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Assessing the sustainability of the University of British Columbia Food System Au-Yeung, Mary; Coosemans, Johan; Hanna, Mike; Kung, Marisa; Nam, Ji Hee (Jessica); Ramadan, Maysoon; Tronson, Jyoti Apr 2, 2003

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Assessing the Sustainability of the University of British Columbia Food System Mary Au-Yeung, Johan Coosemans, Mike Hanna, Marisa Kung, Ji Hee (Jessica) Nam, Maysoon Ramadan, Jyoti Tronson  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 2, 2003           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   2        Assessi ng the Sustainabil it y of the Unive rsit y of Briti sh Colum bia Food S ystem             AGSC 450 Group 4: Mar y Au-Y eun g J ohan Coosemans Mike Hanna  3   Marisa Kun g J i Hee (J essi ca) Nam Ma ysoon Ram adan J yoti Tronson Wednesda y, April 2, 200 3 Abstract  The UBC comm unit y is made up of ov er thi rt y th ousand people with an el aborate food s ystem made up of four sub -s yst ems.  Eac h sub -s ystem of the UBC Food S ystem is mad e up of m an y components.  In ord er to assess the sust aina bil it y of the UBC Food S ystem, the UBC Food S ystem was mapped, unde rl yin g valu e assum pti ons were define d, indi cators were propo sed, and a model was de signed.  Assessi ng the sust ainabil it y of the UBC Food S ys tem is compl ex and involves not onl y the sub -s ystems of the UBC Food S ystem, but the Sustainabil it y Of fice of UBC and the whol e UBC comm unit y as well .   Introduction  The Food S ystem of the Universit y of Britis h Colum bia (UBC ) fac es man y chall en ges towards achievin g ecol ogic al, social, and eco nomi c sust ainabili t y. The UBC Food S ystem includes UBC Food Serv ices (UBC FS ), AMS Fo od Service (AMS FS ), UBC Farm, and th e UBC Inte rnati onal Vill a ge ( ).  Each has its own object ives and an independent agenda.  However, the comm on theme withi n the UBC Fo od S ystem is that the y mainl y follow a strong  anthropo centric vie w whe re profit abil it y i s the main go al an d sust ainabili t y is i gnor ed.  Although the majorit y of profit s are retur ned to the comm unit y, it is not done in a sust ainable wa y.  Man y probl ems, including food insecurit y, food trav eli ng lon g dist ances, lar ge amount s of process ed food and waste, ex ist withi n the UBC Food S ystem.  The UBC Food System UBC , sit uated in the Poin t Gre y area of Van couv er, is one of the premi er universit ies of Canada.  UBC has approx im atel y thi rt y tho usand students, facult y and staff membe rs.  Therefore, the university must have a large food services program to supply the campus’ nutrit ional requirements.  As mentioned earlier, th e UBC Food System can be broken down    4   . into four main cate gories: UBC Food Services, AMS Food Ser vices, the UBC Intern ati onal Vill age, and th e UBC Farm (see Appendi x 1)   Each of the co mponents pla ys a vit al role in campus nutrit ion and through the following discussi ons, a brief overview of eac h component will be giv en   .  UBC Food Services UBC Food Se rvices is a monopol y controll ing all food servic es on the campus comm unit y outsi de of th e Student Union Buil ding (SU B), includin g all the residenti al ca fete rias.  UBCFS states that it “will promote and support the University and greater community by providi ng good food, fri endl y se rvice and value, while maintaining finan cial int egrit y throu gh dedicated and skil led empl o ye es.  Throu ghout th e campus at UBC, our food service outl ets are strate gicall y loc ated so yo u can access good fo od, quali t y servi ce in a pleasant environment whenever you want,”(UBC Food Services, 1997).  UBCFS is independently run and is profit -oriented with most of its outl ets receivi ng s uppl ies from one of a set of franchise rs, includin g Starbucks, The Bread Garden, Taz o Tea, Coc a - Cola, Dairyland, Campbell’s soup and Pizza P izz a.  As such, there is a limited ability to increase the sustainability of the food supply,  ) and limi ted abil it y for UBC Farm to suppl y base products to UBC Food S ervices; howev er, the opportuni t y ma y ex ist to provide some value added products (    Also, due to UBCFS’s strong ties to franchises, there is little abil it y to inc reas e sust ai nabil it y throu gh redu cti ons in dist ance travel ed by th e food suppl y and source of the food suppl y be cause the food sou rc es are oft en set b y the fr anchise to provide cost savings.   UBCFS is promot in g s ustainabil it y throu gh wa ste reducti on pro grams like providi ng discounts for people who provide their own containers like coffe e mugs.  