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Alma Mater Society of the University of British Columbia New Student Union Energy Dashboard Project Chan, Collyn 2015-06-13

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportCollyn ChanAlma Mater Society of the University of British Columbia New Student Union Energy Dashboard ProjectGRS 397June 13, 20158912002University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.GRS397: DIRECTED FIELD STUDIES:ALMA MATER SOCIETY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA NEW STUDENT UNION ENERGY DASHBOARD PROJECTBuilding Dashboards and Sustainable Behaviour Changes Collyn ChanGRS397: Directed Studies in Global Resource Systems University of British ColumbiaDr. Brent SkuraJune 13, 2015GRS397	Directed	Field	Studies:	Alma	Mater	Society	of	the	University	of	British	Columbia	New	Student	Union	Energy	Dashboard	Project	Building	Dashboards	and	Sustainable	Behaviour	Changes	Collyn	Chan		GRS397	UBC	Vancouver	Dr.	Brent	Skura	June	13,	2015	Collyn	Chan	2	 Table	of	Contents	Executive	Summary	.........................................................................................................................	3	Introduction	....................................................................................................................................	5	Objectives	of	Project	...................................................................................................................	5	Background:	Building	Management	Systems	..............................................................................	6	Methodology	...................................................................................................................................	7	Providing	information	is	not	enough	to	change	behaviour	.............................................................	8	Findings	.........................................................................................................................................	10	Discussion	......................................................................................................................................	14	Designing	for	Sustainable	Behaviour	Change:	fostering	a	culture	of	sustainable	behaviour	....	14	Flexibility	and	personalization	within	the	system	built	.............................................................	16	Dashboard	project	is	a	living	lab	...............................................................................................	16	Recommendations	........................................................................................................................	17	Appendices	....................................................................................................................................	21	I.	 Establishing	a	culture	of	acting	sustainably:	sample	actions	............................................	21	II.	 Existing	Energy	Dashboards	versus	Proposed	Dashboard	................................................	22	III.	 Larger	Sample	Layouts	.....................................................................................................	25	Works	Cited	...................................................................................................................................	26		        Collyn Chan 3  Executive	Summary		The	Alma	Mater	Society	of	UBC	(AMS)	is	currently	in	the	construction	phase	of	the	New	Student	Union	Building	(SUB).	The	design	for	the	building	aims	to	achieve	Leadership	in	Energy	&	Environmental	Design	(LEED)	Platinum	status,	their	highest	green	building	rating.	One	required	feature	the	society	is	looking	to	implement	is	a	consumption	feedback	tool	to	engage	occupants	of	the	building	through	an	energy	dashboard.	This	report	assesses	techniques	that	should	be	utilized	for	energy	dashboards	to	assist	in	promoting	sustainable	behaviours	targeted	by	the	AMS	within	the	building.		 Based	on	a	literature	review,	I	assessed	several	dashboard	designs	already	available	in	the	industry	as	well	as	the	challenges	faced	by	these	interfaces.	After,	community	based	social	marketing	and	digital	communications	strategies	were	identified	as	criteria	for	the	design	of	the	dashboard	for	the	new	AMS	building.	I	then	analyzed	other	factors	of	behaviour	change	needed	to	achieve	objectives	identified	by	the	AMS	that	a	typical	building	dashboard	would	not	usually	accommodate.	As	requested	by	the	AMS,	consultations	with	relevant	stakeholders	were	held	to	establish	a	recommendation	for	the	appropriate	technologies	needed	to	move	forward.		 The	positive	behavioural	effects	of	existing	energy	dashboards	dwindle	over	time	(Hargreaves	et	al.,	2010).	Existing	energy	dashboards	need	additional	motivators	in	order	to	establish	sustainable	behaviours	in	a	building	such	as	the	New	SUB.	