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UBC South Campus Stormwater Detention Facility Bertsch, Kieran; Cattani, Mauricio; Mazloum, Payam; Perez, Juan Sebastian; Safaei, Payman; Xing, Renpeng (Bill) Apr 8, 2016

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportJuan Sebastian Perez, Kieran Bertsch, Mauricio Cattani, Payam Mazloum, Payman Safaei, Renpeng XingSouth Campus Stormwater Detention FacilityCIVL 446April 08, 201614782034University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.i CIVL 446 PROJECT II: UBC SOUTH CAMPUS STORMWATER DETENTION FACILITY  Client: University of British Columbia - UBC SEEDS (Social Ecological Economic Development Studies) Sustainability Program Source: Pennsylvania Environmental Council <www.stormwaterpa.org> Presented to you by: Team 13 Kieran Bertsch Mauricio Cattani Payam Mazloum Juan Sebastian PerezPayman Safaei Renpeng (Bill) XingDate: 8 April, 2016  ii Executive Summary  The South Campus of UBC faces considerable risks in the case of extreme stormwater events from 10-year and 100-year floods. The project objectives are to minimize the flood water damage and erosion to the cliffs by designing a stormwater detention system to store the floods that may occur in the South Campus of UBC. The major concerns include significant damage to important buildings in the area and erosion of the cliffs on the opposite side of SW Marine Dr. The most viable solution is to build stormwater detention facilities to store the floodwater and release it at a rate that will reduce erosion to acceptable levels. Increasing the size of certain pipes and culverts may be necessary to handle the extra water flow.  This report details chosen designs that are the most effective regarding functionality, construction and maintenance costs, and environmental impacts. Using data and rainfall models obtained through reports by GeoAdvice and Urban Systems, areas with the largest flood volumes are focused on for the most efficient location of the detention facilities.  A single location will host a multi use dry pond facility with two other locations hosting cylindrical fiberglass tanks. The intersection of Wesbrook Mall and SW Marine Dr will accommodate a large dry pond facility with a 3000 m3 capacity, and cylindrical fiberglass tanks will be installed at Wesbrook and 16th Ave and TRIUMF Centre with 1135 m3 and 210 m3 capacities respectively. These designs accomplish the technical requirements of the project effectively, and these are cost effective, environmentally sustainable and in line with UBC sustainability goals. The multipurpose dry pond facility  iii engages the community and invites community ownership with its design, which encourages the facilities use outside of storm events.   After detailed analysis of the different components of the project, the total cost is $3’619,054. The duration of this project is estimated to be 161 days, starting notifications at the beginning of March, and finishing construction by the start of September 2016.                              iv Table of Contents Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. ii 1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Project Overview ........................................................................................................................... 3 2.1 Project Objectives ...................................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Project Site ................................................................................................................................................... 4 2.3 Constraints and Issues ............................................................................................................................. 7 2.3.1 Regulatory.............................................................................................................................................................. 7 2.3.2 Noise and Traffic Interruption ...................................................................................................................... 8 2.3.3 Technical ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 2.3.4 Environmental ................................................................................................................................................... 10 3. Design Criteria ............................................................................................................................. 12 3.1 Design Life ................................................................................................................................................. 12 3.2 Design Loads ............................................................................................................................................. 12 4. Multipurpose Dry Pond Detention Facility ........................................................................ 14 4.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 14 4.2 Key Components of Design .................................................................................................................. 15 4.3 Technical Considerations ..................................................................................................................... 17 5. Underground Fiberglass Storage Tanks.............................................................................. 19 5.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 19 5.2 West 16th Ave & Wesbrook Mall ....................................................................................................... 19 5.2.1 Key Components ............................................................................................................................................... 19 5.2.2 Technical Considerations .............................................................................................................................. 20 5.3 TRIUMF Parking Lot ............................................................................................................................... 21 5.3.1 Key Components ............................................................................................................................................... 22 5.3.2 Technical Considerations .............................................................................................................................. 24 6. Draft Plan ....................................................................................................................................... 26 6.1 Construction Schedule .......................................................................................................................... 26 6.2 Construction Requirements ................................................................................................................ 27 6.3 Anticipated Issues ................................................................................................................................... 27 7. Cost Estimate ................................................................................................................................ 28 7.1 Community Notification & Consultation Cost Estimate ............................................................. 28 7.2 Construction Cost Estimate ................................................................................................................. 29 7.3 Annual Operation & Maintenance Cost Estimate ........................................................................ 34 8. Risk Assessment .......................................................................................................................... 35 8.1 Stormwater Pollution ............................................................................................................................ 35 9. Recommendations ...................................................................................................................... 37 9.1 Geological Studies ................................................................................................................................... 