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Marketing Plan Report : the UBC Free Store Carten, Jacquie; Hawley, Alex; McEachran, Patrick; Smith, Mark; Wang, Amber Xiyi 2016-04-11

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportAlex Hawley, Amber Xiyi Wang, Jacquie Carten, Mark Smith, Patrick McEachranMarketing Plan for the UBC Free StoreCOMM 468April 11, 2016University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.1TABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3COMPANY OVERVIEW 4SITUATION ANALYSIS 4Industry Definition 4Industry Analysis 4Aggregate Market Factors 4Category Factors: Porter’s Five Forces 5Environmental Factors 7Company Analysis 8Current Objectives 8Current Positioning and Marketing Mix Strategies 8Vision and Resources 9Key Success Factors 9Customer Analysis 10Primary Research Methodology 10Primary Research Hypothesis 10Demographic Segmentation 15Social Media Segmentation 15Trends 15Free Store Consumer Segments 15Competitive Analysis 18Overview 18Planning Assumptions 20SWOT 20GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 21Overall Goal 21SMART Objectives 21CORE STRATEGY 22Recommended Target Markets 22Recommended Positioning 24MARKETING STRATEGIES 24SMART Objective 1 24Strategy 1.1 Develop Processes to Keep Track of Inventory 24Tactic 1.1.1 Create a Website and App to Track Inventory 25Tactic 1.1.2 Implement a Points Reward System 25Tactic 1.1.3 Implement Hours of Operation Staffing 26Tactic 1.1.4 increase Volunteer Base and Paid Employee 26Strategy 1.2 Spread Mission and Attract Donors 27Tactic 1.2.1 Social Media Calendar 27Tactic 1.2.2 Partner with Environmental Leaders 27Tactic 1.2.3 Ads in Newsletters 272Strategy 1.3 Convenient Donations 27Tactic 1.3.1 Donation Bins 27Tactic 1.3.2 Pick Up Services 28Strategy 1.4 Partner with Local Junk Removal 28Tactic 1.4.1 Allow 1[800[got[junk to Make Donations 28SMART Objective 2 29Strategy 2.1 Strengthen Online Presence 29Tactic 2.1.1 Community Engagement on Social Media 29Tactic 2.1.2 Social Media Contests 29Strategy 2.2 Seasonal Print Campaigns 30Tactic 2.2.1 Target September Move In 30Strategy 2.3 More Appealing Store Atmosphere 31Tactic 2.3.1 Create a Brighter Atmosphere 31Tactic 2.3.2 Improve Aesthetics with Wall Artwork 31Tactic 2.3.3 Create Permanent Storage 31SMART Objective 3 31Strategy 3.1 Repair and Repurpose 31Tactic 3.1.1 Co[Host event with the Sewing Club 32Strategy 3.2 Recycle Everything Else 32Tactic 3.2.1 Locate Recycling Facilities 33Tactic 3.2.2 Recirculate Unwanted Books 33Timeline for Implementation 33Phase 1 33Phase 2 34Phase 3 34BUDGETS 34SMART Objective 1 35SMART Objective 2 35SMART Objective 3 36MONITORS AND CONTROLS 36SMART Objective 1 36SMART Objective 2 37SMART Objective 3 37APPENDICES 383EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe UBC Free Store (UBC FS) is a student volunteer initiative that operates in a permanentlocation in the basement of the old UBC Student Union Building. The UBC FS S exists tochallenge the status quo of a consumerism[based economy. Their key objective is topromote an ethic that is rooted in sustainable and environmentally friendly activities. Theydo this by creating a pathway for unwanted goods to re[circulate, find a new use andowner, and avoid the landfill. The UBC FS organizers wish to enable and normalize thecircular[economy on UBC campus.Currently, the UBC FS is striving to become an established and recognized component ofthe UBC economy. It takes in donations, which are then made available to the UBCpopulation for free. This unique operating model poses a number of challenges for the UBSFS. Donations are the sole determinate of product selection and without frequent andquality donations, it is challenging for the UBS FS to gain traction. The FS’s organizers arepassionate about the environmental mission of the FS and without higher awareness andengagement; their ability to promote this mission is limited. The primary objective of theUBC FS is to increase donations. Once this is achieved, higher consumption, awareness andengagement can be addressed.Both primary and secondary research has been gathered to form the basis of thismarketing plan’s recommendations. An online survey was distributed to gain a soundunderstanding of the ways in which members of the UBC population interact with theirfavourite brands, as well as their interest in environmentally beneficial activities. Throughthis analysis, a target segment and proposed positioning statement has been developed.This plan’s recommendations are primarily directed at three core elements. Strategies andtactics have been developed in order to increase the frequency and quality of donations,increase consumption of goods from the UBC FS, and eliminate any unnecessary landfillingof waste. By achieving these three objectives, the UBC FS has the potential to become amajor hub of environmentally friendly activity and impact many individuals.The report makes some recommendations that are not free to implement; however, allsuggested activities serve a purpose in the collective goals of the UBC FS and opportunitiesto obtain funding are available. A detailed breakdown of the budgeted costs indicates thetotal cost of implementation to be $9,526. However, there are many opportunities withineach of the proposed activity to mitigate costs and this figure represents the upper boundof potential costs.An implementation plan for the recommended strategies and tactics is broken down intothree phases over the next year and monitors and controls are carefully outlined in orderto ensure that success is achievable and measurable.4COMPANY OVERVIEWThe UBC Free Store is a not[for[profit organization that maximizes the product life cycle,eliminating product waste and reducing the ecological and social implications ofconsuming new items. The UBC FS engages community to create awareness around theconsequences of societal buying behaviour to construct a more sustainable future.SITUATION ANALYSISINDUSTRY DEFINITIONThe UBC FS participates in the second hand or used goods retail industry. This industrycollects or purchases used merchandise and sells these goods directly to consumers. Theindustry includes thrift stores and pawnshops, but excludes stores that sell second handmotor vehicles and parts.The UBC FS operates a non[for[profit organization where all items are collected or donatedfor free. The inventory is then displayed in the UBC FS for customers to take for free.Currently, all items that are not picked up from the UBC FS after a given amount of time areeither recycled or landfilled. All donations and pickups are done through the UBC FSstorefront location in the bottom of the Old SUB at the University of British Columbia,Vancouver Campus. INDUSTRY ANALYSISAggregate Market FactorsINDUSTRY SIZEThrough an analysis of the Canadian used goods industry, we determined that used goodsbusiness establishments in Canada are most heavily concentrated in Ontario, BritishColumbia and Quebec. British Columbia contains an estimated 18.8 percent of the industryestablishments in Canada (IBISWorld, 2016).GROWTH RATEFrom 2011 to 2016, the used goods industry in Canada had a growth rate of 1.2 percentannually; the anticipated growth rate for the next five years is 1.1 percent (IBISWorld,2016). Growth in the used goods industry is forecasted to decline as the Canadian economyimproves over the next five years. The reason for this decline is a positive correlation5between unemployment rates and willingness to buy used goods. Therefore, improvementin the economy slows growth in the used goods industry.Industry growth is also heavily influenced by the competition of mass merchandisers whobuy in bulk and sell at a significant discount to customers. As a mature industry, thenumber of used goods organizations is expected to grow at an annual average rate of only0.5 percent over the next five years. The majority of the growth observed in this industry isfrom the expansion of for[profit used goods stores like Savers (IBISWorld, 2016). Saverscapitalize on the environmental movement and succeeded in reducing the stigma aroundbuying used goods. These types of large used goods merchandisers are anticipated to growsignificantly in the next five years.SALES CYCLICALITYThe used goods industry experiences sales cyclicality in relation to varying economiccircumstances. Per capita disposable income, the national unemployment rate and thepercentage of low[income people influence the used goods industry heavily. Bettereconomic circumstances are reflected in higher cash on hand for customers, providingindividuals with a larger variety of retail choices. With a higher disposable income, anindividual is more likely to choose a non[used good alternative. When the economy issuffering the used goods industry experiences growth; consequently, growth is highlydependent on economic circumstance. The unemployment rate in Canada is projected todecrease from the 2011 rate of 6.9 percent to a 6.4 percent unemployment rate in 2021.For this reason, the used goods industry is anticipated to stall in growth.Category Factors: Porter’s Five ForcesSUPPLIER POWER: HIGHSupplier power in the used goods industry is high. Suppliers in this industry control theinventory that circulates in used goods businesses. Supplier power is particularly high forthe UBC FS as they struggle to maintain sufficient inventory. Although suppliers’ ability todrive up price is irrelevant, the individuals donating their unwanted goods still havemultiple options of how they could choose to donate or dispose of their items giving themsubstantial power. The UBC FS has very limited restrictions on what items they will refuseto accept, therefore the only current limitations preventing suppliers are physical barriersand lack of awareness.BUYER POWER: LOWBuyer power in the second hand goods industry is low. Used goods establishments aregiven less control over inventory than traditional retail outlets and therefore the buyersability to influence the product mix is slightly limited. Furthermore, the UBC FS gives awaytheir inventory. The free aspect of the store makes it so that bargaining based on price isimpossible, which limits buyer power. The unique offerings that are usually not found in6multiples can be described as “treasure finds” and do not allow the buyers variety tosubstitute it with.COMPETITIVE RIVALRY SUPPLIER: MEDIUMThe competition for obtaining suppliers in the used goods industry is medium. TheGoodwill and Salvation Army are very established brands with strong social missions. Formany Canadians these charities are the go[to organizations for donating unwanted goods.Smaller used goods establishments need to be engaged in the community in order to beconsidered as a place to donate instead of these large and established organizations.Despite the large companies that have a strong global presence, UBC campus has very lowcompetition. While UBC Re[use It is aimed towards UBC employees for swapping furnitureand equipment between faculties, students are not involved with this organization. Foro isthe main direct competition but is profit[driven as a way for students to locally sell theirused goods. However, our primary research indicated Foro has only 7% awareness.COMPETITIVE RIVALRY BUYER: LOWThe UBC FS differs from a traditional charity that recirculates used goods to people in needand also differs from a for[profit used goods establishment. Buyer power is low for a usedgoods organization that provides goods for free. Additionally, not[for[profits in the usedgoods industry who are motivated by a social mission to reduce