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Promoting education, awareness, and participation in composting at UBC Get Caught Composting Archambault, Carmen Faye; Pan, Connie; Yang, Christina; Hayward, Irene; Leung, Helen; Choy, Colin; Tam, Catherine Apr 14, 2006

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Promoting Education, Awareness, and Participation in Composting at UBC Get Caught Composting Carmen Faye Archambault, Connie Pan, Christina Yang, Irene Hayward, Helen Leung, Colin Choy, Catherine Tam  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 14, 2006           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.          Promoting Education, Awareness, and Participation in Composting at UBC Get Caught Composting                                                 AGSC450 April 14th, 2006     Group 2  Carmen Faye Archambault Connie Pan Christina Yang Irene Hayward Helen Leung Colin Choy Catherine Tam  1  ABSTRACT  The incepti on of an In-ve ssel Compos ti ng Facil it y on the Universit y of Briti sh Colum bia (UBC ) campus has created a nee d to evaluate cu rrent init iatives and incr ease the awaren ess, educ ati on, and participati on of compos ti ng throu gh proposed recomm endati ons. Since its int roducti on in 2004, the facil it y has fac ed man y chall en ges inclu ding contamination and low volumes of compos t bin contents. Review of literatur e indi cat ed that students did not trul y underst and the significan ce of sustain abil it y and felt that the mess ages put forth b y the Uni versit y and the correspondi n g acti ons were often inconsist ent.  Fir st yea r students we re gen erall y found to be more open to sustainabil it y than late r yea rs, henc e we decid ed to t ar get this group. In addit ion, thi s group would be educ ated and equipp ed to make an impact on the UBC campus for their remaining ye a rs and go on to impact future studen ts. The philos ophies of comm unit y-b ased social marketi n g were ap pli ed to design a campus wide Get Cau ght Compos ti ng campai gn, which would re co gniz e students compost ing and provide an incenti ve, thu s increasin g awar eness and participati on. This campaign would require co ll aborati on with UBC Waste Mana gement (UBC W M), UBC Reside nce Sustainabil it y Coordi nators and futur e AGS C 450 groups, and would ideall y be launch e d during Im a gine UBC and at the first ye a r reside nces. Other recomm endati ons includ e great er own ership and visi bil it y of compos t bins , more information post ers, educati on and t raini ng. The UBC Food S ystem Project (UBC FS P ) is repres entative of the global food s ystem, h ence our work se rves as a model which can be stu died and appli ed globall y.  INTRODUCTION  The purpose of this pap er is to anal yz e the cu rrent degree of particip ati on in the compos ti ng pro gr am on UBC campus and to prov ide recomm end ati ons on how to improve the program.  The In-vess el Compos ti ng Facil it y at UBC was int roduc ed to pr omot e campus waste reducti on and create a cl osed loop, sustainable fo od s ystem (U BC W M, 2006).  Since its launch in 2004, the  compos ti ng unit has faced m an y chall enges, includi ng low co mpos t vol ume, contamination, and lack of consum er awar eness.  Our workin g team h as be en asked to ex ami ne these problems, desi gn educati onal tools, and pro vide recomm end ati o ns to stakeholders to encoura ge campus partici pati on in compost ing (se e Appendix 1 for list of stakeholders).  We have dev eloped acti vit ies using a comm unit y-bas e d social marketi n g appro ach, and have de cided to target the first ye ar stu dent popul ati on.  We feel that providi ng earl y ex posure to sustainabil it y ini ti ati ves will help shape the future of the UBC food s ystem.    2  This paper wil l start with a discussi on of our assi gned problem definiti on foll owed by ou r refle cti ons on the Visi on Statement and the 7 Guid ing Principl es dev eloped by the previous five ye a rs of work on the UBC Food S ystem Project (UBC FS P ) b y our coll ea gues.  We will then describe the compos ti ng s ystem at UBC, repo rt our findi ngs and discuss our campai gn propos al and its correspondi n g ed uc ational materials.  To conclude, we will present our working team’s central findings and positions.  Our group’s recommendations will be addressed specifically to stakeholders invo lved in the compos ti ng sc enario as well as to future AGS C 450 coll eagu es.  Finall y, we will re flect o n the linkages betwe en the UBC FS P and the glob a li z ed food s ystem. PROBLEM DEFINITION The In-vess el Compos ti ng Facil it y was created ou t of publi c conce rn over the long te rm environmental ef fects of soli d organic waste dispo sal and over- consum pti on of resour ces that are associated wit h incr easin g population densit y.  Th e facil it y compos ts pre - and post -consum er food scraps su ch as kitch en waste and m eal remna nts.  Paper plates, cups, t owels and napkins , and ya rd wastes like leav es and twi gs are also coll ected fo r compos ti ng (UBC W M, 2006). The gre atest chall en ge the In -vess el Compos ti ng Facil it y Program has fac ed is the contamination of the co mpos t bins.  The non -compos table items most often found in green bins include st yro foam, plasti c ba gs, cutler y, pl ates, glass bott les, juice box es, milk cartons, metal cans and mirro rs (U BC W M, 2006).  Man y of th ese items can dama ge the machine, which can lead to signific ant rep air costs .  The quali t y of the final compost product, which is used as fe rtili z er and for the prev enti on of soil moist ure loss , can be comp romised by the presen ce of the above items (U BC W M, 2006).  UBCW M has als o ex pressed conce rn re ga rding the appar ent lack of awa reness about the compos ti ng pro gram on campus as demonstrated by low compos t levels.    