37  v 9.2 Pipe Upgrades .......................................................................................................................................... 38 9.3 Community Gardening .......................................................................................................................... 38 10. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 39 References ............................................................................................................................................. 40 Appendix A - Annotated Photos and Drawings ......................................................................... 41 Appendix B - Sample Calculations ................................................................................................. 45 Appendix C - Construction Schedule ............................................................................................. 48 Appendix D - Cost Estimate Table & Calculations .................................................................... 54                                vi   List of Illustrations Figure 1 - UBC South Campus, Stormwater Detention Facility Locations .................................... 4 Figure 2 - Multipurpose Stormwater Dry Pond Detention Facility Location .................................. 5 Figure 3 - Fiberglass Storage Tank at Wesbrook Mall & W. 16th Ave Location ........................... 6 Figure 4 - Fiberglass Storage Tank at TRIUMF Parking Lot Location .......................................... 6 Figure 5 - Multi-purpose Dry Detention Pond Overview ............................................................. 14 Figure 6 - Dry Detention Pond Interactive Spaces ...................................................................... 15 Figure 7 - Trench Drainage ......................................................................................................... 16 Figure 8 - Multilayer Growing and Filtering System .................................................................... 16 Figure 9 - Multipurpose Dry Detention Pond Recreation Activities ............................................. 17 Figure 10 - Overview of Cylindrical Fiberglass Tanks ................................................................. 20 Figure 11 - Side View of Excavation Area with Shoring and Dimensions ................................... 21 Figure 12 - Proposed Site for TRIUMF tanks .............................................................................. 22 Figure 13 - Underground Fiberglass Storage Tanks (Shoring Method) ...................................... 23 Figure 14 - Underground Fiberglass Storage Tanks (No-Shoring Method) ................................ 23 Figure 15 - Side View Storage Tanks ......................................................................................... 24 Figure 16 - Plan View Storage Tanks ......................................................................................... 25  Table 1 - Summary Table of Team Memer Contributions to Final Design Report ........................ 2 Table 2 - Summary Table of Construction Dates ........................................................................ 26 Table 3 - Community Notification & Consultation Cost Breakdown ............................................ 29 Table 4 - Total Construction Cost Breakdown ............................................................................ 30 Table 5 - Multipurpose Dry Pond Facility Construction Cost Breakdown.................................... 31 Table 6 - Wesbrook Mall & West 16th Ave. Construction Cost Breakdown ................................ 32 Table 7 - TRIUMF Tank Facility Construction Cost Breakdown ................................................. 33   .................................................................................................................................................   Figure 17 - Drain Trench Side View ............................................................................................ 41 Figure 18 - Drainage Side Schematic View ................................................................................ 41 Figure 19 - Drainage Top Schematic View ................................................................................. 42 Figure 20 - Inlet Design Front View (Dry Pond Facility) .............................................................. 42 Figure 21 - Outlet Design Lateral View (Dry Pond Facility) ........................................................ 43 Figure 22 - Outflow Culvert at SW Marine DR and Wesbrook Mall ............................................ 44 Figure 23 - Culvert Inlet at Wesbrook Mall, 200m North of SW Marine Dr. Interection ............... 44 Figure 24 - Detailed Project Schedule (Tabular Form) ............................................................... 49 Figure 25 - Detailed Project Schedule (Calendar Form) ............................................................. 53  Table 8 - Communitiy Notification and Consultation Detailed Cost Breakdown.......................... 54 Table 9 - Dry Pond Facility Detailed Cost Breakdown ................................................................ 54 Table 10 - Wesbrook Mall & West 16th Ave Facility Detailed Cost Breakdown .......................... 55 Table 11 - TRIUMF Facility Cost Breakdown .............................................................................. 55 1  1. Introduction  Stormwater detention systems for UBC South Campus will reduce if not eliminate the risks caused by an extreme rainwater event. These risks include damage to important buildings on campus, wildlife in streams, and cause cliff erosion putting UBC assets and interests in danger. Unlike UBC South Campus, other areas of UBC have had more recent construction and have incorporated stormwater detention facilities into their structures and designs. Therefore, stormwater detention systems are needed in UBC South Campus to mitigate the hazards of 10-year and 100-year flood events.  This report examines regulatory, technical, structural, environmental and social constraints, as well as an overview of the design criteria on which the project is based on. A thorough evaluation of the key components and technical considerations of the three detention facilities is outlined in this report. An estimate of the project plan and its cost, with a detailed breakdown of activities and dates is provided. Finally, risk assessment focusing on environmental impacts as well as various recommendations to improve the overall performance of this project is provided by Excellence Inc. Additional information and detailed value tables can be found in the Appendix section of this report.       2 Table 1 - Summary Table of Team Member Contributions to Final Design Report Name Contributions to Final Design Kieran Bertsch Underground Fiberglass Storage Tank - West 16th ave & Wesbrook Mall  Available space and feasible location analysis.  Decided on number of tanks to hold required flood volume  Excavation volume calculations, key components and technical considerations Project Plan  Construction requirements  Pipe upgrade recommendations Overall review of report  Check for spelling and grammar Mauricio Cattani Underground Fiberglass Storage Tank - TRIUMF  Available space and feasible location analysis.  Decided on number of tanks and dimensions to hold required flood volume.  Excavation volume calculations, key components and technical considerations. Overall review of report  Spelling and grammar check.  