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Expanding the UBC Farm Market Alvarez, Pablo; Cheung, Abbie; Hartford, Wendy; Lauder, Erik; Reagh, Jessica; Song, Weonseon; Tran, Rebecca Apr 11, 2007

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Expanding the UBC Farm Market Pablo Alvarez, Abbie Cheung, Wendy Hartford, Erik Lauder , Jessica Reagh, Weonseon Song, Rebecca Tran  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 11, 2007           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1                      Expanding the UBC Farm Market     AGSC 450, 2007  Group 3   Pablo Alvarez, Abbie Cheung Wendy Hartford, Erik Lauder  Jessica Reagh, Weonseon Song Rebecca Tran,             2                                                     Table of Contents  Abstract………………………………………………………………………………3 Introduction………………………………………………………………….............3 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………..3 Group Reflections on Vision Statement and Identification of Value Assumptions…………………………………………………………………………4 Methodology…………………………………………………………………………5 Findings………………………………………………………………………………7 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………..15 Policies for UBC Farm Market……………………………………………………21 Plan for the future …………………………………………………………………25 Recommendations to UBC Farm………………………………………………….25 Recommendations to UBC Students………………………………………….......26    Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….26 References…………………………………………………………………………. 27 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………28       3 Abstract The UBC Ma rket Garden is considering ex pa nding their Saturd a y Farm Market ope rati ons int o a full y fled ged farme r's ma rket.  This will help meet the great demand for locall y produc ed food, while providi ng rev enue that will lessen the need for conti nuous gran ts to fund the farm.  Surve ys conducted conce rning the potenti al ex pansion of vendors showed t hat people were receptive to the idea of increased variety of products available at the Farm's Market.  A farmers’ market satis fies cu rrent UBC re gul ati ons, whil e also meeti ng the guidi n g principl es of the Visi on Statement for a Sustaina ble Food S yst em.  Clear procedur es for the setup and operati on of a farmers’ market will allow for an easy transition for the Saturday Farm Market, while the establi shment of the mar ket wil l aid in soli dif yin g the future of UBC farm as part of the sout h campus comm unit y . Introduction Over the last ten years, the appeal of farmers’ markets has been growing across the lower mainland.  Consum ers who appreci ate the valu e and impact of purch asing l ocal food dire ctl y from the fa rmer have been able to do so, as farmers’ markets have sprouted in East Vancouver, downtown, and various other locati ons in Gre ater Vancouve r.  Coinciding with this boom, a student driven ini ti ati ve revived UBC Fa rm at South Campus on Point Gre y.  As new c rops wer e produced, a weekl y Fa rm Market was establi shed to sell the food to the surr ounding comm unit y, and since 2001, the UBC Farm’s Saturday Farm Market has rapidly grown to sell over 250 varieti es of organic agric ult ural products.  Problem Statement  Du e to overwh elm ing de mand for their goods, the Saturda y Farm Mark et has come to routinel y sell out of the majorit y of their product s, leading those at UBC Farm to ponde r ex panding 4 the Saturda y Farm Mark et to include a vari et y of other vendors, essentiall y c reating a farmers’ market at the Farm.  A full fledged UBC Farm Ma rket would not onl y sat e the great d emand for local food, but perh aps build their own ex ist ing custom er base, while also p otentiall y off erin g more economi c retu rns to UBC Farm, which reli es he a vil y on grants to maintai n in operati ons.  Growin g the Farm Market could also perhaps assist in solidifying the UBC Farm’s future on South Campus, b y providi n g local p rodu ce to the resid enti al are as that will be developed in the near future.   There are nume rous obstacles to over come wh en it comes to ex panding the Saturda y Market to include more outsi de producers.  UBC Poli cies and regulations , guidelines for potential vendors, insurance concerns, and the willingness of local farmer’s to join the market c ould all potentially hinder the UBC Farm Market’s expansion.  There are also concerns about which products should be sold, depending on whether they compete with UBC Farm’s products.  Finally, it is important to determine whether or not ex panding the Farm Ma rket to include outsi de vendors conforms to the guidi ng principles for a Sustainab le UBC Food S ystem.   Group Reflections on Vision Statement and Identification of Value Assumptions  Our group stron gl y agr ee s with the seven guidi ng principles coll aborati vel y developed b y the Sustainable UBC Foo d S ystem project p artners .  We feel that the proble m we are t r yin g to solve wit h regards to ex panding the UBC Farm Market ali gns nicel y with t he Visi on Statement for a Sustainable Food S yste m b y addin g loc al produc e rs.   Specific to the guiding principles, a farmers’ market clearly demonstrates the value of food that is locall y grown, pro duced, and pr ocess ed, as all the produce rs ar e gro wing their food locall y, within a day’s drive of UBC Farm.  The guiding principle conc ernin g re c yc li ng and compos ti n g locall y is sati sfied b y incl uding compos t from the Farm Ma rket in the comp osti ng acti vit ies alre ad y underwa y at UBC Farm and coll ecti n g re c yclabl e s at the Farm Market.  By ensu ring th at there is a 5 variet y of loc al produc e r s at the Farm Market sell ing their produ cts directl y to consume rs, food sold at the market be comes more ethni c all y dive rs e, affo rdable, and nutrit ious.  In addit ion to that, it will also fulfil l consumers and produ cers pa yin g and rec eivi ng fair price, wh il e parall eli n g UBC Farm’s aims towards ethnically diverse foods, such as the Mayan and First Nations garden.     By including educ ati onal information on Farm Ma rkets re ga rdin g the impor tance of healt h y eati ng, bu yin g loc all y, co mpos ti ng, and sust ainabl e f armin g pr acti ces, it wi ll promote awar eness among consum ers about cult ivation, processi ng, i ngr edients, and nutrit ion.  The natural sens e of comm unit y that is fostere d by consum ers and prod ucers gett in g to gether at a Farm Market will easil y s ati sf y th e pri ncipl e that food brin g people togeth er and enhanc es co mm unit y.  By setti n g standards towards which farmers are all owed to sell at UBC Farm, the Far m Market can ensure th at the food sold “is produced by socially, ecologically conscious producers.” (UBC Food S ystem Project, 2006)  Methodology To determi ne how to ove rcome the probl ems associated with ex panding th e ex ist ing Farm Market we ini ti all y ca rrie d out a lit erature review of the findi ngs from prev ious AGSC 450 students, foll owed by fur ther rese ar ch of ap p ropri ate lit erature and int ern et search es to establis h how successful farm ma r kets are establi shed and run.  UBC poli cies and re gulations were studi ed to determine an y pro cedu res that the fa rm need follow when ex tending the market.   The Britis h Colum bia Association of Farmers’ Markets (BCAFM) provided information on health guidelines for selling food at farmers’ markets.  Potential vendors and consumers were surveyed to establish which products woul d be avail able to the mark et.   The main purpose of con ta cti ng vendors was to determi ne the desirabil it y of them when ex panding the UBC farm market.  Befor e conta cti ng vendo rs we coll ected information rega rdin g 6 what t yp es of vendo rs UBC farm ma rket is seekin g.  Based on th at informa ti on we created a vendors list  with dair y, meat, mushroom, and gar li c sectors.  We accessed the vendor conta ct information from Your Local Farmers’ Market Society (YLFMS).  The vendor’s group tried to collect contact information of those of who do not already attend other farmer’s mark et as well ; however, due to limited resources we were not able to do so. The vendor’s subgroup designed eight questi onnaires which ask ed about aw aren ess of th e UBC farm mark et, wil li ngness of participati on, and other ba ck ground inf ormation regardin g farm er s’ markets in general.  