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Discovering varsity athletics : creating an inclusive community Yu, Allison; Graham, Kayla; Olfato, Miguel; Dosanjh, Gagan; Roughead, Tamara 2015-11-26

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportAlejandro Miguel Olfato, Allison Yu, Gagandeep Dosanjh, Kayla Graham, Tamara RougheadDiscovering Varsity Athletics: Creating an Inclusive CommunityKIN 465November 26, 201513471944University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. 	   Discovering Varsity Athletics: Creating an Inclusive Community Allison Yu, Kayla Graham, Miguel Olfato, Gagan Dosanjh, Tamara Roughead University of British Columbia Kin 465 November 26, 2015 UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  2	  Table of Contents Executive Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………..3 Introduction: Partnerships………………………………………………………………………………………...4 Purpose and Objectives …………………………………………………………………………....4 Background Information: Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………..4-6 Critique of Last Year’s Project…………………………………………………………………..6-7 Methodology……………………………………………………………………………………………...7-8 Outcomes and Findings ………………………………………………………………………...............8-10 Discussion .…....…….……………………………………………..….....…………………………….10-11 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………………..11-13 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………………………..13 Conclusion ...…………………………………………………………………………………………..13-14 References ……………………………………………………………………………………………..15-17 Appendix A: Questions for IVAs………………………………………………………………………….18 Appendix B: E-mail for the athletes………………………………………………………………………19 Appendix C: IVAs’ Responses ………………………………………………………………………..20-28 Appendix D: Correspondence with Jayne Blank and Joanna Hunter …………………………………29-30 Appendix E: Work Plan ……………………………………………………………………………….31-32 Appendix F: Midterm Progress Report ………………………………………………………………..33-35    UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  3	  Executive Summary The purpose of this paper is to understand the current level of interculturalism within the UBC varsity community and to outline recommendations based on our findings. Last year’s project and current literature were reviewed to determine the direction of this project. Thirteen international varsity-athletes were chosen for informal questioning based on personal relationships, and of these thirteen individuals, ten provided responses to our seven pre-determined questions. The three main outcomes were: (1) the majority of participants felt that they were able to contribute to their team culture in a meaningful way and did not feel that they had to abandon any of their traditional identities (2) participants disagreed about whether the UBC Athletics Department sufficiently promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity (3) the majority of participants felt that diversity was celebrated within their teams but still felt that more could be done and provided suggestions based on personal beliefs. Based on these findings, we argued that there is currently a low level of interculturalism within the UBC athletic community. As such, we identified three recommendations to promote interculturalism: (1) to establish periodic discussions with the Thunderbird Athletic Council Team Representatives about the importance of interculturalism (2) to work with UBC’s Athletic Department to provide more opportunities for interaction between international varsity-athletes, beginning with the Athlete Orientation (3) to connect with UBC’s Jump Start Program to discuss opportunities specifically for international student-athletes. The most significant limitation to this paper was time. Our objectives are to implement these recommendations and enhance the university experience for all student-athletes. Unfortunately, we were unable to connect with as many international varsity-athletes as we wanted, or with coaches and administration. Further projects need to be conducted to fill these gaps and to capture a better understanding of the level of interculturalism within the UBC Athletic community.     UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  4	  Introduction: Partnerships This project was completed in partnership with three people. Michael Bourgeois is a student who took KIN 465 during the 2014-2015 academic year and who initiated this project. Liska Richer is the manager of the UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Program, which focuses on continuously improving campus sustainability. Rachael Sullivan is an educator within UBC’s Equity and Inclusion Office. The Equity and Inclusion Office works to promote respect, equity and diversity across UBC’s Vancouver campus.   Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this paper is to understand the current level of interculturalism within the UBC varsity community through informal interviews with international varsity-athletes. Recommendations are then outlined to promote the level of interculturalism so that athletes from all backgrounds, cultures and ethnicities feel welcome and accepted. Our objectives are to implement these recommendations to enhance the experience of all varsity athletes. Background Information: Literature Review It should be noted that current literature frequently uses the term multiculturalism, which does not fully encompass what interculturalism stands for. Multiculturalism “reflects the cultural and racial diversity of society” (Frisby et al., 2014, p. 107). Some consider it to enrich a society’s culture while “others see it as fostering cultural enclaves that do not mix” (Cureton, 2015, Glossary). Interculturalism goes beyond multiculturalism and represents “the view that we all benefit when we actively encourage connections between people from different cultures” (Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive, 2012, p. 1). The frequent occurrence of the term multiculturalism rather than interculturalism in literature might imply UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  5	  that there has not been enough research on the differences between these two terms, and may be a contributing factor to the level of interculturalism within varsity sports in Canadian universities.         There are many studies that touch upon the impacts of educating or adapting the practices of those in management or administrative positions in regards to interculturalism. Some findings suggest that universities should hire senior level managers that reflect a diverse background, a strategy known as “minority faculty hiring,” (Tanaka, 2007, p. 131) to show that they value diversity (Singer & Cunningham, 2007). It is insufficient for management to say that they value diversity, they actually have to prove it by integrating it into their staff. Tanaka (2007) also recommends “Staff Intercultural Training” (p. 130) to teach staff about cultural awareness and discuss effective techniques to build an intercultural campus. Tanaka’s strategies directly target administration and indirectly target athletes through a top-down effect: if diversity is shown at the administrative level, it will hopefully be imitated at the athlete level (as coaches are teachers to their players). However, to understand the current level of interculturalism within an athletic community, focus should be placed on the athletes in the environment, specifically international varsity athletes (IVA’s) that come from different cultures. To capture IVA’s experiences they must be directly asked as their perspectives may offer recommendations as to what needs to be done at the administrative level. Research at the student-athlete level suggests that an increase in awareness on issues pertaining to diversity be encompassed by the athletes, which may help IVA’s build trust and improve communication within their respective teams, and ultimately facilitate positive intercultural interactions. (Hirko, 2007; Schinke et al., 2011; Fulford, 2009). Fulford (2009) states that those who “were involved in a variety of student activities while in high school… or attended diversity programs/courses, and engaged in … dialogues with diverse peers on controversial topics were more likely to have a positive orientation toward diversity” (p. 113). This explains that individuals who experience cultural diversity before entering university are more likely to be accepting of cultural differences at university. These experiences may influence behaviour in respective sporting atmospheres, where the culture is the result of interaction between team members.  