Edit and format of final report. Payam Mazloum Underground Fiberglass Storage Tank - TRIUMF  3D modelling, drafting schematics with detailed dimensions  Underground Fiberglass Storage Tank - Wesbrook & 16th  3D modelling, drafting schematics with detailed dimensions  Overall review of report  Spelling and grammar check. Overall Scheduling of all three projects in Microsoft Project Juan Sebastian Perez Dry Detention Pond Multipurpose Facility  Available Space and feasible location analysis  Design schematics and 3D Design in Sketchup  Development of conceptual solutions (Drainage and Multipurpose Facility)  Construction and Technical Requirements Project Design Overview Peyman Safaei Project Overview  Identified the objective of the design  Description of the project site  List of the constraints and issues with the project Site visit to W. 16th Ave + Wesbrook Mall, photos and measurements Risk Assessment of surface stormwater pollution Editing and review of the report Renpeng (Bill) Xing Project Life Cycle Cost Estimate  Pre-construction cost estimate: permitting, legal, EA, Public Notification, Geotechnical Consulting;  Construction cost estimate for all three facilities;  Facility maintenance and operating cost estimate. Geotechnical Recommendations Fiberglass Tank Research:  Researching about the most suitable underground tanks for our project and then found Containment Solution Flowtite underground fiberglass tanks;  Researching for other useful information about the tank such as installation manual, schematic drawing;  3 2. Project Overview UBC South Campus area is prone to a moderate 10-year rainfall event to a more severe 100-year flooding event leading to significant stormwater runoff causing damage to important campus facilities and buildings; eroding steep cliffs; and negatively affecting the ecosystem and its aquatic and land inhabitants. Excellence Inc. team, having used data and analysis of past geological surveys and studies, have outlined our objectives as listed in the following section. 2.1 Project Objectives The objectives of this stormwater management project are as follows:  Detain and control the release rate of a 10-year and 100-year stormwater flood event affecting UBC South Campus and neighbouring lands  Ensure the safety of students, staff and community residents  Protect UBC infrastructure assets, academic, commercial/residential buildings, and facilities from stormwater runoff  Prevent further erosion of the Pacific Spirit Park steep cliffs along Southwest Marine Drive sloping towards mouth of Fraser River  Minimize disruption to the natural ecosystem used by the land and aquatic organisms  Ensure that stormwater is treated as a resource for reuse to augment non-potable water demands  Work within UBC boundaries to effectively manage stormwater   4  Provide a multi-purpose public amenity facility to be used and enjoyed by the community for sport activities and community events 2.2 Project Site The three locations in UBC South Campus that will be affected by construction are shown in Figure 1:   Figure 1 - UBC South Campus, Stormwater Detention Facility Locations                                                        Source: © Mauricio Cattani, Google Maps 2016   Multi-Purpose Dry Pond Detention Facility The Multi-Purpose Stormwater Dry Pond Detention Facility project will be located on an existing field adjacent to the parking lot of CCM (Centre for Comparative Medicine) facility at the intersection of Southwest Marine Drive and Wesbrook Mall. The stormwater collected is conveyed through the pipes and into the ditches along SW  5 Marine Drive to Booming Ground Creek where it is ultimately discharged into the Fraser River. The following figure shows the proposed location for this detention facility:   Figure 2 - Multipurpose Stormwater Dry Pond Detention Facility Location                                                  Source: © Mauricio Cattani, Google Maps 2016  Cylindrical Fiberglass Tanks - Wesbrook Mall and West 16th Ave  Six 50,000 Gallon Cylindrical Fiberglass Tanks will be installed underground 50 meters to the North-East of the roundabout in Wesbrook Mall and West 16th Ave. intersection. The stormwater collected flows along 16th Avenue to the Botanical Garden Creek that discharge into Museum Creek. The following figure shows the location of the Wesbrook Mall and West 16th Ave. tanks.   6  Figure 3 - Fiberglass Storage Tank at Wesbrook Mall & W. 16th Ave Location                                             Source: © Mauricio Cattani, Google Maps 2016 Cylindrical Fiberglass Tanks - TRIUMF Two 30,000 Gallon Cylindrical Fiberglass Tanks will be installed underground below the TRIUMF vehicle parking lot located at 4004 Wesbrook Mall. The following figure shows the proposed location for these tanks:  Figure 4 - Fiberglass Storage Tank at TRIUMF Parking Lot Location                                                               Source: © Mauricio Cattani, Google Maps 2016  7 2.3 Constraints and Issues It is of great importance to identify all possible constraints and issues for the construction of the UBC South Campus stormwater detention system, as they will affect the features of our design. The key issues and constraints that have been taken into account are divided into four major categories: regulatory, noise and traffic interruption, technical, and environmental. A detailed analysis of each constraint is provided in the following sections. 2.3.1 Regulatory The regulatory constraints identified for this project relate to different laws and regulations of different governing bodies for stormwater management as well as property boundaries. In terms of stormwater management, it has been identified that the governing bodies are the Federal and Provincial Government. Under the Federal Government, different acts such as the Fisheries Act and the Canadian Environmental Management Act will regulate how stormwater is managed and disposed. Under the Provincial Government, the Water Act and Environmental Management Act are the regulations that govern how stormwater is dealt with. For instance, detention tanks handling runoff from the streets should attempt to incorporate a primary treatment system to filtrate contaminants before discharging to larger bodies of water.   Another regulatory constraint refers to property boundaries. In this case, Metro Vancouver and the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure  (MoTI) are the governing bodies. Measures to mitigate flooding that require work done in Metro Vancouver or MoTI land demand the attainment of legal leases and access  8 agreements. Obtaining these may require time and could potentially delay the project. This presents a challenge since discharge from campus must pass through the land of other jurisdictions before being disposed to larger bodies of water.  2.3.2 Noise and Traffic Interruption Excessive noise and traffic disruption were some of the issues voiced and discussed during the public consultation meeting held in March. Many residents in the area and motorists travelling to UBC via south campus routes were concerned about the impact of construction on road use and access. Although, we will be taking all the necessary steps to minimize traffic interruptions, the reduced speed limit during construction will increase trip travel time to the benefit of improved safety for the road users and our work crew.  Steps taken to remediate excessive traffic congestion and interruption are as follows:  One lane of traffic in each direction will always be open to traffic  Use of a certified traffic control flag person to safely direct vehicle traffic and pedestrians  Use of prefabricated fiberglass tanks for quick delivery and short installation time   Limit of only two heavy commercial vehicles such as concrete trucks and semi-trailers parked at the waiting lane  Simultaneous and overlapping schedule will greatly reduce construction time  9   However, it must be stressed that construction will be occurring at three various location and traffic interruptions may vary from day to day and location to location depending on construction activity of the day.   Construction noise should only be evident during working hours of Monday to Friday from 7am to 5pm and occasionally on Saturdays. There will not be any construction activity on Sundays and holidays and in the evening.   All noise and traffic interruption notices will be posted on various online websites and updated regularly as work commences towards completion. There will be large information billboards posted at and near the project locations and smaller placards will be installed along the corridors affected to inform road users and direct them to detours if necessary. 