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LFS 350 community-based food systems project : healthy options in vending machines on campus Chang, Aveir (Yu-Chi); Duggan, Tyra; Sham, Carmen; Tan, Alexandra Lyn Shyuan; Tung, Judy; Wang, Katherine; Wright, Rosemary Dec 2, 2013

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportCarmen Sham, Judy Tung, Katherine Wang, Lyn Shyuan Alexandra Tan, Rosemary Wright, Tyra Duggan, Yu-Chi (Aveir) ChangLFS 350 Community-Based Food Systems Project: Healthy Options in Vending Machines on CampusLFS 350December 02, 20139481474University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 1          LFS 350 Community-Based Food Systems Project: Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus    LFS 350 001 GROUP 26 Aveir (Yu-Chi) Chang, Tyra Duggan, Carmen Sham, Alexandra Lyn Shyuan Tan, Judy Tung, Katherine Wang, Rosemary Wright   The University of British Columbia Submission Date: December 2, 2013          Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 2  Table of Contents   I.  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………..…..3  II. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………..4  II.a. Research Question…………………………………………………………………………………....4 III. RESEARCH METHODS…………………………………………………………………………………5 IV. FINDINGS …………………………………………………………………………………………………..6 IV.a. Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………….6 IV.b. Discussion……………………………………………………………………………………………….8 V.  RECOMMENDATION……………………………………………………………………………………9 VI. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………….10 VII. REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………………11 APPENDIX A…………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 APPENDIX B……………………….………………………………………………………………………….16 APPENDIX C…………………………………………………………………………………………………..19 APPENDIX D…………………………………………………………………………………………………..27 APPENDIX E………………………………………………………………………………………………......28         Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 3 I.  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   Last year, University of British Columbia (UBC) Land and Food Systems (LFS) students audited the Vancouver campus’ snack vending machines against BC’s “Healthier Choices Vending Machine Policy” (HCVMP), and found the majority of items being offered were “Not Recommended” by the HCVMP’s nutritional guidelines (Ma et al., 2012). In response to this, the “Gage Snack Vending Model” (GSVM) was implemented: a model guided by the HCVMP, offering healthy foods low in fat, sugar, and sodium.  This year, our team of seven LFS students worked alongside project manager Liska Richer and community partner Victoria Wakefield, to assess the performance of the GSVM, as well as examine UBC beverage vending machines (BVM). Our research community included campus students, visitors, faculty, and staff. Our research goals were to identify how the GSVM can be improved, and how it can be expanded to include BVM.   Our group conducted a survey on 207 random participants across campus to investigate snack and beverage preferences. We also performed an audit of nine vending machines in the Student Union Building, and two at Gage residence, to see where currently available snacks and beverages stand under the HCVMP, and to review snack vending machine adherence to HCVMP labelling.   Our survey results indicated that a majority of respondents use vending machines and are aware of the HCVMP, and yet rarely purchase “Choose Most” items (the healthiest ones). Primary purchasing motivations were cost, then taste. Beverage preferences were water and fruit juice; respondents would like to see more bars and fruit snacks added. Our audit revealed that healthy options have decreased at all GSVM machines examined, and are on average 19% more expensive than their unhealthy (high in fat, sugar, and/or sodium) counterparts. The majority of beverages were found to be unhealthy according to the HCVMP, and many snacks were (HCVMP) mislabelled.   These vending machines currently do not promote food security because they offer limited access to healthy choices, and exhibit improper labelling and higher prices for those healthy options. To improve, we recommend a greater proportion of healthy options, more-accurate labelling of them, and a lowering of their cost. We further recommend following the HCVMP more closely for snacks, and applying it to beverages as well.  Our audit’s accuracy is limited by the always-changing placement of products in the machines. Future students could do a health assessment of specific item ingredients, or explore potential benefits of adding refrigerated BVM.   Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 4 II.  INTRODUCTION      Consumption of processed foods high in fat, sugar, and sodium is prevalent among university students (Kearny, 2011). Over time, this can lead to obesity and mortality due to diabetes, heart disease, and cancer (Black & Macinko, 2008). The vending machines on the University of British Columbia’s (UBC) Vancouver campus are a considerable supplier of highly processed snacks. In terms of physical accessibility, these vending machines offer a high degree of convenience; however, they offer limited access to nutritious and personally desirable food choices, which is a form of food insecurity.   