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Water consumption data analysis of the Ritsumeikan-UBC House Haley, Brie Oct 10, 2014

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportBrigit HaleyPlanning for Water Resource ManagementAssignment 1. Water Consumption Data Analysis of TheRitsumeikan-UBC HousePLAN 597October 10, 201411451685University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.     PLAN 597: Planning for Water Resource Management Assignment 1. Water Consumption Data Analysis of The Ritsumeikan-UBC House Due Date: October 10, 2014.  Author: Brie Haley            Background The following report provides a bi-weekly analysis of water consumption (m3) for the Ritsumeikan-UBC House. As a symbol of UBC’s academic partnership with the Ritsumeikan University in Japan this multi-dwelling unit (MDU) was established. Background information on the Ritsumeikan-UBC House is as follows: • Building is located on the NW side of UBC’s Vancouver Campus • The MDU sits at full occupancy in the Winter Semester, while the Summer Semester occupancy varies as it is open to public and private rental • The MDU consists of kitchens, bathrooms, 200 beds, along with classrooms and activity areas • The MDU sleeps a maximum of 308 people (Davies, 2014) • The Summer Semester of 2012, 80% of the toilets and sinks were upgraded to low-flow models • Water consumption (m3) data read daily and is available from September 2011- present  • This report provides bi-weekly data readings, every second Wednesday • There is one water meter for this MDU.         Figure 1. Image on the left pinpoints the location of the building of interest on Google Maps, while the image on the right is an exterior view of the Ritsumeikan-UBC House (UBC, Unknown).     Data Analysis Data was acquired from David Gill, Project Coordinator for UBC’s SEEDS Program to determine if there has been a reduction in water consumption since 80% of the toilets and sinks have been retrofitted to low-flow models. Daily measurements were recorded from the single meter in the Ritsumeikan-UBC House. The data was analyzed using a combination of Excel and StatPlus software. The following section displays the results and the findings will be discussed in further detail in the Discussion section.  Table 1. Depicts the statistical summary of Ritsumeikan-UBC House’s bi-weekly water consumption (m3). Data was available from September 2011 until present. Data was summarized using the StatPlus, Basic Statistics application for Office 2011, on October 7, 2014.   Count 79 Skewness 2.30572Mean 21.28478 Skewness Standard Error 0.2671Mean LCL 17.67975 Kurtosis 11.79241Mean UCL 24.88981 Kurtosis Standard Error 0.51455Variance 182.0022 Alternative Skewness (Fisher's) 2.35059Standard Deviation 13.49082 Alternative Kurtosis (Fisher's) 9.45534Mean Standard Error 1.51784 Coefficient of Variation 0.63382Minimum 1.90039 Mean Deviation 9.04917Maximum 92.20117 Second Moment 179.69837Range 90.30078 Third Moment N/ASum 1,681.4975 Fourth Moment N/ASum Standard Error 119.90902 Median 19.2002Total Sum Squares 49,986.47296 Median Error 0.21403Adjusted Sum Squares 14,196.17126 Percentile 25% (Q1) 13.49976Geometric Mean 17.78427 Percentile 75% (Q2) 26.12503Harmonic Mean 13.73875 IQR 12.62527Statistical Summary of Bi-weekly Water Conusmption(m3) Data  To determine the frequency of varying water consumptions a Frequency Histogram was generated (Figure 2). 0"5"10"15"20"25"30"8" 16" 24" 32" 40" >40"Frecency''Water'Consump1on'(m3)''Histogram'of'Ritsumeikan;UBC'House'Water'Consump1on(m3')' Figure 2. Displays the distribution of bi-weekly water consumption (m3) during the period of analysis, September 2011-present. The graph suggests that the habitual bi-weekly water consumption falls between 16(m3) and 24 (m3), with a bi-weekly average of 21.51(m3).  Figure 3. Depicts Ritsumeikan-UBC House’s cumulative water consumption (m3) from 2011 – 2014.  Note the Retrofit installation date, June 2012, and the R2-value of 99.064%.  To analysis the volume of water consumption (m3) pre-renovation and post-renovation, descriptive statistical summaries have been tabulated (Table 2).     