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Developing a sustainable UBC Food System : customer support for a local food system and food produced… Blades, Jennifer; Chow, Cindy; Dhaliwal, Manpreet; Huang, Sienna; Lo, Victoria; Pottinger, Oscar; Tsang, Annie Apr 14, 2006

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Developing a Sustainable UBC Food System Scenario 3: Customer Support for a Local Food System and Food Produced from Ecologically and Socially Conscious Producers Jennifer Blades, Cindy Chow, Manpreet Dhaliwal, Sienna Huang, Victoria Lo, Oscar Pottinger, Annie Tsang  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 14, 2006           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.        Developing a Sustainable UBC Food System   Scenario 3:   Customer Support for a Local Food System and Food Produced from Ecologically and Socially Conscious Producers               AGSC 450 April 14, 200 6   Group 9:  Jen n if er Blad es Cin d y Cho w Manp reet Dhaliwa l Sien n a Huan g Victo ria Lo Oscar Pottin g er Ann ie Tsan g       2  Abstract: The ult im ate go al of the UBC Food S ystems Project is to increas e the sustainabil it y of the universit y food s ystem. One step towards achievi ng thi s goal involves re -locali z ati on of our foodstuffs. Consequentl y, our task in 2006 was to develop a surv e y to asses s the desirabil it y and feasibi li t y of re-loc ali z ati on on campus alon g with current pur chasin g beh a viors, and to further determi ne will ingn ess to purchase foods produc ed by so ciall y and ecolo gic all y cons cious producers.  This surv e y has been buil t upon a foun dati on provided by ou r coll eagu es over th e past several ye ars and fin ali z ed through int e gr ati on of information provide d through a pil ot test made up of both a cl ass and a field surve y. Furthe r , funding, inc enti ves and surve y implementation have bee n organiz ed to ensure suc cess. Coll ecti vel y, th e res ult ing surve y can be implemented in the fall of 2006, through eit her stu dent distribut ion or a web based surve y, to provide statist icall y relev ant result s to our partne rs in food services on cam pus to move towards a more sust ainable food sys tem he re at UBC.   Background and Introduction R esidents of Vancouv er, as in most developed cou ntries, have com e to ex pect ye ar round avail abil it y of a wide arr a y of food items from all over the world. 9   To meet consum er demands, four important developm ents have taken pl ace on a glob al level: 1) the buil ding and mainten anc e of a transport ati on infrast ructure with low dire ct cost; 2) intensificati on of agricultural technolog y; 3) widespre a d comm it ment to global free tr ade poli c y; and 4) vertical and ho riz ontal consol idation and centr ali z ati on of the corporate food s ystem. 4   Food items that arrive on UBC campus , for the most part , will travel betwee n 250 0-4000 km befor e it rea c hes our plates. 2   Whil e the globaliz ati on of our food s ystem seems economi call y ef ficient, t he foods ar e artificiall y che ap.  The ph ysical distan cing of foo d from produc ers to cons umers has caus ed man y ne gati ve ex ternali ti es th at consumers do not pay for dire ctl y. 2  Conseq uentl y, our food s ystem is deemed so ciall y, enviro nmentall y and economi call y unsust ain able. The environmental and ecologic al costs include th e rele ase of carbon emi ssi ons, which contribut e to global war mi ng, dep letion of wildl ife habit at, loss of gen eti c diversit y and soil quali t y, and inc reas ed gr ound and wate r pollut ion. Social costs include the dist ancing of consum ers from produ ce rs and a disparit y in the dist ributi on of wealt h.  Eco nomi c costs include  3  decli nin g pro fit mar gins for fa rmers, alon g with  i ncreas ed costs of ex tenuati ng environmental impacts, and glob al food transport. 7 One of the main issues fa ced on UBC campus is feeding its growin g popula ti on in a sust ainable fashion . Acc ording to the Unive rsit y of Britis h Col umbi a Foo d S ystem Project (UBC FS P ) guidi n g princ ipl es, re-locali z ati on will help improve the sustainabil it y of the food s ystem he re at UBC. 9  One step towards doin g so i s determini ng if it is feasibl e for food outl ets to use locall y produc ed foo d. We need to ensure th at there is consumer will ingness to bu y loc all y produced food, which wi ll essentiall y off er securit y to those providi n g food . The purpose of last year’s questionnaire was to determine the willingness of UBC residents to buy and pay m ore for local foods; this ye ar we have add ed two new obje cti ves to the surve y: 1) to assess the level of desirabil it y amon g UBC consum ers to purch ase a selecti on of food produ ce d from ecolo gic all y and sociall y conscious pr oducers and 2) to assess current p ur chasin g beh av iours, rather than just att it udes, towards these products. The final result s from thi s surve y can be pres ented to UBC food outl ets to encoura ge incorporati on of both loc al foods and foods produ ced b y ecologi call y and s ociall y conscious produ cers. As a group, we understand that the und erl yin g mot ivation for m ost businesses is profit s, however, we also reali z e that chan ge is possi ble provided that the economi c sit uati on is not negati vel y aff ected. We beli eve that food outl ets will be more likel y to chan ge the food the y provide if result s dete rmine there is a demand fo r them on campus .  Value Assumption W e, as a group, acknowl edge that bein g brou ght u p in an economi call y cen tered world causes peopl e to be anthr opocentric. Since human beings driv e food produ c ti on and food securit y is of gr eat con cern world wide, we look at situations through thi s anthropoc entric view. Ho weve r, being educat ed in the Fac ult y of Land and Food S ys tems, our group holds a weak er  4  anthropocentri c par adigm and takes int o con sider ati on a biocentric vie wpo int , as it is important to promot e the conserv ati on of our natur al environ ment and its resourc es. Vision Statement: The seven prin cipl es for a sust ainable food s yste m at UBC have been created throu gh 3 yea rs of UBC FS P to guide sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s ystem. Thes e pri ncipl es act as a framewo rk to a chiev e su stainabil it y and must be able to provoke people to anal yz e and potentiall y ch an ge the wa y th e y per ceive their foo d s ystem and environme nt. Through ou r pilot studi es, we reali z ed that the vast majorit y of peopl e do not full y unde rstand the meanin g of local, organic, fair trad e, and fr ee -r an ge foods. Ther efor e, alt hough we agree with the basis of the principles, we beli ev e an emphasis should be place d on promot ing educ ati on, awar eness, and understandin g of wh at a sust ainable food s ystem is and its impacts on the rest of the comm unit y.   Group 8 of AGS C I 450 s uggested addin g an 8 t h  principle: “to address the issue of looking at the UBC food s ystem i n a glob al contex t and be ing aw are of the recipro c al impacts the UBC food system and those systems around it have on one another”. We would like to expand on this 8 t h  principle, by su ggesti ng a glob al use for the UBCFS P . If our visi on is met, we will have a sust ainable UBC food s ystem, and it shoul d act as a workin g model for oth er comm unit ies, cit ies and eventuall y countri es. Thus, the global comm unit y can mov e closer to t he ult im ate go al of food securit y. Wit h this vision in mind, the go al of this paper is t o provide guidelines t o conduct a surve y determi nin g cons umer att it udes and beh av iors in the fall of 2006. After revi ewin g previous AGS C I 450 que sti onnaires, our group created a pr eli mi nar y versio n that was admi nist ered to other AG S C I 450 students, modified as per su ggesti ons, an d re-tested in a field stud y using UBC campus consum ers. We will revi ew the respons es and pro vide a discussi on of these result s. Our paper will also describe a plan of acti on to have the su rv e y admi nist ered in the  5  fall of 2006. Finall y, we will provide r ecommendations to next year’s group and the AGSCI 450 teachin g team re gardin g anal ysis and the back -up onli ne surve y. Sampling Technique The purpose of usin g qu e sti onnaires and surve ys i s to determi ne the att ribu tes and dynami cs o f a certain po pulation. 14  In our case, in order to assess the desira bil it y of consum ing sust ainable foods and the current pur chasin g beh a viors among UBC consu mers, a tar get population must be established. Upon reviewing previous years’ research on this topic we decided that our populati on shoul d be custom ers at food outl ets on the UBC campus .  By accur atel y sampli n g the tar get popul ati on of all UBC food consum e rs, we shoul d be able to derive the populati on ch a racte risti cs needed for th e UBC FS P . Group 8 of AGS C I 450 2005, encounter ed a probl em when definin g the scop e of the tar get popul ati on and assessing the boundaries of the UB C food s ystem. Our group, s im il ar to previous ASGC I 450 groups, decid ed to lim it the surve y to are as wher e people can pur c hase food on campus , thi s includes p rivate residenc es, the food outl e ts in the Universit y Vill a ge, and all other campus food outl ets.  