Effective	communication	is	an	important	aspect	of	promoting	sustainable	behaviours	and	the	building	dashboard	must	adhere	to	digital	communication	strategies	in	addition	to	its	role	as	a	consumption	feedback	tool.	However,	studies	show	that	sustainable	behaviours	are	best	motivated	when	one	is	immersed	in	a	culture	of	environmental	stewardship.	The	AMS	must	establish	this	culture	within	the	building,	in	which	energy	dashboards	will	only	play	a	part.	Collyn	Chan	4	 	 Due	to	the	scope	of	the	initial	project,	which	focused	on	the	design	of	the	dashboard	system,	recommendations	for	establishing	social	norms	are	limited.	I	recommend	that	further	study	be	conducted	in	this	area	to	establish	the	best	combination	of	communication	and	social	programming	within	the	New	SUB. 	 	Collyn Chan 5  Introduction		The	Alma	Mater	Society	(AMS)	will	be	completing	and	opening	the	New	Student	Union	Building	in	September	2015.	A	driving	goal	of	the	project	has	not	only	been	to	design	and	construct	a	sustainable	building,	but	also	to	design	operational	processes	and	strategies	that	will	improve	sustainable	social	behaviours	among	building	users.	The	AMS	will	be	employing	a	Building	Management	System	(BMS)	that	gathers	data	through	meters	to	optimize	building	energy	usage.	The	AMS	has	been	pursuing	development	of	a	user-end	dashboard	that	will	display	this	information	in	order	to	engage	users	of	the	building	in:	1. the	sustainability	features	of	the	building;	2. campus-wide	initiatives	to	reduce	water	and	energy	usage	and	waste	production;	and	 	3. campus-wide	social	behavioural	changes. Objectives	of	Project		• Identify	best	practices	in	operations	and	dashboard	programming,	social	marketing	strategies	and	sustainable	behavior	change	• Develop	suitable	and	sustainable	programming	for	the	energy	dashboard	interface	• Develop	materials	for	dashboard	interface	(design	and	layout)	• Develop	a	viable	action	plan	to	put	forward	to	the	AMS	for	approval,	based	on	resources	the	AMS	will	have	access	to As	the	project	progressed,	key	stakeholders	requested	that	the	project	to	be	more	focused	on	the	design	and	functionality	of	the	dashboard	and	less	on	the	dashboard	content.		Collyn	Chan	6	 Background:	Building	Management	Systems		In	recent	years,	environmental	sustainability	has	become	an	increasingly	prominent	element	of	the	construction	industry.	Sustainability	has	been	embedded	by	the	AMS	into	the	New	SUB	Project	from	the	beginning.	This	manifests	in,	among	other	initiatives,	the	goal	to	achieve	LEED	(Leadership	in	Energy	and	Environmental	Design)	Platinum+	status,	the	highest	green	building	rating,	and	implementing	both	operational	and	social	sustainability	measures	for	design,	construction,	operation	and	decommissioning	of	the	building	as	stated	in	the	New	SUB	Sustainability	Charter	(Alma	Mater	Society	of	UBC,	2011).	As	laid	out	by	LEED	requirements	in	the	“Energy	and	Atmosphere”	category,	green	building	construction	aims	to	achieve	greater	energy	efficiency	(United	States	Green	Building	Council,	2013).	One	method	of	achieving	these	goals	is	to	employ	an	automated	control	system	(Cooperman,	Dieckmann,	&	Brodrick,	2012)	–	a	building	management	system	(BMS).	An	automated	building	management	system	gathers	data	from	various	meters	in	the	building	during	its	operation	and	responds	to	reduce	energy	usage	and	waste	production	as	well	as	increase	energy	efficiency.	In	addition	to	controlling	lighting,	temperature	and	energy	consumption	(Cooperman,	Dieckmann,	&	Brodrick,	2012;	Johnson	Controls,	2014;	Schneider	Electric,	2014),	BMS	systems	can	also	track	trends	over	time.	Metrics	to	be	tracked	in	the	New	Student	Union	Building	include:	• Rain	water	catchment	• Water	usage	• Electricity	usage	• Natural	gas	usage	• Solar	electricity	generation	Collyn Chan 7  • Thermal	comfort	• Carbon	dioxide	levels	(determining	indoor	air	quality)	(Michael	Kingsmill,	personal	communication	on	March	21,	2014)	The	New	SUB	will	feature	projects	implemented	by	previous	Social	Ecological	Economic	Development	Studies	(SEEDS)	students	and	AMS	staff.	These	include	a	single	scale	that	measures	building	waste	from	four	streams	(compostable	materials	destined	for	UBC's	in-vessel	composter,	recyclable	plastics,	recyclable	paper,	solid	waste)	implementing	a	campus-wide	reusable	container	program	(Eco-to-Go)	and	an	in-house	biodigester.	Due	to	these	unique	features,	the	AMS	has	stipulated	that	several	operational	metrics	must	be	monitored:	• “Green	Discount”	given	to	those	who	bring	their	own	containers	• Eco-to-Go	program	container	purchases	• Data	collected	from	four	waste	streams	leaving	the	building	measured	in	kg	 	• Compostable	materials	diverted	to	in-house	biodigester	measured	in	kg	Methodology	This	report	is	based	on	a	literature	review	sourced	from	peer-reviewed	sources	as	well	as	publications	from	industry	professionals.	