In 2012, Ma et al., a previous team of Land and Food Systems (LFS) students, audited UBC Food Services (UBCFS) snack vending machines against BC’s “Healthier Choices Vending Machine Policy” (HCVMP). UBCFS is the campus’ main food provider. The HCVMP categorizes food products as “Choose Most” (CM), “Choose Sometimes” (CS), “Choose Least” (CL) or “Not Recommended” (NR), based on preset nutritional guidelines (Ministry of Health, 2013).  That audit’s results revealed that the majority of offerings were unhealthy (CL/NR: high in fat, sugar, and/or sodium) (Ma, V., et al. 2012). In response to these findings, UBCFS rolled out the “Gage Snack Vending Model” (GSVM), a model based loosely on the HCVMP, to help address food insecurity by having more vending machines carry more healthy options (CM/CS: low in fat, sugar, and sodium).  Our research team included seven students of the LFS faculty, along with project manager Liska Richer, and community partner Victoria Wakefield, who is the UBCFS Purchasing Manager. Our Community-Based Experiential Learning (CBEL) project was to audit the performance of the GSVM, to investigate community snack and beverage preferences, and to identify stockable healthy products that meet them, in order to improve access to healthy snacks and beverages. Our research community, in Metro Vancouver, consisted of UBC students, faculty, staff and visitors; as of the 2012 winter session, there were 49,522 students enrolled (The University of British Columbia, 2013). In this project, we assessed the GSVM and UBC beverage vending machines (BVM).   II.a.  Research Questions The GSVM is now used in twenty machines across campus (personal communication, November 7, 2013). The model’s introduction was a positive change, but it is not yet ideal. To continue developing the GSVM, we investigated the following: 1) What improvements can be made to the Gage Snack Vending Model already in place on UBC campus? 2) How can the scope of the model be expanded to include beverage vending machines?   Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 5 III.  RESEARCH METHODS   Our research was conducted through a community-based research (CBR) approach using both qualitative and quantitative methods. As advised by Withers and Burns (2013), a defining component of our CBR was the development of a good working relationship with our community partner, in order to understand the GSVM and formulate an effective approach to our project. Our community-based learning extended from our mixed-method design: our group connected with our community by conducting surveys (quantitative) and observing vending machines (qualitative) naturalistically, i.e. without experimental manipulation (Friesen, 2013). Specifically, our group conducted a survey within our research community to determine snack and beverage preferences, and audited the GSVM machines and BVM in terms of stocking, signage, and arrangement of healthy options. As per Victoria, our community service was incorporated into our research as the time spent studying the machines and the community (personal communication, September 23, 2013).  Initially, the plan was to explore new healthy options through product taste tests; however, in our first meeting with Victoria, it was decided that it did not fit our timeframe: it takes too long for VendMaster (the UBCFS-contracted snack supplier) to determine whether or not they can offer a specific product (personal communication, September 23, 2013). Victoria offered that the University Nutritionist was available to us as a resource, but working with her was not required if we could obtain the information we needed by ourselves (personal communication, November 7, 2013). Thus, with approval from Victoria and Liska, certain components of the project were dropped.  A key resource for us, which provided insight into previous vending research done at UBC, was the 2012 audit report by Ma et al. External resources used included the HCVMP, BC’s Brand Name Food List website (which classifies food products into HCVMP categories), and Coca-Cola Canada’s website (the UBCFS-contracted beverage supplier).   To collect data, our team first distributed pilot surveys to ten random participants on campus, to check for measurement or wording errors (Friesen, 2013). From this, we made several changes to create our final survey (Appendix A). This survey, consisting of seven questions, was randomly distributed to 207 participants at Irving Library, Woodward Library, the Student Union Building (SUB), and the bus loop. The GSVM machines and BVM on the main floor of the SUB (across from Pie R Squared) and on the main floor of Gage residence were examined for cleanliness, correct HCVMP signage, and item arrangement within the machine. The items offered in each machine were recorded, and classified by HCVMP category using BC’s Brand Name Food List database or (for unlisted products) HCVMP’s nutritional guidelines. Data was managed via statistical analysis; tables and bar charts were used to report our results. Responses to qualitative survey questions were coded into categories to make statistical analysis possible (Appendix B, Tables Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 6 4-5).  