It is unre ali sti c to pol l all UBC consum ers indivi d uall y, so our group, like group 1 and 8 of the 2004 and 2005 AG S C I 450 class respecti vel y, de cided on a pr oportio nal strati fied random sampl e of the tar get popul ati on. This form of sampl ing divi des the enti re po pulation into strata, which are th en sampled relative to the enti re popul ati on. 8  Whil e thi s allows for a more detailed anal ysis of the enti re pop ulatio n, as previous grou ps pointed out, it is hard to get a compl etel y random sampl e of each st ratum . Since we plan to admi nist er the surve y fa ce - t o -fac e, the dat a will be t ype of convenien ce sampli ng call ed quota sampl ing. Quota sampli n g is sim il ar to strati fied sampli ng in tha t the target popul ati ons is divided into strata, but the strata are sampled eit her b y conveni ence or judgment. 9  Bec ause indi viduals chosen for the su rve y ar e not select ed randoml y, jud gin g the ac curac y of the result s cann ot be done with standard error and confid ence.  6  Therefo re the su rve y will be used as an ex ploratory investi gati on and can be anal yz ed to ex trapolate pertinent info rmati on. This must be taken int o account wh en an al yz ing th e final result s of the surve y.  To determi ne the str ata, our group looked into the revenue of various areas around campus . Throu gh revenu e anal ysis , we wer e able to derive the amount of consum er acti vit y in certain areas (Appendix 1). Thus, we divi ded the campus int o 7 locati ons for questi onnaire dist ributi on: The S.U.B., UBC Vill a ge, Totem Par k Dining Room, Vanier Dining Room, Ga ge Towers, Trek Ex press area, and Sa ge Bist ro.  Th ese areas rep resent 2/3 of our tar get popul ati on, which makes it more repr esentative of the total UBC consum er population. 2  Sample Size An accu rate sampl e siz e will all ow the anal yz e rs of the information to suggest diff er ent chara cterist ics amon g the UBC consum ers. 9  Similar to previous years’ groups, we used the formul a outl ined in the Resear ch Methods resourc e pa ges. 1 5   Where N is the tot al popul ati on, n is the sample siz e and e is the desired error. Th e two pre vious groups used a plus/ mi nus of 5% for thei r err or, but thi s would result in a sampl e siz e of less than 1% of the population, so we decid ed to use an erro r of plus/ mi nus 3%. This result is a sampl e siz e of 1090 participants. This num ber takes int o account non -r esponses, therefor e we decided to bring the numbe r down to an even 1000. Each of th e 7 areas will be surve yed accordin g to th eir relative us e (App endix 1).  Applying the Survey The go al of our project is to have a surv e y compl e ted so that the AGSC I 45 0 class of 2007 can an al yz e our dat a and provide result s to our partners at AMS Food and Bev er a ges (AMS FB ) and UBC Foo d Services (U BC FS ). In order t o do so, we have arran ged for the AGSC I 100 class of 2006 to carr y out surve yin g responsi bil it ies. Nex t yea r, AGS C I 100 will becom e n=     N__       1+ N(e ) 2   7  AGSC I 150 and will be worth an ex tra cr edit . Dr. Andrew Riseman, the te acher of AGSC I 150, has notified us that the students are required to co mpl ete 2-4 hours of com muni t y s ervic e and consequentl y  can us e thi s time to hand out questi onnaires. In ord er to do so , he has su ggested that the class be pr esente d a back groun d on the UBCFS P , as well as a sho r t lesson on how to conduct a surv e y. The AGSC I 450 tea chin g team will present this, using re sources and information from our pro ject. Furthe r, our group has cre ated a do cument of inst ructi ons on handing out surv e ys (Ap pendix 4) and proposed a time line for the surve y i mpl ementati on (Appendix 5). By int rodu cing the project to AGS C I 150 students, the y will become awar e of food s ystems and be bett er prep ared for their car e ers in the facult y of Land and Food S ystems. The y will also learn the basics of surve yin g and stati sti cs, whil e comp leting their comm unit y service hours. We have also decided to use an onli ne surve y as a bac k -up pl an, a timeline can be found for thi s surve y in Appendix 6. Although a strong response rate is no t guar anteed, th e surve y will be easie r to admi nist er and will not require an inst ructi on lesso n for students. Furthermo re , since th e onli ne surve y would be im plemented throu gh WebCT, courses would determi ne the strat a, rath er than food outl ets on campus . Budget The main ex penses of thi s project would be photo cop yin g fees. Th ere are 6 pages per surve y pack a ge; the surv e y is 4 pages, and the inf ormative piece and coup ons are 1 page each.  Using Cop yR i ght, the pr ojected cost is $0.40 per packa ge or $400 fo r 100 0 surve ys (for a breakdown of costs , see appendix 2).  The teachin g te am su gge sted contacti n g our UBC Food S ystem Proje ct part ners such as UBCFS for fundin g, how ever the y wer e unrespons ive. Whil e increasin g cou rse fe es to cover th e cost of the UBCFS P is an opti on suggested b y Al ejandro Roj as, ther e ar e contradictor y opini ons regardin g usa ge of cours e funds as the surv e y itse lf is not part of course m aterials. Consequentl y,  8  the most feasibl e opti on might be partial funding provided b y Agora in co mbi nati on with other fund raisi n g ini ti ati ves.  Lau chlan Jankola, chief financial offic er of Agora Eats Café fo r 2005 - 2007 comm it ted Agor a to sponsorship in 2006 (contact information in Ap pendix 3).  The Ago ra comm it tee has approv ed the request and will comm it up to $150 in funding towa rds the AGS C I 450 UBCFS P for winte r of 2006.  This donation ma y be in the form of fo od, mone y or gift certific ates, dependin g on our needs.  Init iall y, a small advertisement for Agor a was p roposed in ex change, howev er, this was not implemented due to their adve rtisi ng restrictions and shoul d be re -ex ami ned in the fall . Incentives An important issue involved in the admi nist rati on of surve ys is encou ra gin g indi viduals to parti cipate.  Foll owin g recomm endati ons from group 8 of AGSC I 2005, we have decided to provide incenti ves fo r res pondents.  Coupo ns will be provided wit h the surv e y to encour a ge students to tr y local food products for themselves.  Erin Nichols, the promoti ons supervisor at Small Potatoes Urban Deli ver y (SP UD), has agree d to provide discounts for SPUD products to all 1000 participant s in ex change fo r promot ing th eir compan y in the infor mative handout (contact inform ati on in Appendix 3).  The y provid ed a promoti onal code, which can be t yp ed in at the SPUD websit e (w ww.spud.ca) and will off er a tot al of $25 off their first 4 deli veries.  This code is located on a coup on att ached to the tak e -h ome handout.  UBC Farm’s program coordinator, Mark Bomford, has agreed to provide the first 100 respondents with coupon s for 10% off farm ma rke t produce of pu rchas es o ver $10 (cont act information in Appendix 3). The UBC Farm disco unt is in its preli mi nar y s tages of dev elopm ent; consequentl y, thi s partne rship must be re-visi ted in the fall of 2006 to re -es tablis h support. The coupon for SPUD has be en approved and the draft for UBC Fa rm has been sent to Mark Bomford. An y future cha nges mus t be re- approve d by both or ganiz ati ons prior to distribut ion.  9  Research Methodology Based on th e purposes of thi s questi onnaire, outl ined wit hin our introducti on, our resea rch te am formul ated a surve y with 17 questi o ns and the result ing draft questi onnaire was subm it ted to our 'scen ari o room' fo r fe edba ck. Th eir fe edback was then inc orporated into a fin al questi onnaire dist ributed to UBC food consum e rs.  The surve y was int roduc ed in a one-p a ge summar y to defin e, in a spe c ific and concise manner, the te rminol og y that would be used throu ghout the questi onnair e. This was done to ensure that respondents u nderstood the meanin g of each te rm wit hin the con tex t of the surve y, enabli ng th em to answer the questi ons to the best of th eir abil it y. Ou r intro ducti on was modified from its original fo rmat in response to su ggesti ons from students in our 's ce nario room '. The result ing int roducti on (pl ease refe r to appendix 7) was shortened acc ordin gly to make a more reade r-f riendl y version fo r the UBC population. The surve y was then con cluded wit h an informative piece on the benefits of pur chasin g local foods alon g with food s produced from sociall y and ecolo gic all y conscious produc ers. Thi s was done to help incr ea se present knowl ed ge of these foods in an att e mpt to change future beh avior.  1 )  Ar e yo u a:        Facult y:_ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ ___ _ _ _  __ _ _ UB C Und er gr ad uate St u d ent  __ _ _ UB C Facult y Me mb er                 Gend er : M  /  F  ___ _ UB C Staf f  __ _ _ UB C Grad uate Stud en t       Age (P lease cir cle one) :              ___ _ Other : ___ _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _     18 & und er    19 - 3 0    31 - 5 5    56 & over  The first questi on in our surve y was v er y sim il ar to our coll ea gues ' from AGSC I 450 group 8, 2005.  