R²#=#0.99064#0.00#200.00#400.00#600.00#800.00#1,000.00#1,200.00#1,400.00#1,600.00#1,800.00#2,000.00#0.00#10.00#20.00#30.00#40.00#50.00#60.00#70.00#80.00#90.00#100.00#14.Sep.11#14.Oct.11#14.Nov.11#14.Dec.11#14.Jan.12#14.Feb.12#14.Mar.12#14.Apr.12#14.May.12#14.Jun.12#14.Jul.12#14.Aug.12#14.Sep.12#14.Oct.12#14.Nov.12#14.Dec.12#14.Jan.13#14.Feb.13#14.Mar.13#14.Apr.13#14.May.13#14.Jun.13#14.Jul.13#14.Aug.13#14.Sep.13#14.Oct.13#14.Nov.13#14.Dec.13#14.Jan.14#14.Feb.14#14.Mar.14#14.Apr.14#14.May.14#14.Jun.14#14.Jul.14#14.Aug.14#14.Sep.14#Cumula/ve#(m3 #)/bi8weekly#Water#consump/on#(m3 #)#201182014#Bi8weekly#201182014#Ritsumeikan#Water#Consump/on#(m3)##Bi.weekly# CumulaKve# Linear#(CumulaKve)#Retrofits  installed    Table 2. Compares the descriptive statistics of Ritsumeikan-UBC House’s bi-weekly pre-renovation with post-renovation water consumption (m3). It appears that the retrofits were installed June 2012. Data was summarized using the StatPlus, Basic Statistics application for Office 2011, on October 7, 2014.   Descriptive*Statistic Pre.renovations Post.renovationsMean* 27.3900 19.1758Median 27.8001 17.8491Variance* 147.8543 182.1657Minimum 5.5000 1.9004Maximum 47.1000 92.2012   To determine if the means are statistically significant, a mean comparison between the pre-renovations and post-renovations was generated assuming: µa = Pre-renovation  µb = Post-renovation  On the null hypothesis: µaο = µbο On the alternative hypothesis:  µa  ≠ µb  Table 3. Depicts a mean comparison through the tabulation of a Two Sample T-test assuming the equal variances. Data was summarized using the StatPlus, Basic Statistics application for Office 2011, on October 7, 2014.       Discussion  In June 2012, 80% of the toilets and sinks were retrofitted to low-flow models in the Ritsumeikan-UBC House, UBC Vancouver Campus.  Water consumption (m3) data (2011 – 2014) has been acquired from David Gill, Project Coordinator for UBC’s SEEDS Degrees&of&Freedom 76 Hypthesized&Mean&Difference 0.00E+00Test&Statistic 2.398 Pooler&Variance 173.8975Two=tailed&Distributionρ=level 0.01894 t&Critical&Value&(5%) 1.99167One=tail&Distibutionρ=level 0.00947 t&Critical&Value&(5%) 1.66515SummaryProgram. It has been analyzed to determine if the retrofits have decreased the overall consumption of water in the Ritsumeikan-UBC House. A detailed statistical summary of the water consumption (m3) has been tabulated (Table 1), however for the intention of this report the majority of the statistical values will not be discussed.  The frequency histogram suggests that the habitual bi-weekly water consumption falls between 16(m3) and 24 (m3), with a bi-weekly average of 21.51(m3). These values are consistent with seasonal fluctuation in temperatures, e.g. November and January’s dreary weather exhibits higher water consumption.  Visual evidence from the water consumption data, suggests that the retrofits were installed in June 2012, as a decrease in water consumption is noted after this month (Figure 3). The raw data (Appendix 1) suggests that the highs and lows are consistent with the Winter and Summer Semester occupancy, respectively. Evidence suggests that there were two periods that the water meters were out of commission, the first period was from March 25 – 27, 2014 and the second period was from July 11 – 17, 2014. The next water readings were on March 28, 2014 and July 18, 2014, reading 92.20 m3 and 62.10 m3, respectively. It appears that the readings under the periods of question were logged, summed and recorded, in turn producing abnormally high values.  As well, September indicates an increase in water consumption, this could be linked to hygiene behavioural traits, e.g. students are generally more concerned with their appearance in the first month of school and thus an increase in hygiene practices are noted (Miko et al., 2012), in turn a higher volume of water is consumed (Figure 3). March also appears to exhibit water consumption spikes (Figure 3). One could postulate that this influx in water consumption could be correlated with another behavioural trait, referred to as “spring fever” (The Calgary Herold, 2008). As well, evidence suggests that with the arrival of spring - people suffering from Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) experience an increase in energy and sexual appetite (Lam & Levitt, 1999). One could postulate that this increase in activity leads to an increase in hygiene practices, such as showering, which in turn leads to an increase in water consumption.  