overall waste would notconsider competition in the traditional way of overtaking a competitor's market share. Inthe case that a used goods organization does not charge any fees for their products, buyershave no monetary negotiating power to influence prices in relation to the businessescompetitors.THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES SUPPLIER: MEDIUMThere are a high number of various organizations to donate to however, the location of theFS makes it more accessible for those living in the UBC area. The low awareness influencesdonors’ initial decision of where to donate their used goods but can easily be influenced byproviding more convenient drop off bins and through reinforcing their environmentalmission.THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES BUYER: HIGHDue to the wide selection of products available at the FS, there are various substitutes forbuyers to consume these goods. This includes regular retail outlets, second hand stores, oritems passed down from friends and family. The cost efficient selection at the FS has anadvantage among competitors should the intended product be of similar value however,the value proposition of the FS would only consider substitutes a threat if the productsought after is new.THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS: LOW7There are low start[up costs required to build a used goods exchange platform, especiallybecause of the increased mobile platform. Because the overarching goal is about reducedconsumerism, other online exchange sites still promote the mission. The limited physicalspace on campus with the development of the new SUB prevents a high threat of newentrants. The largest competitors are new retail stores who offer differentiated productswhich results in the consumer purchasing new items.Environmental FactorsSUPPLIERSThe used goods industry is unique in that the suppliers for the industry are generallyindividuals in the community. Therefore, donations depend on awareness and convenienceof an establishment’s location(s) as well as the supplier's psychographic values thatdetermine whether they would prefer to donate to a thrift store or the Salvation Army, forexample.ECONOMICThe current economic downturn is an opportunity for the used goods industry becausewhen disposable income is low the demand for the industry is higher (IBISWorld, 2016).With 20 billion of outstanding student debt in Canada, many students need to seek outcreative ways to save money in order to eventually pay back their debt. Since the beginningof the decade, college debt has been increasing and this poses a serious challenge to manyCanadian post[graduates and current undergraduates (Berger). With the world oil crisis,Canadians have seen a national income cut by 50 billion (Kirby, Hutchins, & Gillis, 2016).Economic experts predict that Canada could enter a full[blown recession. The pooreconomic climate is an opportunity for the UBC FS to add value to the thousands ofstudents experiencing student debt. With immediate employment for post graduates beingan uncertainty for many, the UBC FS can help lower student stress by assisting with someof their financial demands through supplying them with free products.NATURALThe trend toward green buying behaviour is creating opportunities for used goodsestablishments, as demonstrated by the used goods merchandiser Savers. Businesses aretaking advantage of an increase in green consumers, who are seen as opinion leaders withcareful buying behaviour and a need for information on products. Much of the researchfrom over 10 years ago and today has a strong focus on purchasing behaviour and tactics toencourage environmentally sustainable purchasing. British Columbia and Ontario rank ashaving the highest environmental consciousness in Canada (Mayer, 2012). BritishColumbia’s cultural outlook towards environmental sustainability is an opportunity for theUBC FS to engage in the green movement. Additionally, the focus on environmentalprogress within Vancouver specifically provides the UBC FS with the opportunity to beconnected with a network of organizations who are also aiming to change buyingbehaviour and create sustainability (Mayer, 2012).8Despite strong trends toward environmentally conscious behaviour, incentivizing long[term behavioural changes in people can prove to be very challenging for marketers(Shrum, McCarty, & Lowrey, 1995). Government policy may play an important role toincentivizing corporations and the entire retail ecosystem towards a more sustainablefuture.CULTURAL/SOCIALThe trend towards environmental sustainability has created greater acceptancesurrounding buying used goods. However, as you will see in greater detail later under thesegmentation section of our report, the majority of consumers are simply following thetrend of environmentally sustainable consumption but will not necessarily go out of thereway to change their purchasing behaviour. Recycling is an excellent case study of how themajority of society can adopt a behaviour, however substantial collaboration andgovernment involvement was needed to create this behaviour across society. There isopportunity in the green movement, particularly in British Columbia. As mentionedpreviously, British Columbia is in the top three provinces for the highest concentration ofused good establishments, reflecting the demands of the people in these regions. Finally,the active green consumers are often opinion leaders, which is a cultural and social benefitfor the UBC FS. COMPANY ANALYSISCurrent ObjectivesThe UBC FS exists to challenge the status quo of a consumerism[based economy. Their keyobjective is to promote an ethic that is rooted in sustainable and environmentally friendlyactivities. They do this by creating a pathway for unwanted goods to re[circulate, find anew use and owner, and avoid the landfill. The UBC FS organizers wish to enable andnormalize the circular[economy on UBC campus.Current Positioning and Marketing Mix StrategiesThe number and quality of donations determine the product offering of the UBC Free Store.In order to build up an inventory of valued goods, they must encourage donationbehaviour. The relationship between quality/desirability of items and product turnover isalso notable; items that have a higher actual or perceived value will have a shorter shelflife.The UBC FS’s basement location offers low foot traffic. The probability of individualsstumbling across the location on their own is low; therefore, there is a need to create andpromote for a reason to visit the UBC FS. Alternatively, an off[site presence – such asdonation bins or event pop[ups – could lend the UBC FS more awareness.9The UBC FS’s pricing strategy is fixed and offers no feasible improvements; everything isfree. Therefore, in the absence of a revenue stream, improvements to the organization mustbe possible without monetary contributions, or through the assistance of external grants.Minimal promotion is currently in place. This is likely due to limitations of available humanhours and funding. A cohesive message must be developed first, and from there, there is anopportunity to gain funding from SEEDS and the Student Environment Centre (SEC) to havepromotional posters made in addition to other opportunities for funding. Online presenceis also a large area for growth and an opportunity to engage the UBC community.There are few volunteers currently engaged with the UBC FS and those volunteers arelimited in their availability. The UBC FS attracts passionate and hard working individualsthat represent the values of the UBC FS in their day[to[day lives. These volunteers arecapable of turning UBC FS into an influential catalyst for change, granted the properdirection and organizational infrastructure.Analysis of Vision/Mission, Culture, Human and Financial ResourcesThe vision and mission for the UBC FS is at the heart of everything the volunteers do. Theculture of the UBC FS is congruent with the values of a large portion of the UBC population,however the used goods organization has not been effective in communicating their valueto the majority of UBC students. The UBC FS has an opportunity to further communicatetheir mission and engage the UBC community.The culture of the UBC FS is laidback and carefree. The organizers have described theirintended culture as anarchist in the way that they hope for the UBC FS to evolve naturally,without much external intervention and to remain authentic.As mentioned previously, although there are currently no financial resources with norevenue streams existing, there are opportunities for funding through UBC and theprovincial government.Key Success FactorsPerhaps one of the greatest accomplishments of the UBC FS to date has been acquiring abrick and mortar location in UBC’s Old SUB. This location acts as a hub for the UBC FS andlends great potential for expansion.10CUSTOMER ANALYSISPrimary ResearchRESEARCH METHODOLOGYA key aspect of our primary research was to quantify current awareness of the UBC FS.Determining awareness is an important metric to measure any improvements in awarenessof the UBC FS in the coming years. We distributed a Qualtrics survey to students and facultyon UBC campus to determine willingness to consume used goods, what determinesdonation behaviour and to what degree respondents were environmentally conscious andwhether or not this was emulated through their behaviours. While we were unable togather data from Empty Nesters or determine the exact percentage of Necessity consumers,we were able to infer meaningful findings from our data that allowed us to define our sevenmarket segments for the UBC FS.In order to quantify the Necessity segment, we chose to look at those who listed “stronglyagree” in response to “I value low price” as a determinant to the segments size. Due to thelimitations in determining how financially dependent a student is, those who listed“strongly agree” see cost as a primary consideration to their purchases. As outlined inAppendix B, Question 4, the Necessity segment includes 23.7% of the UBC population.The survey was distributed through Facebook among various club groups. We alsoconducted intercepts in the Old SUB and the Nest. To receive more faculty respondents, thesurvey was emailed to previous professors. Due to several respondents dropping out of thesurvey, the total number of completed surveys was 95. The survey ran for two weeks fromlate[February to the first week of March. The survey was designed to take five to tenminutes to complete and included 24 questions. Skip Logic was used to skip irrelevantquestions depending on respondent’s previous answers. The questions were used todetermine willingness to engage with second hand stores, environmental influence onpurchasing and disposal decisions, consumption and donation motives, current awarenessof the Free Store, what drives volunteer activity and demographic information. Withcompletion of the survey, students had an opportunity to participate in an in[depthinterview in return for a $5 AMS gift card to be used towards any AMS business. Weconducted five personal interviews to gain greater insight into the motives of used goodsconsumption and donation of unwanted goods behaviour.