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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer physical activity access and engagement Allan, Kate; Wilson, Emily; Busayong, Denise; Fischer, Olivia 2015-11-26

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportDenise Busayong, Emily Wilson, Kate Allan, Olivia FischerLesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Physical Activity Access and EngagementKIN 465November 26, 201513691943University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.RUNNING HEAD: LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 1        Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Physical Activity Access and Engagement  Kate Allan, Emily Wilson, Denise Busayong, Olivia Fischer  University of British Columbia - KIN 465 November 26th, 2015      LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 2  Table of Contents  Executive Summary………………………………………….……………………………………………3 Introduction…………………………………………….……….…………………………………………4 Background Information……………………………………………….…………………………………4 Methodology……………………………………………………………….………………………………6 Project Findings……………………………………………………………...……………………………8 Recommendations……………………………………………………………..…………………………11 Limitations……………………………………………………………………………..…………………13 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………...………13 References…………………………………………………………………………………………….......15 Appendix A: Workplan………………………………………………………………………………….17 Appendix B: Midterm Progress Report…………………………………………………………...……19 Appendix C: Interview Template………………..………..…………………………………………….20 Appendix D: Glossary of Terms…………………………………………………………………….…..23     LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 3  Executive Summary  Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer (hereafter referred to as LGBQ) students face many obstacles in university campus recreation and physical activities. The project outlines inclusion and participation for LGBQ students in physical activity on campus. We worked with two community partners, Liska Richer and Rachael Sullivan. In Spring of 2014 the project was created by Kat Cureton and former fourth year kinesiology students after they recommended its construction. The project is important because the University of British Columbia (hereafter referred to as UBC) strives to be a culturally diverse and inclusive place. Sexual orientation should not be a barrier to participation and all students should feel comfortable to self-identify as LBGQ, while prospering in the UBC community. Fostering and accepting an open environment is implicitly related to interculturalism.   We discuss LGBQ issues with 11 participants (5 male, 6 female; mean age 23). Transgender individuals were not included in the discussion due to the limited scope of the project. Information was gathered through discussion questions. After the discussions were completed, using our literature review as reference, we performed a thematic analysis of the qualitative information.   The study yields a wide variety of findings; making physical activity a unique experience for each participant on campus. Not one participant felt that there were any physical activity initiatives on campus that were targeted towards LGBQ individuals. Our findings show that a majority of participants want to see an increase in LGBQ advertising. Although a majority do not perceive their gender identity or expression to have affected their participation in physical activity, all males commented on the hegemonic masculinity inherent in sport.  The project suggests four general recommendations. Incorporating queer content and competency training into staff orientation, creating a queer-friendly sport and social league, creating more safe spaces, and partnering with UBC Pride Collective would be all be steps to promoting LGBQ inclusion in campus recreation and physical activities.    LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 4 Introduction The purpose of this project is to build interculturalism on the UBC Vancouver campus, specifically within the LGBQ community.  We hope to achieve this by gaining a greater understanding of LGBQ:  I. importance and value of physical activity II. attitudes towards participating in physical activity on-campus III. on-campus barriers towards participating in physical activity.   The project consists of three objectives to: I. recommend programs for LGBQ students where they feel welcomed and safe II. recommend campus-wide initiatives for LGBQ students III. implementation strategies to increase participation of LGBQ students on-campus.    The project has two on-campus partners who play a significant role in its success. We checked in with both individuals throughout the term through email and meetings. They provided us with meaningful suggestions and feedback. Rachael Sullivan is an educator in the UBC Equity and Inclusion Office. The Equity and Inclusion Office, among many things strives to protect human rights and protects students against discrimination and harassment (UBC Equity, 2015). Liska Richer works for Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (hereafter referred to as SEEDS) Program and manages the community development. SEEDS is an on-campus sustainability program creating unique projects and research among staff, faculty, and students (UBC Sustainability, 2015b).   