In	addition,	I	interviewed	various	stakeholders	including	AMS	Designer	Michael	Kingsmill,	UBC	Campus	Sustainability	Climate	and	Energy	Engineer	Lillian	Zaremba,	UBC	Digital	Information	Channels	Communications	Coordinator	Jamil	Rhajiak	and	UBC	Land	and	Food	Systems	Multimedia	Developer	Duncan	McHugh	in	order	to	gain	insight	on	the	current	technologies,	strategies	and	limitations	of	similar	projects	on	campus.		 	Collyn	Chan	8	 Providing	information	is	not	enough	to	change	behaviour		Trends	and	analyses	produced	by	BMS	systems	are	fed	into	interactive	dashboards	that	allow	users	of	the	building	to	“view	current	and	historical	real-time	energy	consumption/production	data”	(Lucid	Design,	2012).	This	system	can	be	applied	to	achieve	LEED's	Occupant	Engagement	and	Behaviour	Change	credit.	The	credit	is	earned	through	three	components:	providing	consumption	feedback	to	building	occupants;	empowering	occupants	with	data	through	engagement	activities,	and	monitoring	the	data	to	observe	the	performance	of	occupant	behaviour	change	(USGBC,	2014).	Industry	dashboard	software	(Lucid	Design,	Pulse	Energy,	Schneider	Electric,	Honeywell,	et	cetera)	provide	platforms	for	feedback	to	users	regarding	their	utility	consumption.	In	“Curiosity	to	cupboard:	Self	reported	disengagement	with	energy	use	feedback	over	time,”	Snow	et	al.	(2013)	note	that	although	there	is	widespread	evidence	that	eco-feedback	provides	positive	behavioural	reactions,	the	effectiveness	of	feedback	devices	differ	over	time.	In	their	study,	Snow	et	al.	(2013)	interviewed	users	of	a	simple	feedback	device	that	displayed	their	energy	consumption	and	indicated	when	consumption	was	higher	than	average.	Although	participants	that	owned	feedback	devices	had	all	initially	been	interested,	many	noted	that	the	device	“failed	to	maintain	[their]	interests”	over	time,	in	particular	because	these	devices	did	not	provide	users	with	new	information.	Secondly,	the	study	states	that	although	these	devices	informed	users	about	their	energy	consumption	and	users	were	indeed	motivated	to	perform	actions	to	save	money,	the	devices	“failed	to	motivate	pro-environmental	behaviour”	(Snow	et	al,	2013).	In	other	words,	users	did	not	perform	the	requisite	energy	saving	actions	to	achieve	those	goals	despite	an	incentive	to	do	so.	Similarly,	in	“Making	energy	visible:	A	qualitative	field	study	of	how	householders	interact	with	feedback	from	smart	energy	monitors,”	Hargreaves	et	Collyn Chan 9  al.	(2010)	compared	user	engagement	with	three	different	types	of	devices	over	time.	Their	study	found	that,	overall,	the	“least	common	behaviour	effect”	was	motivating	changes	to	consumption	in	other	areas	of	their	own	life,	or	encouraging	others	to	reduce	their	energy	consumption	(Hargreaves	et	al,	2010).	This	suggests	that	the	information-deficit	model	(an	assumption	where	increased	feedback	increases	awareness	or	knowledge	leads	to	changes	in	energy-use	behaviour	and	therefore	a	decrease	in	consumption)	posited	by	Wilhite	and	Ling	(1995)	may	not	actually	promote	sustainable	behaviour	changes	and	that	information	provision	may	not	be	the	determinant	that	promotes	social	behavioral	change.	 	  Collyn	Chan	10	 Findings	Designing	for	Sustainable	Behavioural	Change:	Building	Dashboards	a.	Location	and	Aesthetic	Appeal	As	identified	above,	a	key	issue	with	dashboard	and	feedback	devices	is	their	ability	to	hold	user	interest	over	time.	In	Hargreaves	et	al.	(2010),	there	were	significantly	higher	levels	of	interest	among	users	for	two	of	the	three	commercial	devices	that	were	tested	because	of	two	factors:	1)	the	company	insisted	that	the	monitor	be	placed	in	a	prominent	location	within	the	house	and	2)	the	company	devices	were	perceived	as	having	better	aesthetic	design	and	coloured	graphics.	This	is	supported	by	Snow	et	al.	(2013),	who	found	“highly	visual	and	playful”	eco-feedback	prototypes	were	well	received.”	The	findings	from	these	studies	are	supported	by	various	other	industry	reports.	The	University	of	British	Columbia’s	“Content	Guidelines	for	Digital	Signage”	(2011)	lists	“signage	screen	locations,”	“relevance	and	accessibility	of	the	information,”	and	“design	and	aesthetic	integrity”	as	criteria	for	a	clear	communications	strategy.	The	support	for	appealing	graphics	is	echoed	in	other	studies	such	as	Tractinsky	et	al.’s	“What	is	beautiful	is	usable”	(2000).	Their	findings	indicate	that	there	is	a	strong	relationship	between	initial	user	“perceptions	of	interface	aesthetics	and	their	perceptions	of	the	system’s	usability.”	