*As a result of the limited sample size of our survey, the following data is inferred based on anoverall analysis of our survey in its entirety.HYPOTHESES, FINDINGS AND RESULTSRegarding awareness, we hypothesized that 25% of the UBC population had heard of theUBC FS. Our primary research revealed an awareness level of 37.5%, with the highestawareness compared to local competitors. However, the conversion into consumers anddonors’ actual engagement with the UBC FS is much lower at 14%.15Demographic SegmentationThe largest age demographic for consumers of used goods stores in Canada are customersaged 35 to 64. This age group represents 65.4 percent of the industry’s revenue in 2016(Morea, 2016). Consumers in this age group tend to channel their financial resourcestowards household goods to and investing in their children’s future. The most popular itemcategories for this age segment are furniture, kitchenware and clothing. In the next fiveyears this age group is projected to remain the largest contributor to used goods industryrevenue.Consumers under the age of 35 account for 19.8 percent of industry revenue. Morespecifically, adults aged 25 to 34 are reported to comprise the bulk of industry sales forconsumers under 35 as their spending behaviours are often focussed on an entirehousehold, purchasing used goods for not only themselves but also their families (Morea,2016).Currently, individuals 65 years and older account for an estimated 14.8 percent of usedgoods industry revenue. The improvements in the Canadian economy and capital marketsover the past five years improved retirement savings levels and consumer confidencecreating higher spending for this age category. Consequently, the age groups market sharehas decreased slightly in the past five years. (Morea, 2016)Social Media SegmentationData collected in February 2016 found that 90 percent of young adult ages 18 to 29 wereactive on some form of social media. This age category comprises 55 percent of activemembers on the social media platform, Instagram (Perrin, 2015). Therefore, consumersunder the age of 35 are the best target group for digital marketing strategies on Instagram.Individuals over the age of 65 in Canada have increased their social media engagement. Thenumber has grown as individuals hit retirement and are faced with more spare time. 35percent of the age group use social media (Perrin, 2015).TrendsA shift in consumer’s preference, particular in women’s clothing, has led to an increase inmarket share for the used goods industry overall. Over the past decade, vintage clothinghas gained momentum. This trend is expected to continue over the next five years. Usedgoods establishments are anticipated to focus marketing strategies towards fashion[conscious shoppers with strict financial constraints (IBISWorld, 2016).SegmentationSHORT[TERM RESIDENCE STUDENTS16The Short[Term Residence Students segment includes individuals aged 18 to 21 living inon[campus residences for the school year. These students include first year residencestudents and exchange students living on campus. This segment places a high value onexperiences and is not as concerned with the aesthetics of their temporary livingenvironment. Convenience is a significant motivator for short[term residence students asthey are limited in their ability to transport items and are often on a time constraint.Factors such as flying, storage space and financial circumstance determine this segmentsneed to purchase items once they have arrived in Vancouver, as well as determining theirwillingness to donate. This segment will be targeted for donations in the short[term, whilethe UBC FS has limited storage space and low inventory. In the long[term, once awarenesshas been developed and inventory is growing and stable, the Short[Term ResidenceStudents will also be targeted as UBC FS consumers. These individuals will be seasonalusers of the free store taking goods for the purpose of their short[term living environmentand donating the unwanted goods they are unable to take home with them to the UBC FS atthe end of the year. UBC houses 9,400 short[term students per year, therefore this segmenthas excellent potential and provides an opportunity for the UBC FS to be a part of thesustainable move in and move out program with UBC Student Housing.CONVENTIONALSThe Conventionals segment is characterized primarily by individuals whose purchasingbehaviour is not significantly driven by personal values, but is however heavily influencedby the behaviour of those surrounding them. This segment is focussed on social affirmationand will engage in green consumption behaviour when they are sending an outward signalthrough their consumption behaviour. They are not motivated by intrinsic values thatwould lead them to environmentally conscious behaviour. Conventionals would engagewith the UBC FS on one[off occurrences, mainly for temporary product usage whenattending a themed party, for example. These individuals are generally low engagementconsumers, purchasing many day[to[day items impulsively. Their engagement with theUBC FS is dictated by events and seasonal holidays (i.e. Halloween). Although they areenvironmentally disengaged and their use of a UBC FS item may be temporary, using itemsfrom the UBC FS would substitute items being purchased new from a dollar store forinstance. Therefore, the environmental gain of this segment is notable. UBC’s Greekcommunity is a good touch point for this segment. Conventionals represent 19.8 percent ofthe UBC population based on our analysis attached in Appendix D. Conventionals areconsumption[based and do not present a viable source for donations.ECOCENTRIC LOHASEcocentric LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Wellness) consumers, as described by theNatural Marketing Institute (NMI), encompass the environmentally conscious populationon UBC campus (Natural Marketing Institute, 2013). This segment actively makespurchasing and lifestyle decisions based on their environmental values. Driven by an effortto reduce their environmental impact, LOHAS consumers will inconvenience themselves tochoose a sustainable alternative. These consumers are loyal to brands that align with theirvalues and are vocal about their support. They respond to green[marketing buzzwords17such as “local”, “ethical”, “green” and “sustainable.” As opinion leaders, these segments arevery critical of brands and operate on two extremes: acting as a brands biggest advocate orcriticizing a brand publically if the company does not live up to the LOHAS highenvironmental standards. Individuals in this segment are likely to make up the volunteer[base for the UBC FS. Based on the content covered in degree[required courses of variousfaculties, we believe that LOHAS consumers compose a large portion of the forestry andland and food systems faculties. As LOHAS consumers are characterized as being highlyengaged with their favourite brands, they are likely to engage with the UBC FS as bothconsumers and donors. In order to quantify this segment, we extrapolated from NMI data.Through this data we inferred that LOHAS consist of 19 percent of UBC population. LOHASare currently the primary donors and consumers of the UBC FS, despite limitedpromotional efforts towards the group by the UBC FS, thus demonstrating the activism ofthe LOHAS segment.EMPTY NESTERSThe Empty Nesters segment makes up 11 percent of UBC and surrounding areas as seen inAppendix D. This segment is composed of individuals between the ages of 40 to 64. Thissegment includes individuals who have raised children and those children have moved out,leaving their parents with items that had been collected throughout 20 years or so of theirchild’s life. Often individuals in the Empty Nester segment are concerned with planning forretirement, and may choose to downsize their family home to a smaller dwelling. Whilstdownsizing the Empty Nesters will go through and donate large amounts of their family’sunwanted possessions. Empty Nesters enjoy creating value for others and prefer donatingitems when the option is made convenient to them.TREASURE HUNTERSThe Treasure Hunters segment use second hand stores for the purpose of finding uniqueitems that cannot be found at a regular retail outlet. Treasure Hunters enjoy the thrill offinding exciting products and shop at used goods stores for this reason. This segmentrepresents 6.2 percent of the UBC population shown in Appendix D.NECESSITYThe Necessity segment is students that are driven by absolute financial constraints. Thesestudents will go out of their way to save money. They are focussed on staying true to abudget, but often struggle to do so. They are not wasteful and are limited in their ability tobuy new items. This segment represents 23.7 percent of the UBC population shown in theSegmentation Analysis under Appendix D.GEOGRAPHICALLY CLOSE FAMILIESGeographically Close Families include young families living on UBC campus. Individualswith children often experience high turnover of clothing, toys etc. as their children growand preferences change rapidly. Therefore parents are often inclined to save money and18buy used goods as well as donate unwanted items when they are no longer relevant to theirchildren. Geographically Close Families is not a recommended target strategy due to thelack of fitting respondents from our primary research to this segment. Their uniqueproduct consumption would not currently fit the flow of products at UBC as the turnover ofchildren’s clothing would be quite low and of little importance to UBC students. With futuregrowth, however, the UBC FS could be a beneficial agent between families for recycling toysand books within their community. Geographically Close Families represent 5.2 percent ofthe UBC population (The University of British Columbia, 2015) (Appendix D).COMPETITIVE ANALYSISGlobalization in the used goods industry is low as the majority of establishments operateon a local or regional level (IBISWorld, 2016). Key players of for profit and not[for[profitorganizations in the used goods industry include Savers Inc., Salvation Army, Winmark andGoodwill Industries (IBISWorld, 2016). Although the main players in this market have astrong North American presence, including Goodwill Industries operating in 165 locations,there are relatively low barriers of entry due to the low initial investment required(IBISWorld, 2016). On average, establishments in the used goods industry in Canada have arelatively low market share concentration. The industries largest players account for 14percent of total industry revenue (IBISWorld, 2016). The industry experiences a strongconsumer demand that entices new entrants into the market as a result of stable profitmargins of for[profit used good stores shown in Appendix E. There has also been anemergence of ecommerce retailers that have had a significant influence on purchasingmethods. Key success factors in the industry are included under Appendix F.Local direct competitors include Foro and UBC re[use it. Foro is a free mobile“marketplace” for students to buy and sell items on campus (Foro, 2016). Foro currentlysupports 23 college and university campuses acting as a localized Kijiji with a higher levelof trust due to students buying and selling to one another. Their current social mediacampaigns offer cash giveaways on Facebook. Foro also offers sponsorship programs,currently present at the University of Victoria, BCIT, UBC, Simon Fraser University andothers (Foro, 2016).UBC re[use it is a “virtual online warehouse designed to assist UBC employees at the PointGrey campus to find and exchange low[value items of $1,000 or less between departments(e.g. furniture, audio[visual equipment, office supplies, etc.)” in order to facilitate the reuseof goods and minimize wasteful disposal (re[use it! UBC). Using the service is low cost asthe fees only include transporting the item to its new location and a promotional fee forposting the item. A report conducted