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  6	          It is clear that understanding the level of interculturalism within any varsity sports team can lead to more positive university experiences. For example, Popp (2007) argues that “understanding the experience of international student-athletes can translate into more effective recruitment of strong international competitors, better retention rates of student-athletes, and more positive experiences for the student-athletes themselves” (p. 201). One study suggests collecting data from the same participants five to ten years after completing their athletic careers so that they can reflect on their experience without being biased by aspirations and goals (Clémençon, 2014). This shows that current varsity athletes as well as alumni should be considered in our project to understand interculturalism within the UBC sports community. Critique of Last Year’s Project The following information is based on Dong, Bartnick, Shanks, Bourgeois, and Enns’ project from the previous academic year (2014-2015). First, we want to recognize that the purpose of last year’s paper, to understand interculturalism and to promote inclusion within varsity sports at UBC, was commendable. With that said, our main critiques of last year’s paper are as follows: (1) the sample size was too small (2) there was too much emphasis on management (3) there were too many assumptions. Firstly, the number of athletes that were informally questioned was insufficient. In the 2014-2015 season, UBC athletics was composed of nearly 600 athletes across over 20 teams (UBC Thunderbirds, 2015). Although the majority of these 600 athletes were not international, a sample from two teams yielding four IVAs was too small. Each sport has its own unique culture, and it is important to question members from more teams to truly understand interculturalism within UBC Athletics as a whole. Furthermore, the four athletes that were questioned spanned two countries, one being the United States. Considering Canada and the United States are viewed to have similar cultures and to be “two peas in a pod” (Bloemraad, 2011, p. 1132), it was unsurprising that the American athletes did not find it difficult to adjust to their new team at UBC. To better understand interculturalism within UBC varsity athletics, more athletes should have been questioned from a greater number of teams and from varying home countries.  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  7	  Secondly, too much focus was placed on coaches and management in last year’s literature review. While we agree that coaches and management play a pivotal role in fostering interculturalism within their respective sport teams and UBC Athletics as a whole, we do not believe that these positions should have been so heavily focused on considering how only athletes were informally questioned. Coaches and management play a pivotal role, but it is the athletes themselves who, due to their different personalities and backgrounds, mainly create the culture of their specific sport. The literature review should have been more athlete focused as this was the category of individuals who were chosen to participate. Thirdly, there were too many generalizations and assumptions in last year’s paper. For example, the paper argued that athletes are often negatively labeled “jocks” and excluded from the community. From our own experience as athletes, we feel the opposite is true, that athletes are often thought of in a positive light and are valued more than the general public. Furthermore, Williams (2013) argued that certain athlete traits, such as a relentless drive and a capacity to develop skill quickly, make athletes better hires than non-athletes. Last year’s paper also argues that UBC Athletics has very little connection to their community. This assumption is proven false as many teams are currently involved with various outreach programs in the community. For example, the women’s soccer team has volunteered with the Vancouver Street Soccer League for the last three years, and every team at UBC has the opportunity to be involved in the Think Pink Campaign and Habitat for Humanity. Overall we recognize that last year’s paper took initiative in understanding how interculturalism is reflected within varsity sports at UBC. With that said, it was only a base and more steps need to be taken to fully understand interculturalism within UBC Athletics.  Methodology This study was conducted to investigate the intercultural environment within UBC Varsity Athletics. We first looked at last year’s report and current literature to determine the direction we would take to achieve our purpose. Four separate meetings were held throughout the term with our various community partners to ensure our project stayed on track. UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  8	  Research Questions Determination Our research questions were based on last year’s KIN 465 report (Dong et al., 2015). We kept questions 1, 3 and 5 the same but modified questions 2, 4 and 7 because we wanted to ensure clarity in the questions that we were asking so that the respondents would have a high probability of understanding. Furthermore, we added another question (#6) because we thought that it would add valuable insight to our project (refer to Appendix A).  Sample Selection and Recruitment Our sample selection was chosen through personal contacts within UBC varsity athletics. We chose to informally interview 13 IVAs in which we got responses from 8 current athletes and 2 alumni. The respondents were from women’s volleyball, men’s basketball, women’s hockey and men’s soccer, and international destinations such as Turkey, the United States (Hawaii and Washington State), Germany, Australia, South Korea, Iran and Norway. Data Collection/Process We approached the athletes face to face to garner interest in the current research. After receiving approval of our questions from Michael, our contact person, we informally asked them the research questions through email (Dong et al., 2015). Upon receiving their replies (refer to Appendix C), we reviewed each question's responses from all of the athletes and analyzed the results. We determined trends within the responses to identify the similarities and differences, which were then used to create a discussion that was ultimately the basis for our recommendations.  Outcomes and Findings Based on the responses from our ten participants, we feel that the three main outcomes and findings are as follows:  1.   The majority of participants felt that they were able to contribute in a meaningful way to their respective team’s culture and that they did not have to abandon any of their traditional identities in order to adapt to their team’s culture.  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  9	  2.   Participants disagreed about whether varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity.  3.   The majority of participants felt that diversity was celebrated within their teams but felt that more could be done and thus provided suggestions based on personal beliefs.   Expanding on finding #1, eight out of ten participants stated that they contributed to their team’s culture in a meaningful way. One of these eight participants (Participant 1) admitted that he can absolutely be true to himself around his team. Of the remaining participants, one (Participant 9) felt her personality (and the fact that she is an introvert) was the reason she did not contribute in a meaningful way to her team’s culture. The final participant (Participant 7) felt that he did not contribute to his team’s culture - he felt that he had to adapt to his team’s culture but at the same time, he did not have to abandon any of his traditional identities to do so. Like this participant, the other nine participants felt that they did not have to sacrifice any of their traditional identities in order to adapt to the team culture.  Expanding on finding #2, six out of ten participants felt that varsity athletics does not do enough to promote intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity. It was interesting to read how one participant (Participant 6) stated that diversity was a key part of their success even though it was not promoted by athletics. On the other hand, three participants felt that varsity athletics does sufficiently promote intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity. One participant (Participant 4) reasoned that UBC does a good job of recruiting athletes from all areas of the world. The remaining participant did not know.  Expanding on finding #3, nine of out ten participants felt that diversity was celebrated within their teams. For example, on multiple teams, it was reported that teammates frequently asked each other questions about where they grew up. Specifically, on the women’s hockey team, teammates were invited Finding  #1:  The majority of participants felt that they were able to contribute in a meaningful way to their respective team’s culture and that they did not have to abandon any of their traditional identities in order to adapt to their team’s culture.  	  Finding  #2:  Participants disagreed about whether varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity.  	  