2.3.3 Technical The technical constraints that are of importance to this project put the focus on future UBC development plans as well as the geotechnical, hydrological and structural performance of different component of the design. Under the UBC Vancouver Campus Plan, it has been identified that significant development is planned to occur in UBC South Campus. UBC’s future development plans are highly concentrated in South Campus, it is expected that 60% of all campus-wide development plans will take place in this area. The consequence of such development plans is the increase in total impervious areas of South Campus ranging from 75% to 95% of the total area. This translates to an increase in peak flow rates due to the increase in excess runoff surfaces.    10 Geotechnical, hydrological and structural constraints are also of great concern. The geology and hydrology of the area where detention facilities are to be constructed should be fully examined and analyzed. The construction of large detention pond above surface or tanks underground can lead to large soil settlements leading to soil failure if the subsurface profile is not examined. Tanks should be chosen such that allowable serviceability states are achieved, and structurally adequate to sustain their own weight and potential external loads.          Technical aspects such as the existing pipes and culverts present various issues for UBC South Campus. Existing undersized pipes along Wesbrook Mall, which discharge to SW Marine Drive, as well as the undersized pipes along West 16th Ave. are the main cause for over-flooding. In addition to this, undersized culverts along SW Marine Drive contribute significantly to flooding in this area. Pipes and culverts are operated and owned by MoTI; hence rebuilding these elements is not a feasible option. However, retention tanks were designed to release accumulated water at a rate that the culverts and pipes can hold. Research by UBC’s Integrated Stormwater Management Plan suggests that the release rate should be around 1.2 cubic meters per second for the pipes and culverts to operate at their maximum capacity without overflowing.  2.3.4 Environmental Environmental constraints and issues focus on the existing policies regarding sustainable practices as well as the effects of water infiltration into subsoil. The UBC 20 Year Sustainability Strategy focuses on the improvement of the quality of life and enhancement of ecological integrity by incorporating campus water and wastewater systems. Similarly, under Policy #39, the Vancouver Campus Plan and the Board of  11 Governors require a natural system approach for stormwater management if possible. Given these policies and strategic goals, any mitigation approach considered should be a sustainable solution.          Lush vegetation and old growth trees surround UBC South Campus and many have be logged in the past to accommodate important academic buildings and facilities and overwhelming demand for residential multi-unit dwellings. Excellence Inc. has implemented a plan with the goal to save as many trees as possible and to replace the fallen trees with young regrowth. Some trees may have to be cut for the safety of the public using the multi-purpose dry pond facility for community and sport events. Special care will be taken to navigate the construction equipment and vehicles as far away from sensitive flora, streams and habitats important to the land and aquatic ecosystem of the area.          A final consideration is the fact that the climate is changing. This presents an environmental issue since models show an increase in annual rainfall, therefore 10-year storms will become more frequent. It is important to keep this in mind since any mitigation approach should not only accommodate current conditions but also be able to accommodate future climate changing conditions.        12 3. Design Criteria  The explicit goals that a project must achieve in order to be successful are designated as the design criteria. For the stormwater detention system the main design considerations are the design life and loads. 3.1 Design Life  The dry pond facility is expected to have a life expectancy of 60 years with minor maintenance every year and major maintenance every 20 years. The minor maintenance includes ensuring the perimeter drain is clear of debris and organic materials including inlet and outlet pipes. Major maintenance includes possible resurfacing of interior area of dry pond facility to ensure proper filtration and adequate facility quality. Maintenance and cost specifics are discussed further in section 7.3. The cylindrical fibreglass tanks have a prescribed life expectancy of 30 years depending on level of use and liquid stored according to the specifications provided by Containment Solutions. However due to the very infrequent use and the facility storage of water only we expect the lifespan of the tanks to reach the same life expectancy of the dry pond facility of about 60 years. These tanks will require minimal maintenance duration depending on the frequency of storm events. 3.2 Design Loads  The dry pond at full capacity will be designed to hold about 3000 cubic meters of water at a maximum depth of about 1.5 meters. This equates to 15 KPa of pressure on  13 the surface of the facility. It is expected that the soil present on site with adequate compaction will be fully capable of handling such a load with an adequate factor of safety.  The cylindrical fiberglass tanks are installed as per Containment Solutions installation guidelines which schematic sketches and drawings are shown in Section 5 of this report.                    14 4. Multipurpose Dry Pond Detention Facility  The most critical area to treat stormwater runoff on UBC South Campus is found to be at the intersection of Southwest Marine Drive and Wesbrook Mall. This design consists of a multipurpose dry detention pond, which can hold up to 3000 m3 of stormwater. The following figure shows a model of the dry pond design.   Figure 5 - Multi-purpose Dry Detention Pond Overview                                                                                     Source: © Juan Sebastian Perez, Sketchup 2015 4.1 Overview  Dry detention ponds/basins temporarily detain and store collected stormwater runoff for a short period of time, hence releasing the stormwater slowly to reduce peak stormwater discharge, control the flood and prevent downstream creek and cliff erosion. Furthermore the detention pond also provides an interactive space for UBC’s  15 community by enhancing its use with a multipurpose approach. An example of a possible use of the dry pond is shown below in Figure 6.  Figure 6 - Dry Detention Pond Interactive Spaces                                                                                               Source: © Juan Sebastian Perez, Sketchup 2015  4.2 Key Components of Design  In order to contain the required 3000 m3 of stormwater, the pond will have a longitudinal length of 50m, a width of 40m and a depth of 1.5m. The pond filtration system will encompass a tile drainage trench which will be connected directly to water distribution pipes which will fill the trench during floods while also draining the water at a suitable rate, if the trench fills up then the pond will start to fill up. The following figure illustrates the drainage system of the dry detention pond:   16  Figure 7 - Trench Drainage                                                                                                                                     Source: © Payam Mazloum, Sketchup 2015   The design specifies a multilayer filtering system. This system has the advantage of draining water to the drainage trench while also filtering the water and providing a growing medium for gardening or lawn. The multilayer filtering system will be located at the floor of the pond. A similar example of a filtering system is shown in Figure 8.   Figure 8 - Multilayer Growing and Filtering System                                                                                           Source: Intercongreen  17  Moreover the pond will have a variety of spaces for people to do different activities such as sports, events or gardening. The following figure illustrates a possible recreation activity that can be implemented to this multipurpose detention facility.  