In compliance with the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, surveys were given regardless of ethnicity, gender, or religious affiliation. No personal identifying information was collected, and the respondents were informed of how the results were to be used (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 2010).  IV.  FINDINGS   IV.a.  Results   From quantitative survey results, we discovered 57% of 207 respondents use vending machines, and 53% were aware of the HCVMP. On average, people rarely purchase CM items (mean=1.94). 37% of respondents would “sometimes” consider purchasing from vending machines if newly available items were labelled as such. The average respondent rarely considered if vending purchases were local (mean=2.25). The leading beverage preferences were Water (31%), Fruit Juice (23%), and Cold Tea (15%). (Appendix B, Tables 1-3)  From qualitative survey results, the primary motivations for making decisions at a vending machine were cost (32%) and taste (28%). Many respondents (27.3%) had no preference for adding items, while others would like to see healthier options (10.2%). The three most-requested snacks were Healthy Fruit Snacks (8.6%), Energy/Protein Bars (4.1%), and Granola/Cereal Bars (4.1%). (Appendix B, Tables 4-5)  From audit results, healthy beverages were placed throughout the machines; most healthy snacks were eye-level or lower. Gage Residence GSVM machines contained 3% CM, 13% CS, 25% CL, and 59% NR items. Both SUB GSVM machines combined contained 3% CM, 9% CS, 25% CL, and 63% NR items (Appendix C.3). Auditing the SUB and Gage Residence BVM, we found 17% CM, 23% CS, 4% CL, and 56% NR (Appendix C.8).  Unhealthy (CL/NR) snack items averaged $1.74 in price; healthy (CM/CS) items averaged $2.07 (Appendix C.2). Machines were acceptably clean.  HCVMP signage adherence: - Signage in SUBGSVM1 for Rold Gold pretzels (RGP), Ruffles, Sun Chips, and Hickory Sticks were mislabeled as CS; they should be CL or NR.  Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 9 the GSVM’s performance against the 2012 audit, HCVMP is being adhered to less now for the Gage Residence GSVM, which now contains a higher %NR items (Ma et al. (2012) found 7% CM, 36% CS, 10% CL, and 47% NR items) (Appendix C.4). SUB GSVM now has more CM, but fewer CS items (Ma et al. (2012) found it contained 0% CM, 17% CS, 20% CL, and 63% NR items). Since the 2012 audit, the percentage of available healthy options has decreased.  To expand our scope to BVM, we audited the SUB and Gage Residence BVM against the HCVMP, and the results indicated the majority of offerings were deemed unhealthy (60%) according to the HCVMP’s thresholds: e.g. containing more than 16 g of sugar/250 mL (Ministry of Health, 2013). The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity (Black & Macinko, 2008). Having predominantly unhealthy beverages in BVM contributes to food insecurity by limiting availability of nutritionally adequate choices (Vasquez et al. 2007). (Appendix C.7)  A notable limitation in our survey data is the potential bias introduced by the examples given in Question 6; we chose to add these after the pilot survey because initial respondents were confused and asked us for direction (Appendix A). A limitation of our audit is that the products placed in the vending machines are not static: item stocking and arrangement will vary over time. Our findings are further limited because HCVMP labelling seems to be updated less frequently than item placement changes: the identified mislabellings are probable evidence of this. According to Donnelly and Seth-Smith (1999), consumers create mind maps to help them find products; so inconsistent product arrangement could be reducing healthy purchases.    V.  RECOMMENDATION  Based on our findings, and community-based experiences, there is room for improvement in campus vending machines. To start, our group recommends applying HCVMP categorization to BVM. Victoria would like to see 50% or more healthy beverages in every BVM (personal communication, November 7, 2013), and using the HCVMP would help to accomplish this.  To help ensure that new healthy beverages sell, we suggest adding the curated selection of CS beverages in Appendix D, since they match community preferences, and are all available through Coca-Cola Canada.   We also suggest following the HCVMP more closely for snacks, increasing the number of CM items offered, as advised by Ma et al. (2012). Increasing the number of healthy foods and beverages in vending machines would increase overall physical accessibility to them, and thus increase campus food security. We suggest adding more healthy bars and healthy fruit snacks to machines, since these were popular Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 10 requests among survey respondents. Victoria recommended we keep suggestions general (i.e., not brand-specific) (personal communication, September, 23, 2013).   Similarly, as Ma et al. (2012) advised, we suggest lowering the cost of the healthy options, and increasing the cost of unhealthy options to compensate. This would also increase campus food security by increasing the economic accessibility of healthy foods.   