For the vendors’ convenienc e and so the y would be awa re of th e qu esti onnaire, we decided to contact them first b y email then by phon e if we did not hear from them.  We thought since most of the vendors are ver y bus y we would have a hi ghe r probabil it y of gett in g responses if the y could fill out the surve y in their own tim e.  Accordin g to a report fro m Sauder School of Busi ness last ye ar, it is alre ad y known that there is a dem and for loc al, organic, and farm pro ducts withi n the Poi nt Gre y area. We decid ed, therefor e, that the fo cus of our consum er su rve y s hould be directed tow ard s ex ist ing custom ers of the UBC farm market b e cause their comm ents will directl y influ ence what vendors would sell . The sampl e population included UBC facult y staff, stu dents, residents, farm volunt eers, as well as members of Unive rsit y Neighborh oods Associatio n (UNA), subs cribers of Sprouts, and dieteti cs students.  Surve y qu esti ons were developed to fin d out what the custom ers want and thus how the UBC farm ma rket can be improved to accomm oda te its custom ers and serv e the comm unit y bett er as it ex pands. The questi onnaire was implement e d via a web - b ased surv e y sit e <www.surv e ymonk e y.co m>, which provides eas y acc ess for tar geted audi e nce and fo r more efficient d a ta anal ysis .  Once our findi n gs were determi ned and discussed we drew up a set of poli cies and proc edures t o assi st in the ex tension a successful UBC Farm Market.   7 Findings  The vendor and consum e r surve y questi onnair es can be found in app endice s A and B respecti vel y.  Typical set up of a Farmers Market  UBC Farm Market can set up its own farmers’ market or it could become part of YLFMS; however at this tim e YLFMS is comm it ted elsewhere (La Qua gli a, 2007 ).  To set up its own farmers’ market we found, through BCAFM’s web site that while locations of farmers markets are varied the set up is stand ard wit h markets re gist er ed as a non - p rofit or gani z ati on (BCAFM, 2007).  In 2006 Group 15 identif ied there are two wa ys of regist erin g, non – incorp orated and inco rpora t ed, both of which provide fo r gov ernan ce of th e mark et, but which have dist inct advanta ges and disadvanta ges.  Pros and Cons of Starting UBC Farm as a Non-Profit Incorporated Organization  REGISTERED NON-PROFIT  Benefits Costs o C an quali f y as tax ex empt ( subj ect to som e restrictions in the Income Tax Act)  o Tax - deducti ble status (subj ect to some restrictions in the Income Tax Act) i  o C an appl y for gr ants and funding as a NPO, incre asing th e nu mber of potential funders  o C an iss ue tax - deducti ble receipt s   o R equir es a boa rd of dire c tors  o Members can be held lia ble for the debts and liabil it ies of the organiz ati on  o C annot distribut e profit s  o S pecializ ed tax rules and accounti n g practi ces i i  o C an have mone y makin g as a purpose, especiall y durin g reduce d funding times, as l ong as its primar y purpose is not this one.  INCORPORATED NON-PROFIT A not - for - p rofit enti t y ca n incorporate eit her feder all y or provinciall y, depe nding on the scop e of its stated purpose and proposed acti vit ies. Each jurisdi cti on has its own legisl ati on for th e incorporati on of not - fo r - profit organiz ati ons, and its own approval proc ess.  Benefit Costs o Own its own propert y an d bank account  o P rotect indivi dual members from o In corpor ati ng a not - for - p rofit enti t y at the fede ral level and in m ost other jurisdi cti ons requires gov ernment 8 li abil it y  o Ensure ex ist ence ev en aft er ori ginal members leav e  o C an enter int o contra ct s (bu y, sell propert y, etc. )  o Ma y be incr eased credibi li t y amon g funders, gove rnment, etc.  review and approv al (Th e proposed bylaws o f the co rpora ti o n must accompan y th e appli cati o n, and include appli cati on for a letter of patent ). i i i  o Annual corpor ate fil in g related to the locati on of head office as well as director inform ati on  o S ome NPOs must regist e r (ex cept if charit y or ver y small NPO) must fil e an nual information retu r n with Canada Custom s and Revenue Agen c y.  o Fil e and annu al corpo rate income tax return (ex cept if charit y).  o Fede ral co rporati ons inco rporated und er the Canada co rporati ons Act must get minist erial approval to change certain by laws.  o The powers of a NPO co rporati on ar e limi ted to what is writ ten int o its objecti ves, as well as so me const raint s placed on the t ype of the acti vit y.  o Time and resour ces to devote to maintaining corpo rate str ucture.  o Appl y fo r a nam e (56 da ys app rox . wait ing p e riod) i v  o Establis hment of at least 5 board members: at least one res ident from BC and at least thre e first dir ectors.   Governance:  A non – profit organiz ati on requires a board of dir ectors that develops and implements poli cies, and resolves conflicts (BCA F M, 2007).  The board is also responsi ble for decidi ng which vendors and products are accept e d to the market and fo r empl o yin g a mark et coordinator, usuall y a paid posit ion, who all ocates sit es and overse es the run ning of the ma rket on market da y (BCA FM, 2 0 07).  The poli cies cov er issues such as standa rds of conduct relating to insurance liabil it y, nois e, space, al cohol and pets.  Other policies cov er stall avail abil it y and s et up, sell ing of goods, ga rba ge and rec yc li ng, si gns and marketi ng and also provi d e for comm unit y and social developm ent. Some policies are strai ghtfor ward, but the foll owin g are more compl ex .  9 Liability Insurance: Farmers’ markets, as non -  pr ofit organiz ati ons, can ca rr y liabil it y insuran ce coverin g all pa rticipati ng vendors or vendo rs  can provide proof of th ere own cover a ge; the latter is comm on when vendors do not parti cipate on a con stant basis .  At present UBC Fa rm ca rries insurance that covers the farm and existing vendors, due to the farm’s educational aspect. Future participati ng  vendors, ho wever, will be ex pected to provide their own insu r ance (UBC WebCT, 2007).  There is an important concern regardin g the potenti al to lose non - pr ofit status once att ained due to an increase in the organization’s use of commercial activities, part i cularl y as the numbe r of vendors whose mot ivations are strictl y comm er cia l increases.  Status as non - profit under thes e condit ions is unaffected, however, provided non - p rofit accounti n g principl e s are sti ll held. That is, as long as rev enues or fu nds made  above ex penses are reinvested into the principal acti vit y of the non - profit or ganiz ati on and that no divi dends or paym ents outsi de operati n g ex penses are mad e to empl o ye es, offic ers or bo ard of dire ctors. Sim il ar to the UBC Alma Mate r Societ y, which oper a tes as a Non - p rofit or ganiz ati on, the UBC fa rm must acquire its own insuran ce poli c y that cov ers the board of gove rnors, of fic ers and empl o ye es as well as the potenti al for pe rsonal liabili t y.  There are two sho rt - term alt ernati ve recomm endati ons made with rega rds to insurance. Insurance could be obtained by becoming an “Associate Member” to the BCAFM once the UBC farm has acquired non - pr ofit status. Membership benefits war rant a reduc ed liabil it y insur ance packa ge of $325 pe r ann um for $2,000,000 cove r age.  The recomm end ati on to become an “Associate Member” over a “Voting Member” is determined due to the association’s by- l aws, which have specific requirements that exclude the farm from “Voting Member” status (BCFAM). v  Due to the particula r goal s that drive t he UBC Far m Market conc epti on, there are no perc eived benefits lost from adopting the fo rmer status. Th e alt ernati ve recomm endat ion is to purchase indi vidual liabil it y as well as gove rnor and mana ger/offic er insuran ce whos e rates are dependant on 10 the chose n cov era ge pa c kage but are ce rtainl y ab ove those offe red b y BC AFM. vi  Given that insurance rates fo r non - p rofit organiz ati ons have s een a ste ad y incr ease ov e r the last ye ars, this last opti on ma y seem less att r acti ve. Reports document increas es an ywhe re fro m  50% to 100% or more over the last ye ars (H arri s, 2005).  