This	is	supported	by	research	in	social	psychology	and	consumer	behaviour	that	suggest,	“a	design’s	aesthetics	may	improve	users’	mood	and	their	overall	evaluations	of	the	system”	(Tractinsky	et	al.,	2000).	Therefore,	current	graphic	and	web	design	trends	should	be	incorporated	into	the	dashboard’s	design.	This	will	increase	the	perceived	usefulness	of	the	dashboard	and	ensure	a	higher	probability	of	engagement	by	building	users.	b.	User	Experience:	Compelling,	Compact,	Guided	Content	 		Collyn Chan 11  A	dashboard	designed	with	an	objective	of	user	engagement	must	use	the	interface	and	information	presented	to	stay	“relevant	to	different	users”	(Juice	Analytics,	2009).	This	begins	with	controlling	how	“compelling	content”	(	(Shneiderman,	2004)	is	accessed	by	users.	Marketing	studies	and	UX	(user-experience)	design	professionals	state	that	data	should	reveal	first	the	information	that	“deserves	attention”	and	is	the	most	important	for	all	users	to	understand	(Juice	Analytics,	2009;	Patterntry,	2010;	McKenzie-Mohr,	2000).	Information	should	by	grouped	into	clear	and	concise	portions	that	can	be	“gradually	revealed”	to	display	greater	detail	(Juice	Analytics,	2009).	Visual	cues	and	prompts	should	“guide”	the	user	to	explore	the	more	detailed	information	that	is	selected	by	building	staff.	These	user-experience	methods	are	in	line	with	research	that	supports	digital	storytelling	(use	of	visuals,	photography	and	text)	as	a	tool	for	engaging	a	broad	range	of	audiences,	particularly	students	(Sadik,	2008;	Barrett,	2007).	 	 	 	 	 	 (Adapted	from	Juice	Analytics,	2009)		Collyn	Chan	12	 User-experience	considerations:	• Location	of	attention	(top	left	is	most	observed)	• Grids	• White	space	• Colour	theory	(the	meanings	behind	colours;	colours	appropriate	for	displaying	data)	• Typography	• Chart	type		c)	Peer	Network:	Competition,	Cooperation	Several	studies	have	shown	that	more	energy	is	conserved	more	greatly	when	feedback	devices	compare	an	individual’s	consumption	with	that	of	their	peers	or	the	average	consumer.	In	Snow	et	al.	(2013),	the	ability	to	compare	energy	consumption	with	those	of	similar	age	or	families	of	similar	size	was	noted	as	a	desirable	function.	This	is	supported	by	Chen	et	al.’s	(2012)	study,	“Modeling	building	occupant	network	energy	consumption	decision-making:	The	interplay	between	network	structure	and	conservation”	where	they	note	that	in	“tighter	[...	and]	denser	networks,”	the	sharing	of	peer	energy	consumption	data	can	“improve	energy	saving	behaviour”	(2011).	Hargreaves	et	al.	(2010)	echo	this	in	their	study,	where	they	found	that	energy	consumption	is	a	“social	and	collective	[...]	process.”	However,	household	dashboards	can	promote	both	senses	of	“empowerment	or	disempowerment,”	when	individuals	discuss	energy	reduction	strategies	with	household	members	or	when	results	invoke	feelings	of	“anxiety	and	even	guilt.”	The	sharing	of	peer	networks	may	not	result	in	significant	energy	use	reduction.	Snow	et	al.	(2013)	notes	that	the	effect	of	peer	sharing	is	polarizing–some	desire	the	comparison	while	others	do	not.	Existing	energy	dashboards	compare	campus	buildings	to	one	another.	For	example,	UBC’s	Pulse	Energy	Dashboard	(2014)	can	compare	statistics	between	Collyn Chan 13  residences.	However,	comparison	to	other	buildings	may	not	accurately	reflect	the	meaning	of	“peer”	in	a	social	community	that	is	unique	to	a	building	such	as	the	New	SUB.	It	is	neither	a	residence	nor	an	academic	building.	This	report	will	later	discuss	how	the	dashboard	should	utilize	the	meaning	of	“peer”	within	the	New	SUB	as	a	means	to	cultivate	behavioural	change	while	utilizing	the	energy	dashboard.		d)	Calls	to	Action	“I	probably	used	it	more	when	we	first	got	it	[...	but	then]	you	develop	habits	to	switch	things	off	and	keep	the	lights	off–and	then	you	don’t	need	to	look	at	it	so	much”	 	(Participant	feedback,	Hargreaves	et	al.,	2010).	Most	user	interactions	with	an	energy	dashboard	tend	to	follow	a	pattern:	at	first	exposure,	users	are	more	willing	to	change	their	behaviour	as	prompted.	However,	as	illustrated	in	the	feedback	quoted	above,	users	lose	interest	in	performing	positive	behaviours	as	time	moves	on	(Snow	et	al.,	2013).	Due	to	the	nature	of	the	New	SUB,	frequent	user	turnover	will	ensure	there	will	likely	always	be	many	individuals	in	“discovery”	phase,	but	likely	many	more	in	the	“maintenance”	phase,	so	strategies	in	communication	must	appeal	to	this	second	type.	Similarly,	McKenzie-Mohr's	(2000)	“Quick	Reference:	Community	Based	Social	Marketing”	notes	that	humans	tend	to	forget	to	take	actions	that	“support	sustainability”	and	that	“prompts”	are	effective	aids	to	incite	sustainable	actions.	In	dashboard	design,	Juice	Analytics	(2009)	states	that	dashboards	must	answer	the	question	“what	do	I	do	with	this	information?”	