (e.g. Sandwiches, burritos) Plain paperCertified compostable paperPlastic or wax coated paper Other (specify) _____________________ Product name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   N. Napkins Plain paperCertified compostable paperProduct name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________                   O. Other item: ___________________________ Material(s) ______________________________Product name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________    P. Other item: ___________________________ Material(s) ______________________________Product name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________     Q. Other item: ___________________________ Material(s) ______________________________Product name(s) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   	 				53	Appendix	G	–	Map	of	locations	where	targeted	spot	audits	were	conducted.	The	numbers	indicate	how	many	audits	occurred	at	each	site.	Map	of	UBC	modified	March	2016.	1	2	 3	1	1	1	3	1	1			 	 	 	54	Appendix	H	–	Proposed	formatting	for	disposable	food	service	ware	guidelines	as	applied	to	food	take-out	containers	(adapted	from	Appendix	A,	April	2016).		Symbol	legend:	©	-	Compostable	 !-	Garbage	 		Note:	®	would	represent	items	that	correspond	with	the	Recyclable	Containers	bins		 Food	Take-Out	Containers	Preferred	 Acceptable	 Avoid	• Certified*	compostable	paper	or	other	fibre	(plain,	uncoated	paper)	• Recyclable	plastic	(marked	with	recycling	symbol	and	number	1-5)	 • Expanded	polystyrene	• Plastic-coated	paper	• Composite	items**	• Compostable/biodegradable	plastic	items		Preferred	items:	Compostable	clamshell	©		Product	brand	and	name	Catalogue	number	Pack	To	Go	containers	©		Product	brand	and	name	Catalogue	number		Items	to	avoid:	*	Certified	compostable	means	certified	by	Biodegradable	Products	Institute					(see	logo	to	the	right),	BSI	Biodegradable	Solutions	and	other	recognized	standards	**	Composite	items	are	products	that	are	made	from	more	than	one	type	of	material		(For	example:	plain	paper	and	plastic	film)	Poly	Lactic	Acid	(PLA)	“biodegradable”	clamshell	! 		Product	brand	and	name	Catalogue	number		FAQ:	Why	should	I	avoid	purchasing	this	product	and	other	products	that	are	similar?		Plastic	items	marked	“compostable”	or	“biodegradable”	are	not	accepted	in	campus	or	regional	composting	facilities	and	are	considered	as	contaminants	because	they	do	not	completely	break	down.	Contamination	will	degrade	the	quality	of	the	finished	compost.	

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