To determi ne t he curr ent net ben efit fro m adopting eit her of these two opti ons the boa rd of directo rs must asses incurred ini ti al mana ge ment costs , particularl y time and resourc e ex pens es from findi n g an indep endent insurer, against a loss of mana gement independenc e from having to abide to BCAFM b y - laws and their associate d transacti on costs .  Selling of goods:  A successful farmers market has a variety of vendors and ensures that there isn’t too muc h of one product sold (Y LFMS , 2007).  The jur y proc ess ensures t hat there is not too much competit ion between ven dors sell ing the sam e pro duct, which incre ases ve ndors wanti ng to s ell , and all ows for a greater variet y of produ cts, which draws more custom er s (Y LFMS , 2007). Farmers markets, such as White Rock Farmers’ Market (WRFM), Coquitlum Farmers’ (CFM) and Y LFMS have a poli c y which states that all food for sale must be grown, m ade, bak ed or pr epar ed by the vendor (WRFM, 2 007, CFM,  2006, YLFM S , 2007).   Specific guidelines about selli ng produc e and othe r prepa red food at farmer s markets was found by looki n g at the BCAFM post in g on healt h and food regul ati ons and Vancouve r Coastal Healt h Publi cati ons.  Guideli nes about labeli n g of prepar ed food was strai gh t forward and gen erall y all food labels must show food ingr edients, date pr epared, pl ace of prep ar ati on, and contact information of farm er.  Specific guidelines fo r lab eli ng of foods prep ared i n a home kitchen also dictate that these foods m ust let the cus tom er know that it was prepa red in a kitchen, which was not inspected b y a licens ed healt h insp ector. The guid eli nes set out b y BC Healt h Authorit ies are product specific and are refer enc ed in the propose d poli cies for the UBC Farm Market.  Garbage, recycling, signs and marketing:  Usually the ma rket or ganiz ati on will suppl y garba ge cans for visi tors, but ven dors are ex pected to prov ide their own garb a ge co ntainers and remove the 11 ga rba ge at the end of the market.  The amount of rec ycli n g dep ends on the marke t and vendo r.  Signa ge outsi de and with in the market is determi ned by at various gove rn ment levels and poli cies which, other than healt h related poli cies, var y bet ween muni cipalit ies.  Parking:  R egulations re ga rding parkin g fo r vend ors differ acco rdin g to  the locati on of the market with custom er parkin g cl osest to the market (Y LF MS , WRFM, 2007).  Only vendo rs who require freez er facil it ies ma y ba c k up their vehicle to the sit e unless the locati on all ows for thi s (Y LFMS , 2007).  AT UBC Farm Market, other th an the spac e requir ed for vendors, th ere is spac e for 8 -  10 cars outsi de the gat e, and the events field could ho ld about 40 -  50 cars (UBC WebCT, 2007).  Although Gavin Wri ght states that parkin g on South Campus Road is ill egal (UBC Web CT, 2007), Mark Bo mford suggests that 12 cars can park there and “substantial” parking is available at Trium ph and Paprican, a five minute walk from th e farm (UBC WebCT, 20 07).   Community and society development:  Most farmers’ markets promote natural and organic farmin g m ethods , locall y produced and home mad e products and fair trad e goods.  Vendors, especiall y those wit h fres h produce are encour a ge d to discuss their farmin g methods with market patrons and recipes are often provided.  UBC Far m, whil e it foll ows organ ic farm in g methods, is not necessaril y con ce rne d that all products sold at the farm mark et are or ga nicall y sour ced; however it does wish to promot e the educ ati onal and rese arch pro grams o f fered at the farm (Bomford, 2007 ).  What makes a successful Farmers Market:  Our resea rch shows that a suc cessful mark et fosters comm unit y links and is a fun and enjo yable so cial event.  Success ful farme rs markets sell food and drink like coffe e and bak ed goods, which can be eaten and drunk while shopping. Cre ati ng a festi val like  feel also makes the event much mor e enjo ya ble and thi s is acc ompl ished by havin g musi cians pla y a variet y of differ ent t yp es of musi c.  A variet y of vendors is alwa ys ke y to dr awin g a lar ge r crowd of custom ers and ther efor e ensurin g and pl anning which ve n dors come to a farmers 12 market is ke y.  In addit io n, encoura gin g farme r –c ustom er relations is important in keep a custom ers comi ng ba ck.  To ensur e that the farme r - vendo r link is created all three far mers markets hav e poli cies which dictate tha t the farmer or fami l y me mber must be present at the market to sell food and answe r questi ons (Y LF MS , WRFM 2007, CFM, 2006).  It is important to make the market a social meeting point.  This has been done at the White Rock Farmers’ Market by having mini competit ions am ong cust omers such as a pet costu me competit ion and beca use of social ties, man y people go to the market t o meet up wit h friends an d then of cours e end up bu yin g from farme rs at the market.  The YLFMS also has tents set up which have vendors mark eti ng soci al/ comm unit y events and ther e is a stall for a pro fessi onal cook who talks to custom ers about recipes and cookin g methods (Y LFMS , 2007) .  These vendo rs also hel p to foster a comm unit y l ink.  It is also important that appropriate pl anning for a farmers mark et is done to allow that the mar ket functi ons smoothl y and in acco rdanc e with b yl aws and other regulatio ns.  To ensure quali t y all markets have a poli c y that all ow the market ma nager to hav e authorit y on food for sale and can remove it from sale if its qua li t y is poor.  UBC Polices: If UBC Farm decides to consider their potential farmer’s market as a commercial enti t y rath er than a non - p rofit organiz ati on, then UBC poli c y has to be take n int o consi derati on.  Fortunately, a farmer’s market at UBC Farm seems to easily satisfy the UBC Board of Governor’s Policy concerning “Commercial Enterprises on Campus”.  Policy 98, 1.1 states that: “Commercial undertakings on the University Campus are permitted only with the prior written approv al of the Vice - P r esident resp o nsibl e for the ar ea/fun cti on in which the comm er cial un dertakin gs is to take plac e and throu gh a provision in the lease agreem ent between UBC and an or ganiz ati on such as the Alm a Mate r Societ y or Discovery Parks Inc.” (1997) 13 The fa ct that farm its elf i s a lread y establi shed on universit y land would ex clude the ne ed for a lease for the farmer’s market.  Policy No 98 1.3 is also easily satisfied by a farmer’s market, as the policy states: “The prim e consi derati on fo r granti ng approval is the ex tent to which a  comm er cial enterprise promotes and reinforces the objectives of the University” (1997).  Considering a farmer’s market promotes the purchasin g of loc al fo ods, buildi ng comm unit y, and sust ainable agri cult ure, these obje cti ves ali gn nic el y with the Universi ty of British Columbia and the Faculty of Land and Food System’s goals fo r campus sust ain abil it y.   The University’s goals for sustainability are also addressed in Policy 98 1.4 which states:  All lease, licenses or other agr eements that pe rmit comm ercial e nt erprises t o operate on campus incorpor ate th e condit ion that the prod ucts and servic es off ered meets the needs for products an d services, sta ff, facult y and residents at opti mum value, with mini mal impact on the environment, and are not incompatibl e with  the major purposes of the University”. (1997)  Again, giv en that the UBC Market Gard en conti n uall y sells out of the maj orit y of their products, there is considerable demand for more farm products that could be supplied by other farmer’s through a farmer’s marke t.    “Minimal impact on the environment” is defined in the policy as “activities that reduction, reuse and rec yc li ng of materials and equipm ent; reduce the us e of mate rial s toxi c to the Environment; and standa rdiz e comm on suppl ies and equipm ent wher e possible” (UBC Board of Governors).  Farmer’s markets satisfy this requirement as locally produced food consumes less fossil fuel as the foods ar e produced lo call y, and as such, require l ess fossi l fuel to transport them to the consum er at the m ark et.   14 Results of Vendor Survey:  Most of the vendo rs who responded to our su r ve y wer e aw are th at the UBC Farm hosts a Farm Market on Saturda ys.   