UBCW M states that it is will ing to increas e the frequenc y of pick up; how e ver, the level o f  3  organic wast es found in compos t bins on campus must increase from its present low volume to be economi c all y viable. Our group feels that the problems and the associ a ted chall en ges fac ed b y UBCW M are compl ex iss ues to address because th e remedi es invo lve personal lifest yle change and awar eness of environmental responsibility.  We believe that “behavior change is most effectively achieved through ini ti ati ves delive red at the comm unit y lev el which focus on removi ng ba rriers to an activity while simultaneously enhancing the activities benefits” (McKenzie -Mohr and Smi th 1).  Thus, our recomm end ati ons for the stakeholde rs and the educati onal tools we have designed are meant t o deli ver edu cati o n at the comm unit y level to increase campus aw ar eness and participati on, decr eas e co ntamination and eventuat e in high compos t levels.    CONNECTION TO THE GLOBAL FOOD SYSTEM One of the major chall en ges fac ed b y t he global food s ystem is the accum ulation of landfil l waste.  The ke y problems associated with l andfill s are that the y op er ate on potenti all y valuable lands and poll ut e the surroundin g ecos ystem (Christ enson and Coz z arell i, 2003).  For ex ampl e, toxi c compo unds from the landfil ls leac h int o the soil and groun dwater causin g contamination to these s ystems (Christ enson and Cozz arell i, 2003).  Additi onall y, garb a ge tru cks transporting waste to lan dfil ls often come from m unicipali ti es far from the sit es (Christ en son and Cozz arell i, 2003).  These long trips produc e a si gn ificant amount of ex haust, further cont ributi ng to ecos yst em pol lut ion (Christ enson and Coz z arell i, 2003).  UBC is facin g sim il ar problems.  The compos ti ng s ystem was created to m ini mi z e waste, pro mot e a sust ainable clo sed loop food system, an d combat waste probl ems that hum an densit y tends to creat e.  Howev er , the system was conf ronted with obstacles since it s incepti on.  This scenario provid ed us with an opportuni t y to tackl e these local and perso n a l chall en ges, plan  4  comm unit y acti ons, and creat e chan ges toward th e sust ainabili t y of the UBC Food S ystem.  We beli eve that the global fo od s ystem would likel y face sim il ar ch all en ges as UBC, if the nati onal or global s ystem were to int roduce sim il ar com pos ti ng pro gr ams.  Our su ggested strate gies here can be uti li z ed as a mode l for other inst it uti ons or comm unit ies.  The model can also be evaluated and refined b y int erest groups to suit their goals and objecti ves re ga rding th e sust ainabili t y of their ow n food s ystem.   VISION STATEMENT AND VALUE ASSUMPTIONS  The “Vision for the UBCFSP” is directed towards the creation of a sustainable food system that will “protect and enhance the diversity and quality of the ecosystem and to improve social equity” (Rojas, 2006).  In order to achieve this goal, “7 Guiding Principles” have been coll aborated upon for the past five yea rs b y forme r AGSC 450 coll ea gues and stakeholders in the project.  To make ou r pro ject accessi ble to the dive rse comm unit ies at UBC and be yond, our group has chosen to fo cu s on the 7 Guiding Princi ples written in plain language versus acad emi c jargon (see Appendix 2).  The 7 Guiding Principl e s construct a romanticiz e d ideal of the Food S ystem in terms of ecologic al, economi cal and so cial sust ainab il it y. Whil e our group has identified the importance of this vision, we also concurred th at their over all achievem ent might not be reali sti c.  As a gro up of seven uppe r ye ar st udents from the Facult y of Land and Food S ystems in the capston e course on Lan d, Food an d Com muni t y (A GSC 450), we reali z e that our biases hav e influen ced how we hav e appro ache d thi s scenario.  We beli eve that locall y grown, produc ed and pro c essed foods shoul d be str ived for, but due to the seasonalit y an d cli mate depende nce of foods as well as our accu stom ed liking for diverse foods and nut rien t needs, an enti r el y lo cali z ed s ystem would be diff icult to achieve.  As a  5  group, we feel that in ord er to provide ethni c all y diverse, cult urall y acc epta ble foods, it would be necessa r y to impor t certa in foods that are not av ail able locall y.    We feel that the celebrati on of food is what bui lds strong comm unit y ties.  The Facult y of Land and Food S ystems i s a leade r in this form of comm unit y buil ding arou nd food as demons trated throu gh the gro wi ng su ccess o f the Ago ra Caf é, oper ated b y Food, Nutrit ion and Healt h students, as well as Wednesda y Night BBQ s host ed by the Land and Food S ystems Under gr aduate Societ y.  Not onl y do these ini ti ati ves cre ate social sust aina bil it y, but the y are also a part of the shift aw a y from the dep enden ce on fast foods towards an appreci ati on of slow foods.    Our group is passi onate about the developm ent of a closed loop food s yste m wherein our immediate food choices on campus impact onl y t he land that we use.  By hand li ng the waste that the UBC campus produc es, less transportati on is required to and from the campus , which in turn promot es ecolo gical sus t ainabili t y.  With a closed loop s ystem, the univers it y population is more accountabl e and responsi ble for their indi v idual impacts to the land rathe r than through the reall ocati on of waste and its impacts on other environments.    The one addit ion that we would suggest towa rds the producti on of a sust ain able food s ystem is throu gh the con siderati on of the food ins ecurit y iss ues such as tho se who depend upon food ba nks.  In fact, the number of people who visi t food banks in Britis h Col umbi a has increas ed b y 16% betw ee n 2003 and 2004, and me mbers of the UBC population are not ex empt from this increase (Barbo let et al. 22).  