by the SEEDS program on ten North Americanuniversities who incorporate reuse of campus products found that nine out of tenuniversities have surplus stores operating on business days that sell items on campus (Paul, Kaushal, Bhatted, Chandran, & Chaudhary, 2009). Although they are generating minimalrevenue to cover the cost of the supply chain management department, the three keysuccess factors of on campus used goods stores were narrowed down to: full[timeemployees to coordinate asset management, a facility to store items and an online platform19supported by mobile users. The University of Victoria provides an excellent model of assetmanagement. They have both a full time employee (Surplus Asset Coordinator) and afacility (Surplus Asset Recovery Centre) to store items of re[usable value, as well as awebsite providing guidance for sales, reusing, recycling and proper disposal of unwantedgoods (Richer, 2016).As Keiko Nakamura, CEO of Goodwill Industries, stated, “There’s been a dramatic shift inconsumers: there’s no longer a stigma in shopping in thrift stores” (Aalto, 2012). Whilethey still focus on budget conscious consumers, the Goodwill has recognized a strongerstudent base that are looking for lower cost furniture. Indirect competitors such asWalmart offer new items at a discount which affect the success of the value[orientedmodels of used good stores as price is often the deciding factor for customers (IBISWorld,2016). Additionally, the emergence of ecommerce websites allow consumers to shop attheir own convenience from home as well as connect them with a larger supplier base(IBISWorld, 2016). The various target segments as seen on online used goods retailplatforms seem to be targeting through environmental consciousness and price sensitivity.The Salvation Army is able to attract consumers through their high communityinvolvement, promoting charity work as their first priority (IBISWorld, 2016).Through a survey conducted by Print Measurement Bureau (PMB), 40.6% of respondentswere willing to pay a premium for environmentally friendly products and 67% agreed thatthey recycle diligently (Print Measurement Bureau). This demonstrates the importance ofthe environment consciousness as a factor influencing purchasing and disposal behaviours.Demand in the used goods industry is influenced by short[term macroeconomic factors andlong[term consumer trends. Due to the nature of used goods organizations, consumerperceptions play a key role in the seasonality and turnover of inventory. The demand iscountercyclical to economic fluctuations meaning that when the economy is weak,consumer demand increases as individuals are financially pressured to look for more costefficient alternatives (IBISWorld, 2016).In contrast to the competition, the UBC FS is not only student operated but it also providesfree products in order to make sustainable behaviour accessible to all. As a not[for[profit,the UBC FS is mission driven, and environmental sustainability is at the forefront of thestores decision[making. The primary focus of the UBC FS is waste reduction, reducedconsumerism, community support and educating students on sustainable lifestyle choicesand how this can benefit student health overall.Through our primary research we asked what motivated people to donate their unwantedgoods to a local charity. We found that the most important factors were convenience,environmental consciousness and to simply de[clutter. Pick[up provided by the charity wasnotable but had less of an impact on respondent’s decision to donate unwanted goods to alocal charity (Question 9). Environmental consciousness influences consumer’s aspirationsto reduce waste and demonstrate a lifestyle of environmental consciousness. Purchasingfrom a used goods store has certain intrinsic value in that customers may feel they aremaking a difference through buying a used product as opposed to buying new. External20motivations can also be at play for consumers who are motivated by approval from peersand social gratification.When comparing local competitors on UBC campus, there is greater awareness of the UBCFS in comparison to UBC re[use It and Foro. Despite a higher awareness, the engagement ofthe UBC FS is still low with only 14% of respondents having ever visited, taken or donatingitems to the organization. After describing the UBC FS’s mission to reduce unnecessaryconsumerism and noting the stores convenient location, 76% of respondents stated theyare “likely” or “very likely” to donate to the organization.PLANNING ASSUMPTIONSPerformance for the Used Goods Stores industry can be affect by several factors, such asgeneral economic trends, unemployment rate and disposable income. Therefore, severalassumptions need to be made to predict the industry’s future. The key assumption wemade in this report is the used good industry in Canada will keep growing steadily at 1.2%,as it was report to be in the past five years (IBISWorld, 2016). Our objectives for UBC FSare based on assuming there are no fluctuations in the market and student demand for freealternatives will remain consistent. SWOTSTRENGTHSLooking back at our primary and secondary research, we were able to conduct acomprehensive SWOT analysis of the Free Store’s internal and external factors. The FreeStore has a couple of key strengths that are core to its initiative. With the mission to reduceconsumerism, the FS offers all donated products free to students. The FS aims to minimizethe environmental consequences of purchasing new products and disposing of oldproducts ineffectively, by operating through volunteers who portray this outlook in theireveryday lives and distribute this message to consumers.WEAKNESSAs discovered in our primary research, current brand awareness of the Free Store is 37.5%however, 86% of respondents have never actually visited the location. The main weaknessthe UBC FS faces is the limited selection of donated items. As outlined in threats, the newSUB has limited the amount of foot traffic in the old SUB. Currently, representatives fromthe store estimate that they only see 15 shoppers on a weekly basis. The Free Store doesnot have set operating hours as they welcome any visitors at any hour of the day. Thisprevents urgency to visit the store and may be a factor resulting in low frequent donations.The Free Store is currently resorting to landfilling some items that sit on the shelves for toolong or that are unusable in their condition. This goes directly against their missionstatement when there other options available for either extending the life of the productsor disposing of the products in a way that’s beneficial to the environment.21OPPORTUNITIESThere are currently a number of opportunities that would be beneficial for the Free Storeto harness. The rising trend of sustainability on campus has resulted in faculties and groupspromoting green initiatives on campus and students becoming more aware of their impacton the environment. This aligns with the core values of the Free Store and will easestudent’s reactions to the marketing initiatives. Another opportunity is the cyclical studentresident turnover. At the beginning of each year, 9,400 new students move into residenceand are in need of kitchenware, furniture, and other items to use in their rooms. As well, atthe end of the year when those students move out, many of them are looking to dispose ofthose items that they’ve acquired throughout the year before they head home.THREATSThe used goods market is highly saturated including well known competitors such as ValueVillage and the Salvation Army. These companies tend to be the primary organizationsdonors consider, as supported in our primary research (Appendix B Q2). A main threat oncampus is due to the opening of the new student union building. The Free Store, which islocated in the original SUB building, now faces very minimal foot traffic preventingpotential customers from discovering the store. As well, the store’s main targetdemographic is the student population. Students do not typically own an excessive amountof stuff as they tend to live minimally due to their high cost of living and it may beinconvenient transporting unused goods to campus.GOALS AND OBJECTIVESOVERALL GOALIn response to our situational analysis, our overall goal for the UBC FS is to increaseawareness, increase weekly donations, and attempt to eliminate all wasteful processesfrom the UBC FS’s operations. SMART OBJECTIVESSMART Objective #1: Increase the average number of weekly donors by 100% comparedto April 2016 (average of 4 donors per week) averages by April 2017.SMART Objective 2: Increase weekly consumption by 400% by April 2017, compared toApril 2016 (current estimated average of 15 customers per week).SMART Objective #3: Eliminate all landfilling of unwanted goods from the UBC Free Storeby April 2017.22CORE STRATEGYRECOMMENDED TARGET MARKETSThe recommended target markets for the UBC FS can be broken down into consumers anddonors based on the segments predicted engagement with the organization.Donors – Customer ProfileSHORT[TERM RESIDENCE STUDENTSPierre is a 19[year[old on an exchange to UBC from France. Pierre had limited space in hissuitcase when he travelled to Canada for the semester. Pierre is motivated by convenienceand has some disposable income, as he is able to travel and participate on an exchangeabroad with the help of his parents. Pierre ended up buying all of his kitchenware, smallappliances, bedding etc. in Vancouver. Now Pierre is moving back to France and making adecision on what to bring back in his two suitcases. He will need a convenient way todispose of the items in his residence.ECOCENTRIC LOHAS23Lisa is a 21[year[old forestry student who makes takes environmental impact into her dailylifestyle choices. She is extremely brand loyal to companies whose values align with herenvironmental ethic. Lisa is also an activist who is focused on improving the CorporateSocial Responsibility of businesses who do not align with her values. Lisa responds togreen[marketing buzzwords such as “local”, “ethical”, “green” and “sustainable”. Lisa isconcerned about the future of our plant and therefore uses products for their entire lifecycle. Instead of wasted her unwanted items by disposing of them in the garbage, Lisa willeither repurpose the item or donate it to a second hand store.EMPTY NESTERSEllen and Paul have three children; all three of the children are now graduated fromuniversity and have moved out of their family home, located on the University EndowmentLands. Ellen and Paul are motivated by minimalistic values, travelling and planning forretirement. The couple wants to downsize to a smaller residence so they can save moremoney for travel. They currently own a lot of items that are no longer relevant to them thatthey had collected through out their children’s lives. The couple will be selective in theprocess of downsizing and will dispose of large numbers of items. Typically, Ellen and Paulwould donate their unwanted goods to an organization like the goodwill or Salvation Army,depending on convenience.Due to the current low inventory at the UBC FS it is imperative that most of the targetedsegments are donors, with one consumer base, being the Necessity segment. In the futurewhen the organization has build up a stable inventory, we recommend targeting othergroups such as the Ecocentric LOHAS and Short[Term Residence Student segments.24Consumer – Customer ProfileNECESSITYJulie is a 20[year[old second year Sauder student who received a scholarship to studycommerce at UBC. She is academically driven and works while in