There are also  5   rec ycli n g bins loc ated in all the cafete ria s and th e y promot e waste reduct ion by onl y producin g limi ted amount s of food at an y on e time.  Unfo rtunatel y, th e y do not pr ovide healt h y food at reasonabl e pric es when compared to th e unhe alt h y alt ernati ve    Products like fruit s cups and salads have hist oricall y be en priced at lev els that are above that of the unhe alt hy alt e rnati ve.  AMS Food Services AMS stands for Alma Mater Societ y, which each UBC student is a part of.  It was establi s hed in 1915, as a nonprofit student soci et y of UBC, whos e missi on is to improve the educati onal, person al an d social lives of each an d ever y member.  AMS FS is run by th e AMS and 100% of their profit s go back to the AMS.  AMSFS includes all of the restaur an t and foo d service outl ets in the SUB such as Pie R Squared, Snack Atta ck, Bl ue Chip Cookies, the Pendulum , and the Pit .  The profit goes to AMS services such as Speake a s y, Safew alk, J obli nk, Volunteer Servic es and t he Advoca c y Office. The UBC International Village The UBC Int ernati onal Vill age, also known as the Vill age, is located just outsi de of UBC’s official boundaries, with many different food outlets designed to service the UBC comm unit y.  The Vill a ge has no dire ct ties to eit he r, UBC FS  or the AMS Food Services and does not functi on as a coll ecti ve enti t y. Rather, man y independent owners an d franchises (such as McDonald’s) run the UBC International Village.  Their food sources vary depending on the type of restau rants, with som e busi ness like McDon al d ’s collecting their products from nation -wid e dist ributors, while other gath er produ cts from the best sources avail abl e to them.  The Vill a ge provides competit ion for other food suppl iers on campus and ma y in fact cause food pricin g on campus to be more competit ive than would other wise be the norm.  6   The UBC Farm “The UBC Farm is a student -driven ini ti ati ve to retain and re -cr eate ex ist ing farm and forest lands at the Universit y of Britis h Colum bia int o an int ernati onall y significant centre for sust ainable ag riculture, forestry and food systems” (Who Are We, What are We, 2003    Its philosophy is “to provide academic and practical leadership in the areas of agro-e colo gical desi gn, comm unit y plannin g and developm ent in a manner that benefits past, present and futur e com muni t y memb ers, be th e y cit iz ens, planners, designe rs, develop ers, managers, leaders or farmers,” (Philosophy, 2003). The main goal of the UBC Farm is education, and  “[providing] academic and practical leadership in the ar eas of agro - ecological design, community planning and development” (Phi losop h y, 2003    ).  The 40-h ectar e plot , which will remain in farm producti on, offers man y opportuni ti es to provide work ex perience fo r agricultural scien c e students, educati on to the UBC comm unit y and gr eate r publi c, and food producti on withi n the UBC comm unit y.  At the present tim e, the farm does not have th e means t o suppl y all but a small fracti on of UBC needs.  One of the goals of sustainable food production is reduced transport cost.  An issue to examine in the future is to find out how much food UBC needs to produce to counteract the long distances currently traveled by other food sources.    At thi s point in time, UBC Farm suppl ies fresh products to the UBC campus comm unit y and greater area of Vancouver through farmers’ markets, which run through its growing season. UBC Farm provides fres h eggs, fruits and ve geta bles.  Whil e the ex ist ing farm ini ti ati ve is sti ll in its infanc y, th e market ga rden is headin g int o its thi rd ye ar, and has prov en to be success ful.  In the futur e, UBC Fa rm plans (UBC Farm plans or UBC Comprehensive Community Plan?   to develop a comm unit y which will int egr ate housi n g for five thous and people, stores and a five hund red stude nt capacit y school int o  7   the farm comm unit y. Thi s will provide a demons trati on of how urban and rural land uses can be int egr ated withi n a comm unit y.   The sust ain able comm unit y will use the latest developm ent techniques including wat er captur e, surfa ce wate r retention, nutrient captur e, and nutrient cycli n g for use as an educ ati onal show case for th e agri cult ural scienc es facult y.   