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Greening the development monster Brown, Amanda; van der Lely, Antonin; Cortes, Camilo; Leung, Eileen; Lam, Fung; Overton, Liz; Hussain, Muneera Apr 8, 2005

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Greening the Development Monster UBC Food Systems Project Scenario 4 – Development at UBC Amanda Brown, Antonin van der Lely, Camilo Cortes, Eileen Leung, Fung Lam, Liz Overton, Muneera Hussain  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 6, 2005           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. 1  Greening the Development Monster  UBC Food Sy stems Proje ct Scena rio 4 – Devel opment at UBC   April 8, 2005    Group 12: A man d a Brown Anto n in van der Lely Ca milo Cortes Eileen Leun g Fun g La m Liz Ove rton Mun eera Hus sain           2     Acknowledgements   We wou l d lik e to than k the inspi ring teachi ng team of AGSC 45 0 :  Alejand ro Rojas , Lisk a Richer, Cath erin e Jaco bs en , Juli a Wag ner, and Lorenzo Mag zul .  Brend a Sawad a and Karl y Hen n ey gav e us val u abl e guid ance and info rmat io n .   3     Our Food System Project looks at UBC’s Official and Comprehensive Community Plans.  Filt ered thr ough our worl dvi ews and bias es, we have ge nerat ed recommenda t i ons to incl ude Food as a component of the plans, al ong with wate r , air , transport ati on, and waste mana ge ment . 4  Abstract Our task in the UBC food s ystems proj ect was to evaluate th e ef fe cts of campus developm ent on the abil it y to create and maintain a sust ainable food s ystem at UBC.  Food securit y is a major iss ue aroun d the world and universit ies such as UBC shoul d be leading the wa y in developi ng innovative measures to create fo od sust ainable comm unit ies. Becaus e UBC is currentl y ex panding we have the oppo rtunit y to model an urban agricult ure strate gy th at can be ex tra polated int o the global comm unit y.  The goal of thi s project is not to promot e food self -sufficienc y of UBC, rathe r it is to create awar eness and educ ati on of the campus comm unit y on iss ues pertaini n g to food securit y. Through ev aluations of the plans that guide deve lopm ent at UBC, Official Comm unit y Plan (OCP ) and the Comprehensive Comm unit y P lan (CCP ), we identified major barriers as well as opportuni ti es that can hinder or enhan ce food sust ainabili t y on campus . We then made am endments to the OCP and the CCP . As a result , we dev elo ped a propos al for an urb an agri cult ura l strateg y at UBC named The Edibl e Campus . This strateg y invol ved six strategic act ions which included a demons trati on gard en, desi gnat ed gard en areas, green spa ce and open areas, food produ c ti on on buil dings, waste management s ystems and mana gem ent consi derati ons.  To finali z e our project, we made recommendations for next year’s AGSC 450 class to investigate further the viability of an urban agri cult ure strate gy at UBC .    5  Table of Contents    j Introdu cti on ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 6  Problem Definiti on ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 Id enti ficat ion of Value Assum pti ons ................................................................ .............. 7 Visi on S tatement ................................ ................................................................ ............. 8 PART I:  Campus Planning Do cuments and the UBC Food S ystem ................................ .  8  Anal ysis of th e Offi cial Comm unit y Plan ................................ ................................ ....... 8 Anal ysis of th e Compreh ensive Com muni t y Plan ................................ .......................... 9 Se cti on 1: Introdu cti on and Secti on 2: Ex isti ng Plans, Poli cies and Visi on ............... 9  Se cti on 3: Principl es for the Comprehensive Com muni t y Plan ................................ 10  Se cti on 4.0 and 5.0: The Loc al Ar ea and Strat e gie s for the CCP ............................. 11  Conc lusi on of Part I  ................................ ................................ ................................ ......  13  PART II: An Urban Agric ult ure Strate g y fo r UBC ................................ .......................... 14  Our Visi on for Planning at UBC ................................ ................................ ................... 14 Desc riptio n ................................................................ ................................ ................ 14 Cost - Bene fit Anal ysis of Impl ementing an Urb an Agriculture Strate g y at UBC ....... 16  Ecolog ic al Benefits ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 16 Ec onomi c Benefits ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 Soc ial Bene fits ................................ ................................................................ .......... 17 Costs  and chall enges ................................ ................................ ................................ . 18 S trategic Act ions ................................ ................................................................ ........... 19 Demons trati on garden ................................ ................................ ............................... 