Within the Guiding Principl es we would like the inclusi on that pe ople at all times should be able to obtain food in a manner that upholds human dignit y.    6  DATA COLLECTION AND KEY FINDINGS I. Secondary Sources  The inst all ati on of the In - vessel Compos ti ng Fa cil it y can be se en as an init ia ti ve in conjunction wit h the five - ye ar pl an that the Unive rsit y has outli ned in their document produced by the UBC Sustainability Office (UBCSO) entitled ‘Sustainability at UBC 2005 -10:  Inspi r ati on and Aspirati ons:  The Cam pus Strategy and YOU’.  Through this document, UBC has demons trated that it is commi tt ed to the developm ent of a campus that is ecologicall y, economi call y and soci all y sust ainable (UBC S O, 2005).  This can onl y be achieved throu gh the participati on of the enti r e campus population.    UBC produc es an av er a ge of 1900 tonnes of compos table waste each ye ar, which is equivalent to 70% of the tot al waste gene rated on campus (U BC W M, 2006).  In respons e to the large wast e levels that ca n be diverted from cit y l a ndfi ll s, Wastefree UBC was develope d as an ini ti ati ve by environment all y con cern ed dep artme nts to raise campus aw ar eness of waste producti on (UBC W M, 2006).  The primar y go al of Wastefre e UBC is fo c used upon providi ng information and educ ati on on campus compos t ing to students, staff and fac ult y throu gh workshops, displa ys, p ro mot ional materials and tours of the In -v essel Compos ter.  By wo rking with the In -vessel Compos ter Fa cil it y, Wastefr ee UBC has be en succ essful in the diversion of compos table waste from land fills and the creati on of a closed -loop s ystem wherein the finished compos t is used in campus landscapin g (U BC W M, 2006).  In Feb ruar y of 2005, the UBCS O publis hed five reports on their res ear ch conducted wit h UBC students regardin g sust ainabili t y awa reness and practi c es on campus .  The barri ers to compos ti ng that were det ermined throu gh these reports included laz iness, insufficient aw aren ess, inabili t y to und erstand pe rsonal conne cti on and lac k of incenti ve (U BC S O, First Yea r and  7  Graduate, 200 5).  The stu dents of UBC hav e found that sust ainabili t y educat ion is complex and that the overload of info r mation has had the adve r se aff ect of creati ng me a ningless messa ges (UBC S O, Fou rth Ye ar an d Graduate, 2005).  Unfo rtunatel y, in formation co mi ng from con cern ed departm ents of the Univ e rsit y is often contr adictor y and l ack coh esion (U BC S O, Graduate, 2005).  In orde r to raise t he levels of participati on on campus , sti ckers and post ers wer e found to be the most influenti al prompt s in behaviour chan ge alt hough it is also ne c essar y fo r the messa ge to be deli vered in hip ma nner that appe al to the co mm ercializ ed world (U BC S O, May 2005 and Graduate, 200 5).   In order to ap peal to the student population, the phil osophi es behind communi t y-bas ed social marketi n g, a str ate g y that incorpo rates the phil osophi es of the tradit ional marketi n g world at the comm unit y level, can be most eff ecti ve.  Co mm unit y-b ased soci al marketi n g demons trates that through the removal of barrie rs that distract fr om a desired beh aviour, t he benefits from th e acti vit y are enh anc ed (M cKenz ie -Mohr an d Smi th 1).  As discover ed b y the UBCS O student focus groups, barriers inc lude lack of knowled ge, non -supportive att it udes, absence of mot ivation and lack of co nvenience and af fordabil i t y (Mc Kenz ie -Mohr and Smi th 1).  The most effe cti ve tool s towards th e creati on of beh aviour change ar e comm it ment, prompt s, social norms, clear comm unicati on and incenti ves (McK enz ie - Mohr and Smi th 3-6).  The primar y goal of comm unit y-bas ed social marketi ng is ground ed in the formation of beh aviour chan ge rathe r than on the imm e diate creati on of awa reness o r att it ude chan ge (McK enz ie -Mo hr and Smi th 1).  Our goal in thi s project is to u ti li z e the principles of comm unit y-b ased soci al marketi n g in the developm ent of a campu s -wide compos ti n g camp aign (to be discussed in further detail).   Beginni n g in the sprin g of 2002, former AGS C 450 coll ea gues recomm end ed the developm ent of compos ti ng ini ti ati ves, such as po sters, composti ng wo rkshops, and compos t bin  8  dispo sal at South Campus, which our group has s e en implemented throu gh our residenc e housi n g stake-outs and prim ar y research (Barcl a y et al. 7).  Coll eagues from Spring 2003 creat ed a ‘sustainability continuum on waste reduction’ that aimed to have 81 -100 % of waste compos ted on site and that the methane emi ssi ons produced are coll e cted fo r use as bi ogas (Chen g et al. 10).  The r ese ar ch conduct ed by groups 12, 16 and 18 in Spring 2004 focus ed upon the overa rchin g goal of a sust ainable cam pus, but group 12 had th e recomm endati on of usin g M y Und er gr aduate Group (MUG ) leade rs as a method of cr eati n g aw a reness and participati on among first - ye ar students (AGS C 450 Groups 12 9).  MUG lead ers are uppe r ye ar, student le aders who are assi gned a small group of new and first ye ar stude nts during campus or ient ati on (to be discussed in further detail).  AGSC 450 coll ea gues from Spring 2005 review ed compo sti ng ini ti ati ves that have be en succ essful in Vancouve r and Can ada, as a whole that, UBC cou ld use as models (Anami et al. and Au et al.). CENTRAL FINDINGS:  STAKE-OUT P URP OSE From our literatu re revie w, especiall y the focus gr oup reports, we found that first ye ar students were mor e open to learning iss ues su rrou nding sust ainabili t y.  Hence, we decided to target first ye ar students in our stud y be caus e these students would continue to be on campus for a few mor e ye ars.  Fi rst year students are abl e to impact the foll owing ye a r s of students re gardin g sust ainabili t y iss ues whic h reinforc es a soci all y su stainable c ycle.  In orde r for us to gain an understandin g of the lev e l of compos ti ng edu cati o n currentl y bein g given to first ye ar students, we conta cted UBC Im a gi ne and UBC Residence S ustainabil it y Coordin ator s (REZS C ), as well as conducted lunch -ti me stake-outs at the first ye a r residenc es, Place Vanie r and Tote m Park.   9  We hoped that by gaini ng an und erstandin g of cur rent compost ing ini ti ati ves, we could improve and ex pand upon what ha s alread y been establi she d.  