and	therefore,	should	display	“actionable	information.”	Criteria	for	clear	call	to	actions	include:	• Noticeable	prompts,	“visually	prominent”	• Self-explanatory,	common	interpretation	Collyn	Chan	14	 • Presented	close	to	where	the	action	is	to	be	taken	(McKenzie-Mohr,	2000;	Juice	Analytics,	2009)	Discussion		The	AMS	hopes	to	improve	energy	efficient	behaviours	in	addition	to	other	sustainable	behaviours,	such	as	improving	waste	diversion,	lowering	sales	of	bottled	water,	and	encouraging	use	of	public	transportation.	When	it	comes	to	sustainable	actions,	studies	have	shown	that	even	though	an	individual	may	agree	that	environmental	sustainability	is	important,	these	opinions	do	not	necessarily	lead	to	sustainable	actions	(Cross	et	al,	2010;	Owens	and	Driffill,	2008;	Simcock	et	al,	2013).	What	these	studies	point	out	is	that	providing	information	or	changing	attitude	cannot	guarantee	sustainable	behaviour	change.	So	what	can	change	behaviour?	Designing	for	Sustainable	Behaviour	Change:	fostering	a	culture	of	sustainable	behaviour	 Community-based	social	marketing	shows	that	clearly	communicated	and	tangible	actions	will	increase	the	likelihood	of	positive	behaviour	being	adopted	(McKenzie-Mohr,	2000).	However,	the	most	effective	interventions	for	behaviours	“involve	combinations	of	mass-media	messages,	household-	and	behavior-specific	information,	and	communication	through	individuals'	social	networks	and	communities”	(Dietz	et	al,	2009;	McKenzie-Mohr,	2000).	The	role	of	an	energy	dashboard	is	merely	a	tool	of	communication	that	provides	information.	The	interface	may	use	the	most	effective	strategies,	but	without	combining	it	with	strategies	that	engage	the	social	environment	it	is	embedded	in,	the	dashboard	alone	will	not	achieve	the	AMS's	goals	for	Collyn Chan 15  sustainable	behavioural	changes	in	the	long-term.	Sustainable	behaviour	change	can	manifest	within	a	building	when	effective	communication	is	combined	with	social	engagement.	Substantial	research	in	social	science	and	behaviour	change	agrees	that	“the	actions	of	individuals	are	powerfully	shaped	by	the	observations	of	others”	(Markowitz	&	Shariff,	2012).	Social	norms	play	an	important	role	in	shaping	how	new	and	regular	users	behave	within	a	community.	In	a	study	of	UBC’s	Centre	of	Interactive	Research	on	Sustainability	(CIRS)	and	the	effectiveness	of	the	building's	design	on	food	disposal,	Wu	et	al.	(2013)	found	that	the	environmental	focus	of	CIRS	"leads	both	to	feeling	and	behaving	in	a	more	environmentally	conscious	manner."	This	idea	is	supported	by	other	studies	which	have	shown	that	setting	behavioural	expectations	within	a	community	motivates	positive	behaviour	changes	(Markowitz	and	Shariff,	2012;	McKenzie-Mohr,	2000;	Cross	et	al,	2010).	In	Schelly	et	al.'s	(2011)	“Reducing	Energy	Consumption	and	Creating	a	Conservation	Culture	in	Organizations:	A	Case	Study	of	One	Public	School	District”,	energy	conservation	success	at	Rocky	Mountain	High	School	was	attributed	in	part	to	"feeling	like	their	efforts	make	a	difference"	and	"having	the	opportunity	for	responsibility	and	decision-making."	 	To	ensure	sustainable	behaviour	changes	in	its	student	users,	the	New	SUB	must	foster	the	creation	of	a	community	where	sustainable	behaviours	are	social	norms.	The	building	is	a	place	where	users	should	feel	ownership,	expectation,	and	responsibility	over	conservation	initiatives.	To	achieve	their	objectives	targeting	behaviour	change,	the	AMS	must	design	social	initiatives	and	programs	within	the	building	to	create	a	culture	of	acting	sustainably.	Once	in	place,	trends	that	are	observed	through	the	building	monitoring	system	can	then	be	used	as	a	means	of	tracking	the	effectiveness	of	social	initiatives	within	the	building.	 	 Collyn	Chan	16	 Flexibility	and	personalization	within	the	system	built		In	designing	the	building	dashboard,	the	criteria	mentioned	above	imply	the	need	for	flexibility.	Aesthetic	appeal,	selective	content	and	clear	calls	to	action	will	change	over	time	to	suit	the	trends	observed.	The	dashboard	must	be	designed	to	accommodate	change	and	be	easy	enough	for	AMS	staff	to	customize	content	and	content	design	on	a	regular	basis.	 	 Dashboard	project	is	a	living	lab	There	is	currently	a	lack	of	studies	conducted	about	green	buildings	as	unique	as	the	New	SUB.	Studies	have	focused	mostly	on	private	households,	student	residences,	or	buildings	that	see	little	turnover	in	audience.	The	New	SUB	will	be	a	lively,	ever-changing	environment	that	will	experience	large	changes	in	users	throughout	the	useful	life	of	the	building	as	well	as	through	the	summer	and	winter	terms.	As	such,	the	building	dashboard	and	requisite	social	programming	should	be	treated	as	a	living	laboratory	to	test	new	strategies	that	target	user	behaviour.	