UBC Undergraduate Research

Expanding the UBC Farm Market Bishop, Breanna; Drescher, Alana; Jung, Stephanie; Lee, Jason; Liu, Winnie (Wan-Ju); Snow, Diana; Wedemire, Courtney 2007-04-13

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Expanding the UBC Farm Market Breanna Bishop, Alana Drescher, Stephanie Jung, Jason Lee, Winnie (Wan-Ju) Liu, Diana Snow, Courtney Wedemire  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 13, 2007           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   1                      The UBC Food System Project Scenario 1: Expanding the UBC Farm Market              Course:             AGSC 450 001 Date:   April 13, 2007 Group:            16 Members:         Breanna Bishop   Alana Drescher Stephanie Jung Jason Lee Winnie (Wan-Ju) Liu Diana Snow Courtney Wedemire   2 Abstract  Currently, costs at the UBC Farm exceed revenues with the deficit being met with grant money deeming the Farm unsustainable.  To amend this, the UBC Farm is exploring the option of expanding the current Farm Market to a larger multi-vendor market.  This option could generate additional income for the farm and help meet consumer demand.  After conversing with representatives, creating and analyzing surveys for stakeholders, examining relevant policies, and investigating research papers from previous years, it was realized that there is an ample consumer base to encourage the expansion of the UBC Farm Market provided the market expand their product selection to include other products with a preference for those locally grown.  The vendors who were surveyed indicated that they could provide the desired products, but many have difficulty overcoming barriers such as time constraints and labour requirements.  Addressing these issues would likely increase vendor participation, and in turn, increase market popularity and consumer traffic.  With time and consistent effort, the UBC Farm Market can aid in turning the UBC Farm into a sustainable and viable project at UBC.  Introduction and Problem Statement The UBC Food System Project is an on-going (currently year six) collaborative effort involving nine UBC organizations (Richer, 2007).  The project aims to assess the sustainability of the UBC food system while identifying the barriers that might inhibit further development of its sustainability.  The purpose of our part of the UBC Food System Project is to explore the plausibility of expanding the already existing UBC Farm Market to a larger multi-vendor market since the Farm Market currently cannot meet consumer demand.  Every market day, there are long lines of people with popular products selling out quickly.  Associated with this expansion are several problems and issues addressed in this paper including: regulatory concerns from a governmental standpoint as well as in terms of operating policies for a multi-vendor market, the consequences of introducing products that would compete with those produced by the UBC Farm, and the level of interest of the UBC community and potential vendors for an expanded market at this location.   Since there currently are no farmer’s markets located within the Point Grey area, expansion of the UBC Farm Market would allow more people to have the option of purchasing local food.  Local food production and farmer’s markets help support the local economy by  3 keeping money within the community (Halweil, 2002) and also allows farmers to “retain a greater share of what is spent on food” (Halweil, 2002).  The development of an expanded farmer’s market at the UBC Farm helps directly address the growing concerns surrounding today’s food system and the ecological and social problems associated with the long-distance transport of food.  It would provide an outlet for farmer’s to connect to a community, encouraging them to farm more responsibly (Halweil, 2002).  It is also a great opportunity for residents of UBC and Vancouver, as a farmer’s market located at the UBC Farm could also be connected to and allow for further development of educational programs for both UBC as an institution and for members of the community.  As David Orr once pointed out, “we are becoming more ignorant of the things we must know to live well and sustainably on the Earth” (Orr, 1991).  An expanded market at the UBC Farm could allow for educational opportunities to reduce this problem.   Also included in this paper is an explanation of the methodology used to perform research and create a plan for the expansion of the UBC Farm Market. Most importantly, our group, Group 16, used Community-Based Action Research (CBAR).  This means that the community was involved in the research, in this case, through surveys that identified what the Farm Market customers want and what potential vendors could provide for the market and under what conditions. Additionally, contact was made with representatives of Your Local Farmers’ Market Society (YLFMS) and the UBC Farm. A discussion of the findings is also presented which addresses policies, procedures, and what consumers would like to see happen with the Farm Market. A UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement is also presented which pertains to issues of membership and insurance, vendor application, quality assurance, and food safety.  Issues such as parking and education are  4 also examined.  Finally, recommendations are provided as guidance for the UBC Farm and future AGSC 450 students.  Vision Statement and Identification of Value Assumptions   The guiding principles of the Vision Statement collaboratively developed by the UBC Food System Project partners aim to achieve food security, community interaction, and environmental sustainability, values of importance for members of our group.  However, the fulfillment of these principles requires a “shift in thinking, values, and action” (Cortese & McDonough, 2001, p. 12).  The members of our group agree that “a sustainable food system [should] protect and enhance the diversity and quality of the ecosystem and [...] improve social equity” (Rojas, Richer, & Wagner, 2005, p.17).  We also believe that: o Food providers should grow, produce, and process their products locally.  However, the term local should be clearly defined and the financial feasibility of a 100% local endeavour should be considered since current economic market allocation encourages artificially cheap food. o Recycling and composting locally may not be sustainable given negative externalities for the local environment and communities.  A cost-benefit analysis would be necessary on a situational basis before implementing local recycling and composting programs. o In attaining food that is ethnically diverse, affordable, safe, and nutritious, importation may be necessary to some extent.  Some people may not want to pay more for food, even if it is relatively affordable for them and safety and nutrition may require government facilitated information and education. o Promotion about cultivation, processing, ingredients, and nutrition by food providers and academic educators to consumers may not be realistic because practical applications are difficult given the current disconnect between producers and consumers.  