Our grou p agrees th at it is relevan t to determi ne the demo graphic dist ributi o n of the populati on for future anal ysis to det ermine wh ich students woul d like to (or ar e) cu rrentl y purchasin g the foods o f interest. 9  Andrew Parr, of UBC Food Se rvices, has also determined that certain 'nich e mark ets' ex ist on campus and are oft en relat ed to areas of stu d y. As a result , it would be most beneficial to determine both who is and is not interested in these products to  10  determi ne app ropriate m arketi n g strate gies in the future . 9  The onl y ch an ge made to the ori ginal questi on was chan gin g th e te rm 'depa rtment ' to 'fa cult y' to make th e questi on clear er as man y AGS C I 450 students w er e unsure of th e definiti on of 'd epartment '.  2 )   Do you live o n ca mp us?     Yes          No   I f yes, wh ic h resid ence do you live in:  __ Place Vanier  __ T otem Par k  __ G age  __ Fair vie w  __ Ritsu mei ka n - UB C Ho u se     __ Other  Our second qu esti on is a modi fied version of one proposed b y group 8 fro m 2005. Although we did agre e that it was important to determi ne if the indi viduals lived on campus or not, and whether the y  were depend ant on cafete ria meals, we also felt that greate r choic e was needed re ga rding th e resi dences av ail able on cam pus. This all ows gr eater demogr aphic breakdown of campus re sident s, as the y mak e up a lar ge consum er bas e. 9 3 )  How man y ti me s a wee k d o yo u pur cha se fo o d on ca mp us? (includ i ng t he UB C     Vill age)    0   1 - 3   4 - 6   7 - 9   10+  Please sp ec if y wh er e yo u eat mo st ofte n:  __ Resid ence cafeter ia  __ S.U. B .  __ Village  Other : __ _ _ _ __ _ _  The nex t questi on looks specificall y at bot h the nu mber of times an indivi dual eats on campus and the loc ati on where that person most comm onl y eats. Consum e rs who eat most frequentl y on campus shoul d be a major tar get au dience of marketi n g cam paigns. T h e locati ons provided ar e those that h ave the gr eatest revenue and would there fore be a likel y choic e for food purchasin g. Providing an 'othe r ' choice, ensures th at the most comm on locati on for that indi vidual is not missed in the case that it does not fal l wit hin the provided choices. 4 )   Are yo u fa mil iar wi th wh a t fruit s and vegetab le s ar e prod uce d in B.C?  a) Yes   b) Some wh at   c) No   d) No t sur e         5)    Do you p ur chase loca ll y pro d uce d fo o d?  a) Yes   b) Someti me s   c) No   d) No t sur e  If yes whic h ite ms do you mos t co mmo nl y b u y_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __  If no, why not? __ _ __ _ __ _ ___ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _  Question four attempts to identify the consumers’ knowledge of which foods are produced loc all y, while questi on five determi nes t he actual p ur chasin g beh aviour towards thes e foods. This was modified from our ori ginal questi onnaire as a recomm enda ti on from Liska  11  Richer, who su ggested th at might people ma y thi n k the y know which foods are loc all y produced but actuall y do not. This t ype of questi o n is important to ensure the vali dit y of the surve y. Further, b y askin g those who do not bu y loc all y produced foods th eir re aso n for not doi ng so, appropriate solut ions can be created acco rdingl y.  6 )  W hat do you thi n k is mor e i mp o r tant?  __ _ _ T he distance the  fo o d ha s travelled  __ _ _ T he co untr y i n whic h the fo o d is pro d uce d                 ____ No opinio n    This questi on was taken from group 8 of AGS C I 450 in 2005 and modified onl y sli ghtl y. We beli ev e thi s questi on helps to identif y what consumers beli eve to be most important when selecti n g foods that the y perc eived to be 'loc al'. Th ese beli e fs ma y ult im atel y influen ce their purchasin g beh avio ur and would be benefici al information for food s ervice providers to be awar e of wh en marketi n g their products. Fu rther m ore, we added a 'no opini on' to this questi on to prevent biased answe rs.  7 )  a)W hat ar e the maj o r benef its of pur c hasi n g loca ll y pro d uce d fo o d?  b) What ar e the maj o r disad vantage s of pur c hasi n g loca ll y p ro d uce d fo o d?  Questi on seven was a ver y important two pa rt que sti on to help determi ne ex actl y what people think the costs / be nefits of local food consum pti on are. It has also be en found that open -ended questi ons ar e usef ul in gaini n g valuable inf ormation that ma y not ha ve been pr evious l y consi dered. 8  From the in formation provided, app r opriate mark eti ng/ promo ti on strategies can be developed bas ed on cons umer opini on.  8 )  W o uld kno wi ng a foo d ite m was pro d uce d locally enco ur age yo u to pur cha se it if it was the sa me price  as an iden tical i te m pro d uce d outsid e the pro v ince ?        a) Yes   b) No               c) Don’t Know  9)  I f it wer e to co st mo r e  to offer loca ll y pro d uce d fo o d s at UBC foo d outlets, ho w mu ch mo r e wo uld yo u be willi n g to pay?  a) Wouldn’t be willing d) 40 - 6 0 % mo r e  b) 0 - 2 0 % mo r e              e) 60 - 8 0 % mo r e  c) 20 - 4 0 % mo r e              f) 80 - 1 00 % mo r e        Questi on eight was prop osed by group 8 of AGS C I 450 2005 and s eeks to identif y consum er pre fer enc es for locall y produ ced foods, whil e questi on nine deter mi nes if UBC  12  consum ers would be wil l ing to pa y more for loc all y produ ced foods and ho w much more. This would be ver y important to people withi n UBCFS and AMSFB as it shows consum ers ' will ingness to pa y more, thereb y dete rmini ng demand for loc al foods. Our s cale has b een set in 20% increments to facil it ate compreh ension of actual increas ed costs and th e addit ion of a 'wouldn 't be wil li n g' opti on prevents bias.  We thought that it was unlikel y that a consum er would be will ing to pa y more than double (100% more) for lo call y produc ed food so incr ements en d at this amount .  1 0 ) Are yo u inter ested in buyi ng fair trad e pro d ucts?     a) Yes   b) Mayb e  c) No  d) Don’t know  This questi on was added to assess desirabil it y of purchasin g from so ciall y conscious producers, which would include fai r trade produ cts, as we beli eve there is a growin g in terest in these products on campus . AM S Food and Bever a ge ret ail ers, such as Blue Chip, and other campus retailers also sell fair trad e coff ee; su ggesti n g grea ter servic e of fair trad e pr oducts could be feasibl e on campus . 1 1 )   D o yo u buy fair trad e pro d ucts to use at ho me?   I f yes, ho w ma n y ite ms  per month ?   0      1 - 3      4 - 6      7 - 9     10+   I f no , wh y no t? __ _ __ _ __ _ ___ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _            12)  Do you req ues t fair t rad e bever ages whe n pur cha si ng t he m p re - mad e at a      coffee sho p ?                  a) Al wa ys           b) Someti mes      c) Rar el y   d) Never   Questi on eleven and tw e lve were added to our su r ve y to d etermi ne actual purchasin g behaviors of consum ers on campus .  Questi on ele ven seeks to dete rmi ne how frequ entl y consum ers purch ase fair trade items, if at all, wit h out lim it ing the choice onl y to cof fee.  Respondents who do not purchase fair tr ade items are given the opti on of an open -ended repl y to provide us wit h information that we ma y not have consi dered. 9   Questi on twelve then identifies whether consum ers are consciousl y pur chasin g fai r trade bever a ges, in an effort to indi cate the level of desire for fair tra de products.  13  1 3 )  Are yo u willi n g to buy organic fo o d s eve n if the y ar e mo r e exp ensiv e ?    a) Yes     b) Mayb e             c) No                     d) Don’t know  I f so , what fo o d s wo uld yo u mo st be inter ested in buyi n g on ca mp u s? _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _  This questi on was develo ped by ou r grou p to dete r mi ne the level of interest in purchasin g organic products as they have become increasingly “trendy” in today’s society. Respondents are also asked which or ganic foods the y would be int e rested in purch asing on campus ; useful information rega rding pr oduct demand for ou r ret ail partners. In ou r ori gin al questi on, we also asked consum e rs how much more the y would be will ing to pa y, but Lisk a Richer re comm ended deleting thi s portion of th e questi on becaus e we have ye t to determi ne att it udes towards orga nics. Further, we also lim it ed thi s secti on purposefull y as we reco gniz e that or ga nic foods are not alwa ys produc ed in an en vironmentall y sust ainabl e manner. 1 4 ) Are yo u willi n g to buy fre e - r an ge eg gs o n ca mp us, fo r e xa mp le i n a brea kfa st, eve n i f the y ar e mo r e exp ens ive?  a) Yes   b) Mayb e  c) No   d) Don’t know  If yes, ho w mu c h mo r e wo uld yo u be willi ng to pa y?  a) $0.0 0 -  $0 .50 mo r e   b) $0.5 0 - $ 1 .0 0 mo r e   c) $1.0 0 - $ 1 . 50 mo r e   d) Other : P lease sp ec if y_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _   15)  Do you c ur r entl y bu y free - r an ge eg gs?   a) Al wa ys   b) Someti me s   c) Never   I f no , wh y no t? __ _ __ _ __ _ ___ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ _   Questi on fourteen and fif teen wer e add ed to deter mi ne the level of interest in purchasin g and consum ing fre e-r an ge eggs.  