Since many respondents were unaware of HCVMP, we propose having the HCVMP explanation panel visible in all machines that carry the labels. We also recommend educating the staff that restock the machines, so that items have the correct HCVMP labelling. Perhaps having moveable HCVMP stickers would help with this.  Currently, all UBCFS BVM are non-refrigerated. Future LFS teams could perform taste testing within the community, to determine preferences for the sensory properties of shelf-stable milk (UHT) versus regular milk (pasteurized). If shelf-stable milk is unenjoyable, it may be worth introducing refrigerated BVM. They could also survey to determine if room-temperature beverages are a purchasing deterrent.  To advance CBEL, we recommend future teams do health assessments of specific item ingredients (rather than the broad-stroke assessment of the HCVMP): e.g., “How healthy are certain preservatives?” Moreover, they could examine the HCVMP itself: e.g., “How does a product size affect its categorization?” Victoria expressed interest in having these details, but this exceeded the attainable scope of our project (personal communication, November 7, 2013).    VI.  CONCLUSION   Our GSVM audit revealed few improvements since 2012, and in some cases the model has regressed, revealing that the GSVM is currently not succeeding; reasons for this may include higher cost of healthy snacks, improper labelling, and a higher proportion of unhealthy options. Our recommendations include: adding the healthy beverages and snacks that were preferred by survey respondents, lowering the cost of healthy options, using the HCVMP for BVM, and adding signage to all vending machines to improve HCVMP awareness. Any of these would improve food security at UBC, and create a positive precedent for future vending policy.         Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 11 VII.  REFERENCES  Abdulla, M., Martin, R. C., Gooch, M., Jovel, E. (2013). The importance of quantifying food waste in Canada. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 3 (2), 137-151. Retrieved from http://www.agdevjournal.com/attachments/article/332/JAFSCD_Food_Waste_in_Canada_April-2013.pdf  Black, J. L., Macinko, J. (2008). Neighborhoods and obesity. Nutrition Reviews, 66(1): 2-20. Doil: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00001.x  Brand Name Food List. (n.d.). Brand Name Food List. Retrieved from http://www.brandnamefoodlist.ca/default.aspx  Burns, H. L., Withers, D. (2013). Enhancing food security through experiential sustainability leadership practices: A study of the Seed to Supper program. Journal of Sustainability Education, 5. Retrieved from http://www.jsedimensions.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Denissia-Withers-and-Heather-Burns-finalproofMay2013.pdf  Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Canada, and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, December 2010  Donnelly, K., Seth-Smith, D. (1999, October 16). Shopper Psychology. Chemist & Druggist. Retrieved from http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=276757&sr=HLEAD(Shopper%20psychology)%20and%20date%20is%201999  Friesen, E. (Director) (2013, March 21). Research Methods. UBC Course LFS252. Lecture conducted from Erin Friesen, Vancouver.  Kearney JM, Huslhof KF, Gibney MJ. (2001) Eating patterns- temporal distribution, converging and diverging foods, meals eater inside and outside of the home – implications for developing FBDG. Public Health Nutr, 4(2B): 693-698   Ma, V., Phipps, G., Tomczky, M., Yiu, C., Yp, N. (2012). Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Healthy Food Situation Plan Audit of the Top 10 Vending Machines. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report. Retrieved from http://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/BaselineInventory_UBCFoodSystem_HealthyFoodSituationAssessmentAndActionPlan_group1_VendingMachines_FINAL.pdf Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 12  Ministry of Health. (2013). Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in B.C> Public Buildings Policy Paper. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/healthyeating/pdf/healthier-choices-in-vending-machines-bc.pdf  The University of British Columbia. (2013) Enrolment Statistics 2012/2013. Retrieved from http://www.calendar.ubc.ca/vancouver/index.cfm?page=appendix1  Vasquez, V. B., Lanza, D., Hennessey-Lavery, S., Facente, S., Halpin, H. A., Minkler, M. (2007). Addressing Food Security Through Public Policy Action in a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership. Health Promotion Practices, 8(4), 342-349. doi: 10.1177/1524839906298501   Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 13      APPENDICES                         Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 14 Appendix A:  Pilot Survey & Final Survey    Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 15             Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 16 Appendix B:  Survey Results (QUANTITATIVE) Table 1: Questions 1-5.        Questions Total Yes No       Total 1. Do you use campus vending machines? 207 57% 43%       100% 2. Are you aware of British Columbia's vending machine "Healthier Choices" policy? 206 53% 47%       100% Questions Total Always Often Sometimes  Rarely Never Total 3. How often do you purchase an item in the "Choose Most" category from campus vending machines? 