Currentl y, these farme rs at tend from one to thre e other farm ers mark et.   At these markets, hal f of th e vendors said th e y s ell ever ythi n g the y have and the other half said the y ar e usuall y le ft with ex tra goods.  Unfortunatel y, the answers to a qu esti on about wil li ngness of ven dors to participate  in UBC Farm Mark et we re , in gen eral, n e gati ve .  About 50% of the vendo rs said  the y wer e definitel y  not i nterested in comin g out to UBC Farm Mark et, 30% of the respond ents said ma yb e the y would co nsider it if the time work s, and 20% said the y were int e rested in participati ng  at UBC Farm Mar ket. The main re ason ma n y of the vendors sa id ‘NO ’ to the questi on is due to lar ge cost, lon g trav el tim e, and lack of labo r .  The vendor ’s subgroup suspe cted thes e would be the reasons  for low will ingness of vend or ’s parti cipant. Therefo re, we had added a questi on whether a vol unteer would be help ful.  Surprisi ngl y, man y of the vendors who were no t interested in parti cipati ng UBC Farm Mark et sai d volunt eers do not reall y af fect their inte rest .  On the other hand, ven dors who would want to participate in the mark et said vol unteers would be a great a sset.  It seem ed as if man y of these farmer s who att end numerous other farmers’ markets b eli eve the cost of comi ng out to UBC is gr eater th an the bene fits.  Others who answer ed ‘Ma yb e ’ or ‘ Yes ’ said the y would l ike to come out to UBC because th e y would wa nt to increas e the volu me of their sales.  Th ese vendors menti oned that t he y could provide be ef, lavender, garlic, potatoes , seafood, or ganic goat cheese, fresh eggs, and ot her veget able crops to UBC Farm Mark et.  To determi ne the best tim e sl ot for the UB C Farm Ma rket vendors were asked their opini ons about the time of the curr ent UBC Farm Ma rket which is Saturda ys from 9am to 1pm.  The majorit y of vendors (80%) said the tim e slot does not work for t hem and su ggested Monda y and Saturda y ev enings ,  and Sunda ys.  Th e vendor ’s sub group also asked about the stall siz es the farmers use in o rder to dete rmine a reaso nable  rate for UBC Farm Market and also to see how much spac e would be need ed to accomm odate  them.  The m ajorit y of the farme rs said the y 15 use 10*10 sta ll and $25~ $30 is a reason able  starti ng rate for th e farmer ’s market in gene ral.  Howeve r, some of vendo rs said the starti ng rate depends on the mark et siz e and the y feel that starti ng rate should be ab out $20~$25 .   Results of the consumer survey:  Approx im atel y 50% of surve y responden ts visit ed the UBC farmers market less than 5 times a year. 38%  of respondents were UBC un der gradu ates  and 18 % were not affil iated with t he Universit y. Produce is in the gr eatest dem and foll owed by various cheeses, b aked good s an d prepar ed foods. Th ere was  a mi x ed response for meat products with 28% ver y int erested, 27 % not int erested and 22% som e what interested in havin g meat products sold at the farm. Sea food does n ot seem to be desired b y t he surve y respondents. Support for  cr afts and services ran ged from not interested to som ewhat i nterested.  The result s of the surv e y indi cate  that products sol d at the marke r should be local  (grown in BC)  but not necess aril y  organic. Products should h ave quali t y and freshness , and fre e from  pest icides and gen eti c modi ficati on.  The result s also showed that responde nts were will ing to p a y a higher premi um for sust a inable locall y grown pro ducts. Besides a Saturda y farmers market, respondents we re most wil li ng to attend a on a Su nda y from 9am – 2pm. When asked if the y woul d like to see more fami l y oriented acti vit ies at the farm such as barb eques an d face paint ing, the result s were indi f fer ent (49% ye s and 45% no ).  Discussion Vendor Liability: W e consi der an umbrell a insur a nce cov era ge pack a ge f or indi vidual vendors to be unviable for two reaso ns.  The first is associate d with an increas e in management costs that requires ins urin g man y i ndependent groups und er a single packa ge.  This mana gement and resour c e costs ma y not be avail abl e for the orga niz ati on in the short - term as sta rtup business costs are usuall y hi gh.  The se con d is related to the unc erta int y of lon g - term p articip ati on of indi vidual 16 vendors, which renders group insuranc e more of a hassl e than an investm en t. Therefo re, requirin g proof  of indi vidual vend or insurance prior to regi strati on is consi dered as cost - eff ecti ve and opti mal opti on at least in the short - term because it reduces management costs and avoids “moral hazard behaviour” from individual vendors. vi i  Non-profit – incorporating or not?  Findi ngs show that there are a number of liabil it y iss ues both for non - incorpo rated non - profit s and incorpo rated non - profit s. Ther e ar e evi dent benefits associ ated with becomi ng a regist er ed non - profit or ganiz ati on such as the abil it y to qu ali f y,  und er certain condit ions, for tax ex empti on and/or tax - deducti ble status and an incr eas ed potential to access funding sour ces that requ ire formal re gist rati on.  Once an or ganiz ati on has establi shed itself as a formal not - for - profit , ho wever, it ente rs int o a soc ietal contract that ex erts certain risks on indi vidual board member s.  Such risks are subj ect to their indi vidual accou ntabili t y for futur e debts and liabil it ies that the organiz ati on ma y fall unde r.  If board memb ers are ri sk - avers e, addit ional res ourc es mus t be ex pended in order to regist er as an incorpor ated non - fo r profit .  The UBC farmer’s market status as an incorporated non - pro fit organiz ati on liberates an y indi vidual boa rd member or of ficial from personal liabili t y as lon g as the issue pertai ns to th eir duti es and with respect to Prope rt y Dama ge and Bodil y Injur y or dama ge (BCA FM, 2007).  Insu ranc e for bo ard members or of ficers, ho wever, is stil l recomm en ded giv en that under cert ain circumst anc es the y ma y sti ll be consi der ed liable. A couple o f ex ampl es ma y in clude negli gen c e or accounti ng mismanagem ent (The Co - operators, 2007 ).  The most important benefits associated with incorporation depend on: the organization’s desire to acquir e unli mi ted life, whether it wants to enter int o le gal contr acts  and to avoid board of directors’ risk for individual liability as mentioned above.  Transaction costs associated with incorporati on ar e usuall y small ; however, this is not the case fo r non - pro fit organiz ati on incorporati on and ma y represent suffici ent opp ort unit y costs for the or gani z ati on not to see a net 17 benefit from inco rporati o n (Canada Business, 200 7).  Yea rl y paper work an d mana gement costs are also significant. Decisi on to incorporate or not sho uld be made final b y the board of dire ctors themselves.  Farm Market Set up: UBC Farm Mark et is unique in that of all the farme rs markets in Van couver it is sit uated on its own farmland.  This sett ing ca n provide a sta ge for pro mot ing the value and visi on of the UBC Food S ystem Project and the hi gh valu e produc t vendo rs that UBC Farm Mark et desires to accomm odate (Bomford, 2007).  Develo pment of poli cies and pro cedures will serve to assi st the smoo th and safe operati on of th e market , and also refl ect the visi on of the farm.  Regist rati on, pr e - app rova l and pa ym en t proc edure s ensure that vendo rs ar e comm it ted, quali t y goods are sold, and that t he markets run at full cap acit y throu ghout the s eas on.  The stall la yout designed b y Group 15 (2 006) provides a compact and unified mark et are a, center ed on the farm buil ding s, that easil y ac c omm odates 15 vendors.  At thi s time it is not financiall y feasibl e fo r UBC Farm Ma rket to provide stall equipment, however raisi ng the site rental fee to $25 per week will increas e rev enue.  We feel this is a reasonable am ount since vendo rs ex pec t to pay more th an thi s at other venues.  