The ex ampl e of free - range eggs ‘in a breakfast’ wa s added to our questi on, as thi s would most likel y be th e man ner in which free -ran ge eggs would be sold on campus . Our ori ginal sur ve y contained choices of increas ed costs in the for m of perc enta ges, however, we modi fied th e questi on to make the ad dit ional cost in doll ar increments, to giv e consum ers a c l ear er ide a of how much more the y would be will ing to pa y. Free -r an ge poult r y was deleted from our ori ginal questi on, as recom mended b y Lisk a Richer, as its high cost lim it the marketabili t y on cam pus.  14  1 6 ) Rank in order of importance the follo wi n g fea t ur es yo u co nsid er wh en        purchasin g a foo d ite m: W ith 1 being t he mo st i mp o r tant and 7 being the lea st        imp o r tant.  __ Pric e  __ Or ganic/ Fair T rad e  __ Qualit y  __ Fre e Range/ Fre e Ru n  __ Pro d uce d wit hi n B.C.  _ _ Co nve nience  Other : (p lease sp ec i f y) _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ _  This questi on is used to determine whe re the priori t y for lo cal producti on lie s in comparison to other feat ures that consumers cons ider when pur chasin g foo d. AGS C I 450 Group 8 (2005) had a version of thi s questi on that asked consum ers to rank their t op three features.  Howeve r, due to the freq uenc y of respondents tha t onl y che cked the top thr ee choic es rath er than ranking th em, the y su gge sted modi f yin g it to emphasiz e the inst ructi ons of ranking th e items by using bold face type and underlining. Choices such as ‘Organic/ Fair Trade’ and ‘Free Range/ Free Run’ were added to determine their importance to consumers.  1 7 )  W o uld yo u like to see mor e loca ll y pro d uce d , organic and /o r fair trad e prod ucts         availa b le on the UB C camp u s?   a) Yes    b) No    c) Don’t know One purpose of this surve y was to dete rmine whet her a ma rket cur rentl y ex ist s on the UBC campus fo r locall y produced foods, o r ganic, and fair tr ade produ cts. T herefo re, questi on seventeen s eeks to furthe r determi ne the le vel of consum er interest for th ese products on campus .  Without consumer demand for such produ cts, impl ementing them int o the UBC food s ystem would be futi le and a waste of resour ces.  Ov erall , thi s questi on strives to ex tract consu mers' overall att it ude towards these products.  Results & Discussion of Pilot Tests Both a class and field sur ve y was admini stered on UBC campus in our pilot test to anal yz e th e ef fecti ven ess of our surve y qu esti ons along with the qu esti onnaire desi gn. To accompl ish this task we used quota  sampl ing bec ause actu al result s wer e not used for statis ti cal anal ysis and there was li mi ted tim e avail able. Although the info rmati on was not used to calculat e  15  an y so rt of standa rd er ror , we were able to noti c e trends in responses to indi cate poorl y understood questi ons . 1    Within the class surve y, 22 students compl eted the surve y. In th e field surv e y, 44 su rve ys were compl eted wit h 15  handed out at the SUB, 15 handed out in the 99 ch airs area, and 14 handed out at the UBC vil lage. We chose these lo c ati ons as the y m ake -up a major perc enta ge of food sales on campus . The result s from bot h surve ys are summariz ed in Ap pendix 8. The following pa ra gr aphs discuss the result s of both s urve ys, compa re and con trast the two test groups polled, and outl ine some problems with the questi ons in our surve y. Result s from the pil ot tests have ult im ately led to ch an ges in both format and content of th e final questi onnaire to be dist ributed.  When comparing th e sur ve y of AGSC I 450 stude nts to t he poll of UBC co nsum ers at the food outlets, the disparity in ‘food knowledge’ was very apparent. Nearly every question showed that as a result of the cou rse content in the Land, Food and Comm unit y s eri es, student responses were comm onl y mor e ed ucated. In gener al, stude nts with knowledge abou t local, organic, free trade and fre e-r an ge food s have stron ger opinions and understand the impa cts of purchasin g these foods. A comm on t heme when comparin g th e result s from our surv e ys is that our peers in ASGC I 450 gen er all y we re will ing and/o r alre ad y purchasin g sust ainable fo ods. The result s, for the most part indi cate tha t more information and increas ed mark eti ng of these products (and the benefits of them) need to be made av ail able to the publi c in order for a ch a n ge to o ccur in the UBC food s ystem.   Demographics of the sur ve y can be found in App endix 8, tables 1 and 2. The relative differen ces in gend er bet ween the two tests were also evident as the cl ass surve y was filled out prim aril y b y female stud ents (90%), yet the field surve y was approx im ately ev en. How ever, this  16  ma y be due to the dist rib uti on of sex es with in the facult y of Land and Food S ystems that has predomi nantl y mor e fem ales (75%) th an males (2 5%). 1 0  From our surve y, Appendix 8 table 2, it is evident that the majority of respondents do not live on campus or rel y on cafet eria me als. Onl y one student from the f iel d surve y and zero from the class surve y lived in a residenc e that provided meals. How eve r, since we did not poll consum ers at the residen c e ca f eteri as, thi s is an unrepres entative sampl e as students with UBC me al plans make -up a lar ge consum er bas e of UBC food se rvices. 9   Result s from the demogr ap hic breakdow n emphasiz e the importance of proper sampl in g techniqu es for students nex t ye ar in orde r to receive statist icall y ac curate result s. From the data coll ected in questi on 3, summariz ed in Appendix 8 table 3, we found that the lar ge majorit y of stud ents from bot h tests purc hase foods on campus . Of these students, 77% from the field surve y and 88 % from the class su rv e y, pu rchas e food betwee n 1 -6 times per we ek on campus . This shows that most students are bu ying food re gularl y and co nsequentl y have significant pur chasin g po wer on campus . We also found that 63% of studen ts from the field surve y ar e most often bu yi n g their foods from the SUB and onl y 14% from 'othe r ' sourc es. This can be compared to onl y 32% of those in the class surve y statin g that the y purchase foods most often from the SU B with another 32% from 'other ' sources. This is likel y du e t o the ph ysic al dist ance betwe en the Macmi ll an buil ding and the SUB. Nev ertheless, infor mation provided by thi s questi on is useful to determi ne the loc ati ons where str ate gies should b e put in place first to affe ct the lar gest consumer base.   Questi on 4, summ ariz ed in Appendix 8 table 4, att empt s to determi ne know ledge regardin g loc al foods. Fr om the class surve y, 36% of students are fami li ar with foods that gro w locall y compared to onl y 11% withi n the field surv e y. Questi on 5, summariz ed in table 5, then se eks to determi ne actual purchasin g beh avior of t hese foods. It was found that most people  17  'sometimes' purchase local foods, however, in the field study 30% were ‘unsure’ if they did or not compared to14% fro m the class surve y. Whe n asked which foods p eo ple most comm onl y purchase, m a n y indi viduals from the field surv e y were unsu re of wh at food s were loc al, for ex ampl e statin g that oran ges are lo cal to BC.  Sev eral also answ er ed with non -specific statements such as 'man y Canadian products ' or 'fr uit '.   Quest ion 6, summ ariz ed in Appendix 8 table 6, shows ke y cha ract eristi c differ ences between the two su rve ys. We found that most people from the class surv e y have a dist inct opini on on which is more important to purchasing in regards to local foods as a total of 91% have an opini on one wa y or the other. How eve r, a dist inct opini on is not seen in the majorit y of respondents withi n the fi eld stud y as onl y 61% feel strongl y one wa y or th e other and the gr eatest pe rcent a ge of people, 39%, havin g 'no op ini on' on thi s s ubject.  Again, this lack of opini on is important as it shows man y ma y l ack knowledge re gardin g asp e cts of local foods thereb y supportin g the need for incr eas ed aw aren e ss through promot ional acti vit ies.  Questi on 7 a and b, foun d in Appendix 8 tables 7 and 8, rega rd the pe rceiv ed benefits and drawba cks of pur chasin g local foods. As this ques ti on is open -ended, the number of votes ex ceeds the tot al num ber of people surv e yed as ma n y provid ed more than one answe r. From responses provided, th e most comm onl y cit ed be nefits for purc hasin g loca ll y produc ed foods in both tests was support for the local econom y and fresher/ bette r tasti ng foo ds.  