However, there may  5 be opportunities for government enforced labelling and integration of certain aspects into classrooms. o The claim that food brings people together and enhances community culture is valid; however, it may not be a realistic reflection of our modern, efficient society, where consumers enjoy one-stop shopping and fast food. o It is a challenge to define and enforce socially and ecologically conscious production.  In addition to educating public on the importance of these principles, government cooperation in the form of laws and enforcement would be essential.   o Food growers and providers should receive fair prices for their goods.  A definition of the word fair is necessary, as is a plan to ensure the maintenance of such prices since the current economy does not facilitate “fair” pricing. We believe there is value in informing citizens about issues regarding food production and consumption so that they are able to think critically about their decisions.  The recommendations in this paper focus on education to achieve the guiding principles because we believe there is value in knowledge.  Moreover, the value for economic sustainability presents itself within the principles that focus on social and environmental sustainability.  These guiding principles will not be achievable without consumer and governmental support; however, hopefully, in the attempt to reach these idealistic goals, a sustainable compromise between what is ideal and what is realistic will be attained.     Methodology  Community-based action research (CBAR) is a useful tool for the successful expansion of the UBC Farm Market.  CBAR involves collaboration, complete understanding, and full participation of all stakeholders involved, including the community, in order to solve problems (Stringer, 1999).  CBAR involves data collection, analysis, action, and evaluation (Stringer,  6 1999).  In regards to the UBC Farm Market expansion, different surveys for customers and vendors were distributed and subsequently analyzed to gain consumer and vendor input on expansion of the Market.  In addition to CBAR, our group examined previous ASGC450 and Sauder School of Business papers about the UBC Farm Market to obtain a more complete understanding of our scenario.  During AGSC450 class time, representatives from both the UBC Farm and YLFMS gave overviews of current farmers’ markets and answered questions from groups.  Mark Bomford, UBC Farm Program Coordinator, provided a general overview of what the UBC Farm is all about.  Also representing the farm were Gavin Wright, Outreach and Education Coordinator, and Amy Frye, Marketing Coordinator, who answered questions about the UBC Farm and associated Farm Market.  Roberta La Quaglia, YLFMS operation manager, also spoke to the AGSC450 class, providing information about YLFMS, including facts regarding YLFMS membership, using the UBC Farm as a YLFMS site, suggestions on what is needed to create a successful farm market, and answered questions posed by the class.  Additional questions were emailed to Mark, Amy, Gavin and Roberta. The websites of the BC Association of Farmers Markets (BCAFM), YLFMS, and the Coquitlam Farmers’ Market Society were utilized in order to understand the guidelines and regulations that facilitate a successful market.  Information on how to start a farm market was gathered from the BCAFM website, and information on how to run a market smoothly was gathered from the YLFMS and Coquitlam Farmers’ Market Society websites.  Additional Internet research regarding liability insurance coverage and Vancouver Coastal Health Authority (VCHA) food safety guidelines was also conducted. This information was used to create the UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement and Application Form found in Appendix III.  UBC  7 regulations and policies were researched and analyzed to determine whether the expansion of the UBC Farm Market would violate any existing UBC policies.    Since the UBC Farm Market scenario involved many teams, groups designated representatives to create surveys for potential vendors and consumers.  A list of potential vendors was provided from Amy and YLFMS.  Group representatives collaborated on an eight question survey for potential vendors, as seen in Appendix I. Its purpose was to identify interest in UBC Farm Market participation.  Because there were few vendors, the survey was conducted via personal communication, either by telephone or email.  The survey was then qualitatively analyzed.   Similar to the vendor survey, a collaborative, nine question survey, seen in Appendix II, was created to determine the needs and wants of the consumers.  In order for this survey to be ecologically sustainable and easily distributed, the survey was posted on Survey Monkey, an online survey program.  The online link to the survey was sent to Sarah Rodrigues who then distributed it to Cathleen Nichols, Karol Traviss, Amy Frye and the UBC Food Society.  Karol Traviss, the Dietetic Education Coordinator, sent the link to everyone on her dietetics emailing list, while Cathleen Nichols, Community Partnership Manager, sent it to students on her emailing list.  Amy Frye sent the link to existing UBC Farm Market customers, the University Neighbourhood Association (UNA), and UBC Farm volunteers, and Colleen O’Brian, an AGSC450 student, contact the SPROUTS coordinator to distribute the survey to SPROUTS customers.  This survey was available for seven days before the data was quantitatively analyzed. Findings and Discussion 1. Independent Expansion  Your Local Farmers’ Market Society of Vancouver is an association that develops farmers’ markets in the Greater Vancouver Regional District with the primary goals of community health  8 and local economic development.  Regarding YLFMS involvement on the UBC Farm, there are various obstacles to be overcome.  To begin with, there could be conflict between YLFMS practices and UBC regulations, with YLFMS involvement also potentially conflicting with the UBC Farm’s mission to provide education.  Additionally, YLFMS is most likely setting up a new Sunday market at McBride Park, on 4th and Waterloo, limiting their ability to collaborate with the UBC Farm in a Market expansion.  Furthermore, YLFMS would use the UBC farm solely as a site (LaQuaglia, personal communication, March 2007), thus there would not be any increased revenue for the farm, which is a vital aspect of the project.  Therefore, to allow for maximum flexibility and control, the UBC Farm Market expansion should be managed by the UBC Farm itself.        2. Centre for Sustainable Food Systems  Plans to expand the market must consider the defined academic mission of the Centre for Sustainable Food Systems at the UBC Farm, and information obtained from Mark, Amy and Gavin.  The academic mission of the Centre for Sustainable Food Systems is:  To provide academic and practical leadership in the areas of agro-ecological design, community planning and development in a manner that benefits past, present and future community members, be they citizens, planners, designers, developers, managers, leaders, foresters or farmers.  (UBC Farm, 2001) At present, the UBC Farm Market seems to be breaking even in terms of finances; however, the staff would like the Farm Market to generate enough profit to support other farm initiatives, since the main goal of the UBC Farm is not to produce food, but to educate (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007).  The UBC Farm is currently dependent on one-time grants to cover two-thirds of its costs (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007), which is not sustainable.  It is also at capacity for how much it can supply to restaurants and outlets (Frye,  9 personal communication, March 2007) and plans to remain at its current size (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007).  Expansion of the UBC Farm Market is therefore an initiative to contribute to the sustainability of the UBC Farm, particularly by helping it rely less upon grant money.    Currently, the Farm seems to be working an organic niche, which could be expanded upon (Wright, personal communication, March 2007), although the change to solely organic products is not a priority (Frye, personal communication, March 2007).  Because of this, UBC Farm management is undecided about regulations for the market with regards to local, organic, fair-trade, and reselling (Frye, personal communication, March 2007).       The following summarizes Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for the UBC Farm Market.     Strengths o UBC Farm is the last working organic farm in Vancouver (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o The UBC brand is appealing to consumers (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o UBC Farm is able to differentiate its product by selling fresh (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o Since produce prices follow organic prices, revenue is relatively greater (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o UBC Farm is proximal to The UBC Village, the rapidly growing endowment lands, and Kitsilano, Point Grey, Kerrisdale, and Dunbar neighbourhoods (Dench et al., 2005)  Weaknesses o Labour for the UBC Farm is expensive (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007)  10 o In terms of produce, price does not match cost (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o Supply is unpredictable at the UBC Farm (Frye, personal communication, March 2007) o UBC Farm does not offer the same variety, low price, and accessibility as supermarkets (Blewitt, 2006, p.34)    Opportunities o Since the South campus expansion will occur in a few years, there will be an increase in population near UBC Farm (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o UBC Farm can add value to its produce (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o UBC Farm has academic links to enhance its reputation (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007) o UBC Farm has running water for food demonstrations at Farmers’ Markets (LaQuaglia, personal communication, March 2007) o YLFMS turns away vendors for crafts and prepared food that are possibilities for the UBC Farm Market (LaQuaglia, personal communication, March 2007) o There is on-site parking (Frye, personal communication, March 2007) o Presently there is a general awareness of sustainability and UBC Farm can capitalize on this (Sawada & Marques, personal communication, March 2007) Threats o UBC Farm is a future housing reserve; thus, it may not exist in the future (Stott, personal communication, March 2007) o The university is conservative and views change as a risk (Sawada & Marques, personal communication, March 2007)  11 o A YLFMS market will be held in Vancouver’s Westside on Sundays (LaQuaglia, personal communication, March 2007) o The “university’s vulnerability to the infusion of corporatist interests and values” (M’Gonigle & Starke, 2006, p. 151) may be a barrier to “anti-corporate” expansion 3. Expansion Desirability of Consumers  The consumer survey was successful with an overwhelming 540 responses.  However, it is possible that the results may be biased since responding was voluntary, perhaps causing only those with strong opinions about the UBC Farm Market to respond.  Under-coverage bias also occurred; this is due to under-representation of certain population groups like those without Internet access (Marin, 2006).   Of those surveyed, the majority attend the UBC Farm Market infrequently.  Only 14.8% of those surveyed attended the UBC Farm Market one or two times between June and October, which could be due to Saturday being an inconvenient day.  The survey showed that operating the Farm Market on a Sunday would generate more interest.  A Sunday Market would also reduce the competition between other farmers’ markets and the UBC Farm Market, hopefully causing more people to attend.  Of the people who have attended the UBC Farm Market, there was an interest in what was going on at the Farm.  The survey found that fresh, BC-grown produce is extremely important and that UBC-grown food, good selection, and fair prices are somewhat important to the consumers. The survey showed that the majority of the consumers are very interested in buying produce and cheese and that some of the participants are somewhat interested in buying baked goods and prepared food such as jams, sauces, and ready-to-eat foods.  However, 29% of those surveyed are only mildly interested in obtaining massages, and 34% of the people are mildly interested in buying crafts such as jewellery, cards, and pottery.  If the UBC Farm Market sold  12 local but not organic produce, 80.3% would continue purchasing produce. This survey also found that 81.9% are willing to pay extra for higher quality, more sustainable, local, and organic products which may be due to growing health concerns, including concerns such as the use of pesticides and genetic modification which were found to be of extreme importance in the survey.  The survey results also indicated that 49.2% of people are interested in attending activities such as barbeques and face painting on a regular basis at the UBC Farm Market, but 44.8% are not.  In all, the survey indicated consumers would like the UBC Farm Market to expand, but they would be more interested in coming if it were on a day other than Saturday, a suggestion also offered by potential vendors.  4. Potential Vendors  At the present time, the UBC farm has a reputable list of vendors that includes: Sprouts, Mayan Group, Just Abundance and Beyond Nutrition, Artist in Residence, the Urban Aboriginal Group, Moody Bees, and UBC Bee Project.  However, in order for the UBC farm to attain its goal of expansion through the growth of the Farm Market, more vendors along with a more diverse range of products is needed.  Amy Frye, UBC Farm Marketing Coordinator, provided a “vendor wish list” that she believes will aid in achieving the Farm’s goal.  