Figure 9 - Multipurpose Dry Detention Pond Recreation Activities                                                                  Source: © Payam Mazloum, Sketchup 2015 4.3 Technical Considerations  Construction for the dry pond does not require highly trained workers or difficult technical considerations. Nevertheless, it is important to note the following construction considerations:  Excavation needs to be enough for pond space  The soil below needs to have enough compaction   18  Slopes on the sides of the pond have to be gentle (4:1, Horizontal: Vertical)  Multilayer filtering system needs some technical expertise in the installation  The pond will have approximately 15 kPa of maximum load which needs to be supported by soil and sediments.  The pond also requires a specified maintenance and monitoring schedule in order to maintain its 50 years life expectancy at maximum efficiency. Maintenance must address filtering and drainage systems issues constantly.                  19 5. Underground Fiberglass Storage Tanks  The remainder of the stormwater from a 100-year flood will be stored in underground fiberglass storage tanks located in key locations on the South Campus of UBC. The following section outlines the key components and technical considerations for each design.  5.1 Overview   The fiberglass storage tanks are provided by Containment Solutions. There will be two locations for the fiberglass storage tanks. Since the requirements at each location vary, the sizes of the tanks will be different. The tanks located near the intersection of West 16th Ave. and Wesbrook Mall will have a diameter of 12’, and the tanks located at the TRIUMF parking lot will have 10’ diameter.  5.2 West 16th Ave & Wesbrook Mall  The second largest volume of stormwater detention tanks will be located on the North side of the intersection along W. 16th Ave. According to GeoAdvice’s technical report, the flood volume predicted in this area is 1000 m3. The area is currently a grassy hill so no trees will have to be removed for the excavation for the tanks. 5.2.1 Key Components   In order to contain the required 1000 m3 of stormwater, six cylindrical fiberglass tanks with a diameter of 12’ and volume of 50,000 Gallons each (189 m3) are installed.  20 This equates to a total capacity of 1135 m3. They will be arranged in three rows of two tanks as shown in Figure 10. The excavation area will be 87m x 25m.  Figure 10 - Overview of Cylindrical Fiberglass Tanks                                                                                        Source: © Payam Mazloum, Sketchup 2016, Google Maps 2016 5.2.2 Technical Considerations  By following the installations guidelines provided by the manufacturers, Containment Solutions, the tanks will have 0.75m of backfill below and 1.2m above. The tanks will have a 0.75m distance between them. Since the tanks are 3.66m in diameter, this yields an overall excavation depth of 5.61m. A safe slope of 1:2 will be used on all sides of the excavation pit. The excavation area required for this depth would include part of the road, so traffic would need to be detoured for the construction. In order to  21 avoid rerouting and disrupting traffic on W 16th Ave, shoring of 1.75m will be used as shown in Figure 11 below.  Figure 11 - Side View of Excavation Area with Shoring and Dimensions                                                         Source: © Payam Mazloum, AutoCad 2016   By installing the shoring, the excavation volume necessary has decreased by approximately 500 m3 compared to without the shoring. Using the measurements in Figure 11 above and including the reduction in volume, the excavation volume is estimated at 8700 m3.   5.3 TRIUMF Parking Lot  Another critical location identified on UBC South Campus was around TRIUMF Centre. According to GeoAdvice, the predicted 100-year flood in this location is 210 m3. In order to contain such flood volume, 2 tanks 10’ diameter with a 30,000 Gallon capacity each will be used, which yields a total capacity of 60,000 Gallons (227 m3).  22 The proposed location for the installation of these tanks is in TRIUMF’s parking lot, which is shown in Figure 12 below:   Figure 12 - Proposed Site for TRIUMF tanks                                                                                                        Source: © Mauricio Cattani, Google Maps 2016  5.3.1 Key Components  Two methods of installation have been proposed for this tank. The first method is using shoring, since the excavation depth will require additional support to avoid failure. By using this method, the excavation volume will total 749 m3, extending over an area of 20m by 10m. The second method considers a slope of 1:2 to maintain excavation safety standards and avoid the use of shoring. This method requires larger excavation volume, which yields a total of 1,680 m3 extending over an area of 36m by 26m. Both of these  23 methods are feasible in terms of available space in the proposed site. A plan view of the two methods of installation are shown in the following figures:   Figure 13 - Underground Fiberglass Storage Tanks (Shoring Method)                                                         Source: © Payam Mazloum, Sketchup 2016, Google Maps 2016   Figure 14 - Underground Fiberglass Storage Tanks (No-Shoring Method)                                                   Source: © Payam Mazloum, Sketchup 2016, Google Maps 2016  24            5.3.2 Technical Considerations  The manufacturer of these tanks, Containment Solutions, provides installation guidelines that specify the dimensions and distances required to safely maintain the tanks. The required backfill below and above the tanks has to be 0.5m and 0.46m respectively. The distance between tanks has to be 0.48m and the distance required from the tanks to the nearest wall has to be 1.5m. Taking this requirements into account as well as the tank diameter, the excavation depth has to be 4m deep. A summary of the dimension and tank layout is provided in the following figures:      Figure 15 - Side View Storage Tanks                                                                                                                     Source: © Payam Mazloum, AutoCad 2016      25  Figure 16 - Plan View Storage Tanks                                                                                                                    Source: © Payam Mazloum, AutoCad 2016  It is worth noting that some assumptions were made in order to decide on the dimensions and distances for the above layout to maintain a conservative design. It was assumed that TRIUMF parking lot has considerable traffic, therefore the tanks will be subject to traffic loads. It was also assumed a wet hole excavation, given the rainy conditions in Vancouver area and a possible water table 2m below the surface. It was also assumed unstable excavation, since geotechnical reports indicate gravels, silts and sands are present in the subsurface.       26 6. Draft Plan  The draft plan for construction of the dry pond and stormwater detention tanks includes the construction schedule, construction requirements and the anticipated issues. The following section outlines the different components of the project schedule.  6.1 Construction Schedule   The dry pond and stormwater detention tanks begin construction after preliminary notices which include public information sessions, permitting and licensing. After approval the construction schedules will commence. One specialized crew will work on the TRIUMF tanks at the same time as the site team for the construction of the Dry Pond. Once the TRIUMF tanks are complete construction will proceed to the W. 16th Ave. & Wesbrook Mall tank. A summary table of construction dates, tasks and durations are shown below in Table 2. Table 2 - Summary Table of Construction Dates Task Name Duration Start Finish Preliminary Notices 33 days Mon 28-03-16 Wed 11-05-16 Dry pond Construction 61 days Thu 12-05-16 Thu 04-08-16 TRIUMF Detention Tanks 32 days Thu 12-05-16 Fri 24-06-16 Wesbrook & 16th Detention Tanks 52 days Mon 27-06-16 Tue 06-09-16   27 For a detailed schedule, please see Appendix C, which shows a more in-depth schedule made using Microsoft Project. 