school to afford payingfor her residence and remaining tuition. She is self[dependant as her parents are unable tofinancially support her studies. As a result, Julie is unable to afford basic home decor andappliances. Julie relies on friends and family for used items as she does not have thediscretionary income to purchase new and is therefore always looking for cost efficientoptions. RECOMMENDED POSITIONINGThe UBC Free Store is a not[for[profit organization that maximizes the product life cycle,eliminating product waste and reducing the ecological and social implications ofconsuming new items. The UBC FS engages community to create awareness around theconsequences of societal buying behaviour to construct a more sustainable future. Unlikecompetitors such as Value Village and Foro who offer second hand products at cost efficientoptions, the UBC Free Store is aimed towards supporting students with their primaryincentive to minimize overall environmental impact.MARKETING STRATEGIESSMART OBJECTIVE #1SMART Objective #1: Increase the average number of weekly donors by 100% comparedto April 2016 (average of 4 donors per week) averages by April 2017.Strategy #1: Develop Processes to Keep Track of Inventory25TACTIC #1: CREATE A WEBSITE AND AN APP TO TRACK INVENTORY THROUGH JOINTSTUDENT PROJECTSCurrently, the UBC Free Store has an inconsistent method of tracking inventory beingdonated and consumed in the store. In order to measure the impact of UBC FS and shapeinventory towards the needs of their target customer, the UBC FS needs a mandatoryinventory tracking system.To compete with other similar services such as Foro, the UBC FS should adopt a greateronline presence which can be facilitated through an active website and app to trackinventory. To develop these technical platforms the UBC FS should partner with UBCSustainability and the Commerce, Engineering or Computer Science faculty. Incorporatingsustainability across the faculties is a mandate of UBC and therefore collaborating with theUBC FS would be a viable student project for these three faculties.UBC FSWebsiteSince the website will be more of an informational and promotional tool than a customerinterface platform, the store should partner with a Marketing student and use WordPressto develop the website. WordPress is a simple tool to use and would give a Marketingstudent relevant experience for their resume.UBC FS AppIn order to create an app, the UBC FS should partner with the Engineering or ComputerScience faculty. The app should allow for a degree of customer interaction for customers tokeep track of the points they acquire through donations, a system that will be elaboratedon in the following tactic (Tactic 2). As indicated by our secondary research, more andmore consumers are engaging with brands through online platforms. By creating an app,the UBC FS has the opportunity to create with businesses like Foro.TACTIC #2: IMPLEMENT A POINTS REWARD SYSTEMWITH PARTNERS TO INCENTIVIZEDONATIONSWe suggest implementing an adaptive points system, similar to reKindness [ a fashionswapping platform that operates on the circular economy and carries values similar to thatof the UBC FS (reKindness, 2015). However, because the UBC FS wants to makeconsumption as accessible as possible to the Necessity segment, we have taken an adaptiveapproach to the points system of reKindness. This point system means that each item ofinventory that enters the UBC FS is ranked on a point scale of 1[5 based on quality. Thesepoints can then go towards partnerships that the UBC FS will develop with the Calendar, orcoupons towards locally sourced AMS businesses, such as Sprouts or Seedlings. Items willbe ranked by category: for example, a kitchen appliance = 20 points, clothing article = 10points and books = 10 points. These points will be relative to the most popular itemcategories as represented by our primary research. The top three product categories for26used goods consumption, as shown by our primary research are books and magazines(85%), furniture (66%) and clothing (56%).TACTIC #3: IMPLEMENT HOURS OF OPERATION AND MANDATORY STAFFINGIn order to facilitate consistent monitoring of inventory, the UBC FS will need volunteerssupervising the stores operations. Therefore, we suggest the UBC FS adopt hours ofoperation where volunteers will interact with customers and have a mandatory check outwhere the volunteer records what is being taken from and donated to the store throughoutthe day and accounts for total items in inventory at the end of the week. This way the UBCFS can monitor trends in customer behaviour and use this data to understand why someproduct categories are less popular than others. With this information the UBC FS canevaluate unwanted items and either repurpose them or develop creative marketing contentto appeal to students and why they could benefit from this product category. Thisinventory data analysis will therefore grow consumption at the UBC FS and further thestores overall mission.TACTIC #4: INCREASE VOLUNTEER BASE AND RECRUIT A PAID EMPLOYEEThe role of the paid employee will be to decide all marketing strategies and manage allsocial media and website traffic as well as organizing volunteers. The UBC FS will create afree posting for a paid employee to be spread across the Vancouver campus through UBC’sPost a Job (The University of British Columbia). As outlined later on in budgeting, theposition will be 10[15 hours per week at $15 per hour, adjusted based on anticipatedsupply and demand throughout the year. Hours will increase in the long term as marketinginitiatives gain momentum and become more complex due to the expected rise in customerengagement. The UBC FS can write a proposal to UBC Sustainability, SEC or SauderPhilanthropy Program as examples, for a grant to be used towards the paid employee. Asample proposal can be found in Appendix G.Volunteers can be recruited through the UBC sustainability newsletter as well as throughpartnership opportunities with other faculties. A form should be submitted to the AMSGoogle Docs before September 20th, 2016 in order to have a featured ad in the AMSnewsletter (Call For Volunteers). As well, targeting South Campus will help foster acommunity for isolated people living in that area to help the organization. The volunteerswill be responsible for operating the store during store hours from 12:00[5:00pm duringbusiness days. These hours are simply a suggestion and can be adjusted based on theavailability of volunteers, however it is crucial there is consistency of operational hoursfrom week to week. The volunteers will also encompass a “street team” who will be used tofuel awareness during desired high donation and high consumption periods. Managinginventory will include a weekly pickup from the bins distributed around campus andimplementing marketing strategies such as distributing posters for seasonal events. Whenan item is donated or taken, the volunteers will keep track of the inventory flow in an excelspreadsheet as part of the “check[in” and “check[out” process.References for employee funding can be found in Appendix H.27Strategy #2: Educate People and Attract DonationsThe low level of customer engagement of the UBC FS and a lack of effective promotionalcampaigning means there is a generally poor knowledge of the organizationsenvironmental mission. Typically, the store is just thought of as a free item exchange.However, the overall goal of the store as a service is to reduce consumerism and decreaseour environmental impact as a community.TACTIC #1: SOCIAL MEDIA CALENDAR TARGETING DONATIONS DURING PEAK DONATIONTIMESIn order to promote donations during the peak turnover times, the UBC FS should create asocial media calendar that emphasizes donations during peak seasons. These posts caninclude cross[referencing to partners like UBC Sustainability, UBC Student Housing andHospitality Services and the University of British Columbia Facebook page.TACTIC #2: PARTNERINGWITH ENVIRONMENTAL LEADERSThis will start with the UBC Free Store developing it’s network of “aspiring contacts” onsocial media. Their social media community will reflect both their current partnerships andaspiring connections. The UBC FS’s aspiring social media community will includeenvironmental leaders in the Vancouver community (TEDx Speakers etc.) and beyond. Thiswill help the organization to reach the Ecocentric LOHAS community and create a greaterawareness throughout our target segments. The environmental leaders are role models tothis target audience and are vocal in expressing their opinions and making consciousefforts towards preserving our environment. The values of the UBC FS resonate with thebeliefs of these leaders, which will drive free PR.TACTIC #3: PURCHASE A WEEKLY AD IN CAMPUS NEWSPAPERS AND NEWSLETTERSThe UBC FS should attract consumer engagement through ads in campus newspapers andnewsletters, such as the Ubyssey and the UNA eNewsletter. The UNA eNewsletter is used toconnect 36 strata located on South Campus. This is an optimal opportunity to reach a largeaudience and drive awareness from UBC’s South Campus population. It will be aimedtowards encouraging residents to donate their used goods and create a stronger UBCcommunity. These ad spots will showcase statistics that describe the impact ofconsumerism and environmentalism. See Appendix I for a poster example.Strategy #3: Convenient DonationsCreating more physically accessible donation locations is ideal to creating immediate andmore frequent donations to the Free Store.TACTIC #1: CONVENIENT DONATION BINS28Leaving donation bins in student residences near the Nest and throughout various parkinglots are just a few examples of highly populated areas that may provide higher volumedonations. Although the UBC FS is on campus and in a central area, the Old SUB is isolatedand not frequently passed through. Having a donation bin within an individual’s residencewould make donations substantially more convenient for students that would otherwisediscard of the items.TACTIC #2: PICK UP SERVICES AND SET DONATION TIMESPickup services for residences and homes within UBC Endowment lands should beavailable on a fixed bimonthly schedule for large donations. This will help target thoseindividuals who are willing to donate but the current location is an inconvenience.To create a sense of urgency among contributors, we propose that the store implementscheduled donation periods. For example, donations would only be accepted at the storeonce every week and pickup services would only be provided bi[monthly. This wouldencourage donors organize their belongings while also encouraging sustainability from theUBC FS’s perspective, limiting the number of trips required and the environmental effectsof those trips.Strategy #4: Partner with Local Junk Removal CompanyThere are a number of established junk removal companies that operate in and around UBCcampus, 1[800[Got[Junk being the most prominent.TACTIC #1: ALLOW 1[800[GOT[JUNK TO MAKE DONATIONS1[800[Got[Junk operates on a cost[per[weight basis; they take the junk they pick up fromclients to Vancouver city dumps, where they are charged a weight[determined dumpingfee. Therefore, they are incentivized to dispose of the waste they collect in the cheapestway possible in order to maximize their profit. If they are able to dispose of their collecteditems for free, their costs can be significantly reduced, which increases their profit.It is common for empty nesters to use junk removal companies to help them clear out theirgarages or storage rooms. Thus, removing items that are still useable. Empty