Before par king is allowed on the ev ents field it will be neces sar y to determine if parking, on a regular basi s, will affect the land and the possibi li t y of or ganic certific ati on (UBC WebCT, 2007).  If parki n g is feasibl e and le gal, it wil l require or ganiz ati on and mana gem ent which will necessi tate at least t wo volunteers to overs ee parking (UBC WebCT, 2007).  Group 15 (2006) mad e se veral su ggesti ons regardi ng the educati onal aspect of UBC Farm and to promot e  the idea of ecolo gical consciousnes s, UBC Farm Mark et can develop specifi c acad emi c and edu cati ona l pol icies that will make a visi t to the UBC Farm Market a shoppin g and learnin g ex perienc e.  Pro visi on can be made for an information stall and re cruitm ent of trained volunt eers to suppl y info rmati on on sust ainable living and the various UBC Farm Pro grams.  If visi tors to the market are made aw are of the natur e of the farm and its progr ams the y ma y t ake pa rt 18 in and/or promote them among their fami li es and fri ends which ma y result in higher rev enues from the UBC Farm pro grams.  Recruiting Vendors: F ro m the result s of the vend or surve y thi s ma y be ch all engin g.  Howeve r, recruitin g vendors will be done throu gh both the Farm Ma rket websit e, which wil l acti vel y acc e pt appli cati ons for potential farmers.  In the case of custom ers demanding sp e cific products that are currentl y unav ail able at t he market, an effo rt will be made to conta ct local producers of said products.  This can be do ne through various mean s, includi n g specifi c ads on the websit e, contacti n g other farme rs' markets who ma y hav e a surplus of appli cants to sell a specific product, as well as farmers groups such as the Frase r Vall e y Grower 's Association.  Selling of Goods:  The UBC Fa rm Mark et wil l have to compl y with Healt h Canada Re gulations . There are some limi tations for the UBC Farm ma rket when compl yin g wit h the healt h regulations . For ex ampl e, since provi ding access to runnin g ho t water to vendors and cu stom ers is likel y not reali sti c in the nea r futu r e no food sampl es can be given (BCA FM, 2007).  Accordin g to regulations , an y meat mu st be sold froz en and must be kept froz en in transit (BCA FM, 2007). It would be difficult for the farm to provide refrigeration for the farmer’s food and since other farme r’s markets require vendors to provide their own refrigeration/freezing vendors at the UBC Farm ma rket shou ld do so as well .  Man y of the regulations ar e food spe cifi c and ther efor e vendors at the farm need to be made especi all y awa re of it. In order to ma k e sure tha t the re gulations are followed the fa rm wil l have to invest in some addit ional suppl ies such as en suring ga rba ge cans are avail able and makin g su r e that vendors eit he r brin g their own or are given hand wipes. The UBC Farm’s vision encourages eth nic local vendors su ch as the Urb an Abori gin als Comm unit y Kitch en Garden Proje ct and the Ma ya n Garden Proje ct. The UBC Farm Ma rket wi ll likel y need to help these new ven dors compl y with regulations such as coming up with ideas t o indi viduall y pack a ge 19 all f ood or ensur e that fo od is covered while bein g sold, and to creat e a set up to make sure that no food touches the ground.  Pro and Cons of having competing products: The iss ue of includi ng prod ucers who produce sim il ar products as UBC Farm has to b e taken i nto consi derati on.  Due to th e fact that the UBC Farm rapidl y and regul ar l y sells out of man y of th eir products durin g on th eir weekl y Fa rm Market, such an inclusion will likely have minimal impact on the sales of UBC Farm’s products, and will inst ead help  meet deman d for such produ cts.  B y increasin g the suppl y of certain goods, this can hopefully attract more customers to the farmer’s market who will not be discouraged of attending due to the risk of missi ng out on products that routi nel y sell out.  An in cr eas ed custom er bas e will also potentially increase the demand for some of UBC Farm’s products that do not sell out.   The farmer’s market should avoid recruiting vendors who provide products of which UBC Farm does not sell out, since the y would be potent iall y divi ding the sal es of those prod ucts.  Community/Social: C reati ng a social/ comm unit y oriented environment at the UBC Farm Ma rket will be important in ensuring that peopl e come ba ck. Methods such as selli ng co ffe e and baked goods and all owing do gs on l eashes ar e sim ple wa ys to foster an enjo yabl e atm osphere at the farm. Additi onall y a buske r or performe r could likel y ea sil y be recruited to sin g/p erform at the market to make it a succ essful da y.  Having a stall which pro vides information on co mm unit y eve nts is a good ide a but ma y be mo re suitable to add to the UBC Farm Mark et once i t is more establi shed and larger. Ho weve r, student volunt eers from UBC co uld have a stall givi ng inf ormation on certain topi cs.  Cooking demons trati ons would likel y mak e the ma rket a hu ge suc c ess; however, demons trati ons can onl y be done if ther e is runnin g hot wat er. Inste ad recip es usi ng foods that are in season could be dist rib uted.  Consumer Survey: Prod uce app ears to be a ver y popular product and shou ld defini tel y conti nue to be offe red at the farm ers market.  The demand for meat is not as strong but there does se em to be 20 some gen uine interest in seeing it in the farme rs market.  Chees e, baked go ods and prepa red foods are desir ed and would ad d some variet y to the far mers mar ket.  Curr entl y, int erests for crafts and services are not hi gh and therefor e shoul d not be sold at the market.  Produ cts at the market shou ld be local but not nec essari l y or gani c.  Premi um prices for thes e produ cts did not seem to affe ct most of the respo nd ents desire to bu y local produ cts.  Quali t y and freshness rank ed amon g the hi ghest of importance amon g respo ndents.  Produce shoul d also be free from pesti cides and geneti c modi ficati on to meet wit h the demand of the publ ic.  Acti vit ies such as barb eq ues  and face painting should be implemented only if the market’s budget all ows it.  To avoid competi ti on with other nearb y farme rs market o pen on a Saturda y, feasibi li t y fo r a Sunda y morning mark et shou ld be looked int o.  The surve y result s showed the gr eates t inter est for a Sun da y mornin g ma rket rather than a weekd a y evenin g mark et.   After care ful anal ysis of the 500 plus responses to our surve y, potential disc repanci es emer ged.  Althou gh the sampl e siz e is large enou gh for our result s to be an adequate repr esentation of farmers’ market patrons, a fair portion of the surveys taken belong to one group. The UBC Farm volunt eers comprised ov er one fifth o f the respon ses rec eived from the su r ve y.  This ma y create a volunt ar y response bias, which suggests that indi viduals with stronger opin ions tend to respond more often, and thus , thi s group m a y be ove rrep res ented in the surve y.   Another conc ern of the surve y is that we are usin g conv enienc e sampli ng.  The surve y was prim aril y given to UBC - r elated groups.  The fact  that we sele cted indivi dua ls from the population based on eas y avail abil it y and ac cessi bil it y ma y generat e bias in the result .  On the other hand, we onl y made ou r surve y av ail able on the web du e to time and budget constrai nt.  This ma y cr eate non - respons e bias bec ause indivi duals who chose not to respond to the surve y m a y diffe r from the respondents in certain as pects. Thi s kind of bias is unavoidable, but shoul d be consi der ed when int erpreti n g the result s.  21 Policies for UBC Farm Market Governance and Volunteers -  Board of Dire ctors – ove rsees dev elopm ent and enforcem ent of poli cies.  o Members include: pr esident, vice presid ent, secr et ar y, tre asurer and one to four other persons and must foll ow all bylaws and rule s agreed upon which affe ct the societ y,  o Duties:   P resident: is the chief ex ecuti ve offi cer of the soci et y and supervises the other offic ers in the ex ec uti on of their duti es.   Vice presid ent: car ries o ut dut ies of the president when absent.   