6.2 Construction Requirements   In order for the construction of the dry pond and detention tanks to go smoothly, the schedule must be followed in the order presented. As it will hold the majority of the stormwater, the dry pond is the largest and most important part of the design, so it will be constructed first. Excavating for the TRIUMF detention tanks involves blocking off part of the parking lot, so this part of the schedule needs to be completed on-time in order to create the least inconvenience for the people working in the TRIUMF centre. 6.3 Anticipated Issues    Since the soil properties have not been fully tested at the dry pond location, some unexpected conditions may arise that delay the schedule. For the TRIUMF tanks, the underground pipes and cables will need to be mapped out more thoroughly to ensure that the excavation does not interfere with any of the pipes already in place. For the tanks located at W 16 Ave. the main concern is regarding the shoring. The goal is to be able to install the shoring and excavate for the tanks without disrupting traffic, but if installing the shoring needs extra room, some traffic detours may need to be put in place for a short period of time.   28 7. Cost Estimate  UBC South Campus stormwater management project will include three detention facilities: a multipurpose dry pond and two fully underground fiberglass tank systems. The total project cost estimate consists of two parts: community notification and consultation cost and total construction cost. The construction expenditures play a more important role on affecting the total project cost estimate. In this section, both parts of cost estimate and annual operation and maintenance costs would be discussed in detail. 7.1 Community Notification & Consultation Cost Estimate  This section summarizes the preconstruction phase of the project. Before any construction activities start, the following activities listed in Table 3 must be completed to acquire legal and public/community approval on the project. The design team will carry out all of the aesthetic and structural designs for the dry detention pond facility. However, some foundation consultations from geotechnical experts regarding soil capacity, soil permeability and soil layer types throughout the depth are still needed. Table 3 illustrates the estimated cost for each activity. A spreadsheet with a detailed cost estimate for this section can be found in Appendix D.   29   Table 3 - Community Notification & Consultation Cost Breakdown Cost Category Cost (CAD) Public Notification 288,000 Geotechnical Consulting 72,000 Environmental Assessment 250,000 Permitting  46,861 Legal  100,000 TOTAL COST  $756,861  7.2 Construction Cost Estimate  The total estimated construction cost for all the three facilities is $3,619,054 Canadian dollars (CAD). Table 4 illustrates the breakdown of the cost for each storm water detention facility. The multipurpose dry pond facility contributes the most towards to the total construction cost due to its longer construction period and larger size. It is also the facility that has the most engineering and architectural design involvement, because it is a public accessible facility that has the largest stormwater storage capacity on UBC South Campus. The Wesbrook Mall & W. 16th Ave underground tank facility has similar cost compared to the dry pond facility. The main reason for this is because  30 this tank facility also needs to store a huge amount of water during flood events and the available space for construction is very limited. In order to store the anticipated flood volume and also minimize the local traffic disturbance, oversized fiberglass tanks are required (50,000 gallon in capacity).  Containment Solution Inc. does not normally carry tanks, which are that large in size, so they have to make a special order from their contracted factory. This increase the procurement costs for tanks dramatically for both tank facilities. Comparing to the Wesbrook Mall & W. 16th Ave tank facility, the TRIUMF tank facility is much cheaper in cost due to its much smaller excavation volume and smaller fiberglass tanks in regular size (30,000 gallons in capacity).  Table 4 - Total Construction Cost Breakdown Facility Cost (CAD) Multipurpose Dry Pond  1,813,826 Wesbrook Mall+16th Ave Fiberglass Tanks 1,331,165 TRIUMF Fiberglass Tanks  474,063 TOTAL COST  $3,619,054  The estimated total construction cost for the multipurpose dry pond facility is $1,813,826 CAD. The construction activity breakdown is illustrated in Table 5. The pond is designed to retain 3000 cubic meter of water during 100-year flood event so it is the largest detention facility. This explains why excavation cost and foundation treatment  31 cost are two of the major costs for the dry pond facility. Underground pipe placement is another major cost to the entire project. According to the pond design, 4000 m of pipes need to be upsized, 5000 m of pipes need to be newly installed and 1000 m of pipes need to diverged. This is the most time consuming part in the entire dry pond construction phase, as well as the most expensive part.  Table 5 - Multipurpose Dry Pond Facility Construction Cost Breakdown Construction Activity Cost (CAD) Tree Removal 72,000 Excavation  210,065 Foundation Work  57,799 Pond Bottom Treatment  270,529 Underground Piping Placement  733,000 Concrete Place  307,290 Site Restoration  24,335 Landscaping  102,430 Others  36,378 TOTAL COST  $1,813,826    32 Table 6 contains the detailed construction activities and their costs for the Wesbrook Mall & W.16th Ave tank facility. The most expensive part of the entire facility construction is procurement. As mentioned earlier, the fiberglass tanks that are utilized in this facility are exceptionally large tanks with 50,000 gallon capacity each. They have to be specially ordered by our tank supply company named Containment Solution Inc. The total cost for this facility is $1,331,165 CAD.  Table 6 - Wesbrook Mall & West 16th Ave. Construction Cost Breakdown Construction Activity Cost (CAD) Procurement  869,080 Excavation  182,064 Foundation Compaction  14,030 Piping  2,600 Backfill  166,243 Site Restoration  76,290 Others  20,858 TOTAL COST  $1,331,165  The detailed construction activities for the TRIUMF tanks are illustrated in Table 7. Same kinds of fiberglass tanks are used for this facility. However, the size of each  33 tank is much smaller, which is only 30,000 gallons in capacity. The main reason for this is that the anticipated 100-year flood volume much less than the location at Wesbrook Mall and 16th Ave. The construction site and working space are located right at TRIUMF parking lot. In order to minimize the parking lot disturbance, temporary shoring is utilized to minimize the construction space occupation and reduce the excavation volume. The total cost for the TRIUMF tank facility comes up to $474,063 CAD.   Table 7 - TRIUMF Tank Facility Construction Cost Breakdown Construction Activity Cost (CAD) Procurement  156,645 Excavation  15,680 Temporary Shoring  2,880 Foundation Compaction  4,370 Shoring Removal  1,440 Piping  1,400 Backfill  8,500 Site Restoration  262,290 Others  20,858 TOTAL COST  $474,063   34 7.3 Annual Operation & Maintenance Cost Estimate  For the dry detention pond, the annual cost of routine maintenance and operation is estimated at 5% of the construction cost, which is $90,100 CAD. However, semi-annual and annual inspections are still needed to minimize maintenance cost or keep maintenance cost from rising as its service time increases. Semi-annual inspections will note the erosion of pond banks and bottom. Annual inspection will cover the inspection on embankment damage, sediment accumulation in the facility and debris accumulation near the water inlets and outlets. Aside of annual standard maintenance, 5 to 7 year maintenance and 25 to 60 year maintenance are also required to ensure the proper functionality of the facility. The design life for minor maintenance of the dry pond facility is 60 years. So after passing the 60-year mark, the annual maintenance cost will increase.    