DES IG N  Our stake-outs involved observati ons of the usa ge levels of the compos t bins and the gen eral behaviours of stu dents, such as wheth er th e y compos ted cor rectl y.  We chose to conduct our stake-outs at the Plac e Vanier and Totem Park residenc e ca fete rias beca use these ar eas h ave a high er con centr ati on of first ye ar students, and t hese locati ons alr ead y ha ve establi shed compos t collecti on sites.  We also randoml y surv e ye d stude nts to gain a bet ter understandin g of their knowled ge about co mpos ti ng and mot ivations .  From these qu esti ons, we hoped the students would identi f y barriers and provide su gge sti on s for improvement.  We conducted four stake-outs of the Plac e Vanier cafet eria durin g the week of March  9th – 14th, 2006 at the lunch hour between 11 am – 1 pm. Approx im atel y 200 s tudents visit ed the cafete ria ea ch da y fo r lunch and we surv e yed app rox im at el y 90 of th em.  We also observed the situati on at Totem caf eteria and noti ced that the site was ver y sim il ar to the Place Vanier caf eteria.  Th e stake -out questi onnaire is included in the appendix (see Ap pendix 3). RESU LTS At the Place Vani er residence caf eteria, the re is a compos t collecti on site which consi sts of separ ated bins cle arl y colour coded for the disp osal of gl ass bot tl es, pop cans, compos table waste, and non- compos ta ble waste.  Lar ge illust rat ed post ers that depict the items which can be placed in each bin are loc ated above th e openin g.  The locati on of thi s com post coll ecti on site is strate gic such that wh en students are ex it ing or returning their pl ates to the dishwasher, the y would pass b y the site.  From our observati ons and surve y result s, we found that most students have  a gener al idea of what compost ing is.  Abou t half of the students surv e ye d knew about the  10  compos ti ng pro gr am at UBC, mainl y bec ause the y kne w that there was a compos t collecti on site at the Place Vanier reside nce cafete ria .  The re wer e a few students who als o knew about the program throu gh friends, or from an info rmati on booth set up b y UBCW M in the residenc e comm on block.  Most students compos ted when th ere was an av ail able com post bin and most of them knew what to comp ost by looki ng at post ers that were avail able.  This was clea rl y observ ed during our st ake-outs as most students would use the information on the po sters above the bins to determi ne what to pla ce i n them.  There were som e students who indi cated that the y also compos ted at hom e.   Some internal barrie rs to compos ti ng that students addressed wer e inconven ience, la ck of knowledge about wh at to compos t, lack of init iative/incenti ve, odour and hygien e.  Lin e -ups someti mes formed when there were too man y peo ple and thi s discoura ged some people from compos ti ng, but gene rall y peopl e wer e will ing to spend some time at the compos t bins.  The main ex ternal barrier th at students identi fied was the lack of avail able compos t bins.  Hence, most students felt that the best wa y to promot e co mpos ti ng was to incre ase the avail abil it y of compos t bins along with informative posters.  Mo st people who used the compos t bins compos ted properl y.  Co mm on items which could have be en compos ted bu t were dispo sed of inst ead include pape r nap k ins and bones.  Some items that were imprope rl y placed in the compos t bin were plasti c utensil s, chopsti cks and milk cartons.  Although it was obse rve d that man y students wer e compos ti ng durin g our stake -outs, the REZS C stated that it was not consist ent th roughou t the acad emi c ye a r. Fr o m the int erview (se e Appendix 7), we found that first ye ar students w e re int roduced to compos ti ng durin g the first mont h via posters and post er tents, but it is not a part of the residenc e orient ati on. Students were  11  found to compos t less fre quentl y earl y in the acad emi c ye ar, ho weve r this improved nea r the end of the semester. From these result s, it is evident that students would compos t as long as the y are awar e of avail able bins and the inf ormation that indicates the corr ect compos ti n g pro cedures. Although compos ti ng educ ati on is not specificall y addr esse d during Im a gine UBC, the first ye a r coordinator was open to this possi bil it y for the nea r future if we ar e able to propose an acti on plan, as we found from o ur int erview (s ee App end ix 6). Besides educati on, compos t bins shoul d be placed in a locati on which is plainl y visi ble an d convenient. Fo r ex ampl e, the locati on of the compos t bins in the Student Union Buil ding (SUB) are not ve r y practi cal because th e y ar e not ver y noti ceabl e and the re are man y garba ge cans avail able befo re one would be able to reach a compos t bin. The post ers should be att racti ve and show as much of the comm onl y consum ed items as possi ble wit hout creati n g too much clut te r. It is important to incr ea se awa r eness o f compos ti ng and its bene f it s because often it impos sibl e to provide compos t bins ever ywhe re and students need to know the reason wh y the y shoul d compos t so that the y can make a ch an ge in their behaviour and conti nue to compost in the future.  GET CAUGHT COMPOSTING Our first recomm endati o n for UBCW M and/or UBCS O is to implement a campus wide campai gn that we have developed in orde r to pro mot e participati on in co mpos ti ng on campus .  The “Get Caught Composting” campaign is targeted to be implemented at the beginni ng of each acad emi c yea r.  In ord er to directl y invol ve first ye ar students, the camp aign will be int roduced during acti vit ies associat ed with Im a gine UBC as well as durin g orientatio n int o the first and second yea r resid ences, P lace Vanier and Totem Park (to be discuss ed in fu rther detail).  