S ecreta r y: conducts the corresponden ce of th e soc iet y, iss ue noti c es o f meeti ngs, ke eps minut es at meeti ngs, h as custod y of all reco rds, documents and regist er of members of the societ y (ex cept tho se kept b y treasu rer ).   Treasur er: keeps financi a l records, books of accou nts as well rende ring financial statements to di rec tors, membe rs and oth ers when required.  -  Market Coordinator – pai d posi ti on  Standards of Conduct -  Liability o To participate at the UBC farmer’s market, vendors must either have valid membership in any of the already existing farmers’ market society of the low er mainland or appl y as an associate membe r to the BCAFM.  If vendors want to participate onl y durin g a limi ted amount of time during the season and do not want to become members o f a societ y or the associ ati on, the y must provide a cop y of thei r insurance cover a ge ex ten ding over the particip ati on period, relat ed docume nts, regulation qualificati ons and a cop y of th e accepte d Food Safet y Plan as required by the Vancouv er Coastal Healt h Authorit y for vendo rs sell ing pro cessed food s. Fail ing to provide an y of the abo ve documents enclos ed in the regist rati on proc ess will result in non - participati o n.  o Each vendo r, or their soc iet y, is liable for ac cident s with in their stalls and an y he alt h risks associated wit h his/ her product. UBC does n ot provide group or indiv idual vendor insuran ce; the BCAFM can provide vendo r s with appropriate insura nce.  -  Noise o Noise from vendor - oper a ted equipm ent must be kept to a minim um; hawking and stereos are prohibi ted. Th is is a fami l y and comm unit y environment and we ask you to be con siderat e of custo mers and other vendors.  -  Space o Vendors should tr y not to encroa ch onto other ven dor stall s. An y probl ems ma y be addressed to the market coordinator.  o All stall s and adjacent ar eas mus t be cle ar and cle an at the end of th e mark et da y.  o For sa f et y re asons vendo rs must keep vehicles aw a y from mark et area duri ng open hours to the public and le ave the most convenient parking pl aces for custo mers.  -  Other Regulations o The market is an alcohol - free and smoke - f re e envi ronment.  o Vendors must foll ow the sa me pet guidelines as cu stom ers and pets must be kept confined to their assi gne d area.  22 o Non - compl iance with standards of condu ct wil l result in evicti on from the farm market. Appli cati on and membership fees are non - refund able. The m arket coordinator ma y ask  non - compl iers to vac ate the s tall at an y time of th e da y.  Stalls availability  -  Registration o In advanc e b y appli c ati on to UBC Farm Mark et Societ y  o Vendors who hav e not regist er ed will not usuall y be accepted, how ever if a regist ered vendor has not arrived 30 minutes prior to market openin g the ma rket coordinator ma y re gist er the vendor at his/ her dis creti on and coll e ct the single da y fee.  -  Charges and Payment o Members: full season $2 5 site per we ek, 3 installm ents b y 3 post dated ch ecks  o Members part season: $2 5 two installm ents b y 2 post dated checks  o S ingle da y fee, no memb ership requir ed $30.  -  Cancellations o W it hout notice pa ym ent of full fee for the da y  o W it h noti ce stall fee will be return ed, less an admi nist rati ve fee, if stall is re - let prior to market dat e.  -  Delayed arrival o Vendors should arrive at least 30 minutes prior to start of market  o If dela ye d the vendor mu st contact market man a ge r and provide details of ex pected time of arrival  o Fail ure to not if y mark et mana ger of dela ye d ar rival ma y result in loss o f stall which ma y be assi gned to a da y vendor in the absen ce of the regist ered vendor  Academics and Learning Environment -  An information stall wil l be provided to promot e an acad emi c and lea rnin g environment  o P rovide information on farming methods e. g. or ga nic, natural  o P rovide information abo ut local foods and their i mportance in the comm u nit y  o P rovide information abo ut sus tainable livi ng  o P rovide information abo ut compost ing  o P rovide information abo ut the UBC Farm and its educati onal pro grams  o All information  will cater to bot h adult s and chil dren  -  Volunteers  o The information stall to be manned b y volunt ee rs  o Volunteers wil l circulat e on at the market and assi st patrons wit h their sear ch for products and information on such products  o Volunteers wil l impl ement su rve ys at intervals du ring the season to assess whether the UBC Farm Ma rket is meeti ng the needs of its patrons  -  Vendors  o Vendors wil l be en coura ged to talk p atrons about their product to encou ra ge the land to plate and farmer to eater conne cti on.  Market Setup -  Stalls & Equipment o Vendors are responsi ble for providi n g their own stall equipment.  o S talls and products must be in place and vehicles removed from mark et are a by 8:30am at the beginni ng of the market d a y. Vendo rs are ex pected to sta y un ti l 23 closi ng time (1:00pm).  Stall dimension availability are 7’ x 6’ and 10’ x 10’ (same cost and must be stated in the appli cati on proc edu re).  -  Vendor Population o Given onl y 15 vendors ar e curr entl y bein g call ed t o participate, onl y one st and per vendor will be all owed. As  the market gro ws, vendors ma y ne goti ate wit h the market coordin ator to det ermine the number of all owed stall s per vendo r. Howeve r, the market coo rdinator m ust assess and wei gh the importance of curr ent ma rket demand and vendo r diver sit y to d etermi ne the n um ber of stalls all owed per vendor.  -  Parking  o P arking will be free and withi n close prox im it y to the farm. App ropriate si gna ge must be in place the ni gh t before the market and removed at the end of the day. Signs must be clear as to what the parkin g is for  and its hours of operati on.   Garbage and Recycling -  Vendors are responsi ble for cle aning up and remo ving all garb a ge from the ir stalls at the end of each mark et.  -  Garba ge bins will be pro vided for the att endin g publi c, as well as rec ycli n g bins for or ganic  waste, pape r, and rec ycl a ble containers, to all ow for proper rec yc li ng, as well as compos ti ng.  Vendo rs ar e encour a ged to include the least amount of potent ial litt er wit h their products, such as bi odegradabl e pack a gin g, if necess ar y.  Signs and Marketing -  The market wil l mark et itself by hi ghli ghti ng th e importance and advanta ge s of purchasin g local foods.  Adve rtisements will prominentl y displ a y the date and times of the farm market, as well as display the URL of the market’s website, which will have detai led information on vendors and their specific products .   -  Vendors that re gist er for a market must compl y to have their stall name and farm displ a yed on the UBC Farm Ma rke t Websit e and in the online newslett er.  o An online newslett er to subscribi ng visi tors w il l be dist ributed mont hl y to highli ght foods that are in se ason and an y sp ecial ev ents tha t are happ ening at UBC Farm Market  Selling of Goods -  All food must be gro wn, made, baked, or prep ared by the vendor.  -  All vendors mus t subm it a list of food that the y ar e selli ng to the ma rket co ordinator  -  All food sold must be eit her be whole fresh fruit s and ve getabl es or prep ac kaged befo re sold at the market  -  Vendors must have hand wipes avail able to them and use them to clean thei r hands.  -  All food ingr edients and prod uce sold must be loc all y grow n (wit hin a da ys drive awa y) .  o There are ex cepti ons for certain foods (such as cof fee and som e ingredients in prepar ed foods) but vend ors mus t contact Market Coordinator  -  P R ODUCE  o All produce sold must be gro wn ecolo gic all y frien dl y. If labeli n g food as certified organic it must be in acc ordance to stand ards set by Certified Organi c Ass ociation of BC  -  P R EPAR ED/VA LUE ADDED FOOD  o No vendor ma y sell hom e prepa red hi gh risk food . For a list of hi gh risk fo ods please se e htt p:/ /www.bc far mersm arket.or g/w eb/p df/foodsale guidelines07. pdf or contact your loc al Envi ro nmental Healt h Officer.  