19 Desig n ated Garden Area s ................................ ................................ ......................... 19 Gre en wa ys and Op en Space ................................ ................................ ...................... 20 Food P roducti on in and on Buil dings ................................ ................................ ....... 20 Wa ste Mana gement ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 20 Agr icultural and La ndsca ping Man a gement Consi derati ons .................................... 20 Conc lusi on ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 20  Works Cit ed ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 22  Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 24  Appendix B ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 25   6  Introduction In a world wh ere people are be comi ng mo re disco nnected from their food s ys te m, the issue of f ood se curit y must take priorit y.  Th e Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a (UBC ) has the oppor tuni t y to lea d the wa y in becomi n g a model sust ainable comm unit y. The time h as come for UBC t o int egr ate the food s yste m into the current dev elopm ent p lans being implemented on campus .  Accordin g to the Food Agricult ur e Organiz ati on (FAO) food securit y ex ist s when all people, at all tim es, have ph ysical and econom ic acc ess to sufficient, saf e and nutrit ious food to meet their dietar y ne eds and food pref e renc es for an acti ve and healt h y lif e.  The food s ystem at UBC shoul d work towards prov idi ng all its members wit h these basi c requir ements for surviv al.  W e are pa rt of an on goin g proje ct envisi oned b y t he teachin g te am of Agri cult ural Sciences 450 (A GSC 45 0), UBC Social Ecolo gic al Economi c Dev elopm e nt Studi es (SEEDS ), UBC Campus Sustainabil it y Office, UBC Food Services, Alma Mater Societ y (AMS ) Food and Be ver a ge Depa rtment, UBC Far m, UBC Waste Mana ge ment, as well as the ac cumul ated knowled ge of previous AGS C 450 projects , to assess the feasibi li t y of tra nsit ion ing to a sustain able food s ystem at UBC.   Our proje ct is divided into two main secti ons. In t he first secti on, we will present our anal ysis of the  Offic ial Comm unit y Plan (OC P ) and the Comprehensiv e Comm unit y Plan ( CCP ) which guide the developm ent proc ess at UBC. Based on thi s an al ysis we have proposed amendme nts to these plans to include food secu rit y as a prio rit y. Thes e amendments to the OCP and CCP are discussed in Appendix A and B resp e cti vel y.  Th e second secti on includes o ur recomm end ati ons for an Urban Agricult ural Strate g y to be implemented in the camp us planning dev elopm ent process.  7  Problem Definition   Our main task in the UBC Food S ystem Project 2 005 is to investi gate whet her the curre nt fo rm of urb an de velopm ent being implem ented b y the universit y is enhancin g or hindering the transit ion to a sust ainable food s yste m.  For UBC campus to develop a sust ainable food s ystem, food securit y ne eds to be an int egral pa rt of comm unit y plannin g by wa y of the OCP and CCP .  By fail in g to addr e ss the food needs of cam pus residents, the comm unit y plans are hindering the abil it y of UBC to make thi s transit ion.  UBC is in effe ct distorti ng the ima ge of a compl et e comm unit y b y negle cti ng th e impacts of a non -local food s ystem.  Ther e is enormous potential for UBC to brid ge the gap between food producti on and consum pt ion and create a trul y int e gr ated and sust ainabl e co mm unit y on campus .  This s ystem wo uld establish strong socia l relations hips between comm unit y members and the environ ment and create a mod el food system fo r the bro a der comm unit y.  UBC has the potenti al to create aw ar eness in 40,000 people ever y yea r, starti ng  a ripple ef fect o f knowledge and empower ment. Our group beli ev es that the developm ent on campus can co- exist with sustainable initiatives towards UBC’s food securit y. Identification of Value Assumptions W e acknowled ge th at our group is biased towa rds a predomi nantl y anthropoce ntri c ( )  par adi gm due to the nature of our educ ati on sys tem and so cial condit ioni ng.  Since food product ion, is by nature, driven b y hum an needs we are looki n g at t he problem statement thr ough thi s lens.  We also reco gniz e that we are att empt ing to be co me more biocentri c  throu gh thou ghts and acti ons that promot e the conserv ati on of our natural resou rces (   .  8  Vision Statement Our group’s reflection on the seven guiding principles presented in the Vision S tatement and developed by the project pa rtners is of gener al agr eement (Ri cher 16-17 ).   How eve r, we feel that m ore emphasis could be pl aced on educati onal tools to foster awar eness and und erstan ding of the food s yst em throughout the campus co mm unit y.  We also think  it is important to include the signific anc e of developi n g resea rch schemes at UBC in re lation to the fo od s ystem .    PART I:  Campus Planning Documents and the UBC Food System Analysis of the Official Community Plan The OCP ’s guidelines, which are open to interpret ati on, present both bar rie rs and opportuni ti es for the cr ea ti on of a sust ainable food s ystem.  