In  12  addit ion, some of the other re comm endati ons we have dev eloped wil l help to educate the targeted populati on how to compost correctl y and reasons wh y it is bene ficial.  The adve rtisi ng for th e campaign wil l consist of the presen ce of lar ge post ers in the vicinit y of publi c compo st coll ecti on sites, most notabl y in the SUB to h av e the widest acc essi bil it y to the enti re student popul ati on.  We have att a ched a draft of a post er in the appendices (see Appendi x 4).  Throughout the sch ool ye ar voluntee rs, ideal l y from Wastef ree UBC, will “stake- out” these collection bins at unspecified times to catch people composting corre ctl y.  Once cau ght, t he participant wil l receiv e a butt on that promot es the campai gn (s ee Ap pendix 4) and will also be enter ed int o a draw to win a lar ge r priz e (ie. iPod, Bookst ore gift certific ate, etc ) to be aw a rded at the end of the aca demi c ye ar.  The Get Cau ght Compos ti ng camp aign has been developed alon g the com muni t y based social marketi n g principl es.  This campai gn provi des an incenti ve to pa rtic ipate in the desirable behaviour (i.e. compos ti ng) becaus e it awa rds parti cipants with reco gnit ion.  The campai gn also removes bar riers to comp osti ng as man y of the stu dents in past focus group s ( UBC S O, 2005) have cit ed that the la ck of reco gnit ion in an acti vit y has created an int e rnal barrier to participati ng in sustainab il it y acti vit ies such as co mpos ti ng.  A small amount of funding will be required fo r th e implementation of the campaign in order to purch ase the adv ertisi ng mate rials, such as the suggest ed post ers and pins .  A budget fo r post ers and pins has be en att ached (s ee App endix 5).  The rem ainder of th e campai gn has be en designed without the nee d for monetar y input as volunt eers ar e used fo r the educati onal and “catching” portions of the campaign.  MUG leaders will be used to educate people about the campai gn at Ima gin e UBC events, and residen ce s ustainabil it y volunt e ers will serve the same  13  purpose at resid ence orie ntations .  Future AGS C s tudents ma y be int e rested in vol unteering to catch peopl e compos ti ng through Wastef ree UBC.   IMAGINE UBC Ima gin e UBC is a pro gra m designed to ori ent new and first yea r students to the campus and its acti vit ies on the first da y of the academi c year. We bel iev e that holdi ng an int roducti on to compos ti ng durin g the fir st week campus acti vit ies, particularl y durin g Im a gine UBC, would help to address the la ck of knowled ge about compost ing on campus .  Since we have chosen fi rst ye a r students as ou r tar ge t popul a ti on, Ima gine UBC presents an ideal oppor tuni t y to rea ch thi s group.  Imagine UBC’s and our objectives are in line as both focus on student orientation to the campus .  Com post ing ed ucati on can be ef fecti vel y incorpo rated into man y Ima gin e UBC acti vit ies includi ng the orientati on and MUG game s.  Introdu cin g students to compos ti ng ea rl y in their universit y ex perienc e will help shape student s int o responsi ble global cit iz ens who view compos ti ng and waste re ducti on as a standard practi ce.  Students will be give n a short int roducti on to the concept of compos ti ng by their MU G leaders.  Du rin g the orien tation, the MUG leade r would point out the chara cterist ics of compos t bins and help his/her gro up to reco gniz e these bin s.  He/she should also point out the material s that can be pla ced in thes e bins and briefl y ex plain wh y it is important to prevent bin contamination.  An opportuni t y shoul d also be pro vided for students to sign up to receive th e electronic compos ti ng an d rec ycli n g ne wslett er, The Rind , put out by UBC W M.   Knowing wh er e or ganic waste drop -o ff sit es are l ocated is important to minim iz ing barriers to compos ti ng.  Orientati on games can be uti li z ed to fami li ariz e students wit h compos t bin locati ons as well as to other conc epts of sust ainabili t y.  A scav en g e r hu nt would be an appropriate game fo r this purpose.  In thi s game, each MUG group will be required to collect  14  stamps on a “sustainability passport” from a variety of locations which would include the environmentall y const ruc ted C.K. Choi buil ding, compo st coll ecti on sites, a fair trad e cof fee locati on, amongst othe r areas.  To en cour a ge pa rticipati on in this game, the gam e could be held in a competit ive manner, or a monetar y priz e incen ti ve might be used.  Focu s groups conducted by the Sustainabil it y Offi ce in past yea rs have id e nti fied economi c incenti v es as an effe cti ve tool to promot e compos ti ng (UBC S O, 2006).   To help students learn to dist inguish between compos table and non -compos table waste, a rela y race shoul d be in cluded in the MUG games where st udents are asked to sort a number of waste materi als b y cate gor y.  Th ree cate go ries of waste materi als woul d be used in this game: compos table, re c yclable, and non -compos table-no n -rec yc lable waste.  Fo r sanit ar y re asons, it ma y be desirabl e to use plastic mimi cs or flashcar ds of waste mate rials.  Time penalt ies wil l be iss ued for ea ch wast e ma terial placed in inapp ropr iate bins and winners wil l be determi ned b y fastest tim e and/or hi ghe st accur ac y of sorti n g. RECOMMENDATIONS UBC Waste Mana gemen t We are aw ar e that UBC W M has reservati ons abo ut increasin g the number of publi c acc ess compost bins beca use of the risk of contamination (J ackson, 2006).  For thi s reason, we are not recomm endin g th e addit ion of an y new bin s at this time.  Instead, we recomm end th at the y coll aborate with the UBCS O and Ima gin e UBC to impl ement the campaigns and acti vit ies previous l y described to h elp remove some of th e int ernal bar riers first.  If lower levels of contamination are s een and higher levels of partic ipation are evident, the y ma y then wish to consi der sett ing up mo re coll ecti on sites.  