Unlike the multipurpose dry pond facility, neither of the tank facilities are publicly accessible. So both of the tank facilities are considered as lightly used during years with normal precipitations. This will result in a much cheaper annual maintenance costs for both fiberglass tank facilities compare to the maintenance costs for dry pond, which is estimated as $5,000 CAD annually. However, major maintenance is still required every 20 years to ensure the tank integrity.     35 8. Risk Assessment  The stormwater detention system for UBC South Campus will provide a safe conveyance of large volumes of stormwater aimed to protect the people and property of UBC campus and to maintain the ecological integrity and health of the landscape. Risk Management programs must be implemented to identify, analyze and respond to risks on projects. 8.1 Stormwater Pollution  Stormwater surface runoff, which will eventually flow into the stormwater conveyance pipe systems, may carry variety of materials with potential negative impacts on the water quality. The bulk of UBC’s stormwater runoff is from the streets and sidewalks and provides the majority of the contaminants. These include sediments from the wear of the road as well as from the construction sites. Other materials include, excess nutrients, metals, organic contaminants, oxygen demanding materials, oil and grease, and even harmful bacteria and viruses. These materials will pose a negative impact on the survival of the fish and degradation of the aquatic ecosystem. In order to protect the environment from such pollutants, risk assessment programs such as a water pollution prevention policies and guidelines must be drafted. Proper stormwater quality control procedures regarding operations and activities at UBC must be followed to reduce or remove the pollutant threat. Harmful chemicals should be identified and depositing of any substance, which will negatively affect the aquatic habitat, must be prohibited. The benefits of detention facilities such as the stormwater dry pond and underground storage tanks allow the sediments to sink and settle at the  36 bottom before the runoff will reach the streams reducing turbidity and improving the water quality. The detention option also allows for a simple installation of a primary treatment for the stormwater runoff in order to minimize the amount of sediments that leave the campus stormwater system.                    37 9. Recommendations  The following section outlines Excellence Inc. recommendations with regards to geological studies, pipe upgrades and community gardening.  9.1 Geological Studies  All of the available borehole information for UBC South Campus is provided by EXP Service Inc. and EBA. A total of 19 boreholes were drilled on the North side of the Ortona Rd along Wesbrook Mall; and a geotechnical report was provided for each borehole. However, none of these boreholes are located near our stormwater detention facilities. This adds some uncertainties to the soil properties on site and makes our foundation design less adequate for the facilities located on the South side of Ortona Rd. Moreover, all of the boreholes were hand pitted and their depths are very shallow, normally between 0.66m and 3.0m. Maximum excavation depth for our detention facilities exceeds 5.0 m. The risk of getting unexpected soil properties is very high once excavation exceeds 3.0m-depth mark and excavation costs may increase if construction team encounters hard layers. No soil strength test data could be found in the geotechnical reports. Accurate soil strength is unknown for UBC South Campus region.   Our recommendation is that boreholes and geotechnical studies must be carried out along the specified sites for the three different detention facilities. Standard penetration tests and cone penetrometer tests should be carried out multiple times to acquire accurate soil strength properties. The risk of increasing cost and delaying project schedule will be mitigated if these geotechnical studies are done properly.   38 9.2 Pipe Upgrades  The pipes leading into the proposed stormwater detention facilities should be upgraded to be able to handle the extra flow. At the moment, some of the pipes cannot even handle the 10-year flow. The SWMM model needs to be updated to be able to accurately design for a network of larger pipes to accommodate the 100-year stormwater flows to the different detention facilities. 9.3 Community Gardening   The inclusion of a multilayer filtering system and growing medium provides the opportunity for the community to elaborate a garden in which many people can contribute and interact together. It is recommended to have a community garden on the pond as it will contribute in gathering people and having a good environment with the space.           39 10. Conclusion  Stormwater detention facilities are of great importance to mitigate risks associated with 10-year and 100-year rainfall events. It reduces the risk of property damage, cliff erosion and takes into account general public consideration by reducing flooding and culvert output flows. The selected multi-purpose dry detention pond and installed fiberglass tanks exhibit high levels of sustainability, low effective costs, low maintenance costs, relative flexibility of use and redesign capability.  The intersection of Wesbrook Mall and SW Marine Dr will accommodate the large dry pond facility with a 3000 m3 capacity, and cylindrical fiberglass tanks installed at Wesbrook Mall and West 16th Ave. and TRIUMF Centre with 1135 m3 and 210 m3 capacity respectively. The total cost accumulates to $3,619,054 CAD for all aspects of the construction process, not including maintenance. The duration of this project is estimated to be 161 days, starting notifications at the beginning of March, and finishing construction by the start of September 2016.   These designs accomplish the technical requirements of the project effectively. The multipurpose dry pond facility engages the community and invites community ownership with its design, which encourages the facilities use outside of storm events.   Some recommendations would include an analysis of the current system piping flow and then conducting piping upgrades as necessary. Additionally further community feedback would be beneficial to see what facilities need to be adjusted as well as further consideration of other stormwater systems such as hard surface runoff mitigation through green surfaces.  40 References  City of Vancouver (2015, January 1). 2015 schedule of fees for Planning and Development, and  Community Service. Retrieved from: http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/csg-fees-2013.pdf  City of Vancouver (2015, January 1). Protection of Trees By-law. Retrieved from:  http://former.vancouver.ca/commsvcs/BYLAWS/tree/SEC04_2015.pdf  City of Vancouver (2015, January 1). Noise bylaw exemption permit. Retrieved from  http://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/noise-bylaw-exception-permit.aspx  Watershed Management Institute (1997). Stormwater Management Fact Sheet: Dry Extended  Detention Pond. Retrieved from: http://www.stormwatercenter.net/Assorted%20Fact%20Sheets/Tool6_Stormwater_Practices/Pond/Dry%20ED%20Pond.htm  Alberta Infrastructure & Transportation staff and its Consultants (2015, October 26). Unit Price  Average Report. Retreived from: http://www.transportation.alberta.ca/Content/docType257/Production/UnitPriceList.pdf  GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. (2013). UBC STORMWATER MODEL SYSTEM ANALYSIS,  DETENTION ANALYSIS AND SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION. Retrieved from: https://connect.ubc.ca/bbcswebdav/pid-3067417-dt-content-rid-13701554_1/courses/SIS.UBC.CIVL.445.101.2015W1.51492/TM%233-UBC%20Stormwater%20Model%20System%20Analysis%2C%20Detention%20Analysis%20and%20System%20Optimization-Final-June%2011%202013.pdf  Campus and Community Planning (2011, May 25). Overland Flow Route Assessment.  