The OCP cover s conventi onal comm unit y plannin g thor oughl y; it addresses t yp e s of buildi ngs, their locat ion and siz e, along with se rvices, such as sewe r , wate r, ele ctrici t y, fir e and poli ce protect ion and transportati on.  It outl ines the future dire cti on of the Universit y Comm unity throu gh goals and  visi ons: protecti ng the gr een zone, buil ding compl et e comm unit ies, achievi n g a compact m etropoli tan ar e a, and incr easin g transpo rtati on choice (OCP 2). The  main problem of the OCP is that it neglects to address food s ecurit y, a key component of a  sust ainab le comm unit y.  It ne eds s teps to define and includ e food as an essential servic e for the present and futu re gen erati ons at UBC (See Append ix A).  Food servic es such as the AM S will thus have guidanc e is cre ati ng and foll owing their sust ainabili t y m andate s (Ph ysical Principl es for Pl anning, ).    Another major barrier of the OCP is i ts fail ure to adequ atel y defin e ecolo gi ca l sust ainabili t y.  It do es no t address the importanc e of ecolo gical functi ons .  The planning 9  process could be enhan ce d by cl ear definiti ons of “ food secu rit y ” , “ gr eenw a ys ”, “compl ete comm unit ies ”, and a sust ainable food s ys tem (OCP ) (Se e Appen dix A). The OCP  does, howeve r, provide opportuni ti es , such as promot ing an auto -re strained comm unit y an d having green wa ys that encoura ge c ycli n g and walki ng to potential local food sour c es .  The OCP’s vision to provide more publi c op e n space, preserv e green ar eas , and herita ge lands capes can all aid in buil ding stronger ecolo gic al and social sust ainabili t y (OCP 4, 11).  Perhaps the strongest of th ese opport unit ies is the mention tha t long-term i nfrastructur e and s ervicin g on campus must have a mini mal impact on the environme nt bot h on and off campu s (OCP 21).  LEE D (Le a dership in Ener g y and Environm ental Design ) certified buil d ings will lower the ener gy ne eds of the comm unit y and reduce it s ecologi cal footprint.  Water coll e cti on and conse rvati on st rate gies, ma y in turn be directed towa rds wate r rec ycli n g for food product ion, further closi ng the ecolo gical c ycle at UBC.    Analysis of the Comprehensive Community Plan Section 1: Introduction and Section 2: Existing Plans, Policies and Vision   The CCP is responsi ble for establi shing th e princ ipl es for detailed nei ghbo urhood planning in t he ei ght loca l areas d esign ated for dev elopm ent on the UBC campus by the OCP . The documents gui ding the CCP process are the OCP , Memorandum of Understandin g (MOU ), TREK 2000, Principl es for Ph ysical Plannin g at UBC, Strate gic Tra nsportati on Plan (STP), and the 1992 Main Ca mpus Plan.  Although an al ysis of all the guidi n g docum ents is be yond th e scope of this report, it is worth y to not e that the ei ght P rincipl es for Ph ys i cal Plannin g, which ar e the standard s against which t o measure developm ent on campus , do not make  suff icient mention of eit her sustain abil it y or food se curit y on campus . 10  Section 3: Principles for the Comprehensive Community Plan  The ‘Principles for Circulation’ are well develope d and thorou gh. The plan s to provide pr im aril y under ground parkin g will leave much above ground area for greenin g. The y “provide for the po ssi bil it y of neighbo u rhoo d  convenienc e comm e rci al in each residenti al area, in ord er to reduce  travel” ( CCP  8),  however this was not ad dressed or evident in the local area plans or the impl ementati on strate gies.  It is also imperati ve that the type of comm er cial food outl et be  well define d in the appropri ate secti on to ensure locall y own ed, environ m entall y and sociall y respo nsibl e food outl ets (See Appendix B).   The ‘Principles for Public Open Space’ incorporate planning for greenways and landscapin g alon g all rou tes, publi c spaces and par ks , and innovative storm water mana gement and draina ge s ystem s, all of which in directl y contribut e to a su stainable food s ystem (CCP 12 ) The secti on is, howeve r, la cking a direct definiti on of the ec olo gical fun cti ons of green spa ce (Se e Appen dix B).  These fun cti ons include protec ti ng th e ph ysical and biol ogical in te grit y of the ecos ystem, maint aini ng the natural draina ge and h ydrolo g y, providi ng food and habit at, conservin g biodi versit y, providi n g buffers to natu ral habitat s and connecti n g fragme nted ecos ystems (Rhode Island Divis ion of Planning 3- 5 ) .  The ‘Principles for Urban Form’ make ample discussion of community needs and services, ran gin g from cr im e mana gement to susta inable technolo gies for m ini mi zing ener g y use.  Howev er, th ere is no indi cati on of fo od -related comm unit y ne eds such as easil y acc essi ble food ou tl ets or the potenti al for urban agri cult ure to redu c e our ecolo gical footprint.  