The list requests vendors mainly for cheese, meats, and crafts, along with other produce (Frye, personal communication, March 2007). According to a conversation with Tamara Litke, the Nat Bailey Market Manager of Your Local Farmers Market Society earlier in the year, there are vendors who cannot find a place at the current farmers’ markets because of other vendors who produce the same or similar goods.  At the same time, there are also a number of farmers who have a spot at the current farmers’ markets with more than enough produce to participate in more than one farmers’ market. (Litke, personal communication, September 2006).  The goal was to get in touch with these vendors and find out  13 if they would like to sell their products at the UBC Farm Market.  The vendors surveyed were selling products that Amy Frye had on her “wish list”.  The list of potential vendors includes: Moonstruck Organic Cheese, Greenhill Acres, Wild Seafoods, Goat’s Pride Dairy, Goldwing Ostrich Products, Forsbauer Natural Food Farm, Specialty Mushroom Growers Co-op, Little Qualicum Cheeseworks, Ambercott Acres, and Windy Acres. Of the ten vendors surveyed, two of them were not aware UBC hosts a Farm Market on Saturdays, and some of those who knew the Market existed were only “vaguely” aware.  The primary problem, however, is that only four out of the ten vendors surveyed are interested in selling their products at the UBC market.  Some of the vendors feel that the cost and distance of travel, time, and shortage of labour will make it too hard for their participation in the UBC Farm Market to be a successful venture.  However, the primary reason for the lack of interest by the vendors is due to the fact that a lot of them are already dedicated to a current farmers’ market that takes place during time slot and on the same day as the UBC Farm Market.  In response to the survey, several vendors suggested that holding the UBC Farm Market on an alternate night would be a good idea.  Vendors are more likely to sell at the Market if it took place on days other than the ones existing farmers’ markets are on, or if it fit more conveniently into their schedule.  A couple of vendors suggested Sunday would be a good day for them, but unfortunately, Sunday conflicts with farmers’ markets for other vendors.  It was also suggested that a Saturday market from 3PM – 7PM would satisfy the late risers who did not attend the earlier market.  Another suggestion nominated the market to take place on Mondays since “everybody is in school and students can shop at night.” (Forstbauer, personal communications, March 2007) Amy made it clear it will not be possible at present to supply volunteers to aid the vendors in selling their products at the market.  However, due to the responses, it is an option that should be considered.  A majority of the vendors indicated that shortage of labour is an issue and  14 volunteer help would be greatly appreciated.  One vendor is even willing to contract out student labour for help during market hours.  The UBC Farm should also look into raising the price for the space they provide at the market.  The current price for a stall is $10 - $15 (Frye, personal communication, March 2007) but according to the survey, all the farmers feel a price of $20 - $30 is a very reasonable rate.   5. Working Policies and Procedures o Vendor and Market Regulations  The UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement seen in Appendix III details general vendor and market regulations, and was created using the vendor packages from Coquitlam Farmers’ Market Society (2007) and Your Local Farmers’ Market Society (2006) as references.  The Participation Agreement outlines registration and stall fees, stall assignment, appropriate Vendor conduct, the application and approval process, and the consequences of not complying with the regulations.  The purpose of these regulations is to ensure a safe and fun environment for the community.  Regulations governing the Farm Market can be found in the UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement, but further discussion on a few follows. o BCAFM Membership and Insurance  Becoming a member of the BC Association of Farmers’ Market (BCAFM) for $200.00 annually would enable the UBC Farm Market to receive advertising on the BCAFM website and apply for general liability insurance (BCAFMa, 2007).  General liability insurance, costing $325.00, is available through BCAFM with The Co-operators, an insurance company (BCAFMb, 2007).  Additional coverage can be purchased depending on the market’s needs.  This insurance, however, does not cover vendors.  Vendors will be required to have liability insurance and to produce proof if asked by Market employees.  Obtaining liability insurance is required by UBC for commercial enterprises (UBCBG, 1997); however, the UBC Farm, and associated Farm  15 Market, is not considered a commercial enterprise, as it is non-profit, so long as it is associated with the university.  The UBC Farm land itself is insured, as well as having third party liability insurance (Welch, 2006), but the development of an expanded Farm Market would not allow for the vendors to be included in UBC’s insurance policy; therefore, the UBC Farm Market and vendors must obtain their own insurance. o Vendor Application and Acceptance  Each potential vendor will be required to undergo an annual application process.  Each vendor will be required to read and agree to regulations in the Participation Agreement, to complete the Vendor Application Form, to provide an application fee of $20.00, and to provide applicable supporting documentation.  This includes FoodSafe certification (required for vendors selling prepared food items or providing samples), organic certification (required for vendors selling and advertising organic products), or a letter of permission from the VCHA (required for vendors selling prepared foods and honey, dairy, eggs, and meat products).  Vendors selling craft or prepared food items will also be required to sign up for a jury process, where they will present all of the products that intend on selling.  This process will take place before the Farm Market opens in May.  Providing two jury days will allow all vendors to have the chance to participate.  The jury (a panel of five UBC Farm employees) will test the products to determine if they are suitable to sell at the Market.  The vendors will then be able to pick up their products and learn of the result by the end of the day.  Only products approved by the jury can be sold.  It is the discretion of the UBC Farm to determine what vendors to accept; however, preference should be given to organic and locally grown food with at least 50% of the vendors selling fresh farm products.     o Quality Assurance  16   While the jury process guarantees some assurance, Farm Market employees or volunteers have the right to random sampling of all products at the Market.  Vendors will agree in the Participation Agreement to provide an exceptional product and to not sell or display damaged goods.  Vendors must also agree to random sampling and understand that selling an undesirable product can result in removal from the Market.   