Retrieved from: https://connect.ubc.ca/bbcswebdav/pid-3067419-dt-content-rid-13701555_1/courses/SIS.UBC.CIVL.445.101.2015W1.51492/Overland%20Flow%20Route%20Assessment%20-%20Final.pdf     41 Appendix A - Annotated Photos and Drawings   The following photos and annotated drawings are provided as an addition to the report figures. Detailed dimensions and cross-sections will aid with the visualization and understanding of the detention system designs.   Figure 17 - Drain Trench Side View                                                                                                                      Source: © Payam Mazloum, Sketchup 2015  Figure 18 - Drainage Side Schematic View                                                                                                           Source: © Payam Mazloum, Layout 2015  42   Figure 19 - Drainage Top Schematic View                                                                                                           Source: © Payam Mazloum, Layout 2015   Figure 20 - Inlet Design Front View (Dry Pond Facility)                                                                                                                        Source: © Juan Perez, Sketchup 2015    43  Figure 21 - Outlet Design Lateral View (Dry Pond Facility)                                                                                Source: © Juan Perez, Sketchup 2015                     44 The following photos demonstrate the current state of the culvert at Wesbrook Mall and SW Marine Dr. This justifies our recommendation on pipe and culvert upgrades.    Figure 22 - Outflow Culvert at SW Marine DR and Wesbrook Mall  Figure 23 - Culvert Inlet at Wesbrook Mall, 200m North of SW Marine Dr. Interection  45 Appendix B - Sample Calculations  Cost Estimate Sample Calculations Multi-purpose Dry Pond    Subgrade Excavation Volume:  Area of the bottom of the pond: A = a*b*pi = (20m)(40m)(pi) = 2513 m2  Excavation volume without side slopes: V1 = A*h = (2513 m2)(3.5m) = 8796 m3  Side slopes excavation volume (rise : run = 1 : 4): Side slope rise: rise = h = 3.5m Side slope run: run = 4*h = 14m Side slopes excavation: V2 = (run2*pi*rise)/2 = 1078 m3  Total excavation volume: V Total = V1 + V2 = 8796 m3 + 1078 m3 = 9874 m3    Trench Excavation Volume:  Pond bottom perimeter: p = pi*{3*(a+b) – [(3*a+b)(a+3*b)]^(0.5)} = 194 m  Total trench excavation volume: V trench = p*w*d = (194m)(.66m)(1m)=130 m3 Where “w” is the trench width and “d” is the trench depth.     Concrete Volume for Trenches:  V conTrench = p*(w+2*d)*t = (194m)[(0.66m)+2*(1m)](0.2m) = 103 m3 Where “t” is the concrete thickness.     Number of Concrete Pavers Needed:  #pavers = p/dp = (194m)/(0.61m) = 320 pavers  46 Where “dp” is the side length of each paver and pavers that are used for the dry pond are in square shape.   Wesbrook Mall + 16th Ave Tanks (Triumf facility has similar calculations):     Number of tanks needed:  Single tank storage capacity: V 12’ = (50000 gallons)(0.00379 m3/gallon) = 189.3 m3  # 12’ tanks: V flood / V 12’ = 959 m3 / 189.3 m3 = 5.07 tanks = 6 tanks Where “V flood” is the total anticipated storm flood volume at that area.    Foundation Compaction Area: A bottom = w1*L = (9.57m)(63.74m) = 610 m2 Where “w1” is the foundation width.     Compacting backfill volume: V backfill = V exc – [(# 12’) * (V 12’) + V ass] = 9779 yard3 Where the “V exc” is the total excavation volume; “V ass” is the accessories total volume including piping, sumps and so on.     Site restoration area: A grass = (w2+20m)(L+20m)(10.76 ft2 / m2) = (24.83m+20m)(63.74m)(10.76 ft2/m2) = 54000 ft2        47 TRIUMF Tanks Excavation Volume Calculations Specification according to Containment Solutions Installation Guidelines:  Tank Diameter, d = 3.048m Tank Length, L = 16.5m Backfill above tank, B1 = 0.457m Backfill below tank, B2 = 0.508m Distance between tanks, D1 = 0.457m Distance between tank and excavation wall, D2 = 1.524m  𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝐻 = 𝑑 + 𝐵1 + 𝐵2 = 3.048 + 0.457 + 0.508 = 4.013𝑚  Excavation volume for shoring method:  𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝐿1 = 𝐿 + 2 ∗ 𝐷2 = 16.5 + 2(1.524) = 19.5𝑚  𝑊𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑊 = 2 ∗ 𝐷2 + 2 ∗ 𝑑 + 𝐷1 = 2(1.524) + 2(3.048) + 0.457 = 9.6𝑚  𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑉1 =  𝐿1 ∗ 𝑊 ∗ 𝐻 = 19.5 ∗ 9.6 ∗ 4.013 = 749 𝑚3  Excavation volume for no-shoring method:  For no-shoring, required slope is 1:2. Since the depth of excavation is 4m, the horizontal projection, Lp should be 8m in length.   𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 , 𝐴𝑠 =12∗ 𝐻 ∗ 𝐿𝑝 =12∗ 4 ∗ 8 = 16 𝑚2  𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝐴, 𝑉𝐴 =  𝐴𝑠 ∗ 𝐿1 = 16 ∗ 19.5 = 312 𝑚3  𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝐵, 𝑉𝐵 =  𝐴𝑠 ∗ 𝑊 = 16 ∗ 9.6 = 153.6 𝑚3  𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐸𝑥𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑉2 = 𝑉1 + 2 ∗ 𝑉𝐴 + 2 ∗ 𝑉𝐵 = 749 + 2(312) + 2(153.6) = 1,680 𝑚3        48 Appendix C - Construction Schedule   The following figures present a detailed review of the construction schedule. It is presented in two formats: as a tabular form with detailed start and end of activities, and in calendar form for an easier understanding of the events.        49  Figure 24 - Detailed Project Schedule (Tabular Form)                                                                                        Source: © Payam Mazloum, Microsoft Projects 2015  50     51    52    53  Figure 25 - Detailed Project Schedule (Calendar Form)                                                                                      Source: © Payam Mazloum, Microsoft Projects 2015                      54 Appendix D - Cost Estimate Table & Calculations  The following tables are a detailed analysis of the construction costs, with a detailed breakdown of different activities and their respective costs.    Table 8 - Communitiy Notification and Consultation Detailed Cost Breakdown    Table 9 - Dry Pond Facility Detailed Cost Breakdown   Item Cost	Category Quantity Cost1000 Public	Notification 180	days 2880002000 Geotechinacal	Consulting	 2	weeks 720003000 Environmental	Assesment EA 2500004000 Permitting 468614010 Development-building	Permit 2550	square	meters	(total	struature	area) 32344020 Tree	Removal	Permit 100	trees 184794030 Water	and	Sewer	Connection	Permit n/a 50004040 Noise	Bylaw	Exemption	Permit 5	days	or	earlier	before	proposed	activities 1484050 Soil	Testing	and	Foundation	Consulation	 n/a 200005000 Legal EA 100000Total	Cost: 756861Construction	Activity Break	Down Quantity Unit Unit	Cost Total	CostTree	Removal 10m	(tree	hight) 20 trees 300 600010	-	20m	(tree	hight) 30 trees 600 1800020	-	30m	(tree	hight) 30 trees 800 24000>30m	(tree	hight) 20 trees 1200 24000Excavation Subgrade	Excavation 9873.1 m^3 21 207335.1Trench	Digging 130 m^3 21 2730Foundation	Work Foundation	Compaction 2513 m^3 23 57799Pond	Bottom	Treatment Multi-layer	Filtering	Green	Bottom 27053 ft^2 10 270529Underground	Piping	Placement Pipe	Upsize 4000 m 75 300000Pipe	Addition 5000 m 40 200000Pipe	Diversion 1000 m 25 25000Pipe	Installation 2080 m 100 208000Concrete	Placing C2	Class	32	Mpa	Concrete	(trench) 105 m^3 186 19530C2	Class	32	Mpa	Concrete	(stairs) 300 m^3 186 55800Rebars 1000 m 7 7000Labouring 3600 hrs 60 216000Concrete	Pavers 320 pavers 28 8960Site	Restoration Finish-up	Serveying 2 days 2600 5200Clean-up	&	Restor	Site 4 days 3250 13000Restore	Non-pay	Road	and	Yard	 3 days 2045 6135Landscaping Grass	and	Garden	Installation 24203 ft^2 3 72609Playground	Installation n/a n/a n/a 29821Others 40	Yards	Recycle	Bin	Rental 2 bins 1358.4/bin/month 10867.2Fences 200 fences 15/fence/month 120001/4*4*8	Plywood 100 plywood 29.99 2999Lumber	2*4 200 lumber 2.99 598Lumber	6*4 200 lumber 13.57 2714On-site	Toilets 6 toilets 300/toilet/month 7200Total 1813826 55 Table 10 - Wesbrook Mall & West 16th Ave Facility Detailed Cost Breakdown     Table 11 - TRIUMF Facility Cost Breakdown  

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