This	is	also	an	opportunity	for	the	AMS	to	provide	on-going	student-led	opportunities.	Disciplines	that	could	conduct	studies	related	to	the	dashboard	include	marketing,	communications,	psychology,	land	and	food	systems,	computer	science	and	engineering.	 		 	Collyn Chan 17  Recommendations		1) A	well-established	company	should	be	contracted	to	develop	the	building	monitoring	system.	The	AMS	should	stipulate	that	the	company	partner	with	computer	science	students	to	develop	the	energy	dashboard	interface	Traditionally,	the	company	that	would	implement	that	building	monitoring	system	would	also	create	the	user-end	dashboard	using	their	own	software.	Meters	on	the	building	will	send	data	to	the	campus-wide	server	(ION),	which	will	store	the	data	from	all	buildings	on	campus	(from	here,	the	AMS	can	consider	backing	up	this	data	on	their	own	servers).	The	data	from	this	server	has	two	destinations:	the	building	management	system	and	the	building	dashboard.	In	a	discussion	with	Jamil	Rhajiak,	Communications	Coordinator	with	UBC's	Digital	Information	Channels,	it	was	recommended	that	the	AMS	consider	creating	a	website	to	host	the	energy	dashboard.	A	website	can	be	accessible	via	computer,	tablet	or	mobile	phone	and	should	be	easily	connected	to	screens	that	would	be	located	in	the	New	SUB.	If	created	by	a	student,	the	AMS	could	retain	the	code	year-after-year	and	be	able	to	change	and	improve	upon	the	methods	used	to	communicate	with	building	users.	Student	written	code	would	provide	an	opportunity	for	student	contributions	to	the	AMS,	as	well	as	reduce	costs	to	the	society.	If	the	company	were	to	write	the	code,	the	AMS	will	likely	have	to	pay	annual	fees	to	retain	their	services	and	pay	additional	lump	sums	to	change	the	code.	I	recommend	a	combination	between	the	BMS	provider	and	the	student	programmer.	The	BMS	provider,	which	will	already	have	expertise	in	developing	management	systems,	can	implement	their	existing	software	that	controls	the	energy	usages	in	the	building	–	a	feat	that	might	be	outside	the	capability	of	a	student	programmer.	 	Collyn	Chan	18	 2)	Consider	creating	a	student	staff	position	for	the	behaviour	interventions	required	within	the	building Given	that	the	dashboard	and	social	interventions	will	require	regular	updates	to	its	design,	calls	to	action	and	selected	content,	the	creation	of	a	staff	position	in	charge	of	monitoring	and	updating	the	dashboard	is	recommended.	 	3)	Sample	layouts	of	suggested	actions	implemented:	Below	are	layouts	of	the	potential	web	interface	that	I	have	created	using	Adobe	InDesign.	They	incorporate	the	findings	outlined	in	this	report.	Larger	versions	can	be	seen	in	Appendix	III.	Seen	below:	 	Sample	Layout	1	(top)	and	2	(bottom)—Front	Pages	 	 Collyn Chan 19  Seen	below:	Sample	Layout	3	(top)	—	Detailed	Metrics	and	Social	Media	 	Sample	4	(bottom)	—	Community	Calls	to	Action	 Sample	Layouts	1-4	are	possible	designs	for	the	dashboard	interface.	It	is	a	web	layout,	accessible	on	multiple	platforms.	The	home	page	(Samples	1	and	2)	states	a	key	metric	that	can	be	rotated	so	that	each	refresh	brings	up	one	of	three	to	four	key	metrics	for	the	week.	Clicking	the	page	slides	the	module	right.	This	slide	reveals	more	detail	about	the	metric	(see	Sample	Layout	3).	In	Sample	3,	there	is	a	social	cue	that	can	encourage	students	to	share	this	metric	via	social	media	platforms.	Clicking	on	the	page	slides	to	reveal	Sample	4,	where	there	are	calls	to	Collyn	Chan	20	 action	connected	to	a	community	goal.	Here,	it	invites	users	to	learn	more,	give	feedback	on	the	dashboard	system	or	explore	other	parts	of	the	website.	 	There	is	a	navigation	panel	on	top	of	all	pages.	The	“Happening	Now”	tab	lays	the	other	three	to	four	key	metrics	in	the	system	that	can	be	explored.	Under	“Take	Action”,	there	should	be	calls	to	action	that	can	be	taken	immediately	within	the	building.	“Goals	and	Initiatives”	connects	users	with	the	goals,	initiatives	and	history	of	AMS	Sustainability	in	the	New	SUB.	“Historical	Data”	would	allow	students	to	access	all	data	available	from	the	server	that	is	tracked	but	not	highlighted	for	the	week.	The	“You”	section	connects	users	with	on	campus	resources	regarding	sustainability.	4)	Suggested	Timeline:	Month	 Tasks	January	–	March	2015	 Contact	BMS	providers	with	proposed	course	of	action,	identify/recruit	a	Computer	Science	course	and	student	April	2015	–	July	2015	 Building	opens,	BMS	begins	tracking	metrics,	dashboard	website	will	be	in	development	July	to	August	2015	 Website	troubleshooting,	enough	data	will	have	accumulated	in	order	to	display	meaningful	selective	data	September	2015	or	January	2016	 Dashboard	user-end	will	come	online	in	the	building								Collyn Chan 21  Appendices	I. Establishing	a	culture	of	acting	sustainably:	sample	actions	 		This	is	a	compiled	list	of	successful	actions	drawn	from	studies	mentioned	in	the	report.	