Background Information  The project is meaningful to the community partners for a number of reasons. Partners Rachael and Liska plan to thoughtfully consider our recommendations and implement a few onto UBC campus. The Equity and Inclusion Office holds equity-themed workshops for students, faculty, and staff and we feel our project could be incorporated into the workshops because it relates closely to discrimination, sexual harassment, and diversity (UBC Equity, 2015). The project will be available in the SEEDS online library upon completion for students and faculty to read at their leisure (UBC Sustainability, 2015a). It is of  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 5 importance to UBC because it sheds direct and honest light on LGBQ student perceptions. Towards the end of the project we partnered with Suzanne Jolly from UBC Recreation and she plans to incorporate our project into a queer workshop. This workshop will be open to members of the public and of UBC Recreation, where they will join together to discuss queer inclusion in recreation on campus.  This project developed because a group of fourth year kinesiology students in KIN 465: Interculturalism, recommended to Kat that a Community Based Experiential Learning (CBEL) project related to LGBQ campus inclusion be created. Over the summer, Kat worked with Liska and Rachael and the project was fabricated. This project is important because of the lack of recreation initiatives targeted towards inclusion of LGBQ people and because of the stigma that is still attached to LGBQ people participating in physical activity and sport. Denison & Kitchen (2015) conducted a large-scale international study, titled Out on the Fields examining experiences within team sports, of LGB people across 5 countries. Even though the study was done at a time of heightened awareness of homophobia in sport, the results yielded few positive factors (Denison & Kitchen, 2015). Discrimination and homophobia are still prevalent and a majority of LGB athletes stated youth sport is not a safe and accepting place for LGB people (Denison & Kitchen, 2015). Although we have made societal progressions in recent decades, there is still much work to be done for LGB individuals (Denison & Kitchen, 2015). There is a discrepancy between acceptance and inclusion of LGB people in society and sport culture because even though it is no longer illegal to be with a person of the same-sex, “smaller-scale research projects have shown homophobia and discrimination to be commonly experienced by athletes and fans alike” (Denison & Kitchen, 2015, p. 9), thus demonstrating the stigma associated with LGBQ issues. Another study acknowledged that LGB students come across challenges based on their sexual orientation that heterosexual individuals do not experience (Rankin, 2005). Discrimination and social exclusion can be so detrimental that LGB students limit their full academic potential or do not immerse themselves in campus engagements due to their surroundings (Rankin, 2005). Table 2.3 shows the  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 6 comparison as students of addressing issues versus curriculum implementation (Rankin, 2005). In other words, 41% stated that their college or university did not thoroughly address sexual minority issues and 43% stated the curriculum did not adequately represent LGB education (Rankin, 2005). This corroborates with our thoughts that university officials need to do more than be welcoming and accepting of LGBQ perspectives and they need to take one step further to educate students on intercultural understanding.   Sport adheres to strict gender norms and rules. Heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity are reinforced and perpetuated in organized sport (Fink, Burton, Farrell, & Parker, 2012). Fink et al. (2012) suggest that a strong way to create social change amongst female athletes who identify as lesbian or bisexual is to out their sexuality; however, this cannot be possible without strong support networks. Fink et al. (2012) introduce the idea of having a team “trailblazer”. Having a “trailblazer” for the younger athletes made coming out easier: “these women provided closeted athletes with an understanding of how things would be for them as they reverted their sexual identity, often offering insight to a process filled with uncertainty and fear” (Fink et al., 2012, p. 90). Our findings did not identify any “trailblazers”, but it speaks to the importance of having role models and consistent positive aid from friends and teammates, which some participants did bring up as important in fostering a safe space.  Methodology In order to get a clearer understanding of LGBQ issues in recreation and leisure activities, we conducted a review of current literature in Canadian and American contexts. Based on this literature and discussions with our on-campus partners, we were able to gain a clearer understanding of barriers to fostering interculturalism in the recreation and leisure setting.   LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 7 Denison & Kitchen (2015) state “while there are many similarities between transphobia and homophobia, these two forms of discrimination also vary considerably” (p. 11). We felt this closely aligned with our beliefs that sexual orientation and gender identity are on two separate spectrums. Due to the time constraints this project offered, we were not able to conduct a LGBTQ study because of its complexity. Rather, we studied LGBQ sexual orientation perspectives and how they relate to sport. As a group we decided the focus of our project was to uncover underlying themes affecting LGBQ participation and engagement via UBC Recreation and other physical activity outlets and what changes can be made to increase this.    Participants were selected by reaching out to our existing social networks. We asked participants to join our discussion in person, through text messages and social media. All 11 participants were current students or recent graduates from UBC Vancouver living either on or off campus. The demographic breakdown of the participants is outlined in the following images and graphs. It should be noted that although none of the participants self-identified as bisexual, we have included the term as part of our findings because some  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 8 individuals had either previously identified as bisexual, or they felt that queer was an all-encompassing term, including bisexual. To get a deeper understanding of the issues surrounding LGBQ inclusion in recreation and physical activity we decided to conduct semi-structured discussions. Qualitative research brings depth and allows people to articulate their experiences to be made sense of (Chase, 2003). We prepared 14 discussion questions for our participants relevant to LGBQ participation in recreation at UBC (see Appendix D). Liska and Rachael provided feedback on our discussion questions and we implemented their feedback into our final question document. Their feedback was very helpful as we made the questions flow well and transition into the following question making the discussions more natural. Discussions were done on a one-on-one basis and all participants were briefed of the purpose of this study. Discussions took place in casual yet academic settings where the participants felt comfortable. Each discussions lasted around 20 minutes in length, during which we took hand-written notes while also facilitating conversation. One lengthy conversation did last three hours.  After the discussion ended and the participants left, we went back and extended and clarified all the notes we took, as well as summarizing them. This was done because during the discussions we spoke at a fast pace and did not have time to interpret the answers. Our own biases did not play a role in the discussion because everything we analyzed was directly stated by the participants. It was important to us that the integrity of the participants’ answers was maintained and unaltered. After conducting the discussions we compiled the answers and drew out common underlying themes using thematic analysis.  Thematic analysis methods identify patterns within data, while organizing and minimizing them in detail (Braun & Clarke, 2006)  Project Findings   To reiterate, the purpose of this project is to identify and address the barriers faced by LGBQ students in accessing physical activity and recreation on campus. Although each participant had a unique experience, a few consistent key themes emerged from the 11 informal discussions. The majority of  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 9 participants (9) rated physical activity as an important aspect of their lives, while a minority (2) said that being active was not a top priority for them. The following image shows all the activities that participants engaged with on UBC campus: Although all of the participants engaged in some form of physical activity, no one reported feeling that there was a current LGBQ physical activity initiative on campus. This finding reveals the current climate at UBC and a gap of inclusion within physical activity settings. We hope that this project can illuminate the perspectives of LGBQ students and findings can be utilised to provide useful recommendations for future initiatives.   Gender expression may or may not reflect an individual's actual gender identity (Qmunity, 2013) and 8 out of 11 participants said “no” when asked if their gender expression affected their participation in sport. Interestingly, all three of participants who answered “yes” to this question identified as gay males. Related to this finding, 100% of the sampled gay men felt that the machismo culture of sport is threatening. One 20 year old male said, “I feel that sports and physical activity are mostly male-oriented or masculine in nature. That has often intimidated me and trying them out does not appeal to me.” Gender refers to the two socially constructed categories of masculinity and femininity; these have cultural values that dictate how men and women should behave (Germov & Hornosty, 2012). Hegemonic masculinity carries ideals of strength and stoicism, these can have harmful effects as men feel pressured to live up to gender ideals and  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 10 engage in riskier behaviors, suppress emotions due to social pressure (Germov & Hornosty, 2012). This gender norm combined with sporting culture is deterring gay men from seeking out and engaging in sports and physical activity.   