24 o Vendors must subm it an appli cati on to sell food at the farme rs market to th e local Environmental Healt h Officer at least 30 da ys be f ore fa rmers ma rket. Ven dors must be able to produc e evide nce of app roval from the local Healt h Authorit y to the market coordin ator.  o All prepar ed food must be first approv ed b y UBC Farm Ma rket Board befo re bein g sold at the market.  o All vendors selli ng pr epa red food must show ev id ence of obt aini ng Food Safe Certificati on  o All prepar ed or pro cesse d food must have all ingr edients list ed on packa ge d food item and be in view for t he custom er to read  o Food in jars should be air ti ght and using onl y prop er seali n g jars. Se ali ng rings and  lids shoul d not be reused. J ars should have a list of ingredi ents of the food, t he date made shown, and pla ce of producti on shown on th e label.  o A sign should be placed in view of customers on market day saying “THIS FOOD HAS BEEN PREPAR ED IN A KITCHE N THA T IS NOT INSP ECTED BY A REGULATORY AUTHORITY” o Vendors are not allowed to distribut e food sampl es to custom ers.  -  S A LE OF MEAT  o Vendors must subm it an appli cati on to sell food at the farm mark et to the local Environmental Healt h Officer at least 30 da ys be f ore  farmers ma rket. Ven dors must be able to produc e evide nce of app roval from the local Healt h Authorit y to the market coordin ator.   Vendors must also submi t a food safet y plan. For guidelines on how to write the plan see htt p:/ /www.bccdc.or g/do wnloads/pd f/fp s/reports/ EnsuringFoodS afet y -HAC C P W a y.pd f  o R aw meat products must be froz en and kept froz en unti l sol d to custom er.  o R aw meat products must be labeled and have th e foll owing information: pr ocessi ng plant, vendor conta ct inf o, product name, pa cka gi ng dat e an d noti ce to k ee p froz en.  -  A fami l y memb er livi ng with the farmer or an empl o ye e of the farme r ma y sell food at the market but must be able to answer qu esti ons about the farmin g proc ess and an y oth er questi ons asked b y custo mers.  -  Food must be protect ed from  contamination b y a cover – for ex ampl e plasti c wrappin g or a plasti c displ a y cov er  -  Food must be kept off th e ground at all tim es.  -  Food that needs to be kept refri ge rated or froz en must be transported and s old at market while refri gerat ed/froz en. Vendors must provide th eir own method of refri gerati on/fre ez ing. Vendors should have a th ermometer to ch eck temp eratur es throu ghout the market da y to ensure cool temp eratur es .   -  The Market Coordinato r has authorit y to ask that poor quali t y produ ce, pr e pared and pr ocessed food be remov ed from sale.  Social/Community -  P erformers and musician s mus t make an appli cati on to perform at the farm market. It is the musician’s responsibility to provide a sound system if needed. Musicians are not paid by the UBC Farm Ma rket b oa rd but are all owed to ask for contribut ions from custom ers. The market coordin ator has t he authorit y to ask musicians to leave if performa nce is unsuit able.  -  Dogs/pets are all owed at the market but must be kept on a leash.  25 -  Vendors are en coura ged to distri bute their own personal recip es, which hi ghli ght food that is in season.  Market Day Procedures -  The rin ging of a bell will officiall y open and close each Ma rket.  -  Vendors ma y not start sel li ng prior to the rin gin g of the bell ex cept to identified staff, on -sit e volunt eers or other vendors who sell at the Market.  -  Vendors should arrive no less than 30 minut es and no more than 2 hours pri or to the opening of a Market.  -  All vending equipm ent (awnings, t ables, etc.) and displ a ys are required to be assembled b y the  official openin g and remain assembled until the official closi ng, re gardl ess of weather, turn - out or bein g sold out. Vendors, who hav e sold out prior to the end, ma y place a si gn sa yin g, "sold out" in their stall if the y choos e to lea ve their stall. Ex cep ti ons to thi s rule ma y be request ed in writ ing and ma y be approv ed in ex tenuati ng circumst anc es onl y.  -  To respect custom ers, wh o ma y have arrived close to closi ng time, Vendors ma y conti nue sell ing to custom ers fo r an addit ional 10 minutes after the closi n g  bell has rung. After that time, vendors must acti vel y be packin g up their st all and ma y not en ga ge in an y further comm erce.  -  The market site must be clean and vac ated wit hin 1 hour after th e closi n g bell has run g.   Plan for the Future The incre ased lev els of residenti al and comm er cia l areas on South Campus will increase the pressure to dev elop UBC Farm, fo r which it is cur rentl y zoned.  Visi ble eff orts to maintain UBC Farm as a viable sour ce of educati on, food, and ec onomi c producti vit y are necessa r y to con ti nue UBC Farm’s survival in the near future.  The continued operation of a farm market at UBC Farm will assi st in the economi c sust ainabili t y of the far m, lessening the need fo r gr ants to keep the farm in operati on, while also p roviding a sou rce of local food for the new Sout h Campus communi t y.  Maintaining close contacts with other farmer’s markets, such as YLFMS, and listening to demand from market custom e rs, will help keep the fa rm market viable.  By establ ishi ng its place as a part of that comm unit y, U BC Fa rm wil l help ensure its own survival as a valuable component of the Land and Food S ystems Fa cult y, as well as the Unive rsit y of Britis h Col umbi a as a whole.  Recommendations to UBC Farm Although, at this point in tim e, UBC Fa rm Market will be unable to  joi n up with Your YLFMS , thi s option could be reev aluated in the fu ture.  In the meanti me UBC Fa rm Mark et shou ld 26 form a non -  pro fit or gani z ati on and in order to gu arante e the viabil it y of th e UBC farm as a non -profit organiz ati on we recomm end that a self - insu rance fund be establi shed as soon as the organiz ati on comes into ex ist ence.  A fund of thi s nature does not fall out of a non - profit’s ability to declare ze ro profit s pr ovided the appropri ate ac counti ng guidelines are foll owed (Fri edriech, 2007).  All potential insurance iss ues cannot be co vered unde r this report and we recomm end the UBC fa rm to contact a sp ecialist in the subj ect to provide an y addit ional inf ormation.  We also recomm end that UBC Fa rm Market adopt the poli cies that have been dr aw n up as  these will provide govern ance and basis for the ex tended far m set up in line with the guidi n g principl es of the Sustainable UBC Food S ys tem.  Recommendations to UBC students  With regards to our 2008 AGS C 450 coll ea gues, we recomm end that an ongoin g an al y sis of the operati ons of the far m market relatin g to the effe cti veness of the poli c ies drawn up in 2007, assum ing that a farm mar ket is in operati on at UBC Farm.  Areas that will require conti nued resea rch include pot enti a l parking - relat ed iss ues o n South Campus road, ef fecti ve methods of advertisi ng th e fa rm mar ket, and chan ges in la you t of the farm ma rket in the case of conti nued ex pansion .  An ongoin g anal ysis of the vendors providing produ cts at the farm market wil l ensur e the goods sol d at the far m con ti nue to be ecolo gi call y and sociall y sust ain able.  An economi c evaluation relatin g to the demand for certain p rodu cts related to the produ ce rs who ar e able to suppl y them will help the farm mark et continue to provide desirable product s for consum ers who a tt end the markets.  Conclusion In conclusi on, we feel th at the poli cies and recom mendati ons developed fr om our findi ngs will adequatel y addr ess the implementation of a farm market at UBC Farm .  Such a farm ma rket 27 will satisf y the guidi ng principl es for a Su stainabl e UBC Food S ystem, me et the ex cess local demand for farm fresh pr oduce in the Point Gre y area, while providing valuable addit ional rev enue to UBC Farm.  UBC Poli cies ar e amen able to the ex pansion of the current Farm Ma rket, whil e all owing sim il ar p roducts to the ones sol d currentl y at UBC will not advers el y aff ect their pr esent volum e of sales.  Result s of surve ys condu cted for both consumers and pote nti al vendors will all ow the farm mark et to devel op accordin g to cu rrent t astes with rega rds to spec ific products avail abl e at the market. Ult im atel y, a farm mark et, attracti ve to residents of the newl y developed Sout h Campus, will also help strengthen UBC Farm’s position on South Campus, in the face of increasing levels of developm ent.  