The last two principl es (Principl e of Tim ing of Developm ent and Principl e for Housing Tenu re) wer e not directl y appli cable to t he task on hand. 11  Section 4.0 and 5.0: The Local Area and Strategies for the CCP S ecti on 4.0 addresses the developm ent plans of ei ght local areas consis ti ng of North of Marine, Theolo gic al Nei ghbourhood , Ga ge South, Unive rsit y Bou levard, Thunderbird, East Camp us, Mid -C ampus and South Campus . Under ea ch of the local are as, th e CCP states different plannin g objecti ves , local are a principl es an d densit y plans to meet the special ne eds of each indi vidual loc ati on.  Secti on 5.0 addresse s the strate gies empl o yed in the design of UBC comm unit ies . The se two secti ons have bee n int egr ated int o one  anal ysis and set of recomm end ati ons bec ause the same principl es are add ressed in bot h the local neighbo urhood plans and the stra tegies for comm unit y des ign.  Th e ‘Strategy for Tr e e M ana gement ’ (section 5.1) reco gniz es th at the remo val of trees is inevitable for th e developm ent of South Campus .  However, the nee d for development must be balanced with the desire to ensure the “legacy of a healthy forest” (CCP 54) and create a “green urban landscape” ( C C P 54 ).  Whil e the goal to retain the tot al num ber of trees is la udable, it is clear that de velopm ent plans in South Campus take priorit y ove r ecolo gic al issues for ex ampl e groun d -based housi n g (CCP 54).  If housin g is more de nse and mul ti -storied, few er tr ees will hav e to be removed to acco mm odate developm ent.  The ecolo gic al value of the ex ist ing fo rest on those lands is significant, and housi ng plans need t o accomm odate th e trem endous contribut ion of those trees to the local ecos ystem . The plan also menti oned the planti ng of tr ees with in the newl y- buil t communi ti es in order to balan ce the nu mber of tre es removed wit h new trees. It is important to include the condit ions for tree ret enti on, such as ecolo gic a l values such as age diver sit y (CCP , 54).   12  The ‘S trate g y fo r Servicing’ (secti on 5.2) anti cipa tes the future ch all en ges of increas ed wate r demands and outflow, once devel opment is in place.  The proposed biofil tra ti on channel wil l slow down the flow of water and remove tox ic substances, and help  to combat the erosio n in this area.  Whil e several init iatives for reduci ng UBC’s dependen ce on the GVRD for wat er suppl y were mentioned, this plan addr ess es  the quantity but not the quality of wate r outflow.  The water flowin g out of the Universit y Endowment Lands is not onl y contamin at ed with the hyd roca rbons associ ated wit h heav y car tr affic, but also the man y chemi c al pesti cides used on propert y lands ca ping, that contaminate the water ou tflow.  A plan for reducin g ch emi cal landsc apin g s hould be consi dered. The ‘Strategy for Communit y Services ’ (section 5.3) outl ines important services for UBC neighbo u rhoods .  The focus is put on recr eati onal, academi c and cult ural facil it ies, but facil it ies fo r bu yin g, pr epa ring and enjo yin g food are not men ti oned (CCP , 62) . The major it y of the neigh bou rhood plans do not include food outl ets or groce r y stores  ( CC P  17 - 47 )  Accessi bil it y of food in campus is crucial and it is suggested th at basic shop s and services shoul d be withi n walk ing dist anc e.  This failure to address a community’s food needs contr adicts one of the main visions outl ined in the OCP and CCP that the campus developm ent wil l reduc e single occupanc y vehicle (SOV) traf fic to and fro m the UBC campus  (CCP  4) .  Although more housi ng is bein g provided to reduc e com mut ers, a lack of groce r y ou tl ets on cam pus will force people to drive off campus to acquir e food.   Another ar ea of conc ern is the emphasis placed on the relocati on of ex ist ing agr icultural and anim al care facil it ies in South Campus (CCP 63).  These operati ons shoul d be  reco gniz ed for their potential to be an in tegr al part of th e South Campus 13  comm unit y and their pot enti al to provide social and ecolo gical ben efits to comm unit y members.   The ‘Strategies for Sustainability’ (section 5.4) bas es its sust ainabili t y prin cipl es on int ensive use of land, efficient d evelopm ent pat terns, reducti on of comm uti ng and a lt ernati ve trav el modes on campus . This translate s int o more sust ainable buil ding standards and mate rials, rec ycli n g and tr eatm ent of gr a y and bla ck wate r, an d comm unit y planning fo r redu ced SO V use (CCP 66).  These buil ding and plannin g str ate gies ar e innovative and ha ve th e potential to reduce ener gy use and waste dramatic all y.  Th e strate gies would be mor e inclusi ve of all aspects o f sustainabil it y if it wer e ex panded to include the  food s ystem and afford abil it y of housi ng.  The densit y pl an for each loc al area is comprehe nsive but aff ordabil it y of housin g is n ot considered .  In a sust ainable campus , the needs of low - income fami li es and students shoul d be taken int o ac count.  Summary of Part I  The OCP and the CCP are lackin g elements that e nsure food se curit y on campus , and in doi ng so, has (  not addr essed the need s of a compl ete comm unit y.  The urban food s ystem is conn ected to man y other parts of th e local and global comm unit y in are as such as healt h, econom y, ecolo g y and the agricult ural sector makin g it an i mportant consi derati on for pl anner s (Howe ).   