207 0% 5% 22% 35% 38% 100% 4. Would you be more inclined to consider purchasing from the vending machines if new options were clearly labeled as "new item"? 207 1% 10% 37% 32% 19% 100% 5. How often do you consider purchasing local products from a campus vending machine? (local = British Columbia) 206 2% 10% 25% 35% 27% 100%  Table 2  Purchasing factors (ranked by how often done; max. of 5.0), n = 210. Mean* How often, on average, people purchase items from the "choose most" category 1.94 How often, on average, people would consider purchasing from campus vending if new items were clearly labeled 2.43 How often, on average, people consider whether they are purchasing local items from campus vending 2.25 * 1 = Never; 2 = Rarely; 3 = Sometimes; 4 = Often; 5 = Always.      Table 3: Question 6          Beverage Types Total  Water Soda Pop Fruit Juice Cold Tea Milk Low-Sweet Carbonated Other Total Surveyed individuals' beverage preferences 456* 31% 13% 23% 15% 11% 2% 5% 100% Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 17 *Each individual surveyed could choose up to 3. (QUALITATIVE)   Table 4 Question 7 Motivation at vending machines Total  Cost Taste Healthy Options Convenience Hunger Craving Only Options Brand Thirst Orange Total Categorized motivation percentages 274* 32% 28% 11% 9% 6% 6% 3% 3% 1% 1% 100% * Surveyed individuals chose more than one factor, 10 individuals left the field blank.      Combined Categories Legend: included responses like “filling, and quantity” into “Cost”, and “quality” into “Taste”. Added all health related options into “Healthy Options”, and all “nothing open” into “Only Option”. Included “card-payment” into “Convenience”, and finally included the one response about “gluten-free” into “Healthy Options”.  Table 5: Question 8        Types of snacks & beverages to add to campus vending machines Healthy Fruit Snacks Energy/ Protein Bars Granola/ Cereal Bars Healthy Chips Candies Dried Vegetable Snacks Crackers Chocolate Percentage of surveyed individuals 8.6% 6.1% 4.1% 3.7% 3.3% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9%   Nuts Cookies Cookies           Percentage of surveyed individuals 2.4% 2.4% 2.4%             Tea Fruit Juice Coffee Soda Pop Protein Shakes Milk Vitamin Water Smoothies Percentage of surveyed individuals 3.7% 2.9% 2.4% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 0.8% 0.8%   Energy Drinks Coconut Water Carbonated Water           Percentage of surveyed individuals 0.8% 0.4% 0.4%             Don’t Know/ Care/ None Healthier Options Cheaper Alternative Products Local/ Organic Stationary Beer Total Percentage of surveyed individuals 27.3% 10.2% 2.0% 2.0% 1.6% 0.8% 0.8% 100.0%   Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 18  Combined Categories Legend: Healthy Fruit Snacks: Dried fruits (apple, mango etc.) Dried Vegetable Snacks: kale, veggies Energy/Power Bars: energy bars, meal supplements, power bars, protein bars, high fibre/protein, more filling snacks, higher nutrition meal supplements, Lara bars, Cliff Bars Healthy Chips: Dill/Jalapeno, popcorn Milk: chocolate, plain Nuts: unsalted, trail mix Healthier Options: Healthier choices, healthier alternatives, healthier snacks, good tasting healthy snacks, more nutritional options, healthy but tasty alternatives, healthier options, healthier stuff, More of low calorie snacks, More healthier drink options, Lower fat content, Natural foods, raw/unprocessed Don’t Know/Care/None: Do not care, Don’t Know, Never thought of, none, blanks, N/A, I’m satisfied, inappropriate choices = perishable Alternative Products: Gluten Free, Sugar Free, Vegan, Environmentally friendly packaging  Crackers: Asian snacks, pretzels, crackers  Table 5.a:  Question 8 - Significant Results to Discuss  Types of snacks to add to campus vending Healthy Fruit Snacks Energy/ Protein Bars Granola/ Cereal Bars Don’t Know/Care/None Healthier Options Percentage of surveyed individuals 8.6% 6.1% 4.1% 27.3% 10.2%                Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 19 Appendix C:  Audit Results of SUB & Gage Residence GSVM  & and Beverage Vending Machines (BVM)  C.1:  Snack Vending Machine (GSVM) Audit Results SUB (VENDING CORRIDOR) aka SUB PIZZA from previous groups audit         SUB GSVM 1         Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Cheetos Crunchy 51 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Original Munchies 43 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Doritos Nacho Cheese 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Lays Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Lays Bar-B-Q 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Miss Vickies Salt & Vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Miss Vickies Sweet Chili & Sour Cream 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Old Dutch Crunchy Nacho Cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Lays Ketchup 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Fritos Hoops BBQ 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Ruffles Sour Cream'n Onion 43 Fruit/Veg Choose Least 1.50 Rold Gold Pretzels 47 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Baked Lays Bar-B-Q 