Current Problems in the UBC Food System  Current problems withi n the UBC Food S yste m surrounds iss ues of food insecurit y, inadequate food choices offer ed, time and dist anc e of food t ransportati on to the campus , waste mana gement, lack of edu cati on and invol vement of UBC farm, and econom ic viabil it y. A Campus Sustainabil it y Office (CS O) at UBC has been set up to incr eas e awa reness and to achieve campus sust ain a bil it y.   The CSO runs pro grams such as SEED S (Social, Ecolo gical, Economi c Developm ent Studi es) that incorporat es students, facult y, and staff in projects that address sust ainabili t y iss ues.  However, the CSO has yet to address food sust ainabili t y.  Food sust ainabili t y is an impor tant aspect in addressi n g the overall sust ainabili t y of UBC.  This can be seen b y some of the iss ue s identi fied by the UBC Food S ystem Proje ct of 2002:  There is an over all lack of food securit y rega rding af fordabil it y, avail abi li t y, acc essi bil it y, and approp riateness of fo od choices offe red b y bo th UBCFS and AMSFS .  There is a lack of emphasis on the students’ needs; students feel that the food services lack wide enough variety of food items alt hou gh t he universit y consi sts of various ethni cit y.  Also, ther e is in adequat e variet y of nutrit ious foo d items offer ed b y UBC residences ( AGS C 45 0, Antonell i et al., 2002(     8    Most of food suppl ies for UBCFS an d AMSFS travel long dist anc es and the UBC Food S ystem depends heavil y on l ar ge corpor ati ons such as Ser ca  as food suppl iers.  According to findings from the working teams conducting this study in agsc 450, 2002, UBC and AMS Food Ser vices predomi nantl y de al wit h processed food, wh ich result s in lar ge amount s of packa gin g us ed and waste disp osed as post -consum er wastes.  UBC fail s to meet the requirem ents for sust ainable compos ti ng s yste m.  There is a la ck of in volvement of the UBC comm unit y and the UBC Farm in implementi ng an eff ecti ve co mpos ti ng progr am (AGS C 450, Bar cla y et al., 2002).   Th ere is a need for the UBC Farm to be more ecol ogic all y, economi c all y, and sociall y viable.  The UBC Farm has a potential to significantl y contribut e to the sust ainable suppl y of food for the UBC comm unit y.  It is important that th e farm emphasiz es its educ ati onal role for UBC comm unit y and thus, become more act ivel y invol ved in agric ult ural curricul a .  (   The UBC Int ernati onal Vill age, which has no direct ties to AMSFS or UBCFS , provides competit ion for the other food suppl iers and caus es food pric e s on campu s to be highe r than the norm. (   The problems identifie d are onl y some of the iss u es that UBC Food S yste m needs to improve on.  Developi n g  a model to determi ne how ecolo gi cal l y, economi call y, and sociall y  sust ainable the UBC Food S ystem is would be feasibl e and appropriate.  Howeve r, before a model can be developed, we must first address our und erl yin g value assum pti ons.          9     Underlying Value Assumptions Food security “exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, sa fe and nutrit ious food to me et their di etar y ne eds and food pr efer enc es fo r an acti ve and healthy life” (The Cost of Eating in BC, 2002).  This definition clearly shows that there are li nks between ac cessi bil it y and needs.  Aspe cts of food s ecurit y th at ar e es peciall y important are: 1) meeti n g diet ar y needs ; 2) me eti ng food pref er ences; and 3) that food s ecurit y can onl y ex ist when ALL people hav e acc ess to food.  Human bein gs must meet minim um dietar y ne eds in order to survive and for thi s reason, our gro up takes a weak anthropocentric view (a philosophy that human beings have basic needs.      c) in the case of food securit y.  On the other hand, meeti ng foo d prefer ences as a part of achievin g food securi t y consi ders a stron g anthropocentri c phil osoph y (human bein gs have wants and pref er ences) becaus e food prefe renc es are what we desire from food.  Last l y, definin g food se curit y to be obtained onl y when ALL people have access to food consi ders how human beings ar e co nnected to each other.  This ties in with the fact that food securit y invol v es the comm unit y, not just one person.    .  Consi dering the definiti on above and what aspe cts? our group feels ar e more desirabl e and signific ant, we do not thi nk that UBC is food secure.  Ever y sin gle person withi n the UBC  10   community does not have access to “sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (The Cost of Eating in BC, 2002) and thi s is clearl y illust rate d:      In a surve y conducted b y Chiu et al., 70% of both on -campus and off- camp us indi viduals said that ther e is a lack of options to bu y gro ce rie s at UBC, 66% wer e uns ati sfied with nut ritio nal content of foods av ail able at UBC, an d 62% beli e ved that av ail abil it y of lo cal produ ce is la ckin g at UBC (2001 .  ).   In a surve y conducted by En gland et al., 78% of respondents felt that campus food is “moderately expensive or expensive and that it lacks nutritional value” (2002). These result s follow the trend that was found by the Farr ell Resear ch Group Ltd. in 1996 as reasons wh y people brin g their own lunch to cam pus. Food secu rit y does not s tand alone in assessin g the state o f the sust ainabi li t y of the UBC Food S ystem; food secu r it y is also a part of defini ng the sust ainabili t y of t he UBC Food S ystem    First of all , sust ainabili t y can be defined in sim ple terms or by mo re encompassin g definiti ons, such as the on e from the West London Friends of the Earth – “Living withi n the resources of the planet without damaging the environment now or withi n the future.  It also means havin g an economi c s ystem that pr ovides a genuine quali t y of life, rather th an dependin g on i ncreased consumption” (2000).  Sustainabil it y, in t erms of assessin g the UBC Food S ystem, is not onl y defined b y the above terms, but b y the foll owing as well :  Sustainability is “the ability of a system or process to be maintained or kept in existence” (Ha rmon, Harmon, & Maretzki, 1999) and a “community movement” (Hart, S ustainabil it y, 1998   11    Sustainable systems “will not fall apart or sink in the foreseeable future” (Harmon, Harmon & Maretzki, 1999), “should be able to operate indefinitely” (Harmon, Harmon & Maretz ki, 1999 ), and “should allow us to meet our present food needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (Harmon, Harmon & Ma retz ki, 1999 :  The previous sections has many good ideas but it is very disjointed and it is not clear why the explanation of value assumptions required so much citation of the various sources refereed. It just does not read clearly.  The linkages between food security and sustainability, although important, were not sufficiently explained or clarified A Continuum Scale to Assess the State of the UBC Food System  With the above definiti ons and important aspects about food securit y and s ustainabil it y in mind, a cont inuum scale has been design ed to assess the state of the UBC Food S ystem (se e Appendix 2).  At one end of the scale is “sustainable”.       At the other end of the scale is “unsustainable”.  A food syst e m that is unsust ainable is obvious l y the pola r opposi te of a sust ainable food s ystem , .  The midpoint identifies a food s yst em wher e sust ainable and unsust ain able aspe cts are equall y present ,     Proposed Indicators  12    An indicator is “something used to show visually the condition of a system” (Hart, Indicator,1998   Indica tors are ver y us eful in determi ning the cur rent state of sust ainabili t y of the UBC Food S ystem and can help us fo cus on the cor e iss ues.  In UBC’s case, special indicators need to be applied because the UBC area does not reflect a mi crocosm of societ y in the following wa ys: 1) The age demo gr aphic is skewed he avil y towa rds 18 to 25; 2) It has mainl y a tempo ra r y/t r ansi ent population; 3) Presence of hi gh cult ural diversit y; 4) Aside fro m the se rvice indus tr y brou ght to facil it ate the universit y sta ff an d students, the onl y major i ndust r y is edu cati on.  Th us, UBC does not hav e all of the elements of a typical soci et y, and so ecological, soci al, and econ omi c indi cators shoul d be tailored towards thi s unique situati on.   We propose that indi ca tors in the areas of waste mana gement  travel dist ance of food (more specificall y? ),  diversit y of food avail able on campus , pu bli c int erest/ invol vement in the UBC farm, and success of the UBC market gard en be used to assess the state of the UBC Food S ystem .    Tradit ional indi cators focused on cult ural, eco nomi c and ecolo gic al sust ainabili t y as separat e enti ti es to be ex ami ned indi viduall y.  Howeve r, cu rrent beli efs on the m att er are that indi cators in all three areas must represent the inte rconne cti ons between them, as the y are in the real world (Hart, Indic ator , 1998).  In order fo r an indi cator to be effe cti ve, it must be relativel y sim ple and strai ghtfor wa rd so that ever yon e in t he UBC comm unit y can easil y unde rstand the int ent of the ind icator, and ult im atel y tak e pri de in its progress.  The y must also be both quali tative and quanti tative in order to compr ehen sivel y ass ess the UBC s ystem.    