Howeve r, some recomm end ati ons to improve the current coll ecti on sites ma y be consi de red.  For ex ampl e, making th e sit es more visi ble wit h  15  post ers and using sim il ar setups as seen in residenc es ma y be ben eficial.  It would also be beneficial to mini mi z e the moti on of compos t bins because people frequentl y revisi t the same locati ons.  Thus, if the locati on of the bins is chan ged, people ma y not be able to find them and would resort to garb a ge bins .   UBC Residenc e Sustainabil it y Coordinator Pro gra m Residences are a ke y pla ce in which to edu cate st udents on sust ainabili t y.  Currentl y, students in residences do not receive an y orientatio n surrounding sust ain abil it y conc epts (Best, 2006).  Our recomm endations are for the REZSC’s to work directly with Residence Life Mana gers to provid e the m wit h sust ainabili t y edu cati on so that the y m a y incorporat e it int o future orientations of stu dents.   Ima gin e UBC  With alm ost 5000 students beginni n g their studi es at UBC each ye ar, it wo uld be effe cti ve if the compos ti ng pro grams we re int rod uced on the first da y of school.  We would like to recomm end for Ima gi ne UBC to impl ement the Get Cau ght Compos ti ng and Im a gine UBC acti vit ies.   AGSC 450 Coll eagues In order to buil d on our work and that of curr ent and former coll ea gu es we have developed a numb er of suggesti ons for future projects that ma y incr ease aw areness o f and participati on in compost ing on campus .  First, the developm ent of tool s and methods that would measure lev els of compo sti ng participati on and amount s of contamination wil l be beneficial for moni toring succ ess.  Bas e measur ements can be ta ken befor e the impl emen tation of an y str ate gic plan to increas e compos ti ng and again after the pr ogr am is complete or und erwa y.  This d ata can be used  to assess the eff e cti veness of the pro gram in questi on.  Some measurements to consi der  16  are volum e of output of the compos t final product ; percenta ge of compos table garba ge sent to landfil ls which can be cal culated b y condu cti ng ra ndom mini -waste audit s (Universit y of Waterloo, 2004), levels o f green bin contamination, and att it ude chan ges toward compos ti n g.  Another task that may hold value in the coming year is to assess student’s receptiveness to the Get Caught Comp osti ng campai gn and to the acti vit ies at Ima gine UBC.  Fo cus groups or surve y s shoul d be condu cted to see wh at the popu lation thinks about the strate gies and wh ether or not their att it udes or behaviours about compost ing hav e chan ged aft er th e y participated in th e acti vit ies.  This will be an important step to see if the strate gies are use ful and whether or not the y need to be reev aluat ed and revis ed.    Another important area of work will be to continu e workin g towards bringi ng the In -vessel Compos ti ng Fa cil it y t o full functi onal capa cit y.  One wa y to do this ma y be to seek ne w populations to target and to involve in compos ti ng ini ti ati ves on campus .  There are sev er al residenti al nei ghbourhoo ds on or around campus that could be involved, fo r ex ampl e, the Chancell or Blvd area, or Fairview/ Acadia nei ghbo urhood.  Man y of the foo d service establi shments on campus are likel y to produc e lar ge amount s of organic waste there fore,  th ese organiz ati ons are prime candidates to involve in compos ti ng.  Their participati on coul d lead to significant d ecr eases in campus waste. LINKAGES BETWEEN UBCFSP AND GLOBALIZED FOOD SYSTEM The non -ficti on work Fo od Wars: The Global Batt le for Mout hs, Minds and Markets b y Tim Lan g and Michael Heasman dete rmined that the glob al food s ystem is re achin g a critical stage of food crisis and that it is becomi ng incr eas ingl y unsust ainable.  In response to thi s sit uati on, the UBCFS P was developed.  In orde r to understand the role of th e UBC FS P in relation to the glob al foo d s ystem, ther e must be a more elabor ate unde rsta nding of the curr ent  17  sit uati on and problems underl yin g the glob al food s ystem.  All of the comp onents involved in the UBCFS P repr esent the UBC food s ystem as a mic rocosm of the global foo d s ystem and the problems it faces.  As a represent ati on of the global food s yst em, the UBC FS P investi gates problems simi lar to curre nt global issues b y using the UBC food s ystem as a testing ground (Rojas, Richer and Wagner 3).  Through the assessment of the UBC Food System’s ecological, social and econom ic sust ainabili t y, bar riers releva nt to the global food s yst em can be determi ned and anal yz ed.  The evalu ati on at this smaller, more contained lev el helps to creat e and test plans and strate gies that can be appli ed to the glob al con tex t (Roj as, Richer and Wagner 3).   These iss ues stemm ed from the adaptation of incr eased int ensific ati on of agricult ur al lands in response to food shortage problems (La n g and Heasma n 50).  Thi s sol uti on successfull y increas ed food produ cti on at a global scale; how e ver, it veer e d aw a y from the concept of lo cal food producti on (Lan g and Heasman 18 -20 ).  No w this is the concept that the UBCFS P strives to re -establi sh in the UBC food s ystem.  How ever, th e conc entrated mass p rod ucti on of food eventuall y gave rise to ne w sustainabil it y problem s and iss ues with in the gl obal food syst em (Lan g and Heasman 18 -2 0).  Acco rding to Lan g and Heasman, healt h, envi ronment, diet and disease ar e the areas whe re cur rent problems ex ist .  Solut ions to problems such as over consum pti on, under cons umpt i on, obesit y, diab ete s and depletion of natur al resourc es mus t be developed and car ried ou t in order to solve these barriers to sustainabil it y (Lan g and Heasman 18 -20).    The developm ent of pl an s and strate gies fo r the UBCFS P is derived from t he coll ecti ve pooli ng of knowled ge, ex perienc es and ide as from students, teachin g staff, the gener al publ ic and stakeholders with in the UBC comm unit y.  