o Food Safety  BCAFM has produced detailed guidelines regarding food safety and the sale of food at temporary food markets which is available on the BCAFM website (BCAFMc, 2007).   These guidelines require that the local health authority approve all prepared food and agricultural products for consumption, except fresh fruit, vegetables, nuts, and herbs.  Furthermore, prepared foods fall under two categories: Non-Potentially Hazardous Foods and Potential Hazardous Foods.  Production of Non-Potentially Hazardous Foods can occur in a home kitchen and these foods should display a sign at the Market saying, “THIS FOOD HAS BEEN PREPARED IN A KITCHEN NOT INSPECTED BY A REGULATORY AUTHORITY,” whereas the production of Potentially Hazardous Foods must occur in an approved, regulated facility (BCAFMc, 2007).  The Vendor Participation Agreement reflects the aforementioned guidelines.   o Parking and Land Usage  Since the land for the expanded Farmer’s Market is already part of the UBC Farm, regulations regarding land usage should not be a concern as long as the Farm staff approves use.  Currently, eight cars can fit in the area outside the gates and overflow parking on south campus road can hold about twelve cars (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007), although legally, there is no parking on the road (Wright, personal communication, March 2007).   An events field on the property could hold about forty cars (Bomford, personal communication, March 2007), however, at least two volunteers would need to organize and manage this initiative  17 to ensure that cars park appropriately and do not ruin the land for future cultivation.  For past large events, overflow parking has been at Triumph and Paprican research stations that are across Wesbrook Mall, about a 5-minute walk from the Farm (Wright, personal communication, March 2007).   Should additional parking or temporary redirection of traffic be needed to accommodate the Farm Market, permission must be obtained through UBC’s Parking and Access Control Services (UBCBG, 2005).   o Education  Education falls under two categories: public education and student education.  The UBC Farm Market could be a tool to attract the public to the farm and then provide, along with the market, the opportunity to tour the farm and explore the different projects at the farm.  It would allow the community to learn about where the food comes from, how production occurs, and what agricultural practices the farm uses.  The UBC Farm Market could also educate students.  A new class in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems during the summer semester could manage the Farm Market, in terms of organization and quality management, with the help of UBC Farm marketing staff.   Recommendations Based on the research we conducted, the following recommendations are provided to guide expansion of the UBC Farm Market.   Our group recommends that the UBC Farm:  o Attempt to recruit as many local and organic produce vendors as possible without preventing other vendors from applying   o Make small incremental changes that are practical and visionary (Sawada & Marques, personal communication, March 2007) o Appeal to “faculty members who as a collective entity have enormous, but unused, power to motivate change” (M’Gonigle et al., 2006, p 151).   18 o Conduct public consultations – the Farm Market should be embraced by the community, rather than impose on it (LaQuaglia, personal communication, March 2007).  Thus, there should be University Neighbourhood Association approval, public meetings, and consumer surveys including Rapid Market Assessment1    o Allow for collectives, which contribute to more efficient labour usage, marketing, and transport.  It is argued that face-to-face interactions are devalued and that farmers do not see the direct return, but they are overall beneficial.   o Approach local and new vendors - farmers do not like risk and it is becoming increasingly difficult to find vendors   o Increase table fees from $10.00 to $20.00  o Utilize YLFMS - YLFMS is willing to provide vendor referrals and facilitate UBC Farm Market promotion through its newsletter and UBC Farm tables at YLFMS markets o Facilitate education by providing children’s education and education on organic products (LaQuaglia, personal communication, March 2007) o Implement the UBC Farm Participation Agreement and Vendor Application this year o Becoming a voting member of BCAFM for the 2007 season o Purchase liability insurance through BCAFM for the 2007 season o Open Farm Market on Sunday 9am – 3pm to decrease competition with other farm markets on Saturdays.  Both vendors and consumers are interested in this change. o Marketing/awareness campaigns of the farm to increase frequency of people attending.  Currently the majority of the people who attend the UBC Farm Market attend infrequently. Group 16 also recommends that the UBC Faculty of Land and Food Systems:                                                  1 RMA is generally a process between market managers and RMA facilitators.  An important aspect of RMA is that is makes efficient use of time and money, which are generally not in great supply for farmers markets (Brewer et al., 2004).           19 o Create a 400-level Directed Studies course for 3-5 students where instruction would focus on the business of agriculture and on improving the local food system.   Group 16 also recommends that future AGSC450 students: o Investigate the feasibility and cost of expanding the current Market Garden. o Investigate the creation and preparation of value-added food products, prepared with produce from the Market Garden, for sale at the UBC Farm Market. o Begin the vendor/consumer survey process early on in the semester.  This can increase the amount of participation and validity of the responses you receive. Lastly, Group 16 recommends that Sauder School of Business students: o Create a complete cost-benefit analysis of the UBC Farm Market expansion. Conclusion  The UBC Farm Market is currently facing consumer demand beyond what it can provide, and the UBC Farm sees this as a problem to address with the aid of groups from AGSC450.  This paper addresses whether consumers would like an expanded market and what they would like to see at the market, whether vendors are interested in selling at UBC Farm Market, and the policies and guidelines that govern or should govern a farmers’ market at UBC Farm.  From previous papers, it was determined that the best course of action for UBC Farm Market is to continue managing the farmers’ market and not to allow YLFMS to run a market on UBC Farm.  This would enable UBC Farm to have control over the number and type of vendors allowed and to have the opportunity to provide educational opportunities to the public and to students.  The consumers surveyed indicated that there was an interest in activities at the UBC Farm.  Survey results indicated consumers would like an expanded Farm Market, including items such as cheese and dairy products.  