However, 21 % of students from the class s urve y also rep orted that l ocal foods help prote ct the environment through decr eas ed tr ansp ortation compared to onl y 3% from the field stud y who menti oned thi s as a major ben efit. It also is important to note that from the field surve y 9/ 4 4, or 20%, of indi viduals left this question blank or responded 'n ot sure', compar ed to 1/ 22, or 5%, in the class surve y. The la r ge numbe r of non -r esponses from t he field surve y could be due to lack of  18  knowledge re gardin g loc al foods or due to incr eas ed respondent bu rden fo r fil li ng out open -ended questi ons. 9     The second part of thi s questi on seeks to identi f y possi ble disadvantages fo r choosi ng locall y produ ced foods and the result s are summa riz ed in Appendix 8 table 8. From repli es, the gr eatest dr awba cks inclu ded a lack of vari et y and gr eate r ex penses of food produced loc all y. Although we do agr ee th at locall y produced foods offer less v ariet y to the consum er, we are unsure whethe r the y  wou ld necessaril y cost mor e especiall y when lo cal foo ds are in season. We believe that respondents, in both tests, may be confusing ‘local’ foods with ‘organic’ foo ds, a comm on mistake, which would cause respondents to believe that local food s are inde ed more expensive. This further suggests a lack of understanding of ‘local foods.’   From questi on 8 and 9, summ ariz ed in Appendix 8 tables 9 and 10, the des irabil it y o f local foods was ex ami ned based primaril y on the iss ue of price. Th e major it y of indivi duals in both surve ys would be m ore open to pur chase loc a l foods if prices compa re d to non -local foods. Though, the numbe r of people wil li ng to bu y local foods was far greater in t he class surve y, at 91%, than the field stud y of onl y 66%. The nex t questi on then att empt ed to determine if (and b y what amount) people wo uld be wil li ng to pa y for l ocal food. Inte resti n gl y, alt hough most people in the previous questi on support the idea of pur cha sing local foods the majorit y of those in the field stud y, 52% , would not be wil li ng to pa y mor e for it compar ed to onl y 5% from the class surve y. These result s are ver y useful as th e y concu r wit h last ye ar 's result s and emphasiz e the im portance of pri ce wh e n making food s electi ons . 9 The result s from questi o n 10, summariz ed in Appendix 8 table 11, indi cate strong consum er interest in fair trade produ cts.  In the fie ld surve y, th e majorit y of respondents (48% ) chose ‘maybe’ when asked if t he y were int er ested in bu yin g fair tr ade prod ucts, foll owed closel y  19  by 34% that chose ‘yes’.  Results from the class survey indicated that an overwhelming majority of respondents, 86%, are int erested in bu yin g fair t rade produ cts compar ed t o onl y 34% of re spondents from the fiel d surve y. This questi on helped us to determine tha t despit e the curr ent lack of consum e r knowle dge su rroundin g fai r trad e products, with promot ion and educ ati on campai gns; there m a y be a strong m arket dem and for addit ional fair tr ade ite ms on the UBC campus . Que sti on 11 and 12, summariz ed in Appendix 8 table 12 and 13, att empt ed to determine current pur chasin g beh av iors of fair tr ade produ cts b y consum ers on the UBC campus . Howeve r, 7 out of 44 of respondent s in the field surve y left t his questi on blank indicati ng that chan ges ma y be nec essar y to the questi on content and desi gn. One potential problem we determi ned is that respondents we re ask ed whether the y pu rchas ed fair trade products to use at hom e but there was no distinct ‘yes’ or ‘no’ option available first leading respondent into the next part question. In both the tests, the main reason stated fo r not purc hasing fair trad e products was because most were not sur e which prod ucts are/a re not fair trade .  In qu esti on 12, summariz ed in table 13 of Appendix 8, respondents were asked how often the y requested fair trad e bev era ges at a co ffe e shop. The majority from the field and class survey, 45% and 41% respectively answered ‘never’.  This questi on suggests that eit her the majorit y of c onsum ers are not inter est ed in fair trad e or lack the aw aren ess or ed ucati on nec essar y to mak e decisi ons ac cordin gl y.   Result s from questi on 13, Appendix 8 table 14, indi cate that the majorit y of respondents from bot h surve ys might be int erested in pur cha si ng or ganic food even at h igher costs . From the field surve y 68% s aid either 'yes ' or 'm a ybe ' to pa yi n g more compar ed to a combi ned tot al of 91% withi n the class sur ve y. Organic fruit s and vegetables were th e most popular choice respondents in the field s urve y would be int er este d in bu yin g on campus . Howeve r, information  20  from this questi on indi cates that although the re is int erest in organic foods t here ma y not currentl y be a lar ge mark et demand on campus if the y wer e to cost more.    Questi ons 14 and 15, see k to determine int erest an d current pur chasin g beh aviors of fr ee -ran ge eggs, result s are located wit hin Appendix 8 tables 15 and 16. When respondents wer e asked if the y would be wil li ng to pa y mor e for fre e ran ge eggs, the result s from the field surve y were inconclusive as the percentages of people that answered ‘yes’, ‘maybe’, and ‘no’ were roughl y equal. Fu rther, for those wil li ng to pa y m ore, the majorit y would onl y be will in g to pa y up to $0.50 more, indi cati ng low demand for these products. Howev er, cl ass surve y result s indi cated that m ajorit y, 63%, would be wil li ng to pay mor e for fre e ran ge eggs and 73 % said the y would be will ing to pay up to 40 % more. Qu esti on 15, result s in Appendix 8 table 16, was sim il ar for both the field and class surve y. In both surve ys, the majorit y pur chased free -ran ge eggs ‘sometimes’. Common reasons not buying these eggs included expense and lack of knowledge of the dif fer e nce betw een free -ran ge and regular eggs. Questi on 16 att empt ed to determine what factors were most i mportant to consum ers when purchasin g foods.  Th e result s, found in Appendix 8 table 17, indi cate that 'price ' and 'qu ali t y' were most important in both the field and class sur ve y. Tho u gh in the class surve y, 'quali t y' was more important than 'pric e' wher e as respondents in the field surve y ranked t hem roughl y equal. This concurs with our col lea gues from Group 8 AGSC I 2005 that dete rmined that price is a lar ge determi ning factor when purchasin g foods. Foods that were 'p roduced withi n Britis h Col umbi a' were found to be least im portant in the field surve y while class respond ents rank thi s 4th (of 7), indi cati ng again that the gen eral consum er popula ti on on the UBC campus ma y not know the benefits associat ed with purchasin g locall y produ ced foods and th ere fore d o not prioriti z e local foods when makin g de cisi ons.   21    Questi on 17 asked respondents whether the y wou ld like to see more locall y produ ced, organic, and fair tr ade pr oducts avail able on the UBC campus . The result s, sum mariz ed in Appendix 8 table 18, showed that 50% of respond ents from the field stud y would like to see more of these products on campus yet 41% answered with ‘don’t know’. In contrast, 91% of the class surve y respondents indi cated the y would like to see more of thes e pro ducts avail able on campus and the remainin g 9% had left the qu esti on blank.  These result s suggest that althou gh consum ers ma y  not have all the information the y need to chan ge their cu rre nt purchasin g behaviours, ther e is an in terest in bu yin g from eco logicall y and so ciall y co nsci ous producers th at can be enhanc ed throu gh appropriate educ ati on an d promot ion.  Conclusion A ke y conc ept of the UBCFS P is to increase the sustainabil it y of the UBC food s ystem through re-loc ali z ati on. Consequentl y, our task was to revise surv e ys p rop osed b y coll ea gues over the past years and develop new questions that go beyond consumers’ willingness to purchase lo cal foods to d etermi ne cu rrent pur chasi ng beh aviours of thes e pr oducts. Furthe r, we developed questi ons to determi ne int erest in foods produced b y soci all y an d ecolo gicall y conscious produc ers.  Two surve ys wer e used in o ur pil ot test to determi ne the eff ecti veness of our questi ons along with surve y desi gn. The result ing questi onnair e, with appropriate modi ficati ons, can be use d in fall of 2006 for statis ti call y relevant result s to be present ed to our partners at UB C FS and AMSFB. This informatio n can then be us ed to make real chan ges on campus to help incre ase t he sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s ystem.  Recommendations: After admi nist erin g the pil ot test of our surve y an d int erpreti n g the result s, we have developed a se ries of rec omm endati ons for compl eti on of thi s surve y.    22  To rec eive statist icall y ac curate result s the surve y must have a rep resent ati ve sample of the tar get popul ati on. Consequentl y, we propos e using a str ati fied random s ampl ing method that is proporti onal to the vari ous market se gmentati on s outli ned in Appendix 1. To determi ne a repres entative sampl e siz e, it is important to determi ne the siz e of the tar ge t popul ati on. We recomm end usin g a samp le siz e of 1000 as thi s would give more ac curate re sult s. Further, thi s sampl e siz e is feasibl e gi ven the number of studen ts avail able in AGS C I 15 0 to distribut e the surve y. Howev er, fundin g to cov er the costs of thi s project is stil l inconclusi v e. If no fundr aisi ng efforts hav e be en ac com pli shed prior to fall 2006 we have two su ggesti ons to implement this surve y: 1 ) conta ct Kalev Hunt (Appendix 3) for information rega rdin g implementation of the surve y on WebCT or 2) dist ribute onl y 400 surve ys , as proposed b y Group 8, AGS C I 450 2005. The cost of 400 surv e ys would be $160, which co uld be cover ed b y the Agora comm it tee.     