They	are	purposely	framed	in	the	context	of	the	New	SUB.	Criteria	 Sample	actions	Set	Behavourial	Expectations	 • Marketing	the	building	as	a	hub	of	sustainability,	include	this	language	in	all	descriptions	of	the	building	• Set	sustainability	as	an	expected	course	of	action	• Permeate	building	with	clear,	actionable	expectations	(such	as	achievements	monitored	by	the	BMS	system,	occupants	using	reusable	containers,	etc).	Create	Social	Norms	 • Regularly	demonstrate	that	peers	are	performing	sustainable	actions	(ex.	play	videos/ads	on	digital	signage	 	 to	promote	positive	behaviours)	• Use	highly	regarded	individuals	such	as	the	UBC	mascot	• Communicate	how	well	peers	within	the	building	are	performing	sustainable	actions	(ex.	"Today,	Blue	Chip	customers	saved	40lbs	of	paper	cups	from	the	landfill!	Remember	to	bring	your	own	cup")	Efficacy,	responsibility	 • Include	users	in	decision	making	processes.	ex.	“We	used	5%	less	energy	this	month	compared	to	previous	weeks,	saving	$20.	Where	should	that	money	go?	Vote	now.)	 		• Note:	the	vote	would	take	place	on	the	dashboard	website	and	should	be	multiple	choice.	The	choices	should	contribute	back	to	sustainability	initiatives	in	the	building	such	as	purchasing	more	equipment	for	the	rooftop	garden.					Collyn	Chan	22	 II. Existing	Energy	Dashboards	versus	Proposed	Dashboard		This	is	a	comparison	between	two	energy	dashboards	common	in	post-secondary	institutions	compared	to	the	proposed	energy	dashboard.	They	were	evaluated	on	the	criteria	identified	in	the	report.	Criteria	 UBC	Pulse	Energy	Dashboard	(Pulse	Energy,	2014)	Oberlin	College	Lucid	Design	Dashboard	(Lucid	Design,	2014)	Proposed	 Recommendations	Aesthetic	Appeal	• Figure	I	(below)	• Not	eye-catching	• Graphs	are	lackluster,	though	clear	• Figure	II	(below)	• Pleasing	colours	and	fonts	• Large	visual	is	eye-catching	• Sample	Layout	1	and	Sample	Layout	2	• Eye	catching	visuals	• Modern/trendy	colours	• Ensure	recent	design	trends	are	reflected	in	dashboard	display		Guided	Content	 • There	isn’t	a	clear	hierarchy	of	information	• Does	answer	the	question	of	“why	is	this	important”	by	comparing	the	energy	use	to	a	comprehendible	scale	(household	energy)	• Too	much	data	upfront,	distracts	from	the	message	• Detailed	content	is	available	• There	is	a	hierarchy	of	information	• Does	not	place	the	importance	of	this	information	front	and	centre	• Too	much	data	upfront,	distracts	from	the	message	• Detailed	content	is	available	• Most	important	information	is	displayed	first	• Detail	is	revealed	in	the	process	• Detailed	content	is	available	• Content	is	revealed,	guided	• Most	important	information	is	revealed	first	 	• At	first	glance,	important	information	is	digestible	(easy	to	understand)	Peer	Networks	 • Compares	data	to	other	buildings	on	campus	• Compares	data	to	other	buildings	on	campus	• Data	is	fed	to	central	server	and	can	be	compared	to	other	buildings	• Comparisons	are	drawn	to	actions	of	peers	within	the	building	• Emphasize	the	sustainable	actions	of	peers	and	leaders	within	the	building	and	community	(staff,	students,	mascots,	et	cetera)		Collyn Chan 23  Criteria	 UBC	Pulse	Energy	Dashboard	(Pulse	Energy,	2014)	Oberlin	College	Lucid	Design	Dashboard	(Lucid	Design,	2014)	Proposed	 Recommendations	Calls	to	Action	 • No	clear	call	to	action	• No	clear	call	to	action	• Call	to	action	follows	the	relevant	data	• Actions	can	be	performed	within	the	building	or	on	campus	• Actions	are	easy	to	understand	• Easily	understandable	call	to	action	that	can	be	performed	immediately			Flexibility/Accessibility	from	other	platforms	• Company	is	somewhat	flexible	with	customizing	the	dashboard	• Dashboard	uses	Flash,	which	cannot	be	enabled	on	many	phones	and	tablets	• The	company	is	inflexible	on	the	design	of	the	dashboard.	All	dashboards	have	the	same	design.	• Dashboard	uses	Flash,	which	cannot	be	enabled	on	many	phones	and	tablets	• Dashboard	is	slow	to	load	• If	the	AMS	holds	ownership	over	a	website’s	coding,	it	can	be	modified	when	needed	• Websites	can	be	more	easily	accessed	by	phones	and	tablets	when	designed	without	Flash		• Ability	to	program	appropriate	messaging	is	key			Collyn	Chan	24	 Figure	I.		 (UBC	Pulse	Energy	Dashboard,	retrieved	on	November	19,	2014)											Collyn Chan 25  Figure	II.		(Oberlin	College	Lucid	Energy	Dashboard,	retrieved	on	November	9,	2014)		III. Larger	Sample	Layouts		See	below.													