They would also prefer BC or locally grown products with a preference for organic.  The consumers also indicated that holding the Farm Market on another day would be  20 more convenient, with this suggestion being echoed by potential vendors.  The vendors would be willing to sell at the UBC Farm Market, but there exist many barriers such as time and labour.  Helping to eliminate those barriers would enable expansion of the UBC Farm Market.  The creation of a UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement and Application Form is to facilitate an organized and well-run UBC Farm Market.  Government, UBC, and VCHA policies were examined and it was determined that none impede the expansion of the farmers’ market; however, with the addition of vendors selling Potentially Hazardous Foods, diligence must be used to ensure that food is safe for sale and consumption.  Based on the information uncovered, there are many recommendations to the UBC Farm.  These recommendations were created with the understanding that expansion will take time and effort by UBC Farm staff, students, and volunteers but that expansion can be socially, economically, and environmentally sustainable and will further the viability of the UBC Farm as an important landmark at UBC.               21 Works Cited BC Association of Farmers’ Markets (BCAFMa). (2007). Membership Application Form for 2007. Retrieved from www.bcfarmersmarket.org/web/pdf/membershipapplication.pdf on March 21, 2007.  BC Association of Farmers’ Markets (BCAFMb). (2007). Insurance Coverage.  Retrieved March 21, 2007, from www.bcfarmersmarket.org/web/markets/insurance.htm.  BC Association of Farmers’ Markets (BCAFMc). (2007). Guidelines for the Sale of Foods at Temporary Food Markets. Retrieved March 21, 2007, from www.bcfarmersmarket.org/web/pdf/foodsaleguidelines07.pdf.  Blewitt, J. (2006).  Chapter 2: Sustainability and the Practice of Everyday Life. In The Ecology of Learning: Sustainability, Lifelong Learning and Everyday Life.  London: Earthscan.  Bomford, M.  Coordinator, Centre for Sustainable Food Systems at the UBC Farm.  March 2007.  Personal communication.  Brewer, L., Lev, L., & Stephenson, G. (2004).  Oregon Small Farms Technical Report: Tools for Rapid Market Assessments.  Retrieved April 2, 2007, from  http://www.oregonfarmersmarkets.org/create/Rapid%20Market%20Assessments%20DEC.21%202004version%20With%20cover%205.pdf  Coquitlam Farmers Market Society. (2007). Coquitlam Farmers Market Vendor Package. Retrieved March 21, 2007, from http://makebakegrow.com/documents/VendorPkg2007.pdf.  Cortese, A.D., & McDonough, W.  (2001).  Education for Sustainability: Accelerating the Transition to Sustainability Through Higher Education.  Environmental Grantmakers Association News & Updates, 11-14.  Dench, M., Fraser-Marinoske, J., Jhaveri, R., Keswani, V., and Wu, Y. (2005).  UBC Farm Plan for Sustainable Organic Growth.  Forstbauer, M. March 2007.  Personal communication. Frye, A. Marketing Coordinator, UBC Farm Marketing Coordinator.  March 2007.  Personal communication.  Haliweil, B.  (2002).  Homegrown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market.  Worldwatch paper 163.  Worldwatch Institute.  LaQuaglia, R. Your Local Farmers’ Market Society.  March 2007.  Personal communication.  Litke, T. Nat Bailey Market Coordinator.  September 2006.  Personal communication.  Marin, M. (2006). STAT 203 Custom Course Materials.  University of British Columbia.   22 M’Gonigle, M. & Starke, J.  (2006).  Chapter 7: Structured Power. In Planet U: Sustaining the World, Reinventing the University.  Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.  Orr, D.  (1991).  What is education for?  In The Learning Revolution (p.52).  Context Institute.  Rojas, A., Richer, L., & Wagner, J. (2005).  The Dreaming and the Making of a Sustainable University Food System: The University of British Columbia Food System Project (UBCFSP).  Retrieved March 7, 2007, from http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/research/faculty_webpages/rojas/UBCFSP_FINAL_PAPER_SEPTEMBER_21_2005.pdf.  Sawada, B. & Marques, J. UBC Sustainability Office.  March 2007.  Personal communication.  Stott, J. March 2007. Personal communication.  Stringer, E.T.  (1999).   Action Research.  Sage Publications. London.  The University of British Columbia Board of Governors (UBCBG).  (2005).  Posting of Notices, Posters and Signs.  Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://www.universitycounsel.ubc.ca/policies/policy120.pdf.  The University of British Columbia Board of Governors (UBCBG).  (1997).  Commercial Enterprises on Campus.  Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://www.universitycounsel.ubc.ca/policies/policy98.pdf.  UBC Farm. (2001). UBC Farm Visioning Document.  Retrieved April 9, 2007 from http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/documents/vision.pdf.  Welch, J.  (2006).  UBC’s General Insurance Program.  Retrieved April 1, 2007, from http://www.treasury.ubc.ca/pdf/gen_ins_memo.pdf.  Wright, G. UBC Farm Education and Outreach Coordinator.  March 2007.  Personal Communication.  Your Local Farmers’ Market Society. (2006). Your Local Farmers’ Market Society 2006 Vendor Handbook. Retrieved March 21, 2007, from www.eatlocal.org/applications_2006/pdfs/handbook2006.pdf.  Appendices Appendix I - Vendor Survey  1) Are you aware that the UBC Farm hosts a Farmers Market on Saturdays? 2) At the farmers markets you are currently attending, how much of your produce are you able to sell? (Kg, fraction of total produce?) 3) Are you interested in coming out to the UBC Farm Market to sell your products? Why or why not?  23 4) Presently, the UBC market is held on Saturdays from 9 am to 1 pm. Does this time slot work for you? If not, what day would work best for you? 5) Which products and what volume do you estimate you could supply to the UBC Farm Market? 6) What is the size of the stall you are utilizing at the farmers market you are currently attending? Small (6X7)? Medium (10X20)? Large (16X20)? 7) If there are volunteers available, would you be interested in having them help you during the market hours? 8) Do you think $25 - $30 is a reasonable starting rate to be a vendor at a farmers market?   Appendix II - Consumer Survey  1. How often do you visit the UBC Farm Market between June and October? ▫ Frequently (attending more than two markets per month) ▫ Occasionally (attending one or two markets per month) ▫ Infrequently (attending five or less markets per annual Market season [Jun-Oct]) ▫ Other (please specify)  2. Which of the following do you consider yourself to be?  *Check all that apply* ▫ a UBC undergraduate student ▫ a UBC graduate student ▫ a UBC staff member ▫ a UBC faculty member or instructor ▫ a UBC alumni ▫ a University resident ▫ not directly affiliated with the university ▫ Other (please specify)  3. Please indicate how interested you would be to purchase:  Not Interested Mildly Interested Somewhat Interested Very Interested N/A Produce      Meat (beef, chicken, etc)      Seafood      Cheese      Baked goods      Prepared food (jams, sauces, ready-to-eat food, etc)      Crafts (jewellery, pottery, cards)      Services (coffees, smoothies, massage)       4. Farmers markets promote local products, not all of which are organic. Would you continue purchasing from the UBC Farm Market if other vendors were local but not organic?  