As stated in our discussion,  we also think that it would be valuable to dete r mi ne the cost differen ces b etween lo cal and non - l o cal foods thro ughout the se asons to determi ne if local foods are inde ed more ex pensive. This information coul d be included in the infor mative piece loc ated at the end of the surv e y. As also stated in our disc ussi on questi on 3 and 11 need to be reformatted.  In questi on 3, i t would been useful to emphasiz e that we want ed students to specif y which 'oth er ' plac es the y most often purchased foo ds from as most people onl y ch ecked th e box rather than provided a lo cati on. Ther efor e we su ggest ch an gin g the questi o n t o:  3) How man y times a week do you pu rch ase food on campus ? (including UBC            Vill age )    0   1 - 3   4 - 6   7 - 9   10+  Please specif y wher e you eat most often:  __ Residence cafet eria     __ S.U.B.     __ Vill age   __Other: (pleas e specif y) :___________     Further, qu esti on 11 was also poorl y wo rded and therefo re shoul d be chan ged to:   23   11) Do you bu y fair tr ade products to use at hom e?   a) Alwa ys    b) Sometim es       d) Neve r   If neve r, pleas e specif y wh y? __________________________________________     After implementation of the surve y the AGSC I 45 0 class of 2007 shoul d then anal yz e the result s and summariz e the information to provide to our partners at UBC FS and AMSFB.  References 1. Addison, Angela, Olivi a Lee, and Sundi p Purewal. Scen ario # 1a: Desirabil i t y of Relocalization UBC’s Food System. The Sustainabil it y of the UBC Food S yst em Coll aborati ve Project III a. AGS C 450. The Unive rsit y of Britis h Col umbi a. 21 April , 2005. 2.  Halweil, Brian. “Home Grown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market”. W orld W atch Insti ti ute: 2002 3.  Henry, Robert. “Organic Poultry Eggs”. Marit i me Certified Organic Gr owers. (2002). 5 Ma r, 2006. htt p:/ /www.acorno rganic.or g/pdf/poul tr ye ggspro file.pdf 4. Kloppenburg, Jonathan, James Henderickson, and Gavin Stevenson. “Coming Int o th e Foodshed”. R ooted in the Land: Essa ys on Comm unit y and Place. New Haven: Yal e Universit y Pr ess, 1996 5.  McCauley, Marika Alena. “ Buying Local Food: The Smart Alternative”. 5 Mar, 2006. htt p:/ /www.ox famamerica.or g/whatwe do/whae w e work/uni ted states/ne ws publi cati ons/ food_farm/art2564.htm l  6.  Organic Trade Association. “ Health of the Planet and its Inhabitants.” 15 Mar. 2006. ht tp: // www.ota.com/ orga nic/benefits/ healt h.htm l? P HPS ESS ID=5 f2ef5421 d5687588b18dff39699ccd0 7.  Richer, Liska. “Paths Towards a Just Sustainable and Food Secure UBC Food System: 2005 UBC Food System Project (UBCFSP) Report”. C ampus Sustainabil it y Off ice . Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a. 15 Sept, 2005  8.  Statistics. “ Stratified Sampling”. 21 Mar, 2006 htt p:/ /www.statis ti cs.com/content/ gloss ar y/s/ strata samp.php  9.  Steele, Kar en, et al. S cenario 1: Desirabil it y of Re -locali z ati on UBC Fo od S ystem. The Sustainabil it y of th e UBC Food S ystem Coll abor ati ve Project III a. AGS C 450. The  24  Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a. 2005. 23 Mar, 20 06.  http:/ /www.planning.ubc.ca/l ivi ng/ index .htm l  10.  Transfair Canada. “About Fair Trade”. 15 Mar.2006. htt p:/ /www.tran sfair.ca/ en/fairtr ade/   11.  UBC Campus and Community Planning. “Living at UBC”. 23 Mar, 2006.   htt p:/ /www.planning.ubc .ca/l ivi ng/i ndex .htm l   12.  UBC Demographics. “Planning and Institutional Research UBC” . 6 Apr, 2006.  http:/ /www.pa ir.ubc.ca/st udent/ demogr aphics.htm  13.   UBC School of Library, Archical and Informational Studies (SLAIS).  “Determining Sample    Size”. 2005. 13 Mar, 2006. htt p:/ /www.slais.ubc.ca/r esourc es/rese arch methods/   14.  UBC School of Library, Archical and Informational Studies (SLAIS).“Questionnaires”. 2005. 12  Mar, 2006. htt p:/ /www.slais.ubc.ca/reso urces/res ear ch_methods/   15.  UBC. “Media Release”. 2005. 8 Mar, 2006. ht tp: // web.ubc.ca/okan a gan /about/news/m r -05-008.htm l   16.  Wikipedia. “Local Food”. 5 Mar, 2006. htt p:/ /en.wiki pedia.or g/wiki / Local_food    Appendix 1: Distribution of Consumers  M o st of th e sto res in th e UBC Villi age op en 7 days a wee k; ho wev er, th e bu sin ess is abo u t 1/2 on weeken d s. Th ere fo re, th e esti mated reven u e of th e Vil lage of a year is : $1 79 00 x [ 6  (d ays/ wee k) x 52  (weeks/ year) - 20 days ho li d ay] = ~5 mil li o n / year Small Operati o n s  ~$35 0/d ay x 3 sto res = $10 50 /d ay  Med iu m Operati o n s  (e.g. sto res in th e basemen t)  ~$ 95 0/d ay x 13 sto res = $1 23 50 /d ay  B ig Operati o n s   (e.g. on e mo re sush i, starb u cks)  ~$ 15 00 /d ay x 3 sto res = $4 50 0 /d ay                  Total = $17 90 0 /d ay  Th e rev en u e of UBC Villa ge is a rou gh est imati on bec au se most of th e food ou t let s wer e not wi lli n g to disclose thei r rev en u es . Some store mana gers provi d ed us with th e app roxi mat ed avera ge rev en u e of th ei r st ore formi n g th e bases of ou r est i ma ti on . We orga n i ze 19 food ou t let s in th e Villa ge int o th ree grou p s acc ord ing to th ei r est i ma t ed reven u e    The fo ll o win g ch art speci fies th e esti mated reven u e, th e pro po rti on, an d th e qu an tit y of qu estio nn aires to be distri bu ted of each sa mp li n g lo cati on . Locations Estimated Revenue1 (mil li o n )  Proportion (lo cati o n reven u e/ total reven u e)  Questionnaire Quantity ( 1 00 0  x prop o rtio n ) (rou nd ed nu mb er)  S.U.B  7.5  32 .8 %  32 5  UBC V il lage  5  21 .9 %  22 0  To te m P ark  2  8.8 %  85  P lace V an ier  2  8.8 %  90  Ga ge  2  8.8 %  90  Tre k Exp ress  3  13 .1 %  13 0  Sage Bistro  1.34  5.8 %  60  Total 22.84 100% 1000 1 Appr o ximat ed fr o m reve nue a mo unt s rece ived fr o m Andr ew Par r and Nanc y To o goo d   25  Appendix 2: Cost of Survey  F o r 100 0 su rve ys, th is is th e breakd o wn of th e co st: - 100 0 x 2 fro n t pages fo r surve y + 2 pages fo r han d out & co up on s x $0 .0 7 = $28 0 - 220 0 x 2 back pages x $0 .0 6 cents = $12 0 $2 80 + $12 0 = $40 0 to tal co st    Appendix 3: Contact Information                       Appendix 4: Survey Handout for AGSC 150 students  Th is surve y is a part of UBC Fo o d Syste m P ro ject th at inten ts to estab li sh a mo re sustain ab le UBC fo o d syste m.  The main go als of th is survey are 1) to assess th e level of desirab il it y amo n g UBC co n su mers no pu rch asin g lo cal fo o d an d fo od prod u ced by eco lo gicall y an d socially co n scio u s p rod u cers 2) to assess cu rren t pu rch asin g beh avio u rs amo n g UBC co n su mers.    The resu lt of th is survey wil l be given to th e UBC fo o d outl ets an d it wil l be served as an in cen ti ve fo r th e fo od ou tl ets to in co rpo rate mo re lo cal fo o d and fo o d pro du ced in eco lo gicall y an d so cially ju st man n er.  This surve y co n sists of 3 parts – surve y qu estio n s, in fo rmati ve han d o ut on th e ben efit s of lo cal fo o d, an d a cou po n page .   You are resp on sib le fo r surve yin g 10 peop le at th e assign ed lo cati on an d th en give ou t th e in fo rm ati v e han do u t an d th e cou po n to th e parti cip an ts after each surve y is co mp leted .   Here are so me tip s on han din g out a surve y qu estio nn aire:  1. Before administrating the survey…. - F amil iariz e yo u rself wit h in fo rma ti o n on th e su rve y o Kn o w th e ob jecti ve an d pu rpo se of th e surve y an d qu estio n s wit h in it o In cen ti ves: a $25 cou po n fro m SPUD (a lo cal an d organ ic fo o d deliver y co mp an y), an d 10 0 of th em wil l also receive a co u p o n fro m UBC far m  2. Wh en and Wh ere to give ou t the surve y? - F in d yo u r assign ed surve yin g lo cati o n  - Co n du ct th e survey du rin g lun ch time (1 1 :3 0 -2:30 ) wh en mo st stu den ts an d staff have ti me to fil l ou t th e qu estion n aire  3.  How to give ou t th e survey? - As k nicel y.  State yo u r pu rpo se, in cen ti ves and time req u ired (5 -10 min u tes) fo r th e surve y o e. g. “Do you have time to fill out a survey?”   “This questionnaire will be about your opinion on local food.”   “It will only take 5 minutes, and you will be guaranteed to get a $25 coupon on groceries!”   - Don’t pressure the survey participants.  Allow as muc h time as th e parti cip an ts need and all o w th em to have privac y wh il e an swerin g th e surv e y.  - After th e parti cip an ts co mp lete the surve y, re me mb er to give ou t the co u po n s and th e in fo rmati ve ha n d ou t.            26   Appendix 5: Face-to-face survey: Time-line and Tasks Tasks Time required Date 1 .  Qu estio nn aire admin istrato r recruit men t  -  In trod u ce th e survey  to AGS C1 5 0 stud en ts  -  R ecru it 10 0 AGS C1 5 0 stud en ts as qu estion n aire admin istrato rs; each ad min istrato r wil l be resp o n sib le to distri bu te 10  qu estion n aires  -  assign eac h ad min istrato r  a lo cati o n fo r  th e distrib uti n g qu estion n aire s  1~ 2 classes  Sep temb er 7,  Sep temb er 14   2.  