One vehi cle by which th e food s ystem can be incorporated in comm unit y plannin g is throu gh ur ban agricult ur e.   14  PART II: An Urban Agriculture Strategy for UBC Our Vision for Planning at UBC Our group has chosen to ex plore the concept of ed ibl e landscapin g as a veh icle by which developm ent at UBC can be adjust ed in or der to meet the goal o f sustainabil it y.  By cr eati n g an urb an agriculture strate g y at UBC which emphasiz es edible landscapin g, it will enti ce comm unit y m embers to becom e invol ved in their immediate env ironment and how it connects to the fo od s ystem.  Students and facult y, in parti cula r, can take thi s stronge r conn ecti on int o their own educ ati on and resear ch. Our urb an agricult ure str ate g y at UBC will outl ine potential benefits and cha ll en ges, ev aluate sust ainabili t y, and propos e strate gic acti ons .   Description  Edibl e landscap in g is the use of veget ati on who se products are edibl e in pu bli c spaces fo r all to enjo y.  This can be fruitin g va rieti es of apple, cher r y, and plum trees and berr y shrubs (SE FC Urba n Agriculture Strate g y 74 ). Edibl e landscapin g add s another dim e nsion to the aestheti c and ecologi cal functi on of green sp ace (SEFC Urban Agriculture Strate g y 74 ) .  Bein g able to ph ysic all y touch and consum e natu re as pa rt of ever yda y routines promo tes a stron ger connecti on between people and the land i n the urban environment.  Comm unit y ga rdens take food producti on out of the private realm and give all members of the comm un it y ac cess to a small piec e of land.  Gro wing food not onl y all ows people to work wi th the soil themselves, but also cult ivates a cu lt ure around the celebr ati on of food. Although int e grati on of t he food s ystem at  int o the comm unit y plannin g pr ocess presents a ch all en gin g ta sk, we have id enti fied fiv e ke y steps that ne ed to be taken in 15  order fo r it to be success f ul.  The first step is t o identif y all stakehold ers and inst it uti ons involved, determine how to reflect everyone’s interests and needs in the plan, and come to a formal agr eement be tween all contribut in g pa rties.  The stakeholde rs who could be invol ved are el ementar y and seconda r y schools, comm unit y repr esentative s, UBC, UBC Properties Trust, UBC Campus and Comm unit y P lanning, UBC Util it ies, UBC Archit ectur e and La ndsc ape Archit ectur e, UBC Farm, food servi ce provid ers, groc er y stores, UBC Plant Oper at ions and UBC students (Henne y, pers. comm. ) .  The second step will be to incorporate en vironmental conce rns, fo od securit y and natur al resource use into the planning frame work, which ma y invol ve educ ati on and discussi on with planners a nd stakeholder groups (Dres cher ).  In terms of food securit y, it ma y be necess ar y to delineate what t yp es of businesses are all ow ed int o the ar ea.  The thi rd step invol ves providing educati on and opportuni t ies for urban agricult ur e.  This can include identif ying and protecti ng zones fo r agri cult ure, encou r a gin g infr astructure developm ent n eeded fo r small -scale agriculture, creati n g partn erships betw een indi viduals, comm unit y groups, companies and schools, and developi ng s chool an d comm unit y gard ens (D resche r ).  The fourth step in the proc ess is encoura gin g mul ti functi onal land use.  Agricul ture, forestr y, educati on, waste dispos al , water tr eatm ent, recre at ion and use of open sp ac e can all be achieved throu gh num ero us combi nati ons (Deelst r a et al .).  Finall y, the last step of the process involves con flict res olut ion.  To accompl is h the go al of enhan cin g urban sust ainabili t y, th e comm unit y must minim iz e or eli mi nate conflict between cit iz ens, agriculture and other res o urce-b ased acti vit ies (D resche r ).   16  Cost - Benefit Analysis of Implementing an Urban Agriculture Strategy at UBC  Impl ementin g an urban agricult ur e strate g y is a co mpl ex process. Whil e the benefits are numerous, th ere are also sever al obst a cles that need to be ov er c ome .  Here we will  look at the main advanta ges and disadvant ages in creati n g an urb a n agriculture strate g y at UBC. Ecological Benefits Availability of local products :  Producti on of food on campus would be a move towards re -loc ali z ing the UBC fo od s ystem . Resource use:  Edibl e la ndscapin g would max im iz e the use of natura l mat erial resou rces on campus .  It would init iate more efficient use of ener g y, bett e r waste mana gement and establi sh a more closed nutri ent cyc le in the area. Com po sti ng organic wast e and usin g it as fertili z er in the garde ns is the sim plest possi ble  wa y of achievin g thi s  ( S mi t et al .).  Energy and fuel :  It wou ld decre ase both the ne ed for comm unit y memb ers to go off campus to purchas e food, as well as the fu el used i n transporting food onto campus . Local produ cti on would also decr ease th e wasteful prot ecti ve pa c ka gin g on food ( S mi t et al .).  Biodiversity: Urban ga r dens can se rve as refu ge for wildl ife such as soi l o rganism s, wild plants, insects, birds and amphi bians and thereb y i ncreas e the biodivers it y withi n the cit y environment (Smi t et al .) .  