nesters maynot have the means or time to take unwanted items to a thrift store or any other donationservice and we believe there is an opportunity to capitalize on this common occurrence. Werecommend that the UBC FS allows 1[800[Got[Junk to donate items (provided they are inreasonable condition) at no cost to them. In this way, shared value can be created and bothparties involved can benefit.29SMART OBJECTIVE #2SMART Objective 2: Increase weekly consumption by 400% by April 2017, compared toApril 2016 (current estimated average of 15 customers per week).Strategy #1: Strengthen Online PresenceAn online presence is a significant tool to create connections between organizations andtheir customers. A brand’s online presence is often the number one touchpoint for themajority of it’s consumer base and the consumers that engage with organizations on socialmedia platforms tend to share their experiences with others. Therefore, it is essential thatthe UBC FS capitalizes on their online potential by generating a unique and engagingpresence. This strategy aims to strengthen the UBC FS’s media presence through socialmediums.TACTIC #1: COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT ON SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMSFollowing our research of various social media channels, we suggest that the UBC FS useFacebook and Instagram as their key platforms for engagement. Our primary researchindicates that, of individuals who engage with their favourite brands through onlinemediums, 59% of respondents use Facebook, 56% use Instagram and 74% use websites.For content generation, we recommend posting images of new and unique items that comeinto the store with creative captions. The UBC FS comes into contact with a large amount ofrelatively random items, all which have potential stories behind them. Leveraging theseunique stories will drive viewership. The appropriate frequency for posting is under 5posts per day. In order to best implement this tactic, we suggest the UBC FS to useHootsuite as a monitor in the process. This will not only make the posting process easier,but the analytics tool [ which collects and analyzes data [ will help to optimize futureperformance of each new post.TACTIC #2: SOCIAL MEDIA CONTESTSIn order to improve the UBC FS’s engagement with their followers, we suggest they run acontest on Facebook and Instagram. This contest will consist of the UBC FS posting animage of an unique or captivating donation. In order to enter the contest, individuals wouldhave to like or follow the UBC FS account, like the image, and tag a friend or two. This styleof contest drives engagement and helps the UBC FS extend their network. The showcaseditem should be something unique and highly desired. UBC FS should use a unique hashtagthat represents the treasure giveaway with a call to action statement in the postdescription. For example, if an empty nester donates a set of beer glasses, the call to actionstatement might be: “Want to win this beer glass set? Repost and tag three friends who youwould celebrate with!” The glasses could then be given to whoever received the most likeson their reposted image. Alternatively, the winner could be determined randomly. Anexample of a hashtag could be #FreeStoreTreasures.30Strategy #2: Seasonal Print CampaignsAs we expect long term donations to increase by 100%, it is imperative that consumptionincreases to a similar degree to avoid items sitting idle in the store and eventually going towaste. The main problem facing the current lack of consumption is low awareness of theUBC FS. In order to target a larger audience for higher volume consumption, werecommend running print campaigns on campus for specific events. This will help educateconsumers of the UBC FS’s mission and capture consumers in first year, versus fourth yearstudents who will soon graduate and leave the UBC community.TACTIC #1: TARGET SEPTEMBER MOVE INWe suggest that the UBC FS partners with Sustainable MOVE[IN in September, and MOVE[OUT in April by running print campaigns in residences, the SUB, and faculty buildings.These posters would focus on generating awareness of the FS and position it as a place topick up small essentials. By doing this, the UBC FS can optimize awareness and target thesehigh donation/consumption periods.We believe it is most valuable for the UBC FS to target September move in. However, as wewent through this process, we developed a few ideas for print campaigns that may bevaluable for the UBC FS in the future. We understand that these items are not currentlyactionable as they all require inventory volumes to be consistently higher, but they may behelpful at some point down the line. The UBC FS should promote goods from variouscategories in coordination with seasonal trends and holidays. Here are a couple examplesof what this would look like:• Early September:With many 1st year and exchange students arriving on campus forthe first time, there is sure to be a need for essential items. In this case, UBC FSwould promote items such as binders, stationery, or small kitchen items.• Late October:With Halloween at the end of the month, the UBC FS would bepromoting itself as the ideal place to “shop” for a costume.• Early December: As students begin to experience exam stress, the UBC FS couldpromote itself as the “safe place to stress shop”. Many individuals enjoy the act ofbrowsing in stores when they are under stress as a therapeutic release. The UBC FScan offer the same therapeutic browsing experience, without the risk of incurringunnecessary costs. Additionally, with Christmas coming up, there is the opportunityto promote small knick[knack items or gifts for friends.• Early April: As the year begins to wind down, some students start to realize that theywill not be able to pack all of their belongings in a small suitcase to take on a planehome with them for the summer. There is an opportunity here to gain donations,based on seasonal trends.These are just a few examples of ways that the UBC FS could maintain relevance andcapitalize on trends throughout the year. Many themed parties occur throughout the yearthat the UBC FS can take advantage of. The Calendar is a great resource to follow for up31coming events. Activities of this sort can offset new purchases from cheap retailers, whichis a large gain.Strategy #3: More Appealing Store ExperienceCurrently the location the Free Store is not ideal as the old SUB is no longer a buildingfrequently visited by students. However, relocating the UBC FS is not a feasible option atthis stage. Therefore, we recommend altering the store layout and creating a moreappealing atmosphere in order to maximize the potential of the current space.TACTIC #1: CREATE A BRIGHTER ATMOSPHEREMaking the FS more aesthetically pleasing requires a brighter atmosphere which can bealtered with various light fixtures. Incorporating fairy lights is a simple yet effectivemeasure to make the area more engaging and comfortable.TACTIC #2: IMPROVE AESTHETICS WITHWALL ARTWORKVarious pieces of art, whether created by the customer or already in place, gives theperception that the store is permanent and more lively. We suggest creating a wall stencilof the UBC FS’s mission. This will remind customers why they are shopping at the FS andthat they are co[participants in an effort to preserve the environment. This may create amore positive environment as users of the UBC FS are reminded of their positive impact. Inorder to accomplish this, a competition will be held between art students to design the bestmural. As work like this can be featured in their personal art portfolio, we believe artsstudents would be eager to help out. We also recommend incorporating a chalkboard wallfor consumers to share positive messages and feel more connected with the store.TACTIC #3: CREATE PERMANENT STORAGE AND SHELVING INFRASTRUCTURECreating permanent shelving and clothing racks will make the store more organized andallow for optimal use of space. With the expected rise of donations, the FS will need a placeto store the inventory. Due to the current limited area, more organizational fixtures canincrease units per square footage. This will also help with inventory counts, volunteer workputting away donated items and ease the shopping experience.SMART OBJECTIVE #3SMART Objective #3: Eliminate all landfilling of unwanted goods from the UBC Free Storeby April 2017.Strategy #1: Repair or Repurpose Damaged ItemsWhen items sit idle in the store for a prolonged period, or are deemed to be damagedbeyond the point of use, there are a number of ways that the UBC FS can extend their life or32responsibly dispose of them. We propose that all reasonable efforts be made to restoredamaged goods to their original glory. Patagonia’s “Worn Wear” campaign is an excellentexample of how repairing clothing, rather than replacing it, can be made into a moredesirable action regardless of one’s environmental ethic (Patagonia, 2016). Patagoniabelieves that “the single best thing we can do for the planet is to keep our stuff in uselonger” and this belief is consistent with the UBC FS brand (Patagonia). The act of repairinggoods is likely a common practice amongst our “Necessity” consumers, but they may feelshameful about this. However, through this strategy, we hope to normalize repairs and turnit into something admirable and trendy, similar in the way that Worn Wear has generated acool[factor about wearing old garments. Additionally, the Worn Wear website is a greatresource for instructions on common repairs. Certainly, some items are damaged beyondthe point of repair; however, by breaking down materials into smaller components, theUBC FS can realize new potential from any item.TACTIC #1: CO[HOST A “REPAIR AND REPURPOSE NIGHT” WITH THE “KNITTING ANDSEWING CLUB AT UBC”On top of repairing any mildly damaged items that are donated, the UBC FS should run a“Repair and Repurpose Night” in collaboration with the Knitting and Sewing Club. Thisevent is intended to engage the “Necessity” consumers and has the potential to help a lot ofclothing items find new life and avoid the landfill. The Knitting and Sewing Club at UBC hasa substantial member base of creative individuals who bond over the activities of sewing,knitting, and crocheting. Although we are certain that the Knitting and Sewing Clubmembers are highly skilled, it is important to note that only simple fixes and repairs wouldbe offered. The Knitting and Sewing Club has hosted successful on[campus events in thepast; on March 21st, they ran an event titled “DeStress Fest 2016” that aimed to provide acreative outlet for students who may be feeling stressed by exam season. We believe thissort of activity is highly congruent with the values of the UBC FS.If items are beyond repair beyond repair, the UBC FS should cut the fabric up into squaresthat can be used in craft projects. These squares can be offered for free on the shelves of theUBC FS as craft material, or they can be used as material for the event. There are manycreative and unique ways in which these materials can become useful again. For example,quilts could be made from the fabric, or individuals could come and create their ownHalloween costumes out of salvaged materials.Strategy #2: Recycle All Items That Cannot Be RepurposedAs for all items that cannot be easily repaired or repurposed, we believe it is important todispose of them in the most environmentally friendly way possible. From a brandperspective, it is important for the UBC FS to maintain consistent values across all of theiractivities. In this way, a cohesive and transparent