24 ▫ Yes ▫ No ▫ N/A  5. Please rate each of the following factors on how important they are when shopping at a farmer's market  Not Important Somewhat Important Very Important Extremely Important N/A Convenience      Quality/Freshness      Unusual/diverse varieties      Quantity from which to choose      Price      In season      Grown at the UBC Farm      Grown in the Lower Mainland      Grown in BC      Free of pesticides residues      Free of genetic modification      Has organic certification       6.  Are you willing to pay a higher premium (e.g. approximately 20 to 30% more) for higher quality, more sustainable, local and/or organic products? ▫ Yes ▫ No ▫ N/A  7. Our Farmer's Market is currently held on a Saturday. We are considering changing the day of our Market in order to accommodate our vendors. What other days (besides Saturday) would you like to come:  (Please check all that may apply) ▫ On Monday: 3pm-7pm ▫ On Tuesday: 3pm-7pm ▫ On Wednesday: 3pm-7pm ▫ On Thursday: 3pm-7pm ▫ On Friday: 3pm-7pm ▫ On Sunday: 9am-2pm ▫ Other (please specify)  8. Would you be interested in attending activities at the UBC Farm Market, such as barbeques, face painting, etc on a regular basis? ▫ Yes ▫ No ▫ N/A  9. Is/are there anything specific that you would like to see at the UBC Farm in the near future? If so, please list them  Location: 6182 South Campus Road, Vancouver, BC Mailing Address: 2357 Main Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z4           http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/index.php 1   Appendix III ± UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement and Application Form  UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement                                                                     Please read this agreement carefully before signing your application.  The UBC Farm Market has the right to remove any vendor who does not follow these guidelines.  Please keep a copy of this agreement and your application for your records.  Official Vendor:  All goods must be made, baked, grown, or raised in British Columbia, with the exception of free-trade beverages, and must be sold by the producer or a representative who is knowledgeable about the product.  No re-selling (eg. products purchase wholesale and sold at the market) is permitted.  A vendor may not operate a store.  Market Location and Fees:  All vendors are required to register with the UBC Farm Market and submit an annual registration fee of $20.00.  Registration is annual and acceptance is not guaranteed.  The market is held at 6182 South Campus Road, Vancouver, BC on Saturdays, June [insert date] – September [insert date], from 9am – 1pm.  Stall fees are $20.00 for a 3m by 3m space [suggested size].  Multiple stalls may be purchased if amount of goods warrants additional space.    Stall Assignment:  Stall assignment will be at the sole discretion of the UBC Farm Market.  The decisions will be based upon optimal traffic flow, need for certain products, locally grown, and organically grown.    Stall Size and Supplies:  Stalls are 3m x 3m and no equipment is provided by UBC Farm Market.  Any vending equipment (tables, awnings, etc.) must not extend beyond the given stall space.  Vendors are encouraged to prepare for all types of weather.  Vehicles are not permitted to be parked in the marketing area.  Parking for vendors is available in a designated parking area or on the street.    Stall Sharing:  If a vendor does not have enough products to warrant an entire stall, sharing with up to 2 additional vendors is permitted.  Each vendor is required to register with the UBC Farm Market and must sign a participation agreement.  Each vendor must have a producer or a knowledgeable representative present to sell the product.  Stall Guarantee:  Prepayment is required to guarantee a stall on a given day.  It is suggested that along with the application form and registration fee that vendors provide post-dated cheques and indicate the days they wish to participate.  Returned cheques  Location: 6182 South Campus Road, Vancouver, BC Mailing Address: 2357 Main Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z4           http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/index.php 2   are subject to a $25.00 NSF fee.  Stalls are guaranteed up to a half hour before the Market opens.  Cancellation and Refund Policy:  Cancellations 48 hours prior to the Market will result in full refunds.  Cancellations less than 48 hours prior to the Market will forfeit the entire stall fee.  Refunds are given twice a season, at the end of July and at the end of October.  Signage:  We require you to have a sign identifying your business name and location.  Signs should be displayed prior to 9am on the day of the Market.  Signs must be no smaller than 80cm wide and 25cm high.  Failure to comply will result in a warning.  Product Suitability:  The suitability of any product for sale at the Market is at the sole discretion of Market employees.  All items must be listed on the Application Form.  All products are subject to inspection and, if deemed not suitable for sale, may be rejected.  All Prepared Food items must meet Vancouver Coastal Health Authority (VCHA) and Food Safe regulations.  Agricultural Methods: Vendors are encouraged to explain to consumers the agricultural practices followed in the production of products.  It is encouraged that this be displayed on signage.  Only certified organic products can be identified as organic, and the UBC Farm Market must have a copy of this certification.  Backyard Gardeners:  Backyard gardeners are permitted to sell.  They must be a registered vendor, but they will only be allowed to sell if the products are needed at the Market.  Nursery:  All plants and flowers must be propagated by the vendor from seeds, cuttings, graftings, or bulbs.  Fresh Farm Products:  Fresh fruits, vegetables, herbs, and nuts may be sold with written permission from VCHA.  Honey, dairy, eggs, and fresh meat are permitted to be sold but must receive written approval from VCHA.  A copy of the written approval must be given to UBC Farm Market.  Prepared Foods:  Prepared foods are any item that has been changed from its raw form.  All prepared foods must be presented to the UBC Farm Market jury and be approved.  All prepared food vendors must have at least Food Safe Level I certification and receive written permission from VCHA to sell the products, and copies of these  Location: 6182 South Campus Road, Vancouver, BC Mailing Address: 2357 Main Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z4           http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/index.php 3   must be attached to the Application Form.  