Air quality: Green plant s improve air quali t y th ro ugh the absorption of green house gas es (St ewa rt). 17  Soil and water quality :  Provides permeable land to maint ain natural h yd ro log y patt erns and retain tops oil .  Economic Benefits Employment and opportunity: In cre ases opportu nit ies for student empl o yment on ca mpus and all ows fo r the establi shment of small local food -b ased busi ness es.  Circ ulates curr enc y withi n the local area (Smi t et al. ).  Social Benefits Community awareness and participation: Enhances aw aren ess of food is sues among co mm unit y members, an d creat e s a stron ge r and healt hier comm unit y b y incre asin g opportuni ti es for participati on and int er acti on. A sense of comm unit y between people can facil it ate further coll ecti ve act ion on iss ues of local importa nce (Smi t et al.). Nutrition : Loc all y produ ced and harvested food would reduce nutri ent loss and dec re ased freshness th at result s from the time la g of harvesti n g, pa cka gin g and transportati on of produc e (Smi t et al. ) Sense of stewardship: Food production restores the city dwellers’ conne cti on to nature by inst il li ng a sens e of st ewardship in farming (Garnett , 1996). This sense of ownership and car e for th e land gives the farmers a bett er app re ciation of the land's n atural proc esses.  Aesthetics: Ther e is pote nti al to improve the aes thetics on campus b y green ing the area and creati ng visu all y app eali ng gardens for food producti on. Food and Income Security:  Incr eases prox im it y to fresh produc e, reduces the amount of f ood that need s to  be purchased from out side, and provide s opportuni t ies for the sale of  produ ce withi n the comm unit y (Smi t et al. ).  18  Costs and challenges Financial Cost:  Creati ng usable land in an urb an setti ng is an ex pensive task, as the land avail able is often not suit able for food producti on. Start -up costs include la bour, the purchas e of tools, eq uipm ent, seeds and the developm ent of necessa r y infrastructur e such as sto ra ge facil it ies.  Ther e ar e also the costs associated with the long-te rm maint enan ce of gardens, whi ch wo uld require finan cial stab il it y of those respon sibl e for the project. It is also importa nt to reco gniz e the oppor tuni t y costs of business profit s that would have be en gain ed from real estate developm ent in the ar eas set aside for urban agricu lt ure. Labour: Agricult ur e is highl y knowled ge -int ensive. Staff would hav e to be empl o yed to p rovide conti nuit y and st abil it y. Student volunt eer s would pose a chall en ge given the sea sonal natur e of the school ye ar.  Climate and Location : Impl icit in the urban contex t of the agri cult ure stra teg y is the threat of vand ali sm to plants, gard ens or infr astruct ure.  Aesthetics: B y-produ cts of urban agriculture such as weeds, dust and odou rs ma y not appeal to some comm uni t y members at UBC. Safety: Li abil it y iss ues s urrounding th e improper handli ng and stor a ge of food are a major barrie r that needs t o be overcom e prior to i mpl eme nti ng urban agric ult ure at UBC.  The re is also th e risk of fall in g fruit and sli pper y, rotten fruit on walkwa ys (SE FC Urban Agriculture Strate g y) . Contamination : Crops and soils ma y be cont ami nated b y agro chemi cals an d heav y metals from non -point sources. This would hav e to be ex ami ned for food s afet y reasons. 19  Competition from larger farms : Th e competit ion from lar ge -scale rural farming ma y reduce th e survival ch anc e of a small -sc aled urb an agriculture proj ect. Stability and security : Urban agriculture pr acti c es need stron g land prote cti on acts, in order to ensur e land own ership and lon g term agricultural schemes for the farmers. Otherwise urban agriculture becomes a sh ort term and insecu re acti vit y (Smi t et al. ).         Strategic Actions The s e  strate gi c acti ons , i n conjunction wit h UBC Farm, propos e to create an ‘edible campus’: demonstration garden, designated garden areas, greenways and open space, food producti on on buil dings, waste man a gement and agri cult ure an d landscapin g mana gement consi de r ati ons.    Demonstration garden  Establis h an urban agri cu lt ure demons trati on gard en that will provide educ ati onal opportuni ti es to comm unit y groups interest ed in food producti on.    P rovide demons trati ons for various urban agricult ural techniques, such as r ooftop producti on, crop rotation s ystems, greenhouse pro ducti on, worm compost ing, gr e y wate r tre atm ent, aqu aponics syst ems and h yd roponic producti on.   Demons trate landsc apin g with native and other edi ble plants.   Demons trate and encour a ge artist ic incorpor ati on of food int o the urban lan dscape to increase ac ceptanc e of urban agri cult ural ende a vours.  Designated Garden Areas  Encoura ge comm unit y or ganiz ati ons, such as UBC food services, AMS fo od services and campus residences, to establis h agric ult ural ga rden s .     W ork with school administrators to encour a ge the developm ent of school gardens to be integr ated into the educati on s ystem.  20  Greenways and Open Space  Design ate gr eenw a ys and open space to p erfo rm natural ecolo gic al functi on s b y planting nati ve spe cies.    