stance on environmentalism can bebolstered.33TACTIC #1: LOCATE APPROPRIATE RECYCLING FACILITIESCommon recycling and compost stations can be found just about anywhere on UBC campus.However, e[waste and “special items” recycling stations are not as commonly available.UBCWaste Management has a “special items” recycling station in the basement of the oldSUB that accepts clean soft plastics, small e[waste items and batteries. This station sitsagainst the wall on the right as you enter the SUB from the North. For larger e[waste items,it may be necessary to go to the facility at the back of the University Services Building,which is open 7:30am to 3:30pm, Monday to Friday. Additionally, there is a Vancouverbased non[profit called “Our Social Fabric” that accepts textile donations in large quantitiesin order to divert textiles from the landfill and promote the circular[economy (Our SocialFabric: A Textile Recycling Initiative).TACTIC #2: RECIRCULATE UNWANTED BOOKSThere are a number of free book exchanges on UBC campus. UBC FS should recirculatebooks through these channels when needed. Another outlet that could be used, dependingon the quality and nature of the books is Textbooks for Change (Textbooks For Change).TIMELINE FOR IMPLEMENTATIONThe implementation plan for the marketing strategies and tactics is broken down into threephases. Priority activities appear in the first phase of the implementation timeline and theoverall structure follows the UBC school semester system. It is our assumption that the UBCFS will not be open during the summer months and this plan takes that into account.Phase #1IMMEDIATE AND ONGOING ACTIVITIESThe UBC FS can begin to recycle all their unwanted goods and continue to do this into thefuture. Repairing and repurposing of goods can begin as soon as reasonably possiblealthough, a co[hosted event with the Knitting and Sewing Club at UBC will take place lateron during the 2016/17 school year.Although the UBC FS does not operate during the summer months, there are a number ofthings that could be done in preparation of September 2016. As noted in ourrecommendations, the start of the school year is an important time for the UBC FS toestablish itself as a brand. Before anything else can be considered, the first thing that needsto improve is the frequency and quality of donations. During the summer months, thestrategies and tactics pertaining to garnering donations will be a focus. Ourrecommendations to increase convenience of donations, through off[site donation bins andavailable pick up services could be organized and facilitated prior to September 2016.Additionally, the summer months are the ideal time to reach out to 1[800[got[junk to beginexploring a potential partnership. Further, any and all upgrades to the store’s atmosphere34that can be accomplished before September 2016 would be valuable. This activity can havesome spill over, if needed, into phase #2, where more human capital is assumed. Lastly,before September 2016, the UBC FS should establish which volunteers from past years willbe committing to another year of service and howmany more are needed.Phase #2SEPTEMBER – DECEMBER 2016This phase includes the bulk of our recommendations. Right at the start of September, alarge push to increase the volunteer base will be needed as store hours are to beimplemented on the first day of school. At this time, the store will reopen and donations areto remain a large area of focus. Ads in campus newspapers and online newsletters can berun and social media platforms can be established. As human capital increases, werecommend allocating the social media management tasks to one or two dedicated andknowledgeable volunteers who can develop and implement the strategies for engagementthroughout this phase and into the New Year. An example of the key seasonal trends thatshould be capitalized on appears in the description of this tactic. However, the mostnotable of which is to target September move in and the activities surrounding thatthrough the print campaign.Near the end of phase #2, the UBC FS should plan to co[host their repair and repurposenight in partnership with the Knitting and Sewing Club. In this way, a creative outlet can begiven to students who would be experiencing stress from exam preparation. The UBC FSshould also begin to reach out to the UBC community with their web[development project.Ensuring that this project is adopted early in the year will allow the UBC FS to implementtheir adapted points system and inventory management procedures at the start of phase#3.Phase #3JANUARY – APRIL 2016At the start of phase #3, the UBC FS should push online engagement in order to regain theattention of students returning from winter break. We recommend that the UBC FS kick offthe year with a social media contest. Ideally, the website can go live for the beginning ofphase #3 as well, and the points system can be adopted. Further along, near the examseason the UBC FS should host a second event with the Knitting and Sewing Club.BUDGETSFor a detailed breakdown of the costs associated with each of the above recommendation,please refer to appendix J.35SMART OBJECTIVE #1We aim to develop a website in collaboration with one of the UBC faculties. Therefore, wedid not budget for any costs associated with this activity. As well, implementing an adaptivepoints system and hours of operation will be done at no cost to the UBC FS. Further, a paidemployee is to be hired. The budgeted amount for this is $15 / hour for 10 hours per week.Although hours will be influenced by student response to our marketing tactics and overallseasonality, the paid employee should expect to work 340 hours in the school year,creating a total cost of $5,100.For advertising expenditures, the UNA takes editorial spots for free to include in theirweekly newsletter. However, the pricing for ad space in the Ubyssey is based on the size ofthe ad and is priced per issue. For a full page ad, it costs $1,778. Price then drops as the sizeof the ad goes down. The smallest size that can be purchased is a “business card” sized adspot, which costs $102. Given the Free Store advertises for the last month before the end ofthe school year for donations, targeting resident move out, two ad spots would range from$3,556 to $204.For the UBC Free Store to target resident turnover, we suggest that they place donationbins in the main UBC residences. These are Place Vanier, Totem Park, Gage Towers, MarineDrive, and Ponderosa. A Rubbermaid 69 litre bin from Canadian Tire is priced at $9.99. For5 of these units it would cost $49.95.Assuming that, to make the rounds in surround neighborhoods for donation pick ups, thevolunteers would need to rent a vehicle, we have budgeted for U[Haul rentals. They offer arange of sizes of rental vehicles. Unless the volunteers are going to pick up large pieces offurniture, the best van to rent is the 9’ Cargo Van. This van has a base cost of $19.95 eachday and then distance cost of $0.49 each kilometre. At most, we estimate that thevolunteers would have to do round trips of a total 25 kilometres each day. As we haveproposed that it is a bi[monthly service, total cost each month would be approximately$64.40. SMART OBJECTIVE #2Social media strategy is to be implemented by the paid employee and associated costs havebeen outlined above. A Hootsuite membership is $9.99 / month and we have budgeted for8 months of usage. The total cost is $79.92.Seasonal print campaigns can be done in a number of ways, each with varying levels of cost.For our budgeting, we have decided to identify the most cost efficient way possible, andrecommend that the UBC FS prints 8.5 x 11” posters through UBC Print Services. Thequoted price for a colour poster from UBC Print Services is $0.35 per print (The Universityof British Columbia). Our recommendation for assumes that the total amount of postersneeded will be 53 sheets per seasonal event. This includes 4 posters for each of the 1236residence buildings, as well as 5 posters in the new SUB. Thus, for each seasonal event thecost will be $18.55. Our total budget assumes that 5 campaigns will be done, giving a totalof $92.75; however, this number can be adjusted depending on the monitored success ofthese campaigns. The UBC FS can add and subtract from this recommended number of 5campaigns.Upgrades to the UBC FS’s atmosphere and storage system have also been budgetedmodestly, in order to keep costs as low as possible. Fairy lights can be acquired for $7.00 orrepurposed lights can be sourced as well (eBay Inc., 2016). The wall paintings are assumedto be possible without incurring any labour costs. We believe that the UBC FS can get atalented artist to do this work for free. The cost of materials to turn one of the walls into achalkboard wall is $25.47 (Home Depot, 2016). Lastly, shelving units will be sourced fromHabitat for Humanity’s ReStore and we have budgeted $100 for these upgrades (Habitat forHumanity Greater Vancouver, 2016).SMART OBJECTIVE #3The strategies and tactics pertaining to the third and final objective are all actions andactivities that can be completed without any cost to the UBC FS.MONITORS AND CONTROLSWe intend to monitor our overall goal of increased awareness through a survey in April2017. We will contrast these future survey results with our current awareness level of 37.5percent from our primary research. In order to monitor our success of increasinginventory and consumption we will compare the April 2017 inventory averages to theestimated inventory averages we received from the facilitator of the UBC Free Store, Laura.By keeping track of the number of repurposed items, in addition to inventory turnover, wewill measure the overall reduction of waste in April 2017. As we have very limited data ofcurrent reduction of waste, we will assume the current average is greater than zero.What follows is a breakdown of the ways in which the UBC FS can measure the success ofthese recommended strategies and tactics.SMART OBJECTIVE #1As we expect donations to increase by 100%, there are various ways to monitor whetherour tactics are being successful in attracting new donors and larger more frequentdonations. The implementation of specific hours of operation and volunteers organized bya paid employee will control the outreach of their social media tactics, as well as be able toquantify their donations. This system to track inventory will allow for a deeperunderstanding of peak periods to target as well as what items are being commonlydonated. The point reward system will help control quality donations and determine what37types of events incentivize students. In regards to the upcoming September 2016 move[in,there is expected to be low inventory because the current school year has ended. However,with more established processes to monitor inventory, it will be easier to compare successwith the April 2017 move[out. This gives a year for the FS to create strong brandawareness. Pickup services and various donation bins will help determine the mostconvenient and clustered drop off areas to target their messages.SMART OBJECTIVE #2Currently the FS has 699 Facebook likes and low response to their extra curricular events.Their most recent event of ‘Free Yoga’ had 16 attendees. Greater awareness andengagement with the store pushed through social media should increase overall responserates to events and the number of page ‘likes’ by April 2017.SMART OBJECTIVE #3This objective is relatively straightforward to measure; once the UBC FS can confidently saythat they no longer landfill anything that they come in contact with, they will be successful.It is important to mention that any incremental gains towards this goal are valuable.42Charitableimpact (4) ! ! ! ! ! To declutter(5) ! ! ! ! ! Q10 Please consider the following statement: Imagine there is an organization that acceptsdonations in order to offer free items of the following categories: kitchenware, furniture,school supplies, electronics, books/magazines and clothing. The described organization isbuilt on the fundamentals of a circular economy and reduced consumerism.Q11 If you could conveniently donate items to this organization, how likely would you be todo so?! Very unlikely (1)! Unlikely (2)! Neutral (3)! Likely (4)! Very likely (5)Q12Where are you most likely to engage with brands that you like?" Facebook (1)" Instagram (2)" Twitter (3)" Pinterest (4)" Blogs (5)" Environmental conferences (6)" Student events (7)" Email (8)" Websites (9)Q13Which of the following organizations have you heard of previously? Check all thatapply." Foro (1)" UBC re[use it (2)" SHHS: Sustainable Move Out (3)" UBC Free Store (4)" Goodwill (5)" Other sustainability service in UBC, please identify: (6) ____________________44Q17Which of the following applies to your role at UBC?! Undergraduate (1)! Graduate (2)! Staff (3)! Professor or Instructor (4)If Undergraduate Is Selected, Then Skip To Which academic year are you in? If Graduate IsSelected, Then Skip To What is your area of study? If Staff Is Selected, Then Skip To What isyour role? If Professor or Instructor Is Selected, Then Skip To Which faculty?Q18Which academic year are you in?! 1 (1)! 