References:  BC A ssociation of Farmers’ Markets (2007).  For Farmers’ Markets. Retrieved February 24,   2007 from  http:/ /www.bcfarm ersmark et.or g/web/ index .htm   BC Association of Farmers’ Markets (2007). Guidelines for the Sale of Foods at Temporary Food Mark ets http: // ww w.bcfa rmersmark et.or g/ web/pdf/foodsale guidelin es07.pdf   BC Association of Farmers’ Markets (2007). Constitutions and Bylaws. Retrieved March 19,   2007, from http:/ /www.bcfarm ersmark et.or g/web/ aboutus /b ylaws.ht m   Bomford. M. (2007 ).  Vancouver and UBC Foo d S ystems: Guest Speake rs .  UBC AGS C 450   March 21, 2007.   Canada Business (2007). Government of Can ada, Business Start - up Assis ta nt. Retrieved April 8   from http: // bsa.cbsc.or g/gol/ bsa/sit e.nsf/en/su0 68 03.htm l   Coquit lam Farmers Mark et (2006). Retriev ed  Mar ch 4, 2007 from http:/ /m akebak e grow.com   Food Protecti on Servic es (NA).  Guideli nes for writ ing a Food Sa fet y Plan. Retrieved Mar ch 6,   2007 from  http:/ /www.bccdc.or g/do wnloads/pd f/fps/reports/ EnsuringFoodS afet y - HA C C PW a y.pdf   Friedri ech, F. (2007).  Personal Intervie w wit h AMS president J eff Friedri ech.  March 2007.   Group 15 (2006).  UBCF FS ( 2006). Scen ario 1. Retrieved Febru ar y 3, 200 7 from   http:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a /S C R IP T/a gsc_450/s c ripts/ serve_home   28 Harris. C (2005). Canadian Underwriter, Canada’ s Insur anc e and Risk Ma gaz ine . Voluntary   Reaction. R etrieved from htt p:/ /www.canadianund erwriter. ca/ Issu es/ IS artic le.asp? id=162119&stor y_id=66638121426&iss ue=03012005&P C = &btac = no  laQua gli a, R. (2007). Va ncouver and UBC Food S ystems: Guest Speake rs .  UBC AGS C 450   March 21, 2007.   The co - op erators (2007).  Business.  R etrieved Ma rch, 2007 from   http:/ /www.cooperators. ca/en/busi ness/ 5_4_2.htm l   UBC Bo ard of Governo r s. (1997). “Commercial Enterprises on Campus” , Poli c y No. 98.   Approval Dat e J ul y 1977 .   UB C Food S ystem Proje ct (2006).  Retriev ed Mar ch 4, 2007 from   http:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ serve_home   UBC Web CT(2007).  Di scussi on -  farm sub group , March 29 t h  2007, retrie ved April 1, 2007   from  http:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a /S C R IP T/a gsc_45 0/sc ripts/ student/ serve_bull eti n? C OMP ILETHR EAD +2235   Whit e Rock Farmers Market (2007).  Poli cies – White Rock Farmers’ Market. Retrieved   Febru ar y 24, 2007 fo rm http:/ /www.whiterockfar mersmarket.c a/i ndex .php? pr=P oli cies   Your Local Fa rmers Mar ket (2007). Becomi n g a Vendor.  Retriev ed Febru ar y 24, 2007 from   http:/ /www.eatl ocal.or g/   Appendix A  Vendor Questionnaire  1)  Are you awar e that the UBC Farm hosts a Farmers Market on Saturda ys?  2)  At the farme rs markets you currentl y att end, ho w much of your produ ce ar e you able to sell? (Kg, fr acti on of tot a l produce? )  3)  Are you int er ested in co mi ng out to the UBC Far mers Market to sell your products? Wh y or wh y not?  4)  P resentl y, the UBC mark et is held on Saturda ys from 9 am to 1 pm. Does thi s time slot work for you? If no t, wh at da y would work best for you?  5)  W hich products and wha t vol ume do you esti mate you could suppl y to the UBC Farmers market?  6)  W hat is the siz e of the stall you are uti li z ing at the farm ers mark et you ar e currentl y att ending? Small (6X7)? Medium (10X20)? Lar ge (16X20)?  7)  If there ar e volunt eers av ail able, would you be int erested in havin g them help you du ring the market hours?  8)  Do you thi nk $25 -  $30 i s a reason able starti n g rate to be a vendo r at a farm er 's mark et?      29 Appendix B  UBC FARM MARKET SURVEY (*n ote: the su rve y below is a condense d version of the actual surve y due to pa ge const r aint s)  The UBC Farm is consid ering ex panding its Satur da y M arket, and would like to assess the desirabil it y to their valu e d custom ers.  1. How often do you visit the UBC Market Garden between June and October? - Fr equentl y?  Occasional l y?  In frequ entl y?  Othe r ?   2. Which of the following do you consider yourself to be?  -  a UBC under gr aduate student, a UBC gr aduate student, a UBC staf f mem ber, a UBC facult y member or inst ru ctor, a UBC alum ni, a Universit y resident, not directl y af filiated with the Universit y, othe r   3. Please indicate whether you are Not Interested, Mildly Interested, Somewhat Interested, Very Interested, N/A in purchasing the following products:  -  Produce,  Me at, Seafood , Cheese, Baked Goods, Prepared foods, Crafts, S ervices   4. Farmers markets promote local products, not all of which are organic. Would you continue purchasing from the UBC Farm Market if other vendors were local but not organic?  - Yes, No or N/A   5. Please rate each of the following factors (Not important, Somewhat important, Very important, Extremely important, N/A) on how important they are when shopping at a farmer's market.  - C onvenience, Quali t y/ F reshness, Unusual/ divers e varieti es, Qu anti t y fro m which to choose, Price , In season, Gro wn at the UBC Farm, Grown in the Low er Mainl and, Grown in BC, Fr ee of pesti cide residues, Free of gen eti c modi ficati o n, Has or gani c certifi cati on.   6. Are you willing to pay a higher premium for higher quality, more sustainable, local and/or organic products? -  Yes, No, N/A   7. Our Farmer’s Market is currently held on a Saturday. We are considering changing the day of our Market in order to accommodate our vendors. What other days (besides Saturday) would you like to come (check all that apply): -  Monda y, Tuesda y, Wed nesda y, Thursda y, F rid a y from 3pm to 7pm  -  Sunda y from 9am to 2p m, Other   8. Would you be interested in attending activities at the UBC Farm Market, such as barbeques, face painting, etc on a regular basis? -  Yes, No, N/A   9. Is/are there anything specific that you would like to see at the UBC Farm in the near future? If so, please list them.  30                                                               i  Can appl y at bot h Provincial or Feder al Levels for tax ex cepti ons and deducti bles.  i i  If the y ar e of a certain siz e, the y are required to di sclose man y det ail s of th eir oper ati ons to the gen eral publ ic and to state re gulators and watchdo g agencies usin g IRS for m 990  (e. g. salar y to empl o ye es, divide its ex penses into "fun cti onal cat ego ries " --  pro gram, adm ini strati on and fund -raisi ng --  and report the total s for ea ch alon g with the amount s ex pended on each pro gram acti vit y).  i i i  A not - for - p rofit enti t y ca n incorporate eit her feder all y or provinciall y, depe nding on the scop e of its stated purpose and pro posed acti vit ies. Each jur isdi cti on has its own legisl ati o n for the incorporati on of not - fo r - profit organiz ati ons, and its own approval proc ess. Not - for - p rofit enti ti es incorporati n g fed er all y under the Canad a Corpora ti ons Act must appl y to the fede ral Minist er of Indust r y to issue letters patent to the corporation (LPC). LPC or articles of inc. and the b ylaws establi sh elements of the corporat e govern ance, which paramet ers are estab li shed by each jurisdi cti on.   i v  AGSC 450 – Group 15, 2006  v  The UBC farm market does not qualify under the definition of “Voting Member” because it requires a market to “operate for 2 or more hours per day for a minimum of 4 markets per year.” vi  For ex ampl e of insuran c e rates wit h the business secti on of the co-operators websit e see: htt p:/ /www.cooperators.c a/en/busi ness/ 5_4_2.htm l  vii I f in the future, the UBC farmer’s market considers registration as a “Farmer’s Market” under the BCFMA b y - l aws, UBC farm must then provi de indi vidual vendor cov era ge.  “Moral hazard or morale hazard” refers to the change in behaviour that results in the tra nsfer of risk from the insured to the in surer. In thi s case vendo r s are likel y to behav e les s care full y if th e immediate insurance costs from high insu r ance cla im rates is weight ed on UBC Farm rath er than on the indivi dual vendor itself.   

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