The locker room was a common theme in our findings. 6 participants said that they have felt uncomfortable in a locker room setting, while the other 5 participants felt neutral about the space. One 27 year old male commented, “I find the locker room to be a heteronormative space, where guys talk about girls and what not. I’m always averting my gaze and policing my behaviors.” This quotation reflects the pressure to act and be perceived as heterosexual within a physical activity setting. A few participants mentioned that they feared how others were perceiving them and worried that their presence was making others uncomfortable. One 21 year old lesbian remarked, “I can feel people staring in change rooms. There is a silent assumption that people think that I don’t belong here. It’s predatory, like, why are you here in my space?” These findings reveal the locker room as a potentially contentious space for LGBQ students. Those who felt neutral about locker rooms commented that their feelings of safety depended on the team and whether or not there were other LGBQ people present. This idea leads to another important finding, context.  Participation in physical activity was largely dependent on the context and if participants felt relaxed in the environment. Having their friends there was a huge factor in participants’ comfort level. One gay male said, “I only participate with people I am already comfortable with. I don’t partake in most activities because I’m not interested in them. I’m also afraid of not being accepted, or being targeted and outcasted.” Another factor that contributed to context was how capable participants felt at the physical activity or sport at hand. Perceiving that they were competent led them to be more eager to engage. The interviews revealed that being out to those around them was dependent on the context, which was fluid and shifting. One participant noted that, “I have only ever chosen friends and activities in which I know I would be comfortable outing myself.” Other participants said that they changed their dress and voice pitch depending on whether or not they felt comfortable to reveal their sexual orientation. Comfort level appears to be the key underlying factor when LGBQ students are deciding whether or not to engage in physical activity and recreation on campus.   LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 11  Many of the recommendations that are outlined in the following section stem from our participants suggestions. 5 out of 11 participants suggested a partnership with the AMS group UBC Pride Collective and a majority said that they want to see increased queer advertising around campus. One 30 year old queer women suggested increasing the presence of safe space stickers around campus and creating a cohesive group that is split between social and physical activities (UBC Positive Space, 2015). She stressed the importance of evidence based initiatives and expressed a wish to see more participatory action research on this topic.  Examining the experiences and barriers faced by LGBQ students reveals how members of this community feel and react to the social pressures around their sexual orientation in the context of physical activity on campus. LGBQ individuals are an incredibly diverse group with identities that intersect across many social categories. Fostering an accepting and open environment that bolsters and supports these multiple identities promotes interculturalism. Increasing the visibility of this minority population and their access to physical activity allows for a more networked and inclusive campus. The following section outlines our recommendations to promote this environment.   Recommendations   Our recommendations for how to increase queer inclusion on campus for LGBQ students are that UBC Recreation & Athletics should include queer content and competency training in athlete and staff orientation (Worthen, 2011). We would like to see training implemented within all departments of UBC Recreation and Athletics, where upon completion, leaders and supervisors are given safe space stickers to put up, in order to fill the gap in inclusion and safety (UBC Positive Space, 2015). We believe one way to help bridge this gap is to have more publicity for safe space around campus, especially in areas where people engage in physical activity, such as change rooms and gyms. Given that locker rooms were cited by participants as heteronormative spaces, increased safe-space stickering in changerooms may help mitigate this perception (UBC Positive Space, 2015). Having more queer-friendly marketing around campus,  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 12 whether it is for Varsity, Club, or Recreation is a good way to foster inclusion between queer individuals and their allies (Wall, Washington, Evans & Papish, 1999). One thing to keep in mind regarding advertising is to keep it from being exclusive of anyone; we would like to see equal representation of participants, meaning people of all genders and sexualities. Perhaps an example of this could be features of athletes or leaders on campus that self-identify as LGBQ who are put at the fore-front to be a role model for inclusion within physical activity.  