This aspect of the UBCFS P is vital as it educates people, improves underst anding of the food s yste m, creates a shar ed visi on among the people  18  invol ved and provides an opportuni t y for sh arin g of ideas and su ggesti ons on how to improve the UBC food s ystem (Roj as , Richer and Wa gner 8 -9) .  Lookin g at this from a global sett in g, thi s strate g y of adv ancem ent contains diverse knowled ge from people of diffe re nt back grounds, it gen erat es awaren ess and it solves real life problem s in a Communi t y- Bas ed Acti on Resear ch fashion (Rojas, Richer an d Wagner 9).    As solut ions accumul ate, a sust ainable model for t he UBC Food S ystem wi ll b e developed; and thes e soluti ons in turn can hopefu ll y be appli ed back to the global food s ystem.  This model wil l ex hibit social, ecolo gical and eco nomi c sust ainabili t y that can be used to address the problems that arise due to the incre ase of hum an densi t y and other sust ainabili t y rel ated iss ues (Roj as, Richer and Wagner 3).  Throu gh thi s model, the concept of a sust ainable “University Town” as envisioned by Rojas, Richer and Wagner can be achieved and a true sust ainable glob al food sys tem can be prov en.  Combi ned togethe r, this con cept and model of the food s ystem can guide gl obal transit ion towards sustainabil it y b y providing the necess ar y steps and benchma rks (Rojas, Richer and Wa gner 5).    Compos ti ng proves to be a vital component of bot h the UBC and the glob al food system.  It completes the cycle in a closed system and enhances the system’s self -su fficienc y and sust ainabili t y.  As part of the UBCFS P , the compo sti ng project fun cti ons in simi lar ways b y assessing sust ainabili t y, identif yin g ba rrie rs, cr eati ng visi ons and dev elopi ng sha red models that could be appli ed ba ck to the global food s ystem (Rojas, Richer and Wa gne r 12).    Maintaining its focus wit h the bigge r picture, th e end result of the compos ti ng sc enario will ult im atel y dive rt or ganic waste awa y from lan dfil ls and redire ct it back int o the soil for the producti on of local produ ce (Rojas, Richer and Wagn er 3).  As a result , red ucti on of ex haust fumes, replenishm ent of nutrients in soil and a decreas e in the producti on of greenhous e gases  19  will contribut e to address ing global environment al problems such as pollut ion, loss of top soi l and cli mate chan ges (La ng and Heasm an 214 -23 7).   CONCLUSION  We beli eve that educ ati on and awa reness is pa ram ount to the success of the compos ti ng program on campu s.  We feel that the gr eatest imp act wil l be felt if this edu cati on focuses on first ye ar students be caus e the y shape the di recti on that campus sust ainabili ty will take in the future.  In ord er to creat e an y behavior chan ge, bo th internal and ex ternal b arr iers n eed to be addressed.  We beli ev e t hat the acti vit ies we hav e developed wil l go a lon g wa y in removi n g these int ernal ba rriers an d in creati n g ex cit ement around compos ti ng and other sust ainable behaviors.   REFERENCES AGS C 450 2004, Group 12. Custom er Awaren ess of and Participati on in Sustainabil it y. 2004. Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ serve_home>. Anami , Michell e, Doris Cheung, Lindse y Fox , Br ion y Mart ens Dela ra Sale hi, Natalie Van Veelen and Kelse y Wolf e. AGS C 450 2005, Grou p 3. Urban Agri cult ure At UBC You Bet!. 2005. Univ ersit y of Britis h Col umbi a. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ serve_home>. Au, Yvonne, Stephanie Chiu, J oanne Gerri e, Tina Lau, Mahtab Mon fred, Michael Smi th and Arlene Wu. AGS C 450 2005, Group 5. Envisi oning The South Campus Nei ghbourhood as a Model Sustainable Food S ystem: An Anal ysis of Opportunit ies and Bar riers in Ex isting Developm ent Pl ans . 8 April 2005. Univer sit y of Britis h Col umbi a. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct .ubc.ca/S C R IP T/a gsc_45 0/script s/s erve_home>.   20  Barbol et, Herb, Vija y Cu ddeford, Fern Jeff ries, Holl y Korstad, Susan Ku rb is, Sandra Mark, Christ iana Miewald and Frank Mo reland. Vancou ver Food S ystem Assess ment . 2005. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. ca/S C R IP T/a gsc_450/script s/s erve_ho me>. Bar cla y, Mairin, Shanno n Cockburn, Am y Hsu, Chi Wai Lee, K yl a Reich mut h, Gar y Tam and Mand y Youn g. AGS C 450 2002, Group 6. Compos ti ng at UBC: An Agricu lt ural Practi ce that Bene fits the Whol e Comm unit y. 3 April 200 2. Universit y of Briti sh Colum bia. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. ca/S C R IP T/a gsc_450/script s/s erve_ho me>. Best, J ordon. Personal In terview. 27 Ma rch 2006. Cheng, Katherine, Ina Gershtein, Sarah Hewko, Kati e Marti noli ch, Kirste n Pinkerton, J ana Sivapa tham and J enn y Su. AGS C 450 2003, Group 18. Assessi ng the Susta inabili t y of the UBC Campus . 2 Apri l 2003. Universit y of Brit ish Colum bia. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ serve_home>. Cheng, Mand y, Sa ra Har rison, Andria Lam, Cristi na Machial, Le na S yrov y and Diana Tran g. AGS C 450 2004, Group 18. Custom er Awaren ess of and Participati on in Sustainabil it y.31 Ma rch 2004. Universit y of Briti sh Colum bia. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s c ri pts/ serve_home>. Christ enson, S. C. & Cozz arell i, I. M.  “The Norman Landfill Environmental Research Site What Happens to the Waste in Landfills”?  U.S. Geological Surve y  (2003).  05 April 2006 <htt p:/ /pubs .usgs.gov/fs/f s - 040 - 03/>.  Doug, M cKenz ie-Mohr, and Wil li am, Smit h.  Fostering sust ainabl e behavi or:  An int roducti on to comm unit y-bas ed social marketi ng.  Gabriol a Isla nd, B.C.:  New Societ y, 1999. J ackson, Sarah. Personal Inte rview. 8 March 2006 Lan g, Tim and Michael Heasman. Food Wars. London Sterli ng: Earthsc a n, 2004.  21  McKenz ie-Mohr, Dou g.  Comm unit y-b ased Social Marketi n g in Fosterin g Sustainable Behaviou r.  8 April 2006 < htt p:/ /www.cbsm.com/ members/newuse r/CBS M.pdf >.  