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 Smartfood (with Cheddar) Popcorn 45 Grains Not Recommended 2.00 Baked Lays Ruffles Cheddar and Sour Cream 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 Ruffles Sour Cream'n Bacon 40 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Mr. Big 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 The Edge (Replenish) 75 Energy Bars Choose Least 3.75 The Edge (Fortify) 65 Energy Bars Choose Least 3.75 Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 20 The Edge (Maintain) 65 Energy Bars Choose Most 3.75 M&M's 48.3 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Twix 56.7 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Excel Gum 2.8 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.50 Crispy Crunch 48 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Kit Kat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Caramilk 52 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Hershey's Cookies n' Cream 45 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Hershey's Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Mike & Ike 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Mike & Ike 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Skittles 61.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Mars 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Nature Valley Trail Mix (granola bar) 35 Grains Choose Least 1.25 Quaker Yogurt (granola bar) 36 Grains Not Recommended 1.25 English Bay Dark and White Chocolate Chunk Cookie 100 Grains Choose Least 1.75 Dan-D-Pak Mountain Trail Mix 100 Nuts Not Recommended 2.25 Smarties 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.50 Sour Tongue Tinglers  143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 Super Wormies  143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 Welch's Fruit Snacks 64 Candies Choose Least 1.50 English Bay Chocolate Chip Cookie 43 Grains Choose Least 1.75 SUB GSVM 2         Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Original Munchies 43 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Hickory Sticks (Original) 50 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Smartfood (with Cheddar) Popcorn 45 Grains Not Recommended 2.00 Lays Bar-B-Q 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Lays Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Rold Gold Pretzels 47 Grains Not 1.50 Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 21 Recommended Baked Lays Bar-B-Q 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 Baked Lays Original 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 Baked Lays Ruffles Cheddar and Sour Cream 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 Dan-D-Pak Rice Crackers 80 Grains Not Recommended  1.75 Old Dutch Crunchy Nacho Cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Ruffles Loaded Potato Skins 40 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 Miss Vickies Salt & Malt Vinegar 43 Fruits/Veg Choose Least 1.50 Lays Ketchup 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 M&M's 48.3 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Hershey's Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 The Edge (Maintain) 65 Energy Bars Choose Most 3.75 The Edge (Replenish) 75 Energy Bars Choose Least 3.75 Nature Valley Trail Mix (granola bar) 35 Grains Choose Least 1.25 Quaker Chewy Chocolate Chip (granola bar) 26 Grains Choose Least 1.25 Norma's Chocolate Chunk Cookie 100 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.75 English Bay Dark and White Chocolate Chunk Cookie 100 Grains Choose Least 1.75 Sour Tongue Tinglers  143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 Super Wormies  143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 Welch's Fruit Snacks 64 Candies Choose Least 1.50 Gage Residence GSVM         Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Lays Bar-B-Q 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 Cheetos Crunchy 51 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Doritos Nacho Cheese 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Lays Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Miss Vickies Jalapeno 43 Fruits/Veg Choose Least 1.50 Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 22 Sun Chips Garden Salsa 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 Miss Vickies Sweet Chili & Sour Cream 43 Fruits/Veg Choose Least 1.50 Old Dutch Crunchy Nacho Cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Smartfood (with Cheddar) Popcorn 45 Grains Not Recommended 2.00 Rold Gold Pretzels 47 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Baked Lays Ruffles Cheddar and Sour Cream 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 Baked Lays Bar-B-Q 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Mike & Ike 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Kit Kat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Twix 56.7 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Hershey's Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Hershey's Cookies n' Cream 45 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Billy Bob's Beef Jerky 15 Meat/Alternatives Choose Sometimes 2.25 Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 The Edge (Maintain) 65 Energy