Waste Management Indicator – Percent waste mass to mass of food products entering UBC   This indi cator aim s to signific antl y reduce the amount of garba ge produ ced at UBC, by encoura gin g all membe r s of the UBC comm unit y to consi der waste reducti on in their dail y  13   acti vit ies.  Compos ti ng, rec ycli n g, pur chasin g pro ducts with less pack a gin g, and usin g wast e for ener g y, ar e all wa ys of achieving a lower per cent age, and we hope thi s in dicator inspi res other innovative methods of reducing garb a ge. Th ese ex ampl es also touch on the economi c bene fits of reducin g wast e, b y lower ing the costs of pu rchasin g input s, s uch as fertili se r, elsewhe re. Good Average Distance Travelled of Food Indicator – Aggregate distance travelled food divided by net quantity purchased.  By const antl y moni toring av era ge dist ance tr a vell ed by food pu rchas e for campus consum pti on, there will be a push to conti nuall y decre ase thi s value    .  W e feel that thi s indi cator will encoura ge full uti li sati on of the UBC farm, and perhaps other methods of producing food locall y, such as roof top gardenin g.  It will also enco urage the AMS and UBC food se rvices to pu rchas e B.C. produce whenev er possi ble    When food travels smaller dist ances, members of the UBC societ y benef it by eati ng food that is healt hier du e to less tim e for dete riorati on of nu trients   The B.C. econom y bene fits by incr easin g dema nd of local produc ers, while the environment benefits most of all bec a use of less fossi l fuel ne e ded to transport the good s . Availability of Culturally Acceptable Food Indicator – All significant populations of various ethnicities have access to culturally acceptable food.    This indi cator does not necessaril y appl y to restaurants onl y, but ma y also include avail abil it y of cult urall y acc eptable food at ma rke ts located on the UBC campus , or both.  If the answer is ‘no’ (  then thi s indicates an ex cell ent mark et opportuni t y for an entrepreneur that ought to be both economically, and socially successful.  If ‘yes’ (   then UBC shoul d be consi dered sust ai nable in thi s area.  Visits to the UBC Farm  14   Indicator – Percent of U.B.C population that have visited the farm in the current year.  The purpose of thi s indi cator is to inc reas e the publi c awa reness of the presenc e of the farm.  In formi n g the pub li c about the farm, and givi ng peopl e the opportun it y to see the ori gin of their food provides a me aningful urban/ru ral link to the comm unit y.  Gre ater awar eness of the farm also helps to protect it from future developm ent, which is important because th e farm is key   to increasin g the sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s ystem (    Profitability of the UBC Market Garden Indicator – Net profit of the market garden.  The UBC Farm mark et garden is an essential con necti on bet ween the far m and the UBC comm unit y.  It provides fresh, or ganic foods to t he publi c, while again in creasin g awa reness of the farm’s presence.  Its economic well -b ein g is fundamental to its surv ival, and thus is also important to the ecologi c al and social sust ainabili ty of the UBC food s yste m as well .  Steps in Assessing the Sustainability of the UBC Food System  1) Detailed Mapping of the UBC Food System (This mapping exercise should be done earlier in the paper) -There shoul d be person al consul tatio n with the Directors of the AMS and UBC Food Services (Nanc y Too good and Andrew Par r respe cti ve l y), UBC Fa rm Progra m Coordinator (Derek Masseli nk) and private franchises (e. g. McDon al ds) to determi ne what business services each requires  . It would be useful to know what companies suppl y ea ch retailer, franchise, UBC or AMS Food Services, with non -food based products like cutl er y (ar e the y reusable or dispo sable and food based fo od? ) and food bas ed products like fruit s and ve getables (ar e the y lo cal or imported? ) and how ea ch mana gement practi ce influen ces econo mi c sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s ystem   15      The knowled ge of speci fic food ser vice bu siness prac ti c es all ows the Food S ystem Model  to assess the economi c, social and environmental sus tainabil it y.  Furthe rmore, such information as human resourc e mana gement reve als ho w much each food pr ovider is spendin g on empl o y ment (gene ral empl o yment costs like l abor and man a gement outl a ys) and all ows com parati ve cost anal ysis between food s ervice pro viders on campus .      -This s hould be compl ete d in 2004  2) Identify Current Efforts of Food Sustainability -Determi ne wh at ea ch fo od sub - system’s policies are about food sustainability (including waste mana gement) b y consul ti ng with the dire ctors onc e again  -This should be compl e te d in 2004  3) Identify the Typical Consumer -Trends in consum e r de mographi cs can be att ained throu gh holdi n g focus groups and condu cti n g surve ys.  Information on consum er demo gr aphic s all ows food servic e providers to cate r to consum er ne eds, incr eas ing consum er sati sf acti o n and economi c efficien c y of the food se rvice retailer.  Conti ngent val uati on surve ys would be especiall y useful in determi ning how much effort (labor for const ruc ti ng ba ck ya rd, stre et an d rooftop ga rden) or mo ne y th e y (  wo uld pa y for the transit ion to a full y sust ainable UBC food s yst em.  In oth er words, the av era ge amount of opportuni t y cost residents will pa y fo r the future bene fit of ch e aper, mor e nutrit iona l and more div erse food suppl y as well as th e environmental bene fits associated with urb an agriculture. -This should be compl ete d in 2004  16    4) Determine Indicators of Food Sustainability -R eview literatur e on in dicators of sust ainabili t y, indi cators propose d in the UBC Food S yst em Project 2003, and findings from the three previo us steps    -shoul d be compl eted in 2004 5) Measure Indicators -Basic data coll ecti on m ust be performed; the fol lowing is the methodolog y for determi nin g the proposed indi cators lev el of sust ainabili t y   -Each of the five indi c ators will receive a sco re ou t of twent y, to make an aggr e gate rati ng out of one hundred per cent.  A perfe ct 20/ 20 scor e, as well as 0/20, will be define d below.  A rati o sc ale between perf ect and zero values needs to be set to determi ne int ermediat e values. - These indi cators shoul d be tested on eit her a yearl y basis or ever y other yea r , and then compared to past ye ars to determi ne wheth er impr ovements have be en mad e. Good Waste Management – A perf ect scor e of 20/20 would mean that 100% of food waste, includin g packa gin g is compos ted, rec ycl ed, or used for other purpos es, while a scor e o f 0/20 would me an that all food waste and packa gin g is thrown awa y.  In orde r to determi ne t his, all sub -s ystems of the UBC Food S ystem shoul d be inst ructed to track the weights of all waste dispo sed, while suppl yin g the figur es for mass of food entered in to the food s ystem .  This will require coll aborati on with the waste dispo sal compan y that serves the UBC Food S ystem.  The mass of food waste is easil y me asured on a la r ge sc ale because garba ge dispo sal companies do thi s an yw a y when wei ghing the trucks bef ore dumpi ng.  Most food is purcha sed by wei ght, and so shoul d alread y be stor e d in inventor y comput er s ystems, also makin g it sim ple to obtain the needed information.  A comput er pro gram that autom ati call y tabul ates th e wei ghts of the food and waste would gr eatl y ease thi s task, but ma y sti ll be done manuall y .    17   Average Distance Travelled of Food – To measure thi s indi cator, one needs to obtain the information on both food origin, and quanti t y pur chased from databas es from UBCFS , AMSFS , and the UBC Vill age.  Each ori gin will be assi gn ed an av era ge value for dist ance (i.e. Cali forni a = 1800 km), which will t hen be mul ti pli ed by the quanti t y of that particula r good.  To encour a ge locall y grown food to be purchased fo r UBC, a value of zero will be assi gned to all food originatin g from the low er mainland, and Frase r Vall e y.  A score of 20/2 0 indi cates that all food purchased was gro wn locall y (total ave ra ge dis tance of 0 kilometres), while a score of 0/20 indi cates no food was gr own locall y.  Availability of Culturally Acceptable Food – A demographi c profil e nee ds to be conducted to find the relative proport ions of people from different cult ural back groun ds.  A predetermi ned percent a ge of an y particu lar ethni cit y will be chos en (i.e. 5%), whi ch w hen ex ceeded, must have campus avail abil it y of cult urall y acc eptable food .  A scor e of 20/20 will be assi gned when all cult ures makin g up mor e than the predete rmine d per centa ge, hav e acc e ss to food from thei r ethni cit y.   Visits to the UBC Farm – A su rve y th at is statis ti call y relevant   to th e UBC population shoul d be condu cted that questi ons whether people hav e visi ted the farm in the past ye ar.  