Finally, a statistical mean comparison of pre-renovation and post-renovation water consumption has been tabulated (Table 2). Evidence suggests that the means and variances from pre-renovation and post-renovation, 27.3900, 147.8543 and 19.1758, 182.1657, respectively, are different. To determine if the means were significantly   different, a mean comparison was calculated using a Two Sample Distribution T-test, assuming equal variances (Table 3). The results indicate that ρ > 0.05, therefore the means are not statistically significant. However, evidence suggests (Table 2.) that the pre-renovation and post-renovation means are different, and thus an overall reduction in water consumption has been noted.   Conclusion/Recommendations After analyzing the results, it is evident that the retrofits installed in June 2012 on 80% of the toilets and sinks have led to an overall reduction in water consumption at the Ritsumeikan-UBC House, on the Vancouver Campus. Additional efforts to conserve water in this MDU should be applied, e.g. install low-flow models on remaining 20% of the sinks and toilets. As well, water timers could be installed on the showerheads, ensuring that users only receive pre-determined amount of time in the shower.  Further strategies to reduce water consumption could focus on behavioural norms i.e. daily hygiene routines e.g. shower times. The UBC Sustainability Department could host water conservation campaigns paired with incentives for participants. E.g. The 30 Second Shower Challenge for 30 days, or a more recent campaign “Go With The Flow” which is being promoted at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England (Appendix II). This campaign promotes shower urination as it saves a significant amount of water (Off, 2014). Finally, yet controversially, if “spring fever” is leading to an influx in personal hygiene practices, the university might want to suggest to sexually active students to shower with that significant other to conserve water (Off, 2014). Incentives to participate in these campaigns would have to be enticing to students e.g. food gift cards or discounts at the UBC Book Store. Participation in these campaigns will optimistically create new habits, and in turn create a cascading effect of water conservation both on and off campus for today, tomorrow and future generations.             References Davies,  S.  (2014,  October  8).  Totem  Park  Front  Desk  Clerk.  (B.  Haley,  Interviewer)  Vancouver,  BC.   Herold, T. C. (2008, June). Spring Fever. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from The Calgary Herold: http://www.canada.com/topics/lifestyle/relationships/story.html?id=101f9880-9fe1-4efa-ae70-e3236696d732&__federated=1  Low, K., & Feissner, J. (1998). Seasonal affective disorder in college students: prevalence and latitude. Journal Of American College Health: J Of ACH, 47(3), 135-137.  Lam, R. W., & Levitt, A. J. (1999). Canadian Concensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Seasonal Depression. Canadian Consunsus Group on SAD. Clinical and Academic Publishing. Miko, B. A., Cohen, B., Conway, L., Gilman, A., Seward Jr., S. L., & Larson, E. (2012). Determinants of personal and household hygiene among college students in New York City, 2011. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(10), 940–945. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2011.12.015 Off, C. (2014, October 9). UK student study reveals a morning pee in the shower is good for the environment. CBC. (C. Dobson, Interviewer) CBC.  