Another recommendation that we would make, but is difficult to see through due to financial and infrastructural requirements, is to have more gender-neutral facilities. To have accessible gender-neutral washrooms and change rooms, especially in areas where people engage in physical activity is important in promoting queer inclusion for participants (Vancouver School Board, 2014). These facilities are important because they act as a safe space for all participants, no matter their sexual orientation or gender identity (Qmunity, 2015). Due to the financial barrier (BCRPA, n.d), another tool that can be used to increase inclusivity are written statements stating zero tolerance of homophobia and verbal slurs across campus facilities. To have a written statement of queer safety integrated into protocols and policies across campus, especially in areas facilitating physical activity, can increase engagement because the individuals may feel more comfortable and it creates an opportunity for allies to make connections and increase positive attitudes towards queer people (Roper & Halloran, 2007).         Our final recommendation is to work with UBC Pride Collective to further connect and build a lasting relationship that encourages physical activity participation on campus for all students. This relationship can develop into something that may be implemented quickly and efficiently, by having a staff or volunteer member on campus that deals with queer inclusion in physical activity. This would mean having somebody who is available to talk to, either over the phone or email, who can provide support and resources for LGBQ students. This could reduce the likelihood of people feeling excluded from physical activity due to their sexuality or gender, by giving people a person to talk to and report to in cases of exclusion or discrimination (Szalacha, 2003). This would also act as a way of tracking the cases of verbal  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 13 and physical harassment on campus, which is an important statistic when thinking about measures to reduce that number (Szalacha, 2003).  Limitations Although we were able to collect quality responses, there were some limitations to our methods.  Due to our lack of time we were unable to obtain ethical approval for our project. This would have protected our confidential communications and increase our sample size by allowing us to reach out to more members of the LGBQ community. To get a more comprehensive insight on barriers to LGBQ inclusion in UBC Recreation, further studies would need to include a larger participant group for discussion. This would be possible had there been a longer time frame for the project. Lastly, because all participants were gathered via personal connections, it was a less diverse sample and did not account for the whole LGBQ population at UBC.   Conclusion This essay explored how LGBQ students engage in physical activity on UBC campus. Using our methodology, which included a literature review, discussions, thematic analyses, and recommendations, we were able to outline our findings and our ideas for implementation strategies. The purpose of this project was to gain a greater understanding of LGBQ importance and value of physical activity, LGBQ attitudes towards participating in physical activity on-campus, and LGBQ on-campus barriers towards participating in physical activity. The recent Out on the Fields study reveals that in Canada, 81% of participants had witnessed or experienced homophobia in sports (Denison & Kitchen, 2015). This statistic is a testament to why this project is so important for increasing inclusion for LGBQ students at UBC. The project was and will hopefully continue to be closely tied with interculturalism because it can help promote new ways for people of different cultures to connect on the same university campus (Renfrew-Collingwood INTERactive, 2015). The personal connections that an individual can make while engaging with someone else in physical activity can have social and health benefits, both mentally and physically  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 14 (Fox, 1999). Engaging with people of varying cultures is a good way to help develop more intercultural understanding and fluency (Cureton, 2015). The scope of this project was limited by our short timeframe. If KIN 465 were to be extended to a 6 credit course, a project such as this could be expanded to incorporate the next step implementations. The Out on the Fields study also revealed that  86% of gay men and 89% of lesbians are either partially or fully in the closet while playing youth sports (up to 18 years), which can be attributed to the fear of discrimination that many people feel (Denison & Kitchen, 2015). Having another KIN 465 group take over from where this project left off, by implementing the recommendations and next steps would be a start to ensuring queer inclusion on campus. If a group were to continue this project we would recommend the following: I. Partner with UBC Pride Collective to develop social/activity league. II. Partner with UBC Recreation to advance the queer competency workshop onto a broader scale. III. Seek ethical approval in order to collect important participant data and to avoid confidentiality issues. A. Create discussion group with large sample size, including transgender people.         