A scor e of 20 /20 indi cates that 100% of the UBC comm unit y surve yed hav e visi ted the farm, whil e 0/20 indi cates 0% had visi ted the farm.  Profitability of the UBC Market Garden – This shoul d be the most easil y att ained information if thos e mana gin g the farm will grant access to thi s information.  An income statement will clearl y state net profit of the market gard en.  A score of 20/20 indi cates a highl y profit able ye ar , while a scor e of 0/20 indi cates a lar ge net los s.  A scale must be m a de showin g what is consi dered a lar ge profit /l oss, medium , and low profit /l oss, to determi ne exact scor es.     18   6) Statistical Methods for Quantifying Sustainability of the UBC Food System -Tri -annu al cumul ati ve cost anal ysis for produ cti on, processi ng, whole sale and retail levels shoul d be calculated   Statistical anal ysis 3 times a yea r will all ow accur ate statis ti cal com parison on the state of the UB C Food S yste m from term to term.  Comparisons between t erms of two dif fer ent ye a rs will minim iz e comparable inaccu ra cies brought about b y season al consum er demand flu ctuations espe ciall y in su mm er when consum er demand pressur es ar e relativel y low.  This ap proach to quanti f yin g sust ainabili t y all ows statis ti cal consi derati on of the suppl y of se asona l food products such as fruit s and ve getables.  Comparing statistics from summer terms and winter terms would be like comparing “apples and oranges”.    Conclusions The missi on statements of the or ganiz ati ons/ companies running th e food s ystem at UBC address id eas th at ar e ap peali ng to the consum e r s in the UBC comm unit y.  How ever ,   the UBC fo od s yst em is cur rentl y not 100% sust ainable, which dire ctl y and indi r ectl y ne gati vel y impacts the UBC comm unit y.  These aspects aff ect food securit y iss ues, small fo od choices, inapprop riate foods fo r ve getari ans (  incr eas ed waste, and B.C. produce not pur chased.  The or ganiz at ions withi n the UBC Food S ystem hav e anthr opocentric pa radi gms in which the y op er ate in to run the food s yst em at UBC.  Essenti all y, thi s works against ever yone in that profit is the main objecti ve, which ma y be in conflict with the well -being of the UBC com muni t y.  A bioc entric pa radigm would be abl e (  to address these iss ues bett er, since sust ainabili t y  would be the priorit y, rat her than profit .  A posi tive aspect about making  19   UBC sust ainable is that it could be a testin g gro und for sust ainabili t y fo r B.C. and Canada at large.     To create awareness of UBC’s goals towards sustainability, a graphic representation of sust ainabili t y for the UBC comm unit y, could be used ( ) . For inst ance, a thermom ete r st yl e displ a y at the UBC bus loop could foster pri de in pro gr ess towa rds thi s iss ue.  Other indi cat ors could also be on disp la y in promi nent areas ar ound UBC alon g with a brief ex planati on of what sus ta inabili t y is.  With the current knowl edge and t echnolo g y  ), the UBC Food S yst em can not be made full y, 100 % sust ainable.  As we have not a ssessed the sust ainabili t y of the s yste m ourselves, we canno t identif y the ex act point where the UBC Food S ystem is on our sc ale.  Th e definition of sustainability can chan ge ever y single da y ,   There fore, we recomm end that th e who le UBC Food S ystem coll aborate with the UBC Sustainabil it y Office t o work towards the goal of becomi ng the most sust ainable that it can be.  The y ne ed to identif y what the y consi de r to be sust ainable in the UBC Food S ystem and work from ther e.  A start wo uld be to look at the pr oposed indi cators and recomm endati ons from the UBC Food S yst e m Project of 2003.  All indi viduals of the comm unit y, including students, shoul d also be part of thi s process.  There is much room for progress to be made tow ards thi s final go al, whic h is what these indi cators are meant to spu r.  As the a dage goes, “you cannot change, what you cannot measure”.           20   What are the boundaries and goals? Examples of interactions with larger food system?    