UBC. (Unknown). Ritsumeikan-UBC House . Retrieved October 8, 2014, from Student Residence-Vancouver: http://vancouver.housing.ubc.ca/residences/ritsumeikan-ubc-house/                    Appendix I Represents the data used to generate the results. The red highlighted cell designates to estimated date that the retrofits were installed.     Frequency	  (bi-­‐monthly)	   Water	  usage	  (m3)	   Cumulative	  (m3)	   Frequency	  (bi-­‐monthly)	   Water	  usage	  (m3)	   Cumulative	  (m3)	   Frequency	  (bi-­‐monthly)	   Water	  usage	  (m3)	   Cumulative	  (m3)	  14-­‐Sep-­‐11	   39.4000	   39.4000	   02-­‐Jan-­‐13	   14.2998	   796.496	   23-­‐Apr-­‐14	   20.5000	   1,500.8994	  28-­‐Sep-­‐11	   47.1000	   86.5000	   16-­‐Jan-­‐13	   18.0000	   814.496	   07-­‐May-­‐14	   1.9004	   1,502.7998	  12-­‐Oct-­‐11	   27.7001	   114.2001	   30-­‐Jan-­‐13	   16.2002	   830.696	   21-­‐May-­‐14	   1.9004	   1,504.7002	  26-­‐Oct-­‐11	   26.1000	   140.3001	   13-­‐Feb-­‐13	   18.5000	   849.196	   04-­‐Jun-­‐14	   11.1992	   1,515.8994	  09-­‐Nov-­‐11	   24.2000	   164.5000	   27-­‐Feb-­‐13	   19.2998	   868.496	   18-­‐Jun-­‐14	   8.5996	   1,524.4991	  23-­‐Nov-­‐11	   23.8000	   188.3001	   13-­‐Mar-­‐13	   22.9004	   891.397	   02-­‐Jul-­‐14	   14.5996	   1,539.0987	  07-­‐Dec-­‐11	   21.8999	   210.2000	   27-­‐Mar-­‐13	   16.7998	   908.196	   16-­‐Jul-­‐14	   62.0996	   1,601.1983	  21-­‐Dec-­‐11	   10.7002	   220.9002	   10-­‐Apr-­‐13	   16.2998	   924.496	   30-­‐Jul-­‐14	   20.9004	   1,622.0987	  04-­‐Jan-­‐12	   24.2002	   245.1004	   24-­‐Apr-­‐13	   14.2002	   938.696	   13-­‐Aug-­‐14	   29.0996	   1,651.1983	  18-­‐Jan-­‐12	   27.9001	   273.0005	   08-­‐May-­‐13	   11.5000	   950.196	   27-­‐Aug-­‐14	   16.0996	   1,667.2979	  01-­‐Feb-­‐12	   36.0996	   309.1001	   22-­‐May-­‐13	   11.7002	   961.897	   10-­‐Sep-­‐14	   32.6992	   1,699.9971	  15-­‐Feb-­‐12	   39.2998	   348.3999	   05-­‐Jun-­‐13	   10.8994	   972.796	   24-­‐Sep-­‐14	   20.9004	   1,720.8975	  29-­‐Feb-­‐12	   41.8999	   390.2998	   19-­‐Jun-­‐13	   10.8008	   983.597	     14-­‐Mar-­‐12	   37.7998	   428.0996	   03-­‐Jul-­‐13	   14.0996	   997.696	   Average	   23.0058	   1760.2975	  28-­‐Mar-­‐12	   43.9004	   472.0000	   17-­‐Jul-­‐13	   7.8008	   1,005.497	         11-­‐Apr-­‐12	   31.6997	   503.6997	   31-­‐Jul-­‐13	   10.0000	   1,015.497	         25-­‐Apr-­‐12	   31.6001	   535.2998	   14-­‐Aug-­‐13	   15.5000	   1,030.997	         09-­‐May-­‐12	   6.1001	   541.3999	   28-­‐Aug-­‐13	   26.2002	   1,057.197	         23-­‐May-­‐12	   5.5000	   546.8999	   11-­‐Sep-­‐13	   19.8994	   1,077.097	         06-­‐Jun-­‐12	   30.0000	   576.8999	   25-­‐Sep-­‐13	   29.9004	   1,106.997	         20-­‐Jun-­‐12	   10.3003	   587.2002	   09-­‐Oct-­‐13	   19.2002	   1,126.197	         04-­‐Jul-­‐12	   21.5000	   608.7002	   23-­‐Oct-­‐13	   24.6006	   1,150.798	         18-­‐Jul-­‐12	   9.2998	   618.0000	   06-­‐Nov-­‐13	   34.0000	   1,184.798	         01-­‐Aug-­‐12	   9.2998	   627.2998	   20-­‐Nov-­‐13	   38.5000	   1,223.298	         15-­‐Aug-­‐12	   7.6992	   634.9991	   04-­‐Dec-­‐13	   17.5996	   1,240.897	         29-­‐Aug-­‐12	   8.0996	   643.0987	   18-­‐Dec-­‐13	   10.4004	   1,251.298	         12-­‐Sep-­‐12	   19.7998	   662.8985	   01-­‐Jan-­‐14	   15.5996	   1,266.897	         26-­‐Sep-­‐12	   21.3994	   684.2979	   15-­‐Jan-­‐14	   19.9004	   1,286.798	         10-­‐Oct-­‐12	   18.3994	   702.6973	   29-­‐Jan-­‐14	   21.0000	   1,307.798	         24-­‐Oct-­‐12	   18.2002	   720.8975	   12-­‐Feb-­‐14	   19.7012	   1,327.499	         07-­‐Nov-­‐12	   19.5000	   740.3975	   26-­‐Feb-­‐14	   18.5000	   1,345.999	         21-­‐Nov-­‐12	   17.8994	   758.2969	   12-­‐Mar-­‐14	   24.4004	   1,370.399	         05-­‐Dec-­‐12	   16.7998	   775.0967	   26-­‐Mar-­‐14	   92.2012	   1,462.601	         19-­‐Dec-­‐12	   7.0996	   782.1963	   09-­‐Apr-­‐14	   17.7988	   1,480.399	         	  	   	  	   	  	                Appendix  II  A recent campaign “Go With The Flow” which is being promoted at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England. This campaign promotes shower urination as it saves a significant amount of water (Off, 2014).      

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