Bars Choose Most 3.75 The Edge (Fortify) 65 Energy Bars Choose Least 3.75 Quaker Yogourt (granola bar) 36 Grains Not Recommended 1.25 Nature Valley Trail Mix (granola bar) 35 Grains Choose Least 1.25 Smarties 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.50 Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Norma's Chocolate Chunk Cookie 100 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.75 English Bay Chocolate Chip Cookie 43 Grains Choose Least 1.75 Sour Tongue Tinglers  143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 Welch's Fruit Snacks 64 Candies Choose Least 1.50       Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 23 C.2:  Average cost of Unhealthy (CL/NR) vs. Healthy (CM/CS) snacks  Category Type Average Cost CL/NR 1.74 CM/CS 2.07  C.3:  Bar chart using C.1 Results                       Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 24 C.4:  Bar Chart Using above results, and results found by Ma et al. (2012)    C.5:  Beverage Vending Machine Audit Results  SUB (VENDING CORRIDOR) aka SUB PIZZA from previous groups audit         SUB BVM (ALL)         Product Name Size (mL) Food Group Category Price ($) Pepsi Cola 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Diet Pepsi 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 7 Up 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Dr. Pepper 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Brisk Iced-Tea 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Dr. pepper 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Mountain Dew 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Water 591 Beverage Choose Most 2.00 Rockstar 591 Beverage Not Recommended 3.00 Starbucks (Mocha/Vanilla Double Shot) 591 Beverage Not Recommended 3.00 Dole (Apple) 450 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.25 Dole (Orange) 450 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.25 G2 (Grape, Punch, Blueberry) 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.25 Powerade 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Powerade (Zero Calorie) 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Regular Nestea 500 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 25 Green Tea Nestea 500 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Minute Maid (Orange) 450 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Minute Maid (Apple) 450 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Vitamin Water 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.50 Regular Coke 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Coke Zero 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Diet Coke 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Sprite 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Canada Dry 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Regular Nestea 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Barq's Root Beer 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 C Plus 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Monster 473 Beverage Not Recommended 3.00 Milk 2 Go: Plain 2% 350 Beverage Choose Most 2.00 Milk 2 Go: Chocolate 350 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Milk 2 Go: Strawberry Splash 350 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Milk 2 Go: Vanilla Vibe 350 Beverage Choose Least 2.00 Milk 2 Go: Caramilk 350 Beverage Choose Least 2.00 Milk 2 Go: Crispy Crunch 350 Beverage Choose Least 2.00 Steaz raspberry & Peach Mango 473 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.50 Gage Residence BVM         Product Name Size (mL) Food Group Category Price ($) Regular Coke 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Coke Zero 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Diet Coke 591 Beverage Choose Sometimes 2.00 Sprite 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Canada Dry 591 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Regular Nestea 500 Beverage Not Recommended 2.00 Monster 473 Beverage Not Recommended 3.00 Water 591 Beverage Choose Most 2.00              Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 26 C.6: Bar Chart using C.5 results    C.7:  Bar chart using C.6 results       Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 27 Appendix D:  Suggested Coca Cola beverage additions for campus vending  Suggested healthier Coca Cola beverage additions for campus machines Product name Flavour Size (mL) Food Group Category Survey beverage preference  Minute Maid 100% Juice Tropical Fruit Blend 341 Juice Choose Sometimes Fruit Juice Minute Maid 100% Juice Mixed Berry 341 Juice Choose Sometimes Fruit Juice Dasani Essentials Pomegranate Blackberry 591 Other Beverage Choose Sometimes Water Dasani Raspberry 591 Other Beverage Choose Sometimes Water Dasani Strawberry 591 Other Beverage Choose Sometimes Water Dasani Citrus 591 Other Beverage Choose Sometimes Water Nestea Zero Iced Tea Natural Lemon Flavour 341 Other Beverage Choose Sometimes Cold Tea                      Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 28 Appendix E: Personal Reflections        Each member of our group has written a personal reflection below:   Aveir Chang: By being part of the vending machine project, I feel that we are actually moving toward food security. Although the GSVM does not seem to have made much improvement from currently existing model, the process of identifying that UBC students as being subjected to food insecurity and trying to come up with solutions is what’s important. This CBEL project has demonstrated that vending machines do play a big role in UBC community’s food system and as the result has shown, the CM categories do not necessarily represent personal preferences. So I’m hoping that in the future, the vending suppliers would take our survey result into consideration since preferences and cultural acceptability are part of the definition to food security.  