Prepared foods fall under two categories: Non-Potentially Hazardous Foods and Potentially Hazardous Foods (VCHA can provide further information regarding these classifications and determine what your product is).  Vendors selling Non-Potentially Hazardous Foods may process the products from home but must display a sign at the market saying “THIS FOOD HAS BEEN PREPARED IN A KITCHEN NOT INSPECTED BY A REGULATORY AUTHORITY.”  Vendors selling Potentially Hazardous Foods may NOT prepare food in a home kitchen.  The food must be prepared in an approved, regulated facility.  All products must be labelled with the product’s name, the business name, and the business’s contact information.  All foods must be covered.  It is against health regulations to re-use plastic or paper if it has come in direct contact with food.  We ask that vendors use diligence in packaging the products and use environmentally-friendly packaging or minimal packaging.  Crafts:  All crafts must be approved by the UBC Farm Market jury and approved for sale.  All crafts must be original and unique, be functional and safe, and be significantly altered from the original product.  Beverages:  All beverages must be free-trade.  The name of the products sold must be provided in the Application Form.  Condiments (eg. cream, sugar) are not required to be produced locally, but preference will be given to vendors that do provide locally produced condiments.  Scales:  All scales must be provided by vendors and be “legal for trade.”  All scales are subject to inspection.  Refrigeration:  All items requiring refrigeration must be transported and sold under mechanical refrigeration.  Sampling:  All products provided for sample must be prepared and served by someone with Food Safe Level I certification.  A copy of this certification must be provided with the Application Form.  Products must be served as individual samples in individual containers or with single use items, such as toothpicks.  UBC Farm Market will provide clean, warm potable water along with soap and paper towel.  Pricing:  Prices must remain constant throughout the day and reflect the cost of goods, labour, expenses, and profit.  “Clearance” pricing is not permitted.    Conduct:  Vendors must conduct themselves in a respectful and courteous manner.  Hawking, calling attention to your products, is not permitted.    Location: 6182 South Campus Road, Vancouver, BC Mailing Address: 2357 Main Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z4           http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/index.php 4    Opening/Closing:  Vendors are permitted to arrive up to two hours prior to Market opening.  Vehicles are allowed in the market area to drop off items but may not be present in the market area 30 minutes prior to Market opening. Sales are not permitted prior to Market opening.  Vendors are required to stay until closing, regardless of product availability or weather.  If products are sold early, vendors are encouraged to post a sign indicating such.  At closing, vendors are required to completely clean their stall of all debris.  Vendors should bring their own cleaning equipment.  Vendors are required to vacate the market area within one hour of closing.    Insurance:  Vendors are required to obtain liability insurance to cover market activities and products.  Proof of insurance must be presented if requested by Market staff.  UBC Farm Market holds general liability insurance but it does not cover vendors and vendors’ products.    Taxes:  Each vendor shall, if required, obtain a PST and/or GST Registration Number.  The collection and remittance of PST and/or GST is the sole responsibility of the vendor.  Vendors shall provide proof of registration numbers upon request.   Pets:  No pets are allowed in the Market.  Smoking:  Smoking is not permitted in the Market.  Compliance:  A vendor may be removed at any time if in violation of the Participation Agreement.  Removal will occur if three warning are given.  The first warning will be a written notice indicating the offence and requesting compliance.  If the problem is not corrected or a new offence occurs, a second written warning will be given.  The vendor will be required to sign and return a copy within 7 days indicating understanding of the regulations and willingness to comply.  If compliance is not obtained by 2 Market days or if a third offence occurs, a third notice will be given along with a notice of termination.  All warnings will be documented in the vendor’s file.    Location: 6182 South Campus Road, Vancouver, BC Mailing Address: 2357 Main Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z4           http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/index.php 5   UBC Farm Market Application Form  Vendor Type (circle one)      Backyard Gardener         Farmer/Grower           Crafter           Prepared Foods  Business Name:  Mailing Address:  Tel:                                                       Fax: Email: Farm Location and Size:  Agricultural Methods Used:  Stall Preferences  Will you require more than one stall?  If so, how many?  Do you have a preference for what products are next to you?   Do you attend other markets?  If so, which ones?   Other than your business name, is there any other information you would allow the UBC Farm Market to publicize (circle all that apply)?  Address          Phone            Fax              Email              Other:_______________  Markets you would like to attend (circle all that apply):  May               12         19         26 June                2          9          16        23         30 July                 7         14          21        28 August            4          11         18        25 September      1           8          15   Location: 6182 South Campus Road, Vancouver, BC Mailing Address: 2357 Main Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC  V6T 1Z4 tel:    http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm/index.php 6    Please list below, or on a separate piece of paper, all the items you would like to sell at the Market:         Please select the jury you wish to register for (if required)  □ [insert date] □ [insert date]   Please attach the following (if required)  □ Application Fee ($20) – please make cheque payable to UBC Farm □ Stall Fee ($20 per stall per date selected) – cheques may be post-dated □ Additional documentation o Food Safe certificate o Organic or transitional certificate o pH testing results o written permission from Vancouver Coastal Health Authority  Please ensure that all items along with this application are mailed, faxed, or emailed to UBC Farm.   I certify that I personally make, bake, grow, or raise all products, except for beverages, offered for sale.  I certify that all beverages are free-trade.  I have read, understood, and agree to comply with the UBC Farm Market Participation Agreement.  I certify that all information provided is accurate.  Name:_________________________________ Date:_____________________   Signature:____________________________________________________________ 


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