Promote ‘edible landscaping’ by selecting permanent food crops.     Design ate secti ons of the gr eenw a ys for comm unit y gard en use.   Food Production in and on Buildings  Develop food produ cti on s ystems inside buil dings and on rooftops, balconi es and window box es of residen ces, commons blocks, pa rk ades and apartment bui ldi ngs by me ans of gardens, h ydroponics or aqu acult ure.   Waste Management  Develop a la r ger -scal e gr e y water recover y s ystem and guid eli nes for recov ered gr e y wate r use in landsc a ping on campu s .    Encoura ge compl ete nutr ient cyc li ng b y providing compos t services to all food outl ets and buil dings in UBC comm unit ies.   Agricultural and Landscaping Management Considerations  Establis h a regulatin g bo d y fo r the UBC food s ystem. This bod y will be kn ow n as the UBC Food S ystem Authorit y will have the po wer to enfo rce regulation s pertaini ng to u rban agric ult ure healt h, saf et y and aestheti c quali t y.    Dele gate maint enanc e of permanent crops and non -edibl e landsc aping on gr eenw a ys and open sp ac es to Plant Operati ons.   Ensure that comm unit y groups with urban gard ens maintain them to standards developed b y the UBC Food S ystem Authoriti es.    Encoura ge comm er cial and campus food facil it ies to purchase food from comm unit y food produ cti on operati ons and dev elo p ma rketi ng str ate gies fo r local producers.  Conclusion Brin gin g urban agricult ur e to UBC will be sure to att ract much int er est and will set an e x ampl e of what a sust ainable campus com muni t y can be.  Food se c urit y is an iss ue  that has been lon g negl ected b y pl ann ers ev en though it is integral, if not prim ar y, to 21  sust ainable developm ent. B y incorpo rati ng t enets for food producti on and food processi n g int o the devel opment plan at UBC, we are not onl y makin g for a more ecolo gicall y frien dl y s yst em but one that has man y acad emi c and comm un it y bene fits as well .   The Food S ystems Indica tor Model shou ld be modified to include some ke y indi cators so that it can be used to assess the pro gr ess of developm ent at UBC.  These indi cators are: the dist an ce that people must tr av e l to acquire food; the tot a l producti on of school and comm unit y gardens; the number of gardens; the number of stud ents directl y invol ved in food producti on; and quali t y of water outflow.  There are m an y more fa cets other than edibl e lands ca ping to be ex plored, such as enfor cing environmen tal buil ding standards, improving ac c essi bil it y of comm unit y members to food outl ets, and re gulatin g the types o f food outl ets on campus . Howev er, it is beyond th e scope of this paper to cover all the topics invol ved in the integrati on of t he food s ystem into the developm ent process at UBC.  The refo re we recomm end th at fu ture AGS C 450 groups ta ke on these other aspe cts of the plann ing proc ess.  As students in the Facult y of Agricult ural Scien ce s, we highl y value the rol e of food s ystem in our lives.  Our goal is to bring thi s message of importan ce t o the gr eate r UBC comm unit y, and to bridge th e gap betw een people and food throu gh urban agriculture as a part of community planning.   It is our hope that next year’s AGSC 450 class has the opportuni t y to work more closel y wit h UBC Properties Trust and Campus and Co mm unit y Plannin g so that a reali sti c and m utuall y ben eficial plan ma y be cr eated. 22  Works Cited Dresch er, Ax el W. Urba n and Periurban Agriculture and Urban Plannin g. 2 000. 2 April 2005 .  <htt p:/ /www.fao.o rg/urb ana g/P ape r3 -e.htm >  Garnett , T. Farmin g the Cit y: the Potential for Urban Agricult ure. Th e Eco logist 26(6): 299 -307. 1996.  Haldane H. Edibl e Urban Lands cap e. 2004. 2 Apri l 2005.  <htt p:/ /www.mcgil l.ca/r e porter/37 /05/ bhatt / >  Henne y, K.  2005.  Personal Comm unicati on.  Planner, UBC Campus and Comm unit y Planning.  Howe J . Planning for Sus tainable Communi ti es: The Case Fo r Urb an Food. November 2004. Department of Pla nning and La ndscap e, Un iversit y of Mancheste r. 2 Ap ril 2005 .  <htt p:/ /www.re gar d.ac.uk/res ear ch_findin gs/R 000222844/s umm ar y. pdf >   Official Community Plan for Part of Electoral Area ‘A’ and GVRD - UBC Memorandum of Understandin g. Great e r Vancouv er Re gional Di strict Poli c y and Plannin g Department. J anuar y 200 3.  <htt p:/ /www.ocp.ubc.c a/ocp/pdf/OCP _UBC _J an03.pdf >  Princ ipl es for Ph ysic al Planning at UBC. 2005. UBC Planning Principl es and the Official Comm unit y Plan. 3 April 2005. <htt p:/ /www.ocp.ubc.ca/pl annin g/i ndex .htm l >  Rhode Isl and Divis ion of Planning. El ement 155: A Greener Path. Greensp ace and Greenways for Rhode Island’s Future . J une 1995. 3 April 2005.  <htt p:/ /www.planning.ri. gov/s gp/pdf/155.pdf >  Smit, J ., Ratt a, A. & Nas r, J. 1996. Urban Agricul ture: Food, J obs and Sustainable Cit ies. United Na ti ons Develop ment Progr amm e. New York, USA.  Somm ers, P., Smit, J . CFP Report 9 - Promoti ng Urban Agri cult ure: A Str ate g y Fra me work fo r Planners in North America, Eu rop e and Asia. 1994. Th e Urban Agriculture Network. 2 April 2005 .  <htt p:/ /web.idrc.ca/es/ ev -2124 -201 -1 -DO_TOP IC .htm l#1.0%2 0 Introdu cti on >   Southeast False Cre ek Urban Agricult ure Strat e g y. November 2002. Hollan d Bar rs Planning Group, Le es + Associates Sustainabil it y Ventures Group. 2 April 2005.  <htt p:/ /www.cit y.van cou ver.bc.c a/comms vcs/s outheast/ U rbanA gr.pdf >   The Special Pro gramm e for Food Se curit y (SP FS ) . 2005. Food and Agricul ture Organiz ati on (FAO ) . 2 April , 2005.  http:/ /www.fao.org/spfs/   Stewart, H. 1986. Sustainable Agricult ur e for Urba n Areas. Dan ish Or ganiz ati on for Re newable En er g y. Hu ru p Th y, Denmark.  23  Tjeerd Deelst ra, Don ald Bo yd and Ma aike van de n Biggelaa r. Multi functi onal Land Use: An Opportunit y For Pro mot ing Urban Agricult ur e In Europe. 4 Jul y 2001. Urban Agriculture Ma gaz ine. 2 April 2005 .  <htt p:/ /www.urban.nl/ publi cati ons/ downloadable %20publi cati ons/ UA%2 0Arti cle.pdf>  UBC Comprehensive Co mm unit y Plan. Greate r Vancouver Re gional Dist rict Poli c y and Planning Dep artment. 26 October 2000. <htt p:/ /www.ocp.ubc.c a/ocp/pdf/ccpfin al/ ccp.pdf >  Walter, Bob, Lois Arkin, and Richard Crensh aw, ed. Sustainable Citi es: Concepts and Strategies for Eco -C it y Developm ent. Los An geles : Eco-Home Media, 1992 .   24  Appendix A OCP Amendments  S ecti on 1.0- Introducti on, pg1:  -  S ustainabil it y and a sust a inable food s ys tem shoul d be defined with considerati on to t he fact that it requir es the equal fusion of thr ee domains of knowled ge and ac ti vit y – e conomi c, the socio -poli ti cal and the eco logical.  Secti on 2.0-R egion al Contex t Statement: Buil ding Compl ete Communi ti es, pg4 :  -  The definiti on of a compl ete comm unit y shoul d in clude a sust ainable food s ystem.  -  Food Securit y ne eds to be included and defined.   Secti on 2.0- Region al Contex t Statement, pg4:  -  Ec ologic al and Comm unit y sust ainabili t y need to be reco gniz ed -  C reate an umbr ell a gove r ning bod y and would be obli gated to foll ow the sust ainable visi on of UBC .  Their go al would be to ensure that the food s ys tem is secure and sust ainable  Secti on 3.2- Visi on: Goals of a Responsi ble Communi t y, pg8:  -  A Responsi ble Communit y ne ed s to be outli ned to include sustainabil it y -  Food shoul d be reco gniz ed as a service and as pa r t of the ecolo gical s ystem of UBC.   -  S hould include designate d ga rden areas on rooftop s, gr eenw a ys and schools for food producti on to aid in the creati on of a sust ain a ble food s yst em.   Secti on 4.1.1 -4- Land use : Green Areas, p g11:  -  Food sourc es shoul d be part of res ear ch (UBC Far m).  -  Gre en wa ys, open sp aces, gr een ed ges and green ar eas all need to b e defin ed for area and fun cti on. -  S hould include designate d ga rden areas for food producti on to support communi t y supported agricult ur e (C S A).  Secti on 4.1.17 -20 - Land use: Neigh bourhoods -Uni versit y Comm er cial, UBC Academi c Core and Vill a ge Centr e , pg 14-17:  -  S tores mus t be sust ainable as per definiti on , locall y own ed, comm unit y ori ented and  equit able.   -  S hould include designate d ga rden areas for food producti on to support CSA  Secti on 4.3.1 -2- Lon g-ter m Land us e: Social and Comm unit y Servic es, p g21 -22: -  Lon g-t erm land use plan ning shoul d include all pr ovisi ons for a sust ainable co mm unit y and conti nue with developi ng and plan ning a se cur e, sust ainable food s ystem at UBC.      25  Appendix B CCP Amendments  Secti on 3.2.2-P rincipl es for Gre enwa ys and P athw a ys , pg 12: -  Gre en wa ys mus t protect and enhan ce ecolo gical functi ons   Secti on 3.2.5 Sustainabil it y Principl es for Open S p ace, pg 13: -  C re ate am enit ies for food producti on in publ ic open spaces -  P lant nati ve edibl e specie s (and suitable non -nati v e edibl e speci es if limi tations present) wh erev er app rop riate -  C reati on of  a gove rnin g bod y to mana ge open spa ces -  Nutrient c ycli n g must be consi dered in plannin g of open spaces  Secti on 3.3.2 Principl es for Diversit y of U se , pg 14: -  A certain amount of ar ea shoul d be all ocated fo r gr owing and proc essi ng fo od and for per formi n g ecolo gic a l functi ons   Secti on 4.1-9-The Lo cal Areas , pg 17 -47: -  P lanning shoul d provide a fford able housin g t yp es throughout the campus for people of all socio - econo mi c, cult ural and househ old groups  -  D evelopm ent restri cti ons for tree retention and ve get ati on to preserv e natur al ha bit ats   Secti on 5.3 Strateg y for Comm unit y Servic e, pg 62 -65: -  UBC fa rm must be incor porated into the sust aina ble food s yst em -  The gov ernin g bod y will outl ine the food outl ets establis hed in the comm unit y.  Secti on 5.4 Strateg y for Sustainabil it y, pg 66: -  The definiti on of a sust ai nable food s ystem must be ecolo gic all y and sociall y responsi ble, healt h y, cult urall y appropriat e, af ford able an d easil y acc essi ble . -  UBC  fa rm must be prese rved as it is an inte gral p art of the sustainable foo d s ystem  -  Must develop an urban agricult ur al strate g y and include it in all future developm ent plans on campus .  -  Extends the definition of ‘green space’ to rooftops.   


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