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  10	  over to each others’ houses to enjoy a home cooked meal and learn about their families. However, seven out of these nine participants felt that more could be done to promote diversity. Many participants argued that more social outings, away from their sport, were needed. Only one participant (Participant 9) felt that diversity was not celebrated much but did admit that people are accepted for who they are, regardless of their culture. Discussion Based on our findings and outcomes, we feel as though there is a low level of interculturalism within the UBC athletic community. While diversity is accepted and celebrated on all of the teams that we informally interviewed, many of the IVAs still think more can be done on this topic. Our findings are consistent with some of the research presented in current literature. For example, Singer and Cunningham (2011) state that within university athletic departments, “there is room for improvement in the area of racial and ethnic diversity” (p. 660). The positive thing is that embracing diversity and promoting interculturalism “is not rocket science; it is not difficult to achieve...if you really make the effort” (Singer and Cunningham, 2011, p. 660). This parallels what Habacon (2012) explained in his article, that intentional actions must be taken for interculturalism to occur, it does not just happen on its own. It is important that UBC takes action, and emphasizes both diversity and interculturalism, as “the migration of international student-athletes is becoming more prevalent in university settings” (Schinke et al., 2011, p. 11) and as our IVAs alluded to wanting more ways to celebrate diversity at UBC. We must be proactive and intentionally include IVAs within varsity athletic communities as they often have to “learn the nuances of a new culture, sometimes a new language, adapting to a new environment and transitioning away from home in a time where [they] lost physical access to her/his family and community social ties” (Schinke et al., 2011, p. 11). Establishing new social ties may help the IVAs to Finding  #3:  The majority of participants felt that diversity was celebrated within their teams but felt that more could be done and thus provided suggestions based on personal beliefs.  	  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  11	  feel more included within the varsity athletics community and to enjoy a more positive student-athlete experience altogether.   It is important to incorporate the various cultures and traits of the IVAs into the varsity athletic programs and to avoid any acculturation, “the degree to which an individual from one culture has given up the traits of the culture and adopts the traits of the dominant culture in which he or she now resides” (Cureton, 2015, Glossary). Not only will fostering more interculturalism likely enhance the experience of IVAs but it may also lead to more success, as explained by Singer and Cunningham (2011). This theory was confirmed by Participant 6, who thought that the diversity on his team was crucial to their success.   Current literature suggests that educational sessions “designed to foster an understanding and appreciation of” diversity may be beneficial; however, it is important to recognize that “‘one-shot’ attempts to manage diversity are rarely effective” (Fink and Pastore, 2012, p. 323). Rather, “diversity takes constant attention, a firm commitment, and often, an overhaul of the current organizational culture” (Fink and Pastore, 2012, p. 324). Lastly, sport organizations should be proactive and “not wait for a problem to occur before addressing diversity issues” (Fink and Pastore, 2012, p. 324). Based on our findings and those in current literature, we have outlined recommendations below to better the level of interculturalism within UBC Varsity Athletics. Recommendations We have suggested three recommendations to encourage interculturalism within UBC Varsity Athletics: 1.   Establish periodic discussions with Thunderbird Athletic Council (TAC) Team Representatives about the importance of interculturalism.  The Thunderbird Athletic Council consists of two representatives from each varsity team who meet on a weekly basis. They work in conjunction with the Athletics Department and represent the interests of their fellow student-athletes to maximize the varsity experience for all (UBC Thunderbirds, 2015). We recommend that a spokesperson from UBC’s Equity and Inclusion Office attend two TAC meetings each semester, one at the start and one at the end. The initial meeting is to discuss issues pertaining to diversity and cultural sensitivity (defined as “being sensitive to people’s values, beliefs, customs and practices” UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  12	  (Cureton, 2015, Glossary)) and to provide suggestions on how an intercultural team environment can be fostered. The next three meetings are to follow-up and ensure that suggestions are being implemented by TAC representatives into their respective teams. These three meetings also provide an open space for TAC representatives to give feedback to UBC’s Equity and Inclusion Office on what is working and what needs to be improved in their teams in regards to interculturalism.  2.   Work with UBC’s Athletic Department to provide more opportunities for interaction between IVAs, beginning with the Athlete Orientation Jayne Blank and Joanna Hunter, two Academics and Compliance Coordinators for UBC athletes, provided an outline of the current Athlete Orientation. The first part consists of a general session for all athletes and aims to welcome “student-athletes to another academic/athletic year (Blank & Hunter, personal communication, 2015). First year student-athletes are required to attend a second session, which provides critical information pertaining to subjects such as eligibility, code of conduct, and Athlete Services (including tutoring and counselling) (Blank & Hunter, personal communication, 2015). Currently, there is no specific time allotted for students to get to know one another. We recommend that an extra half hour be added to the end of the orientation to give student-athletes, including IVAs, the opportunity to participate in ice-breakers and mini games to interact with both each other and the Athletics Department. This is based on Habacon’s (2012) explaination that we must proactively create opportunities for interculturalism otherwise it may not occur. Further opportunities for interaction should be offered throughout the academic year by the Athletics Department, such as potluck dinners, as current literature states that single attempts are often ineffective in building interculturalism (Fink and Pastore, 2012). Initial steps for this recommendation include meeting in person with Blank and Hunter to discuss next year’s Athlete Orientation and to schedule potential event dates. 3.   Connect with UBC’s Jump Start and discuss opportunities specific for IVAs Jump Start is a two-week program designed to help new international students transition to UBC (The University of British Columbia, 2015). Unfortunately, we have yet to hear back from Jump Start in regards to whether or not they provide resources and events specifically for IVAs, but based on their UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  13	  website, it appears as though they do not. As such, we recommend working in conjunction with Jump Start to initiate activities that target IVAs specifically. For example, the Totem Ball Room could be rented out for an “Annual IVA Mixer” the first week of September. The goal of this mixer would be to facilitate the start of relationships between IVAs, which in turn, will hopefully make them feel more comfortable in interacting with the rest of the athletic community. Lee et al. (2014) state that immigrant women feel the need for newcomer support groups where they have the opportunity to interact with individuals “from both within and outside of their ethno-linguistic groups and develop meaningful relationships and friendships, rather than engaging in superficial conversations” (p. 125). Coaches of all varsity teams should strongly encourage their new IVAs to participate in Jump Start and all IVAs to attend the Annual IVA Mixer. Initial steps of this recommendation involve receiving answers from Jump Start. Limitations The time constraints of this project were the biggest limitation and had significant effects on our ability to explore interculturalism within UBC Varsity Athletics. Unfortunately, we were only able to reach out to 13 IVAs with whom we had personal contact, as we did not have connections with all of the IVAs in the UBC varsity community. While we were able to expand the number of participants from last year’s paper, we believe that further research should include a larger sample size of both IVAs and alumni IVAs. To increase the efficiency of data collection, we would like to see a potential contact person at the department level who could provide the contact information of all current and past IVAs. Furthermore, time constraints prevented us from being able to connect with UBC coaches and administration, and discuss how they foster interculturalism at UBC. At the beginning of the semester, we had to choose between gaining the perspectives of either the student-athletes or the Athletics Department, and we chose the student-athletes. However, future projects should explore the possibility of gaining the perspectives of coaches and administration, not only increasing the sample size of student-athletes. We believe it would be beneficial to have the course (KIN 465) extend across two terms, as this would alleviate time constraints placed on our work, leading to a more enriching and rewarding project. UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  14	  Conclusion With this project, we built on last year’s findings to determine the level of interculturalism within the UBC Varsity community. Through the process of informal questioning, we came to the conclusion that IVAs feel they are able to meaningfully contribute to their team’s culture. Our findings also suggest that the Athletics Department is not taking enough initiative in promoting intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity. Lastly, even though many athletes believe that diversity is celebrated within their teams, they do not feel that it is celebrated enough. These findings paint the need to pay constant attention and be committed to fostering diversity and intercultural values within UBC’s Varsity Athletics. We appreciate that this will take time and understand that there may not be one simple solution; however, we emphasize the need to take initiative and start improving the level of interculturalism as soon as possible. We have outlined three recommendations that have the potential to be implemented within the next academic school year. First, we recommend meeting with TAC representatives to provide them with the necessary strategies to foster interculturalism within their respective teams. Next, we recommend working in conjunction with UBC’s Athletic Department to create regular opportunities for IVAs to interact. Lastly, we recommend building a relationship with Jump Start and initiating programs specifically for IVAs.           UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  15	  References Baxter Magolda, M. B. & King, P. M. (2005). A developmental model of intercultural maturity. Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 571-592. doi:10.1353/csd.2005.0060 Bloemraad, I. (2011). “Two peas in a pod,” “apples and oranges,” and other food metaphors: Comparing Canada and the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, 55, 1131-1159. doi:10.1177/0002764211407844 Brasington, J. (n.d.). Why do student-athletes make the best employees. Wofford Today. Retrieved from http://www.wofford.edu/woffordToday/fall14/StudentAthletes/ Clémençon, J. (2014). "I wouldn't change it": An exploration of the lived experiences of international student-athletes in canadian interuniversity sport. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1564441135). 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Preparing Students to Work in a Globally Diverse World: The Relationship of College Students' Backgrounds and College Experiences to Their Orientation Toward Diversity. (Electronic Thesis or Dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/ Frisby, W. Thibault, L. & Cureton, K.(2014). Multiculturalism and federal sport policy in Canada. In Ian Henry and Ling Mei Ko (Eds.) International handbook for sport policy (p. 106-116) Habacon, A. (2012). Multi-culturalism. Cultures West, 30, 13-16. Retrieved from http://blogs.ubc.ca/kcureton/files/2014/08/CulturesWest_Winter2012.pdf Hirko, S. (2007). Do college athletes learn from racial diversity in intercollegiate athletics? A study of the perceptions of college athletes from the state of Michigan. Retrievied from ERIC database. (ED502288) Lee, D. S., Frisby, W., & Ponic, P. (2014). Promoting the mental health of immigrant women by transforming community physical activity. Making it better: Gender-transformative health promotion (p. 111-128) Popp, N. (2007). International student-athlete perception of college sport and its effect on adjustment to college. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304837659). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304837659?accountid=14656 Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive. (2012). Interculturalism 101. Retrieved from   http://www.cnh.bc.ca/neighbourhood-stuff-to-do/about-interactive/ Schinke, R.J., Yukelson, D., Bartolacci, G., Battochio, R.C., Johnstone, K. (2011). The challenges encountered by immigrated elite athletes. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2(1), 10-20. doi:10.1080/21520704.2011.556179 Singer, J. & Cunningham, G. (2011). A case study of the diversity culture of an American university athletic department: Perceptions of senior level administrators. Sport, Education and Society, 17, 647-669. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13573322.2011.552572#.VlVd6N-rSRs UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  17	  Tanaka, G. (2007). CHAPTER FOUR: How to build an intercultural campus. Counterpoints, 97. In Education Source, Intercultural campus: Transcending culture & power in American higher education (pp. 121-160) Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. Taylor, T. (2001). Gender and cultural diversity in sport organisations. World Leisure Journal, 43(3), 31-41. doi:10.1080/04419057.2001.9674236 The University Of British Columbia. (2015). Jump Start. Retrieved from http://students.ubc.ca/campus/get-oriented/attend-orientation/undergrads/international/jump-start UBC Thunderbirds. (2015). UBC Thunderbirds. Retrieved from http://gothunderbirds.ca/index.aspx UBC Thunderbirds. (2015). Thunderbird Athletic Council. Retrieved from http://www.gothunderbirds.ca/sports/2010/8/12/TAC.aspx Williams, D. (2013, October 2). Why you should fill your company with ‘athletes.’ Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidkwilliams/2013/10/02/why-you-should-fill-your-company-with-athletes/              UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  18	  Appendix A Informal Interview Questions for the Athlete 1.   Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? 2.   Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? 3.   In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? 4.   What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? 5.   Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? 6.   Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? 7.   What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience?                UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  19	  Appendix B E-mail for the IVAs   Dear Athlete or Alumni Athlete (name of athlete), Thank you for your interest in our project. Your responses are very important to us, as we would love to be able to improve the varsity athletic community at UBC to foster inclusiveness, diversity and interculturalism. The information provided will be kept confidential and anonymous.  The responses are based on your own personal opinion and you are free to include as much information as you wish, although the more information you provide the more improvements we can make and implement into varsity athletics. To help you with your responses we wanted to provide you with the definition of Interculturalism so that you can answer the questions appropriately.               “Interculturalism is the view that we all benefit when we actively encourage connections between people from different cultures. A curiosity for the other and the willingness to exchange allows us to share our uniqueness and open up new ways of seeing and doing things. It enables us to create deeper connections between cultures that foster learning, respect, growth and produces something new” (Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive, Intercultralism 101).  Attached are the questions that we are asking you to reflect on and respond to. If you could have your responses completed and back to us no later than November 10th, 2015. If you have any questions regarding the questions asked, please do not hesitate to contact us. Thanks, Team contact (name of first contact) Discovering Varsity Athletics: Creating an Inclusive Community (Allison Yu, Kayla Graham, Tamara Roughead, Gagan Dosanjh and Miguel Olfato)        UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  20	  Appendix C IVAs’ Responses  Participant 1 Country of Origin: Germany Team: Men’s Basketball  1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? (1): Yes I do feel like I had an influence on our team culture. I tried to contribute things to our team culture that I have learned from past experiences (past teams) were essential to a team's success.   2. Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? (2): I did play on teams before were I had to change a couple of my habits in order to fit in, but we have such a great group of guys this year that I can actually be absolutely myself.   3. In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? (3): I feel like my teammates make a great effort to learn about my culture and ask interesting questions about my childhood. We also had a team talk about that everybody has their own story so everybody will be taken for who they are, which is really important looking at how diverse our team is this year.   4. What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? (4): In my opinion total inclusiveness is the most important factor, meaning if certain teammates spend some leisure time together(e.g. eating out, watching a movie, studying in the library) it always has to be made sure that everybody on the team is being asked to join. For new guys to the team this is really important because the environment is completely strange in the beginning.  5. Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? (5): I mean personally I am a German basketball player and our coaches did not hesitate one second to recruit me even though I am an international student. They do not care about where I come from, but rather care about who I am.   6. Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? (6): The biggest difference that I have experienced are while playing in Europe was that there are way more creative ways of punishment in practices. If a player messes up for example, he sometimes has to sit on a chair in the middle of the gym while all of his teammates have to run for his mistake. Things like that are not as crazy over here!  7. What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience?  (7): Our team did not have a big trip yet together. My expectations after getting know my teammates are really positive. I expect them to be open-minded and curious about everything we experience on our team trips because we should never take those for granted.   Participant 2 Country of Origin: Australia Team: Men’s Basketball  1.  Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? Yes, I believe that my work ethic on and off the court has had a positive effect on the team culture. In addition to this, my respectfulness towards others on the team has added to the team chemistry. UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  21	  2.  Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? No, I strongly believe that all members of the team as well as the whole coaching staff have been fully accepting of my Australian identity and culture.  3.  In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? As UBC is such a culturally diverse community, three players on the team (including myself) being foreigners, the whole team have gone out of their way to gain a better understanding of my culture as well as the other two members’ respective cultures.  4.  What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? I believe that the level of inclusiveness existing in the men’s basketball team is at a very satisfactory level. However, if there was to be improved inclusiveness, perhaps the team could have one night a week/fortnight which we all go out together (e.g. eat, watch a movie etc.). In addition to this, perhaps living together in the same residence could help.  5.  Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? Yes, I strongly believe that this is promoted in the UBC varsity athletics program.  6.  Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? I feel that this is one of the most cohesive and closest teams that I have ever been a member of. I believe that the team has a real “family” feel to it.  7.  What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience? As it is my first year on the team and the season has just began, I am yet to travel with the team. However, I would assume that travelling with the team would add further to the team’s chemistry as it would be a great bonding experience.   Participant 3 (Alumnus) Country of Origin: Australia Team: Men’s Basketball  1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture?  I did feel that I was able to attribute to team culture coming from another country, being from Australia in my case I was given the chance to embrace my culture and add to the diversity of the team, through such things as joking and bring knowledge.  2. Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? To some limits maybe, coming over to another cultures there's obvious differences and things you can and can't do, factors such a language use, clothes were the main factors as Australian and North American culture are similar to extents. But no I don't feel like I abandoned my culture it was embraced in the team and I accepted how they embraced it, it was more knowing what's acceptable in different cultures.  3.  In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team?  Diversity was celebrated from my culture (Australian) and others teammates as well such a Greece and France. Like mentioned before as our cultures were accepted in the team and its associates by harmless fun humour about our homelands.   UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  22	  4. What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams?  In my situation I don't know what else could have been done to feel more included, I was surrounded by fantastic people who included and invited me around their city and there homes and showed me the ways of that city. I guess when talking about being included just having teammates that make an effort to show you things.   5. Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? Hard to answer this as the majority of the program is Canadian and participated by Canadians. When you look at the costs and places available for people from other cultures (countries) in varsity programs it is limited and costly to donors, but in saying that it is a Canadian program and they have to keep their culture at their university and all they have to do is accept and promote our culture and not have to change there's. There wasn't a whole heap about promoting different cultures but there was an article documenting journeys from our counties to where we are now. But there definitely wasn't anything hindering our cultures.  6.  Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? The culture of varsity athletics is one that in not present in Australia and something that should be present in Australia. The culture of varsity athletics is a fantastic stepping stone for young individuals to be recognised at athletes and students, the combination of this creates great young people. So one difference for me in the invested interest in varsity sports that UBC and North America has compared to Australia which is all club based.  7.    What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience? Expectations of traveling with the team was just to be around a great bunch of boys and have fun while playing sports and to learn more about their culture while spending time 24/7 around them, and I did learn a lot from being around my teammates, things from Tim Horton trips to learning about places we are travelling to.  Participant 4 Country of Origin: USA Team: Men’s Basketball 1.  Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture?  Yes, I feel like I can bring a bit of attitude and feistiness that isn’t really prevalent in this particular area of Vancouver.   2.  Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture?  No, I feel like for the most part I got to keep most of my traditional identities or characteristics.  I do however find myself being a lot kinder with my speech, during any one on one social interaction  3.  In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team?  The diversity was celebrated by just being embraced; people on this team had no problem accepting so many different cultures in a way that our differences made us unique and gave us a sense of identity.  4.  What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams?  Not much, time is really the only thing that can make a transition like this feel more comfortable.  5.  Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity?  Yes, especially with the recruitment process being so global. UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  23	   6.  Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? Yes, people tend to be a lot more aggressive on my previous teams.  Whereas here there are hardly any conflicts whatsoever.  7.  What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience?  I expected there to be not much of a change being that I’m only from Seattle, but that border separation really makes all the difference in terms of the way people are perceived and treated out here.  There is a huge emphasis on team camraderie and social equality that was never before seen in my previous teams or cultural experiences.  Participant 5 Country: Norway Team: Women’s Hockey 1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture?  Being from a different continent and background the culture of sports and hockey specifically is very different. Because of that I feel that I was able to contribute to the team culture by having a different experience which a lot of players on the team were interested in learning about.  2. Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? Personally, I did not have to sacrifice any of my traditional identities or culture. First of all Canada and Norway is pretty similar, and secondly I do not follow any religion so that’s probably why.   3. In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? Our team is really good with including everyone, age or background really doesn’t matter. There are different festivities arranged by the team that usually everyone is a part of. The team doesn’t really think about the diversity a lot. However, since the major part of the team is from outside BC, we go for dinners to some players home when if we are close which is very nice. I believe that is the closest we get to celebrating diversity of the team.   4. What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? For athletes to feel more included in teams, I think it is very important as a freshman to be a part of as much of the team events as possible in the beginning. This way there is a bigger chance that people will include you later on. On the other hand, a person that always says no will be forgotten about because he/she is usually not a part of it. Being on a team that is very inclusive that’s the only thing that I can be done.    5. Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? To be completely honest, I feel like varsity athletics do not promote intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity. I haven’t read anything about it on social media or in the write-ups about different varsity teams.   6. Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? There are definitely different cultures within a team for every team I have played for. The biggest cultural difference going from high school to university, was the training culture. On a varsity team training is a big part of the culture and identity of the team, and it really pushes everyone in the same direction. Playing with the national team I’ve notices that a lot of the players have the same habits and rituals which UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  24	  is probably because everyone is from the same background. When some of us play in different countries outside Norway, we bring in new ideas to the team and it really increases the diversity of the team.   7. What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience?  When traveling with the team I wasn’t expecting to experience different cultures, other than that the food is different. However, as I mentioned in another question, some places we travel the whole team goes for dinner at one of the player’s home which is awesome. In that setting I get to meet families from different cultures and experience the home environment which I haven’t really experienced in Canada as I have been living in a dorm for the past three years. We have a great time and it's very kind of them to have us!  Participant 6 (Alumnus) Country: Germany Team: Men’s Soccer 1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? Yes due to the past experiences I have gained prior to joining UBC I feel that was able to contribute in certain ways to the team culture.   2.  Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture?  Not in my UBC career, but when I moved to Canada from Germany with the age of 17. One example I can think of is the handshake with your teammates when you say hello to them. I used to shake hands with everyone when I greeted them, but this was weird for the 17 year olds here. It was strange for them that I would walk around the entire team and shake their hands. Shaking hands is a sign of mutual respect which the German culture really emphasizes on.   3.  In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team?  At my time at UBC we had groups of players from different cultures. We had players from Germany, India, Italy, Iran and etc but I feel like we all learned from each other a lot. Good and bad habits. People were interested in different cultures, which brought the team closer. By showing interest and being open to different cultures that’s how we integrated players from different countries, which benefited individuals but also the team as a whole.  4.  What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams?  One way of integrating athletes more into a team, is by making them feel more comfortable within the team. Allowing players to express their own culture, but also teaching them about our own culture so that they can explore different things, which will benefit them and help them grow.  5.  Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity?  At my time as a Thunderbird I felt like varsity athletics don’t promote enough diversity, but I felt that in my 5 years at UBC the one reason for our success was the diversity in our locker room and the different cultures that players have experienced and brought into the team.   6.  Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team?  As mentioned above in question 2, at the time I moved from Germany to Canada I felt the difference in the maturity level of high school students at the age of 15-18. The German culture puts a lot of focus on discipline and mutual respect. For example not shaking everyone’s hand when greeting players was something new to me when I moved here. That cultural difference became less and less though as I grew older.  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  25	  7.  What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience? At the beginning of my time with UBC I didn’t have a lot of expectations in terms of experiencing different cultures, because I have been travelling with the Whitecaps to different places already prior to joining UBC, but surprisingly I have learned most about the Canadian Culture in my 5 years as a Thunderbird. Just travelling to different cities within Canada and getting to know the Eastern part of the country helped me to understand the Canadian culture better.  Participant 7 Country: South Korea Team: Men’s Soccer  1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? I don’t think I contributed to the team culture however I have learned a lot and adapted to the team culture.  (i.e coming to training session 45 minutes early and shaking every players hands when entering the locker room)  2. Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? No I haven’t abandoned any of my traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture. Everyone in the team is open minded and accepting.  3.  In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? I personally feel the diversity or inclusiveness in our team is celebrated through social gathering, social events, and playing music in the locker room after a victory.  4. What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? I personally feel that communicating is a key factor to bring a person into the team, just getting to know them. Having social event together is another huge factor that builds on team cohesion and brings everyone close together.  5. Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? I didn’t really feel that they promote intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity.  6. Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? UBC soccer team has been very successful past years and the key to being so successful was due the team culture. If I compare my past experience and UBC soccer team I find that everyone in the team is hungry to improve and stride forward as a unit whereas in my high school everyone was self oriented and didn’t really care about cohesion.  7. What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team?  And how did these expectations match with your actual experience? While travelling I expected everyone to be in a serious mood and excited due to the upcoming game however everyone was more relaxed and had an optimistic mindset.  Participant 8 Country: Iran Team: Men’s Soccer  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  26	  1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? Yes I do feel like I was able to contribute to the team’s culture.  2. Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? I didn’t have to abandon my traditional identity and culture in order to fit in with the team culture. Our team is very diverse and that’s what makes us stronger and connect with one another. We learn different things from each other.    3. In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? The first day that I walked into the change room for a training session, I noticed that most of the players just walked in without greeting one another. One day when I walked into the change room with everyone present, I decided to shake everyone’s hand starting with the coaches. I walked around, shook each players hand one after another. Another player who is from the same culture did the exact same thing and when we were done, there was silence in the room. I guess we did something “different”, a new way of greeting each other rather than just coming to the change room with our head down and not greet anyone. My friend and I kept doing this at every training and noticed other players started following. Walking around and shaking each persons hand became a norm and has been part of our team culture.    4. What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? I think that one way that we can help athletes feel more included is by taking away the notion “rookies”. Rookies are first year athletes that have to fill up the water bottles, clean up after training, carry equipment etc. The concept of having rookies can really hurt some players making them feel like they are not wanted on the team.  5. Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? Yes I do feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values but this happens naturally since we have players from different countries.  6. Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? Again the handshake is part of how I was grown up. You can really see the differences from team to team but the handshake is something that I respect.  7. What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience? I have travelled to different cities in Canada but never felt any cultural differences. Overall Canada is a diverse country so you would pretty much get the same experiences.   Participant 9 Country: Hawaii Team: Women’s Volleyball  1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? As an introvert I'm not really one to get the team together but I do get involved in the team activities. I don't really practice Hawaiian culture in Canada so I wouldn't say I brought forth a visible cultural difference to the team.   2. Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  27	  No, I felt comfortable being myself. No daily activity that I partake in is extremely different or outside of what would be considered social norms in Canada so it was easy to adapt. My mom is also Canadian so I felt comfortable coming to Vancouver.  