Train in g  -  A writ ten in stru ctio n of qu estion naire admin istratio n is given to th e stu d en ts.  1  class  Sep temb er 21  3.  Qu estio nn aire admin istratio n  -  d istri bu ti n g qu estio nn aires d u rin g lu n ch time  on regu lar sch oo l days  -  E ach qu estio nn aire wil l take ~ 1 0  min u tes to co mp lete.  1~ 2 wee ks  Octo b er 2~ 6  Octo b er 9~ 13     4.  Data An al ysis  -  Gath er co mp leted qu estion n aires  -  P ro cess an d an alyse resu lt s  1 mo n th  Octo b er 19 ~ Nove mb er 2 0   Appendix 6: Web-based Survey Tan ya Stac k, th e Tech n ical As sist an t fro m TREK P ro gram Cen tre, gen ero u sly shared th e fo ll o win g in fo rmati o n . Sh e had recen tl y co mp leted a U -P ass surve y to all UBC Okan agan sta ff, stu d en ts and facu lt y in Feb ru ary, 200 6 . Alt h o u gh th e po pu latio n size of UBC V an cou ver is ab o ut ten times gr eater th an th at of UBC Okan agan , th e pro cess fo r co n du cti n g web -b ased surve ys sho u ld be simil ar. Histo ricall y, th e surve y recei ved a stati sticall y sign ific an t resp o n se rate (mo re th an 10 % of to t al po pu latio n ) fo r a period of 2 -3 we eks. Th ere fo re, th e web -b ased surve y can be a viab le op ti on fo r laun ch in g th e UBCFS su rve y.   To success fu ll y lau n ch a web -b ased surve y, sufficien t ad verti se me n t, con fid en ti ali ty an d amp le su rve y acc ess ti me are imp o rtan t. Ad verti se men t can be do n e th ro u gh bro ad cast email th at pro vid es in fo rmati o n on survey p u rpo se ob jecti ves as well as th e in cen tives and privacy in fo r mati o n fo r co mp letin g th e survey. Bo o th s can be set up to ad verti se an d han d out hard - co p y surve ys fo r p eo p le wh o do no t have acc ess to in tern et. Th e survey acces s time sho u ld be op en fo r 2 we eks min i mu m. Lo n ger surve yin g ti me ma y be need ed ; ho wev er, mo st peo ple parti cip ate as soo n as th ey recei ve th e email . Th e tasks and timeli n e is summarized belo w.  Tasks Time Required Date 1 . Design an d test web - b ased UBCFS survey  1 wee k  Sep temb er 5 - 9 , 200 6  2. Boo th s adverti sin g th e su rve y  2~ 3 days  Sep temb er 11 - 12  3. Su rvey Open     -  Bro ad cast email     -  han d out hard - co p y at th e bo o th s  ~2 weeks  Sep temb er 13 - 30  4. Dat a an alysis  2 wee ks  Octo b er 1 - 1 4         27  Apendix 7: Consumer Preferences and Purchasing Behaviors Questionnaire The foll owing qu esti onnaire add resses your own prefe renc es and pur chasi ng beh aviors re gardin g 'loc all y produ ced food ' as well as yo ur int erests in purchasin g food from ec ologicall y and sociall y cons cious produ cers.  For cla rificati on pu rposes, listed below ar e s ome definiti ons of termi nolog y that will be used for the purpos e of this surve y.   Local food is a flex ibl e definiti on and can des crib e food:   in terms of the geo gr aphical distance the y have tr a veled (e. g. withi n 50 km)   in terms of poli ti cal boundaries (e. g. onl y withi n Canada, B.C., etc.)  shoul d NOT to be confus ed with 'o r ganic ' food wh ich describes a method of farmin g   For the purpos es of this questi onnaire, the term 'local food' will onl y ref er to food produced withi n the province of Br it ish Colum bia.  Certified organic ~ food s produced unde r strictl y defined standa rds wit hout the use of syntheticall y produ ced in puts such as pesticides, fert il iz ers, growth stim ula tes, or specific feed addit ives.   Fair trade ~ an int e rnati onal method of conducti ng busi ness usuall y invol ving produ cers in developi ng countries  seeks to provide fair pa yment for products, ad equ ate wa ges for wo rkers, sust ainable environmenta l standards, improved soc ial practi ces, and incr eas ed investm ent in local busi ness  comm on items include coffee, t ea, ric e, ban anas, mangos, cocoa and su gar   Conventional egg production ~ anim als are plac ed in high densit y withi n wire ca ges, are not given acc ess to the outdoors, and are feed a diet containin g chemi c al subs tances, such as hormones or anti biot ics. Free run eggs ~ chicken s do not live in cages; instead the y ar e all owed to run freel y on barn floor, the y are dense l y pa cked withi n the en closed area and are usu all y given the same typ e of feed as in conventi onall y farmed po ult r y Free range ~ chick ens h ave greater sp ace all ocat ed per anim al than eit her conventi onal or free run, hav e access t o the outdoor environme nt for the majorit y of the yea r, feed do es not contain an y chemi c als used for incr eased prod ucti on.     28  Questionnaire: 1) Are you a:       Facult y:____________ ________ ____ UBC Unde r g radu ate Student ____ UBC Facult y Mem ber                Gender: M  /  F ____ UBC Staff ____ UBC Graduate Stu dent      Age (Please circle on e ): ____ Other: __________ ____    18 &  unde r   19-30    31-55    56 & over  2) Do y ou live on campu s?     Yes          No If yes, which residen ce do you live in: __ Place Vanie r __ Totem Park  __ Gage __ Fairvie w __ Rit sumeikan -UBC Ho use   3) How man y times a week do you pu rch ase food on campus ? (including UBC            Vill age )   0  1-3  4-6  7-9  10+ Plea se specif y wher e you eat most often: __ Residence cafet eria __ S.U.B. __ Vill age ___Other: ( please specify ):  _________  4) Are you fami li ar wit h what fruit s and ve getable s are produ ced loc all y in B.C? a) Yes  b) Somewhat  c) No   d) Not sure  5) Do you purch ase loc all y produc ed food? a) Yes  b) Sometim es  c) No  d) Not sure  If yes which items do yo u most commonl y bu y__ ____________________ ____________________________________________________________  If no, wh y not? ______________________________________________  6) What do you thi nk is more impor tant? ____ The dist ance the fo od has travell ed ____ The countr y in whi ch the food is produc ed ____ No opinion  7) a) What are the major benefits of pur chasin g locall y produced food?      b) What are the major disadvanta ges of pu rchas ing locall y produ ced fo o d?   8)  Would knowing a foo d item was produced locally encoura ge you to pu rchase it if       it was the same pric e as an identi cal item prod uced outs ide the provinc e?       a) Yes  b) No               c) Don’t Know   29  9)  If it were to cost more to offer loc al l y produc ed fo ods at UBC food outl ets, how much more would you be will ing to pa y?  a) Wouldn’t be willing  d) 40-60% more b) 0 -20% more   e) 60-80% mor e c) 20-40% mor e  f) 80-100% mor e   10) Are y ou int e rested in bu yin g fair trade product s?    a) Yes  b) Ma ybe c) No  d) Don’t know  11) Do you bu y fair tr ade products to use at hom e?   a) Alwa ys   b) Sometim es      d) Neve r If neve r, ple as e specif y wh y? _______________ ___________________________  12) Do you requ est fair tr ade bev era ges when pu rc hasing them pr e-mad e at a coff ee shop?  a) Alwa ys b) Sometim es     c) Rarel y   d) Neve r   13) Are you will in g to buy or ganic foods even if the y are mo re ex pensive?   a) Yes  b) Ma ybe  c) No      d) Don’t know  If so, what foods would y ou most be interested in bu yin g on c ampus ? _____________ _____________________________________________________________________  14) Are you will in g to buy free ran ge eggs on campus , for ex ampl e in a bre akfast, ev en if the y are mor e ex pensive? a) Yes  b) Ma ybe c) No  d) Don’t know  If yes, how much mor e would you be will in g to pa y? a) $0.00 - $0.50 mor e c) $1.00 -$1.50 mor e  b) $0.50 -$1.00 more d) Other: Please sp ecif y_ ______________  15) Do you cur rentl y bu y free ran ge eggs?  a) Alwa ys  b) Sometim es  c) Nev er  If no, wh y not? ____________________ ___________________________  16) Rank in order of importance the following features you consi der when purchasin g a food item: With 1 being the most important and 7 being the leasti mportant. __P rice __Or ganic/ Fair Trade __Quali t y __Fre e Ran ge/ Free Run __P roduced withi n B.C. __Co nvenience  Other: (pleas e specif y) __ _____________ 17) Would you like to se e more locall y produ ced, organic and/or fair tr ade products        avail able on the UBC campus ?   a) Yes    b) No    c) Don’t Know  30    ~Thank You For Completing This Survey~    Why Choose Local Foods?   To buy ‘locally produced foods’ means purchasing products that are grown within British C olum bia and have trav e led a limi ted dist ance to reach the consum er. Doin g so supports not onl y our province but also the indi vidual comm unit ies in which we live.  Bu yin g locall y gro wn and organic foods, as well as foods produced with animal and human welf are i n mind posi ti vel y contribut es to environme ntal and social sust ainabi li t y with additi onal econ omi c and healt h benefits.     Purchasing lo call y grow n foods benefits the envir onment and encour a ges a sust ainable food s ystem. B u yin g foo ds that have trav eled onl y a sho rt dist ance le ads to lower fossi l fuel emi ssi ons due to decre ased transportati on. In addit ion, locall y produc ed fo ods require less packa gin g, which reduc e s the amount of waste created.  Local foods also en hance food s ecurit y in the comm unit y providi ng a link betw een consum ers and produ cers.  Fur thermore, freshl y picked produc e ripen to perfe cti on, providi ng sup e rior t aste over those th at were pick ed gr een and traveled for thous and s of mil es in storage befo re re achin g the consum er 's table.    