References BC Recreation & Parks Association and Heart & Stroke Foundation of BC & Yukon. (n.d.).  Physical  Activity Strategy: Why Don’t People Participate? Retrieved from http://www.physicalactivitystrategy.ca/pdfs/Why_Dont_People_Participate.pdf  Berkeley University of California (2014). Definition of Terms. Retrieved from  http://geneq.berkeley.edu/lgbt_resources_definiton_of_terms#gay  Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in   LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 15 Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa  Chase, S.E. (2003). Learning to listen: Narrative principles in a qualitative research methods course. Up close and personal: The teaching and learning of narrative research. American Psychological Association, 79-99.  Coakley, J., & Donnelly, P. (2009). Race and ethnicity: Are they important in sports. Sports in society:  Issues and controversies. Canadian edition (p. 259-298). Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.  Connell, R.W. (2013). Masculinities. Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Cureton, K. (2015) KIN 465 Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from https://connect.ubc.ca/  Denison, E., & Kitchen, A. (2015). Out on the Fields Report. 1-77. Retrieved from   http://www.outonthefields.com/index.html  Fink, J., Burton, L., Farrell, A., & Parker, H. (2012). Playing it Out: Female Intercollegiate Athletes’  Experiences in Revealing Their Sexual Identities. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6(1), 83-106.  Fox, K.R. (1999). The Influence of physical activity on mental well-being. Public Health Nutrition,  2(3), 411-418.  Germov, J., & Hornosty, J. (2012). Second opinion: an introduction to health sociology: Canadian  edition. Oxford University Press.  Merriam-Webster (2015) Heteronormative. Retrieved from  http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/heteronormative  Qmunity (2013). Queer Terminology. Retrieved Sept 7, 2014 from:  http://www.qmunity.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Queer-Terminology-Web-Version-Sept-0 13.pdf   Qmunity, (2015). BC211 Video Profile: Qmunity - BC’s Queer Community Hub. Retrieved from  http://www.bc211.ca/2015/07/video-profile-qmunity-provides-education-support-connection- advocacy-lgbtq-community/  Rankin, S. (2005). Campus Climates for Sexual Minorities. New Directions for Student Services, 111,  17-23.   Renfrew-Collingwood INTERactive (2015). Interculturalism 101.  Retrieved from http://blogs.ubc.ca/kcureton/files/2014/09/interculturalism101.-Renfrew-Collingwood-INTERactive.pdf  Roper, E., & Halloran, E. (2007). Attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among heterosexual male and  female student-athletes. Sex Roles, 57, 919–928.   Szalacha, L. (2003). Safer sexual diversity climates: Lessons learned from an evaluation of  Massachusetts safe schools program for gay and lesbian students. American Journal of  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 16 Education, 110, 58–90.   UBC Equity (2015) Vision & Mission Statements. Retrieved from    http://equity.ubc.ca/vision-mission-statements  UBC Positive Space (2015). Positive Space Campaign. Retrieved from http://positivespace.ubc.ca/  UBC Pride Collective (2015). Pride Collective at UBC. Retrieved from  http://pridecollectiveubc.tumblr.com/  UBC Sustainability (2015a). SEEDS Library. Retrieved from  https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-teaching/seeds/seeds-library  UBC Sustainability (2015b). SEEDS Sustainability Program. Retrieved from  https://sustain.ubc.ca/courses-teaching/seeds  Vancouver School Board (2014). Interoffice Memorandum. Retrieved from   http://www.vsb.bc.ca/sites/default/files/C3%20%20item%202%20ACB%20draft%20policy% 20and%20reg%20memo%20all.pdf  Wall, V., Washington, J., Evans, N., & Papish, R. (1999). From the trenches: Strategies for facilitating  lesbian, gay, and bisexual awareness programs for college students. In V. Wall & N. Evans  (Eds.), Toward acceptance (pp. 157–189). Lanham, MD: ACPA.   Worthen, M. G. F. (2011b). College student experiences with an LGBTQ ally training program: A  mixed methods study at a university in the southern United States. Journal of LGBT Youth, 8,  332–377.        LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 17 Appendix A: Workplan  Name of Project:  LGBTQ Inclusion in Campus Recreation and Physical Activities.  Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”):  To identify and address the barriers faced by the LGBTQ community in accessing physical activity and recreation on campus. Deiverables (“what are we going to create?”): 1. Progress midterm report  2. Final report with executive summary and recommendations 3. Presentation Methods (“how are we going to do this?”): 1. Identify existing programs / initiatives on and off campus 2. Discuss with previous KIN 465 Groups as well as Dr. Rachael Sullivan 3. Conduct a literature review of barriers to LGBTQ participation 4. Create discussion group with members of the LGBTQ community 5. Reflect and analyze process and data  6. Provide future recommendations 7. Create a report and presentation on findings    Members Skills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability Olivia Fischer  LGBTQ member, varsity athlete for 3 years, have experience designing and facilitating camps (sports & outdoor camps). Past research assistant for Dr. Laura Hurd-Clarke, Current research assistant for UofC Faculty of Nursing. Current SASC volunteer. Interested in all forms of social science, inequality, and feminism.   Contact Person Liaison – responsible to make initial contact, set up mtgs and maintain contact, and gather feedback on deliverables Contribute ideas, attend meetings, help identify LGBTQ discussion participants take lead on some parts of presentation/report (TBD)  Monday, Wednesday, and Friday: 9-11am and between 12-4:30pm. Tuesday and Thursday: 12:30-4:30pm   Emily Wilson Part of queer community, love team sports/activities, part of varsity soccer team for 4 yrs   Literature review, contribute ideas, attend meetings, help identify LGBTQ discussion participants, take lead on some parts of presentation/report (TBD)  M/W: 8-10am, 11-12, 2-3pm. Weekends sometimes, just have to let me know  Denise Busayong Played post secondary basketball for 3 years. Coached Literature review, contribute ideas, attend meetings, help m/w: anytime before 3:30 th:  LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 18 a wide age range of ages for basketball. Work at multi use sport facility, interact with a diverse group of individuals.  identify LGBTQ discussion participants take lead on some parts of presentation/report (TBD)  11am-3:30pm Saturdays subject to variability...   Kate Allan Volunteered for the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games, Volunteered at an elementary school on the DTES with children, coached a U-9 Field hockey team. Favourite sports include snowboarding, soccer, field hockey, and hiking.   Contribute ideas, lead the midterm project report, help identify LGBTQ discussion participants, attend meetings, take lead on some parts of presentation/report (TBD)   Monday, Wednesday, Friday: free 10-3pm Tues Thurs: free after 1pm       Project Component: Due Date: Initial meeting with community partner:  September 23 Work Plan Due: October 1 Follow-up Meeting October 14 Midterm Progress Report October 22 Presentation  November 19 Final Report Due November 26                       LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 19 Appendix B: Midterm Progress Report  Deliverables: -  In-class presentation November 17th -  The final report will be essay style, 10-12 pages + appendices, submitted November 26th. The community partners will find this useful and be of purpose in the future. The final report will include: -  An executive summary -  Introduction -  Background Information/literature review -  Methodology -  Project outcomes/findings/discussion -  Conclusion/recommendations -  References -  Appendices -  Limitations (addressed in the discussion and conclusion)  Accomplished to date: - We have formed a list of 8-12 subjects that we will interview -  We have created a ‘Google Docs’ where we have brain stormed ideas for the project including literature reviews -  We have narrowed the scope of the project. Originally it included LGBTQ but we have removed the ‘T’ for various reasons. First, we do not have a large enough sample size to gather information. Second, we decided the issues related to LGBQ and Transgender are quite complex and yield different results. Therefore, we will analyze LGBQ thoroughly and remove the ‘T’ component -  We have drafted a question sheet for the discussions. Rachael has offered her expertise to help us formulate a question set with proper flow and prompt questions. The question sheet consists of 14 questions and we will briefly fill it out as the participants answer and jot down key terms. After the participants leave/the conversation has ended, we will go back and elaborate on the points while the information is still fresh in memory  Left to do: -  Have discussions with participants -  Collect and analyze data from discussions -  Create in-class presentation which will be delivered from a powerpoint  -  Final report + appendices  Timeline for Completion: Discussions completed: October 28 Preliminary presentation: November 12 In-class presentation: November 17 Final Report Due: November 26 Symposium: TBA  Final Meeting with CP: -  We will present our project to Rachael and Liska November 12th. Rachael and Liska will give us feedback and suggestions for the in-class presentation and final report which will be evaluated by Kat and Shawn.     LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 20 Appendix C: Interview Template   Gender: ___________                    Age:______             Program at UBC:_____________               Sexual Orientation:__________________ Live ON or OFF campus (circle one)   We are doing this project as a part of Kinesiology 465: Interculturalism. We are joined with the SEEDS project on campus at UBC. We are also partnered with the UBC Equity and Inclusion office. This set of questions is designed to see how LGBQ students navigate physical activity on campus. Please note that the following conversation is ongoing and you may contact us at any time to talk further about this topic.   Start time of interview:___________ 1.  How would you define physical activity?       2.  How important is physical activity to you?       3.  What physical activities do you participate in, on and off campus?       4.  As a queer person, do you feel like there are any physical activities on campus that you are the target audience for?           5.  What has been your experience with physical activity on campus? -Do you feel as though you have had opportunities on campus to engage in physical activity?    LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 21       6.  Do you feel safer participating in physical activity on or off campus (or equal)? -Have you ever been harassed while engaged in physical activity? If so, was it on campus?       7.  Does your gender identity or expression affect your participation in physical activity?       8.  How do you feel about entering a locker-room?       9.  Are you out to the people who surround you in a physical activity setting? - Have you ever decided not to partake in a physical activity because you were afraid the consequences?           10.  Do you have any queer role models? Any specifically in sport and recreation?         11.  What steps towards inclusion in physical activity on campus have you noticed, if any?       12.  What would make you feel more comfortable in a physical activity setting on campus?    LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 22       13.  If you could make any recommendation to the organizers of UBC Athletics and Recreation regarding inclusion of queer participants, what would it be?         14.  Are there any other issues that you’d like to bring up in regards to LGBQ students and physical activity on campus?       End time of interview:____________                LGBQ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ACCESS AND ENGAGEMENT 23 Appendix D: Glossary of Terms  Bisexual: Also bi. A person who is attracted to two sexes or two genders, but not necessarily simultaneously or equally (Berkeley University of California, 2014)  Gay: Men attracted to men. Colloquially used as an umbrella term to include all LGBQ people (Berkeley University of California, 2014)  Gender Expression: How one outwardly manifests gender; for example, through name and pronoun choice, style of dress, voice modulation, etc. How one expresses gender might not necessarily reflect one’s actual gender identity (Qmunity, 2013)  Gender Identity: One’s internal and psychological sense of oneself as male, female, both, in between, or neither. People who question their gender identity may feel unsure of their gender or believe they are not of the same gender as their physical body. Gender non-conforming, gender variant, or genderqueer are some terms sometimes used to describe people who don’t feel they fit into the categories of male or female. ‘Bi-gender’ and ‘pan-gender’ are some terms that refer to people who identify with more than one gender. (Qmunity, 2013)  Hegemonic masculinity: A concept of proposed practices that promote the dominant social position of men, and the subordinate social position of women (Connell, 2013)  Heteronormativity: The societal attitude that heterosexuality is the only natural or normal expression of sexuality (Merriam-Webster, 2015)  Homophobia: Fear or hatred of, aversion to, and discrimination against homosexuals or homosexual behaviour. There are many levels and forms of homophobia, including cultural/institutional homophobia, interpersonal homophobia, and internalized homophobia. Many forms of homophobia are related to how restrictive binary gender roles are (Cureton, 2015, & Qmunity, 2013)  Interculturalism: The view that we all benefit when we actively encourage connections between people from different cultures (Renfrew-Collingwood INTERactive, 2015)  Lesbian: A woman attracted to a woman (Berkeley University of California, 2014)  Queer: A term becoming more widely used among LGBT communities because of its inclusiveness. ‘Queer’ can be used to refer to the range of non-heterosexual and non-cisgender people and provides a convenient shorthand for ‘LGBT’. It is important to note that this is a reclaimed term that was once and is still used as a hate term and thus some people feel uncomfortable with it. Not all trans* people see trans* identities as being part of the term ‘queer’. (Qmunity, 2013)  Sport and Physical Activity: Sites of formal and informal expressions of physical culture where processes of assimilation, resistance to assimilation, racism, and other social processes can be studied (Coakley & Donnelly, 2009)  


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