2 (2)! 3 (3)! 4+ (4)Q19What is your main area of study (faculty)?! Arts (1)! Commerce (2)! Science (3)! Forestry (4)! Kinesiology (5)! Economics (6)! Engineering (7)! Other: (8) ____________________If Arts Is Selected, Then Skip To Are you an exchange student? If Commerce Is Selected,Then Skip To Are you an exchange student? If Science Is Selected, Then Skip To Are you anexchange student? If Forestry Is Selected, Then Skip To Are you an exchange student? IfKinesiology Is Selected, Then Skip To Are you an exchange student? If Economics IsSelected, Then Skip To Are you an exchange student? If Engineering Is Selected, Then SkipTo Are you an exchange student? If Other: Is Selected, Then Skip To Are you an exchangestudent?Q20What is your area of study?If What is your area of study? Is Not Empty, Then Skip To Are you an exchange student?Q21What is your role?If What is your role? Is Not Empty, Then Skip To Do you live on campus? (including Wes...57Positive Associations• interesting• chill/ relaxed• friendly• second hand thrift store• organized thrift shop• accessible• sweetNegative Associations• crap stuff• Knick knacks• skeptical• ulterior motive?• self interest• beat up• used• odor• discolored• I don’t want to use this• weird• low quality• not sure if there are people supposed to be thereWe were also interested in knowing what UBC students thought the expected goods andquality of products would be offered at the Free Store. Our interviews showed that thosewho do not use second hand stores as their primary location for purchasing goods tend toassume that any products in the free store will be heavily used and in bad condition. Thereseemed to be more of a negative connotation attached with the name ‘Free Store’ as there isexpected lower quality than found in thrift stores.We found that the types of products students tend to be more price sensitive about arebooks, furniture, smaller items, and kitchen appliances, which is also what the respondentsexpected to find in a Free Store.Although environmental impact is a concern among students, it tends to be more of asecondary thought to their purchases (Conventionals and Necessity). It was mentioned thatthose who actively shop at consignment stores already have the intention to reduce waste,therefore it can be said that environmental impact is a primary thought for those who areactive users of a low waste lifestyle (Ecocentric LOHAS).Most respondents make a conscious effort to donate and try to avoid throwing out wherepossible however, there is a convenience factor that motivates these efforts. When asked ofwhat they envision for the Free Store, it seemed to be a reoccurring theme to offer donationbins in a central location to encourage more donations and be more accessible.58When asked what their visions for the future of the Free Store would be, participantsagreed that a community of sustainability is an excellent initiative. It is unclear as towhether there should be people working as well as they noted the low selection ofproducts. Despite the concerns of the poor location, it is not feasible to relocate the FreeStore, and has potential to utilize the culture in the old sub.What are your visions for the Free Store?• Bright, clean, well ventilated – no smell, sturdy and safe shelves, no hidden nails tostep on, WELCOMING, don’t be too pompous, NOT intimidating.• Makes you feel like a community that are making effort for sustainability.• super cheap• afternoon [ evening hours?• hostile looking• have someone working those hours [ more friendly and less confusing• Donation bin near parking lot will encourage people who are driving to school todonate, especially for heavy and large items (furniture, books)• great idea, but needs more notice, excellent idea and willing to support• opinions (low quality, bad location, a great store)• not ideal location• interesting culture in the basement that you could work withDo you think there should be some form of reciprocity program where students givesomething in order to take from the Free Store?• Make customers feel that they could compensate the sense of guilty by donatingnext time and be engaged with the community• people would shy away from a commitment• more comfortable bringing in and taking something. some form of exchange• it is engrained that people need to give something• membership fee good idea [ people feel more entitled to take stuff• foster a sense of loyalty and more likely to take stuff inBecause the Free Store’s mission is to reduce consumerism, charging students for a useditem works against their value proposition however, including tokens for exchange or someform of loyalty programmay spark deeper engagement with the store.If drop off initiatives were done once a month, instead of all the time, it might produceurgency and would encourage regular “decluttering” or donating. Motivations for usingsecond hand stores are because they are “cool” and “niche” and important for the budgetconscious student.The best way for students to find out about events on campus is through word of mouthand social media. As shown through our online survey results, Facebook is one of the59largest platforms used when engaging with brands they like, which will be recommendedto inform students of promotional events in regards to the Free Store.Appendix D – Quantified Segmentation60Appendix E – Barriers to Entry	 61	Appendix	F	–	Key	Success	Factors																Appendix	G	–	Applications	for	Funding		Resources:		http://secubc.com/funding-application/	https://myams.org/grants-bursaries/	http://inside.warren-wilson.edu/~recycle/freestore.php				Appendix	H	–	References	for	Employee	Funding		Funding	Opportunities:	UBC	Student	Environment	Centre:	http://secubc.com/funding-application/		Opportunity	for	Volunteer	Engagement:	Sauder	Philanthropy	Program:	http://www.sauder.ubc.ca/About/Sauder Philanthropy Program																		 63	Appendix	J	–	Budget																										 		 64		BIBLIOGRAPHY		Aalto,	B.	(2012,	October	31).	Bin	there,	donated	that:	The	state	of	charity	shops.	(Carity	Village	Ltd.)	Retrieved	from	charityvillage.com:	https://charityvillage.com/Content.aspx?topic=Bin there donated that A look at the state of charity shops #.Vwt 55MrKRt	Berger,	J.	(n.d.).	The	Price	of	Knowledge:	Access	and	Student	Finance	in	Canada	-	Chapter	7:	Student	Debt	in	Canada.	Retrieved	from	contactpoint.ca:	http://contactpoint.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/pokvol4 ch7 e.pdf	Call	For	Volunteers.	(n.d.).	(G.	Forms,	Producer)	Retrieved	from	docs.google.com:	https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1m6Zaa cx7hUvI3Heav7iVwU7PiuPn4zBU-R5nSj-TuM/viewform	eBay	Inc.	.	(2016).	Fairy	Lights	.	(eBay	Inc.	)	Retrieved	from	www.ebay.com:	http://www.ebay.com/bhp/fairy-lights	Foro.	(2016).	Foro:	A	free	buy	and	sell	market	just	for	students.	(The	Foro)	Retrieved	from	www.theforo.com:	http://www.theforo.com/#aboutForo		Foro.	(2016).	Foro:	Timeline.	(Facebook)	Retrieved	from	www.facebook.com:	https://www.facebook.com/foroapp/timeline	Habitat	for	Humanity	Greater	Vancouver.	(2016).	Home/Restores.	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B.C.,	Ontario	score	highest	in	environmental	progress.	(CBCNEWS|Canada,	Producer,	&	CBC/Radio-Canada)	Retrieved	from	www.cbc.ca:	http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/b-c-ontario-score-highest-in-environmental-progress-1.1149049	Natural	Marketing	Institute.	(2013).	NMI's	Sustainability	Segmentation.	Retrieved	from	www.nmisolutions.com:	http://www.nmisolutions.com/index.php/syndicated-data/segmentation-algorithms-a-panels/lohas-segmentation	Our	Social	Fabric:	A	Textile	Recycling	Initiative	.	(n.d.).	Welcome.	(WordPress/The	Twenty	Eleven	Theme	)	Retrieved	from	oursocialfabric.org:	http://oursocialfabric.org/		 65	Patagonia.	(n.d.).	Patagonia	Repair	&	Care	Guides.	Retrieved	from	www.patagonia.com:	http://www.patagonia.com/us/worn-wear-repairs	Patagonia.	(2016).	Worn	Wear:	The	Stories	We	Wear	.	Retrieved	from	wornwear.patagonia.com:	http://wornwear.patagonia.com	Paul	,	A.,	Kaushal,	G.,	Bhatted,	M.,	Chandran,	M.,	&	Chaudhary,	A.	(2009,	December	7).	UBC	Social,	Ecological	Economic	Development	Studies	(SEEDS)	Student	Reports.	Retrieved	from	sustain.ubc.ca:	https://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/BusinessPlanFurnitureReuseEnterprise FINAL.pdf	Perrin,	A.	(2015).	Social	Media	Usage:	2005-2015:	65%	of	adults	now	use	social	networking	sites	 	a	nearly	tenfold	jump	in	the	past	decade.	Rew	Research	Center/Internet,	Science	&	Tech.	Rew	Research	Center.	Print	Measurement	Bureau.	(n.d.).	PMB	Print	Measurement	Bureau/PMB	Project	Data	.	Retrieved	2007-2013,	from	https://www-kmrsoftware-net.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/netquestapp/pmbquickreports/Default.aspx	reKindness.	(2015).	How	It	Works	.	(reKindness)	Retrieved	from	http://beta.rekindness.com/	re-use	it!	UBC.	(n.d.).	re-use	it!	UBC/Welcome	Page.	(iWaste	Not	Systems	Inc.	)	Retrieved	from	www.reuseitubc.ca:	http://www.reuseitubc.ca/	Richer,	L.	(2016).	Manager,	SEEDS	Program.	UBC	SEEDS.	Shrum,	L.,	McCarty,	J.,	&	Lowrey,	T.	(1995).	Buyer	Characteristics	of	the	Green	Consumer	and	Their	Implications	for	Advertising	Strategy.	Journal	of	Advertising	,	24	(2),	71-82.	Textbooks	For	Change	.	(n.d.).	Textbooks	For	Change/Home.	(Warprint	Media	)	Retrieved	from	textbooksforchange.ca:	http://textbooksforchange.ca/	The	University	of	British	Columbia.	(2015).	Community	Development	»	About	UTown	»	UTown@UBC	Facts	and	Figures.	(The	University	of	British	Columbia)	Retrieved	from	utown.ubc.ca:	http://utown.ubc.ca/about-utown/utownubc-facts-and-figures	The	University	of	British	Columbia.	(n.d.).	Information	Technology	»	Desktop	&	Print	Services	»	Printing	Services	»	Details	and	Pricing.	(The	University	of	British	Columbia)	Retrieved	from	it.ubc.ca:	https://it.ubc.ca/services/desktop-print-services/printing-services/details-and-pricing	The	University	of	British	Columbia.	(n.d.).	Student	Services	»	For	employers	»	Post	a	job.	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