A typic al farm er receives onl y 10% of th e profit re turns on non -locall y pu rc hased foods while the remainin g 90% of the profit s go es towa r ds transportati on, pack a ging, and ma rketi n g. Conversel y, fa rmers can earn up to 37% mor e fro m sales at local farmers markets than from wholesalers du e to the eli mi nati on of transportati on, packa gin g and m arketi ng costs which in turn, decr eases pri ces fo r consum ers.  Fo r eve r y doll ar spent on locall y gro wn foods, three doll ars are put ba ck int o the local econom y.  Mo re over, putti ng mone y back int o the comm unit y supports the gro wth of small businesses, increas e s the number of local job s, and raises pr op ert y values.  Bu yi n g or ganic foods hel ps to support the growth of small -scale farms that often have diverse crops th at are rot ated re gula rl y to maint ain soi l healt h, and use limi ted chemi cals inputs .  Organic agriculture prote cts the healt h of the plan et by reducin g the ov erall ex posure to toxic chemi ca ls from s ynthetic pesti cides that can end up in the ground, air, wat e r and food suppl y thus sim ult aneousl y protecti ng hum an healt h.  Fair tr ade is an intern ati onal method of business that provides bett er tr adin g condit ions to producers and work ers in developi ng countries.  The choice to pur chas e pro ducts such as fai r trade co ffe e or tea guar an tees farm ers and worke rs in developi ng countries fair compensati on fo r their products and labo r, sust ainable environm enta l practi ces, improved so c ial services, and investm ent in local econ omi c infrastructur e.  Bu yi n g foods from ecolo gic all y conscious produc ers and produ cers th at pr otect animal and worke r welf are provi des nutrition al, economi c , and healt h ben efits to cons umers whil e encoura gin g environmen tal and social sust ainabili t y.  31   For more in formation on sust ainable or ganiz ati ons, visit www.spud.ca  and htt p:/ /www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubc f arm  and enjo y th e coupons provided !    Small Potatoes Urban Delivery ( SPUD ) is the leading organic home delivery service in Canada. We believe that buying local and organic is an important choice for the health of consumers, their communities and the en vironment. Starting with just five organic farms in 1998 , we now buy from over 70 BC organic growers. We also have 1,500 grocery items made by local and socially responsible businesses. SPUD: changing the world one grocery delivery at a time.  Sign up at www.spud.ca  and use *Promo Code HEALTH6  to receive $25 off over your first 4 deliveries, $10 off the 1st and $5 off the 2nd, 3rd and 4th.  *Promo Code expires on December 31, 2006    001 [DRAFT]    UBC Farm is a 24 hectare teaching, research, and community farm located on UBC campus.  The ultimate goal of the farm is to retain and re-create existing farm and forest lands at the University of British Columbia into an internationally significant centre for sustainable agriculture, forestry, and food systems.    To learn more, go to: http://www.landfo o d .u bc.ca/ubcfarm   With this coupon , you can get 1 0 % off farm market produce for purchases over  $ 1 0 , redeemable one time only.    32  Appendix 8: Results from the Pilot Test Table 1: Question 1, results from the field and class survey    Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  UB C Und er gr ad uate s  37  21  Und er 18 yr old  4  0  Facult y me mb er  0  0  19 - 3 0 yr old  38  21  UB C Staf f  3  0  31 - 5 5 yr old  0  0  UB C Grad uates  1  1  Abo ve 55 yr old  0  0  Other s  3  0  Didn’t Answer 2  1  Male  24  2     Fe male  19  20     Did n 't Ans wer  1  0      Table 2: Question 2, results from in the field and class survey  Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Su r ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  On Ca mp u s:  6  3  Fair vie w  1  0  Place Vanier  1  0  Rits u mei kan - UB C Ho use  1  0  T otem Par k  0  0  Not spec ified /Ot her s  1  2  Gage  2  1  Not on Ca mp us  38  19   Table 3: Question 3, results from in the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Pur chase fo o d on ca mp us (ti mes/ wee k)    Most often :    0  6  3  Resid ence Ca feter ia  2  0  1 to 3  21  15  S.U. B .  28  7  4 to 6  13  3  Village  5  6  7 to 9  3  0  S.U. B . + Village  1  0  >1 0  1  0  Other s  6  7  Blank  0  1  Not Spec ified  2  2  Table 4: Question 4, results from in the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes  5  8  No  11  2  So me wh at  21  10  No t Sur e  7  2  Table 5 : Question 5, results from in the field and class survey    Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes  4  6  No  3  3  So meti mes  24  10  No t Sur e  13  3    33  Table 6: Question 6, results from in the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  T he distance the fo o d has trav eled  11  11  T he co untr y i n whic h t he fo o d is pro d uce d  16  9  No o pinio n  17  2  Table 7: Question 7a, results from in the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Kno wled ge of wher e the fo o d is pro d uce d  3/6 1 vo tes  0 votes  Les s tran sp o r tatio n/p r o tect envir o n me nt  2/6 1 vo tes  9/4 4 vo tes  Fre sher / go o d tastes  17 /6 1 vo tes  11 /4 4 vo tes  Other s  3/6 1 vo tes  4/4 4 vo tes  Sup p o r ting t he loca l eco no my/co mmu ni t y  26 /6 1 vo tes  17 /4 4 vo tes  Doesn’t care/blank/not sur e  4/6 1 vo tes  1/4 4 vo tes  Chea p er  6/6 1 vo tes  2/4 4 vo tes     Table 8: Question 7b, results from the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Lac k of var iet y  15 /5 3 vo tes  10 /3 0 vo tes  Les s qua ntit y (sup p l y)  2/5 3 vo tes  0 votes  Mo r e exp ensi ve tha n i mp o r ted fo o d  12 /5 3 vo tes  10 /3 0 vo tes  Seaso nali t y li mi ts  4/5 3 vo tes  4/3 0 vo tes  Les s co n venie nt/ har d to find  2/5 3 vo tes  1/3 0 vo tes  Other s  4/5 3 vo tes  3/3 0 vo tes  Lo wer qualit y  5/5 3 vo tes  1/3 0 vo tes  Blank/ no t s ur e  9/5 3 vo tes  1/3 0 vo tes  Table 9: Question 8, results from the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes  29  20  Don’t know 7  0  No  8  1  Blank  0  1  Table 10: Question 9, results from the field and class survey   Field sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Wo uld no t be willi n g  23  1  60 - 8 0 %  0  0  0 - 2 0 %  21  17  80 - 1 0 0 %  0  0  20 - 4 0 %  0  2  Blank  0  2  40 - 6 0 %  0  0     Table 11: Question 10, results from the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes  15  19  Do not kno w  6  1  Ma yb e  21  1  Blank  0  1  No  2  0       34   Table 12: Question 11, results from in the field and class survey   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes:  26  17  No :  11  4  0  21  4  Exp ensi ve  3  0  1 - 3  3  11  No t sur e wha t pro d ucts ar e fair - tr ad e  7  3  4 - 6  1  0  Prefer brand name s  1  0  7 - 9  1  1  Other s  0  1  10+  0  1  Blank  7  1  Table 13: Question 12, results from in the field and class survey  Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Al wa ys  0  4  Never  20  9  So meti mes  8  6  Blank  1  2  Rar el y  15  1     Table 14: Question 13, results from in the field and class survey  Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes  7  7  0 - 2 0 % mo r e  N/ A  12 /1 9 vo tes  Ma yb e  23  13  20 - 4 0 % mo r e  N/ A  6/1 9 vo tes  No  13  0  40 - 6 0 % mo r e  N/ A  1/1 9 vo tes  Don’t know 1  1  60 - 8 0 % mo r e  N/ A  0vo tes  Blank  0  1  80 - 1 0 0 % mo r e  N/ A  0 votes  Table 15: Question 14, results from in the field and class survey  Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes  12  14  $0.0 0 - $ 0. 5 0 mo r e  17 /3 0 vo tes  N/ A  Ma yb e  15  6  $0.5 0 - $ 1. 0 0 mo r e  10 /3 0 vo tes  N/ A  No  14  1  $1.0 0 - $ 1. 5 0 mo r e  3/3 0 vo tes  N/ A  Don’t know 3  0  Other s  0/3 0 vo tes  N/ A  Blank  0  1        0 - 2 0 % mo r e  N/ A  9/2 0 vo tes     20 - 4 0 % mo r e  N/ A  8/2 0 vo tes     40 - 6 0 % mo r e  N/ A  3/2 0 vo tes     60 - 8 0 % mo r e  N/ A  0 votes     80 - 1 0 0 %  N/ A  0 votes  Table 16: Question 15, results from in the field and class survey  Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Al wa ys  4  2  Never  17  5  So meti mes  22  14  Blank  1  1   35  Table 17: Question 16, results from in the field and class survey  Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Mo st i mp o r tant:    Least i mp o r tant :    Qualit y/N utr itio na l co nte nt  18 /4 3 vo tes  11 /1 9 vo tes  Price  1/4 1 vo tes  0 votes  Price  21 /4 3 vo tes  3/1 9 vo tes  Organic /Fair T rad e  7/4 1 vo tes  1/1 9 vo tes  Fre e Ran ge/Fr ee Ru n  1/4 3 vo tes  0 votes  Fre e Ran ge/Fr ee Ru n  9/4 1 vo tes  2/1 9 vo tes  Prod uce d wit hi n B.C.  1/4 3 vo tes  2/1 9 vo tes  Prod uce d wit hi n B.C.  18 /4 1 vo tes  4/1 9 vo tes  Co n venie nce  1/4 3 vo tes  2/1 9 vo tes  Co n venie nce  6/4 1 vo tes  11 /1 9 vo tes  Other : taste  1/4 3 vo tes  0 votes  Nutr itio nal Co n tent  N/ A  1/1 9 vo tes  Organic /Fair T rad e  0 votes  1/1 9 vo tes     Table 18: Question 17, results from in the field and class survey  Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y   Field Sur ve y  Clas s Sur ve y  Yes  22  20  Don’t know 18  0  No  4  0  Blank  0  2   


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