Rojas, Alejandro. “The UBC Food S ystem Proje ct 2006: Towards a just and sust ainable UBC food system.” AGSC 450 Lecture. University of British Columbia. 18 Jan. 2006. Rojas, Alejandro, Liska Richer, and J uli a Wagner .  Ags c 450 The Dreami n g and M akin g of a Sustainable Universit y Food S ystem: The Univers it y of Britis h Col umbi a Food S ystem Project (U BC FS P ) . 22 March 2004. 8 Ap ril 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ student/ serve_bull eti n>. Tong, Mimi , Novell a Lui , Ma ysoon Ram adan, J ennifer Gr enz , J osephine Kusum a a nd Melisa Chan. AGS C 450 2004, Group 16. Custom er Aw areness o f and Participati on in Sustainabil it y. 2 Ap ril 2004. Universit y of Briti sh Colum bia. 10 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ serve_home>. UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e (U BC S O).  Focus Grou p Report – First Ye ar Un der gradu ate Students . 7 Feb. 2005. 8 Ap ril 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ student/ serve_bull eti n>. ---.  Focus Group Repo rt – Fourth Ye ar Und er gr ad uate Students . 7 Feb. 200 5. 8 April 2006 <htt p:/ /w ww.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ student/ serve_bull eti n>. ---. Focus Group Repo rt – Graduate Students . 8 Feb. 2005. 8 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ student/ serve_bull eti n>. ---. UBC Under gradu ate Student Surve y: Report on Findi ngs . Ma y 2005. 8 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a/S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ student/ serve_bull eti n>.  22  ---. Sustainabil it y at UBC 2005 -10: Inspi r ati ons and Aspirati ons: The Campus Strateg y and YOU. 14 Feb. 2006. 8 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc. c a /S C R IP T/ags c_450/s cri pts/ student/ serve_bull eti n >. UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e (U BC S O). Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a. 2006. 8 April 2006 <htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca>. UBC Waste Mana gemen t (UBC W M). Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a. 2006. 8 April 2006 < htt p:/ /www.rec ycl e.ubc. ca >.  Universit y of Waterloo. Waterloo Universit y Co mpos ti ng Program . 1997. 15 March 2006 < htt p:/ /www.ad m.uwater loo.ca/i nfowast/ wat gr een /projects/ li brar y/970/ int ro.html >.   APPENDIX 1: STAKEHOLDERS -  UBC Waste Mana gemen t -  W astefree UBC -  C ampus Sustainabil it y Office -  Ima gin e UBC -  R esidence Sustainabil it y Coordinator Program  APPENDIX 2: VISION STATEMENT AND 7 GUIDING PRINCIPLES (PLAIN LANGUAGE) The over archin g goal o f a sust ainable food s yste m is to protect and enhan ce the diversit y and quali t y of the ecos ystem and to improve social eq uit y, whe reb y:  1. Food is locall y grown, produced and proc essed. 2. Waste must be rec ycle d or compos ted locall y 3. Food is  ethni call y dive rse, af fordable, safe and nutrit ious 4. Providers and edu cator s promote awa reness among consum ers about cul ti vati on, processi ng, ingredi ents and nutriti on  5. Food brin gs people to geth er and enhanc es com muni t y 6. I s produced b y so cially, ecolo gicall y conscious producers 7. Providers pa y and rec e ive fair pric es           23   APPENDIX 3: STAKE-OUT QUESTIONNAIRE  Loc ati on: Place Vani er/ Totem Park  Do Students Know: What Compos ti ng Is  About Compos ti ng Progr ams  How/what to Com post     Compos t Barriers: Inte rnal  Ex ternal    Reasons  Reasons    (Rank? ) 3 Suggesti ons fo r Imp rovement Poster  Introdu cti on Durin g Ima gine  More Green Bins     Checkli st: People Eati ng in the Café  People who ar e putt ing i n garba ge wh at the y can co mpos t  People Compost ing Properl y  People Compost ing Improp erl y        APPENDIX 4: PROJECT BUDGET POSTERS - Staples Business Depot    500  1000  3000  SIZE 11’ x 17’ $1.09/pos ter  $0.88/pos ter  $0.58/pos ter  Half of 11’ x 17’ $0.88/pos ter  $0.49/ post er  $0.29/pos ter  Larger than 11’ x 17’ $5.99/s quare foot   STICKERS – Staples Business Depot SIZE 1.75’ x 0.5’ $6.99/s heet  (80 per sh ee t)  $1.99 each addit ional sheet  2.5’ x 1’ $6.99/s heet  (30 per sh ee t)  $1.99 each addit ional sheet   BUTTONS – Six Cent Press (www.sixcentpress.com) SIZE  2.25’ Quantity Price 200  $130  500  $295  1000  $520          24  APPENDIX 5: CAMPAIGN ADVERTISING MATERIALS Poster Design        Button Designs   APPENDIX 6: QUESTIONS FOR IMAGINE UBC COORDINATOR  1) About how man y first ye a r students do we have each ye ar at UBC? Roughl y how man y people att end Ima gin e (b reakdown of first ye ars, volunt eers, etc)? 2) What is currentl y done at Im a gine to int roduce First Yea rs to compos ti ng, if an y?  3) Is it possi ble to incorporat e compos ti n g with the Im a gine ori entation for first ye ars? How would we go about that? OR  4) Is it possi ble to increa se the level of compos t educati on at Ima gine? How would we go about that? 5) What are some ba rrie r s to incorporati ng compo sti ng with the Im a gine orientati on? 6) Our su ggesti ons for in corporati n g compos ti n g in Ima gin e would be to pr ovide stickers, educati on pamphl ets, etc in the Frosh Kit ; MUG games (i.e. scaven ge r hunt to find compos t bins, or other compos ti ng relat ed material)... an y other s uggesti ons? What would we need to do to make thi s poss ibl e? 7) Does UBC -Okan a gan have an event like Ima gi ne? What is currentl y bei ng done to introduc e first ye ars to compos ti n g there?  APPENDIX 7: QUESTIONS FOR RESIDENCE SUSTAINABILITY COORDINATOR  1) What is the Residence Sustainabil it y Pro gr am? 2) W hat sort of acti vit ies or pro grams hav e you tri ed to support compost ing parti cipation in Res? 3) What kinds of strategi es do you thi nk hav e bee n most effecti ve? 4) What do you thi nk ar e the barrie rs to compos ti ng on campus ? 5) What kinds of things would you su ggest to improve particip ati on among residenc e students? 

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