THIS WEEK: TOGETHER WE DIVERTED OF WASTE FROM LANDFILLS.20% HAPPENING NOW TAKE ACTION! GOALS AND INITIATIVES HISTORICAL DATA YOUHAPPENING NOW TAKE ACTION! GOALS AND INITIATIVES HISTORICAL DATA YOUTHIS WEEK: OUR ENERGY USE IS 3% HIGHER7% HIGHERTHAN LAST WEEKSAME TIME LAST MONTHHAPPENING NOW TAKE ACTION! GOALS AND INITIATIVES HISTORICAL DATA YOUHAPPENING NOW TAKE ACTION! GOALS AND INITIATIVES HISTORICAL DATA YOUSAVE $1100 IN TIPPING FEES (FEES TO TAKE AWAY GARBAGE)SAVE 130.9 YEARS IN LANDFILL@NYANCAT123: EVERY BIT COUNTS! #UBC STUDENTS DIVERTED 590KG OF WASTE FROM LANDFILLS THIS WEEK! #BESTNEST #SUSTAINABILITYSUSTAINABILITY TARGET: REDUCE AVERAGE MONTHLY WASTE BY 10% EACH YEAR.zSORT IT OUT [LINK]PESKY COFFEE LIDS AND CUPS GO IN RECYCLABLES. SLEEVES IN PAPER RECYLING.zSHARE WITH FRIENDS [SOCIAL]zLEARN MORE [LINK]CONFUSED? QUESTIONS?THIS DASHBOARD IS PART OF AMS SUSTAINABILITY’S LIVING LAB. LET US KNOW WHAT LEFT YOU ASKING MORE QUESTIONS AND WHAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO SEE!  TOGETHER, WE’RE CREATING A LIVING DOCUMENT ON SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL CHANGE.Collyn	Chan	26	 	Works	Cited	Alma	Mater	Society	of	UBC.	(2011).	New	Student	Union	Building	Sustainability	Charter.	Barrett,	H.	C.	(2007).	Researching	electronic	portfolios	and	learner	engagement:	The	REFLECT	initiative.	Journal	of	Adolescent	&	Adult	Literacy,	436-449.	Chen,	J.,	Taylor,	J.	E.,	&	Wei,	H.	H.	(2012).	Modeling	building	occupant	network	energy	consumption	decision-making:	The	interplay	between	network	structure	and	conservation.	Energy	and	Buildings,	47,	515-524.	Cooperman,	A.,	Dieckmann,	J.,	&	Brodrick,	J.	(2012).	Control	Systems	&	LEED.	ASHRAE,	96-99.	Cross,	J.,	Byrne,	Z.,	&	Lueck,	M.	(2010).	Organizational	Innovation	for	Energy	Conservation.	Colorado	State	University.	Retrieved	from	Dietz,	T.,	Gardner,	G.	T.,	Gilligan,	J.,	Stern,	P.	C.,	&	Vandenbergh,	M.	P.	(2009).	Household	actions	can	provide	a	behavioral	wedge	to	rapidly	reduce	US	carbon	emissions	.	Proceedings	of	the	National	Academy	of	Sciences.	Hargreaves,	T.,	Nye,	M.,	&	Burgess,	J.	(2010).	Making	energy	visible:	A	qualitative	field	study	of	how	householders	interact	with	feedback	from	smart	energy	monitors.	Energy	Policy.	Johnson	Controls.	(2014).	Building	Efficiency.	Retrieved	from	Johnson	Controls:	Juice	Analytics.	(2009).	A	Guide	to	Creating	Dashboards	People	Love	to	Use.	Retrieved	from	Lucid	Design.	(2014).	Oberlin	Energy	Dashboard.	Retrieved	from	Markowitz,	E.	M.,	&	Shariff,	A.	F.	(2012).	Climate	change	and	moral	judgement.	Nature	Climate	Change,	243-247.	McKenzie-Mohr,	D.	(2000).	Quick	Reference:	Community	Based	Social	Marketing.	Retrieved	from	Owens,	S.,	&	Driffill,	L.	(2008).	How	to	Change	Attitudes	and	Behaviours	in	the	Context	of	Energy.	Energy	Policy,	4412-4418.	Patternry.	(2010).	Information	Dashboard.	Retrieved	from	Patternry:	Pulse	Energy.	(2014).	UBC	Energy	Dashboard.	Retrieved	from	Pulse	Energy:	Collyn Chan 27  Sadik,	A.	(2008).	Digital	storytelling:	A	meaningful	technology-integrated	approach	for	engaged	student	learning.	Educational	technology	research	and	development,	487-506.	Schelly,	C.,	Cross,	J.,	Franzen,	W.,	Hall,	P.,	&	Reeve,	S.	(2011).	Reducing	Energy	Consumption	and	Creating	a	Conservation	Culture	in	Organizations:	A	Case	Study	of	One	Public	School	District.	Environment	and	Behaviour,	316-343.	Schelly,	C.,	Cross,	J.,	Franzen,	W.,	Hall,	P.,	&	Reeve,	S.	(2012).	How	to	Go	Green:	Creating	a	Conservation	Culture	in	a	Public	High	School	Through	Education,	Modeling,	and	Communication.	Journal	of	Environmental	Education.	Schneider	Electric.	(2014).	Building	Management	Systems.	Retrieved	from	Schneider	Electric:	Shneiderman,	B.	(2004).	Designing	for	fun:	how	can	we	design	user	interfaces	to	be	more	fun?	interactions,	48-50.	Simcock,	N.	M.,	Catney,	P.,	Dobson,	A.,	Ormerod,	M.,	Robinson,	Z.,	Ross,	S.,	.	.	.	Hall,	S.	M.	(2013).	Factors	influencing	perceptions	of	domestic	energy	information:	Content,	source	and	process.	Energy	Policy.	Snow,	S.,	Buys,	L.,	Roe,	P.,	&	Brereton,	M.	(2013).	Curiosity	to	cupboard:	self	reported	disengagement	with	energy	use	feedback	over	time.	25th	Australian	Computer-Human	Interaction	Conference:	Augmentation,	Application,	Innovation,	Collaboration.	ACM.	Tractinsky,	N.,	Katz,	A.,	&	&	Ikar,	D.	(2000).	What	is	beautiful	is	usable.	Interacting	with	compouters.	United	States	Green	Building	Council.	(2013).	LEED.	Retrieved	from	University	of	British	Columbia.	(2011).	Content	Guidelines	for	Digital	Signage.	Retrieved	from	UBC	Digital	Signage:	Wilhite,	H.,	&	Ling,	R.	(1995).	Measured	energy	savings	from	a	more	informative	energy	bill.	Energy	and	buildings.	Wu,	D.,	DiGiacomo,	A.,	&	Kingstone,	A.	(2013).	A	Sustainable	Building	Promotes	Pro-Environmental	Behavior:	An	Observational	Study	on	Food	Disposal.	PLOS	one.	Retrieved	from		 


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