3. In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? We don't really do much for the diversity on our team, we really just include everyone and where we are from doesn't affect much of our relationships. 4. What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? I think it'd be cool to have transfer international students meet each other. I know first years meet people in dorms and activities but being a transfer I haven't met too many athletes besides my own team and those that hang around my team enough to become familiar with.  I also don't know people around Vancouver like the rest of my team does, like rookies know more people on campus than I do and I've been here for 3 years (because they went to high school in BC).  I think it depends on the team, some people are just more open to new people than others.   5. Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? I think varsity athletics has great diversity among its teams, recruited from so many different countries. I know on our team we like to learn about our foreign teammates and a bit about their cultural background. Everyone includes each other and having different cultural backgrounds is never a reason for exclusion. I've felt so welcomed here at UBC and met so many international students in my small classes that allowed us to interact often, some of them athletes.  Athletes or not, everyone was very interested in each others backgrounds and accepting of differences. I think UBC in general, not just the athletic program, promotes amazing inclusivity among such a diverse population of students/student-athletes.   6. Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? I was closer to my high school and club team because they were also my classmates and we spent so much time together in club, not only in the gym, but outside of the athletic environment. I think in college team "bonding" tends to be drinking but everyone drifts into their own clicks. I think that has to do more with age than culture but at home we go to the beach and hike and use Hawaii's resources as hobbies/bonding more than drinking.   7. What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience?  I didn't think it'd be too much different in Canada in comparison to America. Besides saying "eh" after everything and a slight Canadian accent, nothing felt extremely out of the ordinary. Everyone stereotypes Canadians as being extra friendly and I have to say I did find that to be true, I find more respectful people, and less "bad apples" in Canada than in the states. It was also interesting to encounter French Canadians when traveling with the team, that was unique to hear a different language when still being in Canada.  Participant: 10 Country: Turkey Team: Women’s Volleyball 1. Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? Yes I think I am able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture because this year I am the only international student in our team. Turkey, where I born, has a different culture according to Canada and I am informing my teammates about our culture when the topic related.  2. Did you feel you had to abandon any of your traditional identities and culture in order to fit in and adapt to the team culture? UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  28	  No, I don’t think that I had to abandon any of my traditional identities and culture. Our culture is different but I don’t need to abandon any of them for adapt to the team culture.  3. In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? The team should be have a strong friendships inside. For “being a team”, every members of the team should be make an effort for each their friendships in the team and to make everyone feel included, team activities are good with not exclude someone. Especially for international athletes being kind and friendly is very important. Being aware of the difference between cultures and thats why trying to know the person is very important.  4. What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? In my perspective, my teammates are very nice and friendly. That’s why I didn’t have a trouble to adapt to team. I think for all international athletes the most important part to adapt the team is teammates. Because for example I came alone and from other half of the world. I was very afraid of being alone before I came here but now I am very happy to being a part of this team.  5. Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? Actually I did not see any promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity from varsity athletics but I know they care international athletes. For me, they did a lot of thing to make me a part of this team and in these 3months I did not have any problems. But as I sad, there is not any activity or any promotes about intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity that I saw.  6. Have you noticed any cultural differences, pertaining to the dynamics of a team setting, between any of your previous experiences (ie: high school, club team, national team) and your UBC varsity team? I am an international athlete in volleyball team and I played in a club team when I was in Turkey. Volleyball system is same with Canada but some of terms about volleyball is different. In my previous team we were clapping hands and making some noises when we get a point but in here games are more quiet. Also in Turkey we were warming for games and practices for at least one hour. In Canada warming time is very short to Turkey.   7. What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience?  There were not any differences between my expectations and my experience. Before I came here, our coach informed me about the team. And I also watched the last year team’s games. So there is not any differences but for emotional, it is unbelievable. I am very happy to being a part of this team.            UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  29	  Appendix D  Correspondence with Jayne Blank and Joanna Hunter  The project we're working on is for KIN 465: Interculturalism, Health & Physical Activity, and it's called Discovering Varsity Athletics: Creating an Inclusive Community. What is interculturalism? Interculturalism is defined as "the view that we all benefit when we actively encourage connections between people from different cultures, ... allows us to share our uniqueness and open up new ways of seeing and doing things, ... [and] enables us to create deeper connections between cultures that foster learning, respect, growth and produces something new” (Renfrew Collingwood INTERactive, Intercultralism 101).   Our purpose is to understand the current level of interculturalism within the UBC varsity athletic community through informal interviews with international varsity-athletes. From our interviews, we plan to create recommendations that can be implemented in the program to foster interculturalism in the athletic community.   One of our findings is that international varsity athletes (IVAs) would feel more included or welcomed into the community if there was a way to meet all the IVAs in the program. With this in mind, we are hoping to potentially incorporate a separate function or event within the Athlete Orientation Day.  Our questions for you are as follows:  1.   What is the general itinerary for Athlete Orientation Day? What kinds of information is incorporated in the presentation to all the athletes?  Athlete Orientation was separated into two components:  1.   A General session with all athletes 2.   Separate first year sessions for: i.   CIS student-athletes ii.   NAIA student-athletes  The focus of the general session is to welcome all student-athletes to another academic/athletic year.  The ‘vibe’ we want to create is celebratory as all the athletes are together in one place twice a year, athlete orientation and our end of the year banquet (Big Block).  The focus of the first year session is to introduce Athlete Services and provide eligibility and rule education to first year athletes.  We also want to let the student-athletes know about what supports are available to them (tutoring, peer academic coaching, counselling services, etc).    a.   Is there information that is specific to the IVAs during the presentation?  Not specifically, we are conscious of time restraints on student-athletes.  We encourage our student-athletes to participate in JumpStart!  2.   Do you think it would be feasible to have just the IVAs stay a little bit longer that day so that they can meet each other? ie: extra half hour, extra hour, etc.   This is definitely an option.  We would want the session to be a half hour to an hour at the most due to the demands on the student-athletes time.  UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  30	   3.   If it is feasible, what kinds of events/information could be done during that time? ie: ice breakers, mini game, information that is specific to IVAs, etc.  We think the best use of the half hour to an hour would be an ice-breaker or mini-game so that the IVA’s get to know each other and Athlete Services staff.                        UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  31	  Appendix E Work Plan  Name of Project: Discovering Varsity Athletics: Creating an Inclusive Community Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”): To critique last year’s report; to interview more athletes and expand upon last year’s sample size; to create new recommendations, which will hopefully be implemented and help improve interculturalism and inclusion within UBC varsity athletics Deliverables (“what are we going to create?”): We will create a report and a presentation, and hopefully be able to implement some of the recommendations based on our findings. Methods (“how are we going to do this?”): •   Critique last year’s paper, including adding, deleting or modifying any of the interview questions •   Identify international athletes to be interviewed (hopefully a minimum of two from men’s basketball, men’s soccer, women’s soccer, women’s volleyball and track and field), which will expand our data, both in terms of the number of athletes interviewed as well as the number of teams interviewed. o   Contact athletes and ask if they are willing to participate - athletes from men’s basketball, men’s soccer, women’s soccer and women’s volleyball will be contacted in person whereas athletes from track and field might have to be contacted by email o   Interview willing athletes in person (conduct informal interviews with the international athletes who agreed to participate; ask our predetermined questions) •   Analyze the findings from our interviews •   Brainstorm recommendations based on our findings •   Implement recommendations (if possible) in the hopes of improving interculturalism and inclusion within UBC varsity athletics        Timeline: •   October 8th: have last year’s report critiqued •   October 13th: add/modify questions for the informal interviews and start asking athletes if they are willing to participate •   October 22nd: begin conducting informal interviews with teams (1-2 weeks depending on availability of athletes) •   Beginning of November: analyze findings and brainstorm recommendations based on these findings •   Middle of November: finish report and prepare presentation •   November 24th or 26th: presentation Project Members Skills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability Miguel Olfato Used to work for men’s basketball, personable Contact Person Liaison – responsible to make initial contact, set up mtgs and maintain contact, and gather feedback on deliverable, Interviewing men’s basketball, critiquing report Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12 UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  32	  Gagan Dosanjh Hard worker, athlete on men’s soccer team Interviewing men’s soccer, critiquing report  Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12 Tamara Roughead Good team player, athlete on women’s soccer team Interviewing women’s soccer, critiquing report, writing up the critique section   Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12 Kayla Graham I’ll bring coffee, punctual, hardworking, love meeting new people  Interviewing the track team (potentially), critiquing the report   Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12 Allison Skill with Prezi, work with women’s volleyball team  Interviewing women’s volleyball, making the Prezi, critiquing the report   Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12                                   UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  33	  Appendix F  Midterm Progress Report   Name of Project: Discovering Varsity Athletics: Creating an Inclusive Community Purpose(s) of Project (“why are we doing this?”): To critique last year’s report; to reach out to more athletes and expand upon last year’s sample size; to create new recommendations, which will hopefully be implemented and help improve interculturalism and inclusion within UBC varsity athletics •   The purpose of this project is to understand the current level of interculturalism within the UBC varsity athletic community through informal interviews with international student-athletes. From there, we hope to further promote interculturalism so that athletes from all backgrounds, cultures, ethnicities, etc. feel welcome and accepted, ultimately improving their experience as a varsity athlete. Deliverables (“what are we going to create?”): We will create a report and a presentation, and hopefully be able to implement some of the recommendations based on our findings. •   10-12 page report, essay style o   Including: a literature review, a critique of the previous report, purpose, hypothesis, partnership, methods, results, discussion (Intercultural lens), conclusion (limitations, recommendations, next step, final thoughts)  •   In class presentation of our project (December 1st) •   Presentation to the SEEDS partners (date to be discussed)  Methods (“how are we going to do this?”): •   Critique last year’s paper, including adding, deleting or modifying any of the information gathering questions (completed) •   Identify international athletes to be contacted (hopefully a minimum of two from men’s basketball, men’s soccer, women’s soccer, women’s volleyball and track and field), which will expand our data, both in terms of the number of athletes as well as the number of teams contacted. o   Contact athletes and ask if they are willing to participate - athletes from men’s basketball, men’s soccer, women’s soccer (has no one), women’s hockey and women’s volleyball will be initially contacted face to face (alumni will be contacted through email) to garner interest, and then they will be sent an email with the questions if they are willing to participate (with an ideal due date of Nov. 5th) o   Oct. 19th Meeting with Michael - confirm whether we can use prior contact information from the track and field team and the men’s baseball team •   Questions to be asked: o   (Begin the email with a definition of interculturalism so the athlete knows the direction or focus of this paper) 1.   Did you feel you were able to contribute in a meaningful way to the team culture? 2.   Did you feel you had to assimilate to the team culture? 3.   In what ways was diversity or inclusiveness celebrated on the team? 4.   What do you think could be done to help athletes feel more included in teams? 5.   Do you feel like varsity athletics promotes intercultural values, diversity and inclusivity? 6.   Have you noticed any cultural differences between your previous team and your UBC varsity UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  34	  team?  7.   What were your expectations of experiencing different cultures when travelling with the team? And how did these expectations match with your actual experience?  •   Analyze the findings from our responses •   Brainstorm recommendations based on our findings •   Implement recommendations (if possible) in the hopes of improving interculturalism and inclusion within UBC varsity athletics        Timeline: •   October 8th: have last year’s report critiqued (completed)  •   October 13th: Second meeting with Liska and Rachel to discuss our next steps for the project (completed) •   add/modify information gathering questions for the athletes and start asking athletes if they are willing to participate (completed - but are hoping for feedback)  •   Oct. 19th Meeting with Michael - confirm whether we can use prior contact information from the track and field team and the men’s baseball team (unable to attend) •   October 22nd: have the list of questions completed and finalized (completed)  •   begin face to face contact with the athletes, and create an email to send out to the athletes  •   Oct. 22 - (potentially) Nov. 9th: receiving responses from the athletes and begin analyzing the ones we receive •   Nov. 5th-7th: have the literature report finished  •   Nov. 10th: begin to write the results and discussion •   TBD (between 10th-17th): Final meeting with SEEDS Partners  •   Nov. 17th: conclusion, finish report and prepare presentation •   Nov. 26th: report due  •   Dec. 1st: presentation (in class) •   TBD: SEEDS Presentation  Project Members Skills/Interests Role(s) in the project Availability Miguel Olfato Used to work for men’s basketball, personable Contact Person Liaison – responsible to make initial contact, set up mtgs and maintain contact, and gather feedback on deliverable, gathering information from men’s basketball, critiquing report, research for the lit review  Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12 Gagan Dosanjh Hard worker, athlete on men’s soccer team gathering information from men’s soccer, critiquing report, research for the lit review   Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12 Tamara Roughead Good team player, athlete on women’s soccer team gathering information from women’s soccer, critiquing report, writing the critique section, research for the lit review  Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12 Kayla Graham I’ll bring coffee, punctual, hardworking, love gathering information from the track team (Unconfirmed), critiquing the report, research for the lit review, creating the email to send to  Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-UBC	  Social	  Ecological	  Economic	  Development	  Studies	  (SEEDS)	  Student	  Report	  	  35	  meeting new people  our participants   12 Allison Skill with Prezi, work with women’s volleyball team  gathering information from women’s volleyball, making the Prezi, critiquing the report, research for the lit review, editing the lit review   Monday morning 10-11 and Tuesdays 11-12   

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