Tyra Duggan: Through my involvement in this project, I was initially surprised to learn that UBC Food Services is attempting to improve the quality of snacks and beverages offered through vending, since vending machines are often thought of as inherently unhealthy due to the highly-processed nature of their goods. I never considered that there could be “healthier” processed food selections, and it is rewarding to know that through our efforts these selections could take the place of some of the less healthy options currently provided. By offering healthier options, UBC Food Services is increasing accessibility to nutritionally adequate foods for those who frequent the machines on campus.  Carmen Sham:  Prior to the project, I would never have made the connection that vending machines also contribute to food security in a community. I was disappointed to see that the Gage Snack Vending model had little success over the last year, but I also have to keep in mind that change does not happen overnight.  I am definitely excited to see whether or not our audits and suggestions will make an impact on the food security of vending machines on campus in the years to come.  I also hope that we have piqued the interest of our survey participants to become more aware of the decisions they make at vending machines and in turn increase their food knowledge and food security.  Alexandra Lyn Shyuan Tan: Food security is something I have never heard of before, until I took LFS250. I have really enjoyed being a part of this faculty, which tries to promote food security and food citizenship. This project has really shown me how much society has limited us from being food secure. It is important for us “youths” to change the way our community looks at food, to make them more aware of the food they consume, because our society as a whole is moving toward a very unhealthy lifestyle - of fast food and prepackaged meals which are full of salt, sugar and fat.   Judy Tung: I was excited to be involved in this project because I believe it is important to improve the accessibility and availability of healthy options into Healthy Options in Vending Machines on Campus 29 vending machines. Students often rely on vending machine to fuel themselves with energy late night when food establishments are closed. Before this project, my first impressions of vending machine snacks was that they were unhealthy. At first, I was frustrated to learn that we can only recommend beverages from the Coca-Cola company because I thought that the company supplied beverages high in sugar. Through research, I learned that there are many healthy beverage products my group could recommend such as Zico coconut water and Odwalla. All in all,, my perspective on UBC vending machines changed because I am more aware of the past and current initiatives UBC is taking to support the local food system through the vending machines.   Katherine Wang: As we learned in class, food security is defined as having access to to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy life. Most of time, students use vending machines for convenience. However, these machines are often filled with products that are not nutritious, such as high fat and sugar contents which leads to food insecurity. The goal for our project is to replace these unhealthy foods with more nutritious and local products in vending machines. Therefore, I believe that this project can make our campus more food secure and sustainable by providing healthier and local products. Moreover, this may provide opportunities for others to practice and become more knowledgeable in food security.  Rosemary Wright: This experience brought about a stir of emotions: Initially, I was frustrated with the assignment because of the broad project description given to my team. As the term progressed, the objectives became clearer, bringing our anxiety of finishing the project down. As I look back, this experience as a whole has been eye opening: I appreciate how LFS 350 integrates classroom learning into the local community; this sort of teaching helps me make valuable connections and understand the importance of education. The most important thing I learned doing this assignment was realizing the lack of communication that exists between individuals involved with the UBC vending machines. It is nice to know that small changes brought by our group can make students aware of healthy snack and beverage options in vending machines, potentially improving their health. These small changes can help contribute to a healthier and sustainable community.      

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