APPENDIX 1 : Mapping the UBC Food System                                     All food services in the SUB AMS Food Services e.g.. Snack Attack,  Pie R2, Pendulum, Pit Pub Products from major suppliers  UBC Food System Agora, 99 Chairs, Bread Garden All residential cafeterias on campus UBC Food Services Products from major suppliers Collection of independent restaurants The Village UBC Farm Basic food outputs to UBC and greater community Basic inputs Products to AgUS and AGSC faculty functions Food from best available sources  21         Franchises  e.g. McDonald’s  17   APPENDIX 2 : A Continuum Scale to Assess the State Of the UBC Food System    * ---- ---- --- --- ---- --- --- ---- - ---- ---- --- --- ---- --- --- ---- -- - *--- ---- --- --- ---- --- --- ---- - ---- ---- --- --- ---- --- --- ---- -- - * Unsustainable - comm unit y withi n s yste m i s not food secure (most pe ople do not have acc ess to fo od at all times, cannot meet their dietar y needs, and/or ca nnot meet their food pr efe renc es) -s ystem is environmen tall y dama ging (no ef forts in waste man a ge ment, including rec ycli n g and compos ti ng) - s y stem does not invol v e the whole comm unit y  -s ystem cannot be maintained -s ystem is conce rned with current food ne eds onl y, the future is unknown -s ystem receives a zero s core for proposed indi c ators                       Midpoint -curr entl y certain objecti ves of sust ainabili t y are being addressed; ho weve r, not all sust ainabili t y iss ues have been full y int e grat ed int o the food s yst em  -s ystem rec eives a 50% overall scor e for propo sed indi cators                                    Sustainable -comm unit y is com pl etel y food secu re (ev er yone has acc ess to food at all times, is able to meet their di etar y needs and food pref ere nc es) -s ystem is environm entall y friendl y (max im um uti liz ati on of rec yc li ng, compos ti ng, etc.) -s ystem invol ves the whole comm unit y -s ystem can be maintained to ex ist and be ope rated for an indefini te period of time  -s ystem all ows fo r cu rrent food needs to be met and does not compromi se food needs of futur e gen erati o ns -s ystem rec eives a perfect score for proposed indi c ators 18   Bibliography   About Food Servic e. UBC Food Services Web -sit e. UBC Food Servic es. Retrieved Ma rch 10, 2003 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.foodserv.ubc .ca/i ndex .htm l  Antonell i, A., Bo yce, L., Li, M., Lun, M., Moj taba vi, S., To, V.T. 2002. The Sustainability of the UBC Food S ystem: An Assessm ent of Place Van ier .  UBC Food S ystem P roject 2002.  Bar cla y, M., Cockburn, S., Hsu, A., Le e, C.W ., Reichmuth, K., Tam, G. Young, M. 2002. Agriculture Practi ce that Bene fits the Wh ole Communi t y. UBC Food S yste m Project 2002.   C hing, V., Gaz z ola, P., Juz kow, K., Kenrick, K., Lin, T., Wark, C., Yeun g, E. 2002.  Food Waste Mana gement – The Hot Beve ra ge Cup . UBC Foo d S ystem Project 2002.  Chiu, D., Henle y, V., Lai l, T., Merret, C., Schuf f er t, M., Scott , C. & Thandi, F. 2001. Group Findi ngs . Retriev ed Mar ch 12, 2003 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a /agsc_45 0/VFS IP _W ebsit es_2001/ Group24/findi ngsmain.ht m  England, M., Koo, W., Li, J ., Ro yer, R., Sava ge, K., Wang, V. & Yu en, K. 2002. Result s . Retrieved Mar ch 12, 200 3 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a /agsc_45 0/UBC _ Food_S ys _W ebsit es_2002/ Grou p11/frame4.html  Far rell Resea rch Group Ltd. 1996. UBC Food Se rvices – A Surve y of Foo d on Campus . Vancouve r: Farrell Rese a rch Group Ltd.   Harmon, A., Harmon, R. & Maretzki A. 1999. “Definitions of Key Concepts and Terms and the Food System: An Introduction.” in The Food S yst em – Buil ding Youth Aw areness Th rou gh Involvem ent . Penns ylv an ia: The Penns ylv ania State Universit y.  Hart, M. 1998. What is an Indic ator? Retrieved March 20, 2003 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.sust ainablemeasures. com/ Traini n g/ In dicators/ Indicatr.htm l  Hart, M. 1998. What is Sustainabil it y? Retrieved March 2, 2003 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.sust ainablemeasures. com/ Traini n g/ In dicators/S ecti on1.htm l  Phil osoph y. UBC Farm Web -sit e. UBC Farm, Fa cult y of Agricult ural Scie nces. Retrieved M arch 10, 2003 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.agsci.ubc. ca/ ubcfarm/phi losop h y.htm   The Cost of Eati ng in BC . 2002. Vancouve r, BC: Dieti ti ans of Canada. Ret rieved Febru ar y 9,  2003 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.dietit ians.ca/news/downl oads/cost_of _eati ng_in_ BC _final_20 02.pdf    19   UBC Food Se rvices . 199 7. Vancouve r, BC: UBC Food Servic es.  Retrieve d March 20, 2003 from the World Wide Web: htt p:/ /www.foodserv.ubc .ca/ West London Friends of the Earth, W LFOE 24 Februar y 2000.  Who & What We Are. UBC Fa rm Web -sit e. UBC Farm, Fa cult y of Agricu lt ural Sciences. Retrieved Mar ch 10, 200 3 from the World Wide Web:  http:/ /www.agsci.ubc. ca/ ubcfarm/who.htm     

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