UBC Undergraduate Research

Indigenous walking tours : "ways to foster cultural inclusiveness at UBC through physical activity" Choa, Catherine; DeLeon, Megan; Janmohamed, Sameer; Kwok, Kevin; Tusiime, Claire Nov 18, 2014

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportCatherine Choa, Claire Tusiime, Kevin Kwok, Megan DeLeon, Sameer JanmohamedINDIGENOUSWALKING TOURSKIN 465November 18, 201411851738University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.     INDIGENOUS  WALKING TOURS  “ways to foster cultural inclusiveness at UBC through physical activity”   Catherine Choa Megan DeLeon Sameer Janmohamed Kevin Kwok Claire Tusiime              Table of Contents       I. Purpose          1           II. Target Populations         1        III. Recognized Needs         1  IV. University Neighbourhoods Association       1  V. UNA Access Card         2  VI. Other Projects         2  VII. Our Proposed Plan         3  VIII. Promotional Material Prototypes         English           4 Mandarin          5  IX. Sample Routes          6 4km: Leisure Adventure        7 5km: Outdoor Adventure        8 8km: Arts Adventure        9  X. Challenges/ Key Issues        10  XI. Implications          11             XII. Recommendations         11  XIII. Next Steps          12  XIV. Our Project Experience        13  XV. References          14             I. Purpose  The purpose of our project is to facilitate intercultural understanding by connecting the marginalized Musqueam community with the Chinese mothers living in the UBC community, while incorporating physical activity.    II. Target Populations  Our project is aimed towards the Musqueam community and Chinese families (primarily mothers) living in the UBC community.   III. Recognized Needs  ● To recognize the history of the Musqueam people and UBC → recognizing aboriginal people as the “Original host(s)” of Canada (Yu, 2013) ● Provide awareness and understanding of diverse cultural demographics at UBC  (Man, 2014) → Chinese are the largest cultural group entering Canada since 1987 (Statistics Canada, 2014) ● Building intercultural connections and networks (Chao, 1996) ● “It’s more than just knowing, for example, that there are different Chinese people in the world. Or that UBC is on Musqueam land. It involves having a more sophisticated understanding of what it means to come from different parts of the world or have thousands of years of family history right here, and how that might affect one’s worldview, communication styles or potential relationship to others” (Habacon, 2013).  ● “For immigrant women to become equal and active participants in Canadian society resources must be made available to them” (Man, 2004). ● Need for involvement in physical activity ○  Kim, Carrasco, Muntaner, McKenzie, & Noh (2013) studied ethnicity and post-migration health trajectory in new immigrants to Canada ○  Higher risk of poor health among Chinese women compared to their European counterparts ○  Women and ethnic groups may be more vulnerable to social changes and post-migration settlement     IV. University Neighbourhoods Association  ○  Approximates a municipal council for the local areas on campus (University Neighbourhoods Association, 2014) ○  Local regulation, recreation, elections, landscaping, etc.  ○  Resident’s opinions are heard through the UNA to improve development   V. UNA Access Card:  ● Free Card for access to cultural and recreation facilities ● Free on campus access includes (UNA, 2014): ○  UBC Library   ○  UBC Botanical Gardens  ○  UBC Nitobe Memorial Garden ○  Museum of Anthropology  ● Discounted access includes ○  Beaty Biodiversity Museum ○  UBC Aquatic Centre ○  Doug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Centre ● Functions to open up the university campus to UBC and Wesbrook residents ● Asian residents joined UNA as a result of conflict over hospice location → members of the growing Chinese community became prominent (Lazaruk, 2014) ● Indigenous tours can show them the heritage and culture that the current land is based on ● While doing this, stopping at areas that offer services and resources (especially those included with the UNA access card) would be ideal in showing the residents what they have access to for their families and themselves   VI. Other Projects  ● Knowing the Land Beneath Our Feet project    As part of our process, when we didn’t establish communication with the Musqueam community’s Elder Grant, Alden got us in touch with Sarah Ling, who is currently working on a project called Knowing the Land Beneath Our Feet. When we met with her, we learned how other people planned to facilitate intercultural understanding.   This project is a multimedia initiative. More specifically, they integrate curriculum materials into their walking tours, so that students may experience what it means to be on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Musqueam people. Sarah and her team are working on creating a digital tour on a web interface, so that anyone can access information about the house posts, totem poles, signs, and other sites of this tour.   Sarah, the project manager, was great to talk to regarding this initiative. She gave us positive feedback about our ideas and helped narrow down the scope of our project.   ● Chinese garden on Musqueam land brought cultures together  Sarah guided us to this article, where we found that the Chinese and Musqueam community have a connection that is much longer than we realized.   From the turn of the 20th century, farmers from China supplied much of the Lower Mainland’s produce. Their farms were along the Fraser River on the Musqueam reserve at the time. Interestingly enough, Musqueam elder, Larry Grant, at UBC has connections with both the Chinese and Musqueam community, because his father was working on the land when he met his mother.      VII. Our Proposed Plan:  ● Community walks around UBC campus provide cultural education of Musqueam heritage  ● Mandarin translations provided throughout tours and within technology apps ● 4km, 5km, 8km routes available  ● W did our best to include people with differing abilities        VIII. Promotional Material Prototypes English:    Mandarin:       IX. Walking Tour Routes  The original plan was to use preexisting tour routes from other walking tour groups as a foundation for our walking tours, but we were unable to make arrangements to receive the information from the other groups. This resulted in the creation of our own routes. The routes have attractions and resources that participants can access and where they may also find opportunities to engage in the community, such as through volunteering.  Each route has a theme; the three walking tours available are: ● Leisure Adventure (highlighting leisure and recreation opportunities) ● Outdoor Adventure (highlighting major outdoor attractions at UBC) ● Arts Adventure (highlighting fine arts attractions)  Participants will also be given a tour map, highlighting the route of the walk, the places the group will stop at and the estimated distance of the route. The walking distance of the tour is recorded for participants to use as reference in the future. On the following pages are examples of a tour maps that would be given to participants.   Leisure Adventure: ~ 4 km       Leisure Adventure Walking Route: 1. Doug Mitchell-Thunderbird Sports Centre 2.  UBC Tennis Centre 3.  Old Barn Community Centre 4. Rashpal Dhillon Track & Field Oval 5. Wesbrook Mall— UNA Office Building  Outdoor Adventure: ~ 5 km     Outdoor Adventure Walking Route: 1.  Doug Mitchell-Thunderbird Sports Centre 2.  UBC Botanical Garden 3.  UBC Farm 4.  Wesbrook Mall— UNA Office Building      Arts Adventure: ~ 8 km     Arts Adventure Walking Route: 1.  Doug Mitchell-Thunderbird Sports Centre 2.  Belkin Art Gallery 3.  Museum of Anthropology 4.  Pacific Museum of the Earth 5. Wesbrook Mall— UNA Office Building   X. Challenges/Key Issues   ● Migration→different priorities and values  ○  Difficult for these women to access PA, they face different barriers (Chao, 1996; Frisby, 2011) ○  Newcomers are often unfamiliar with western policies and approaches to physical activity program delivery. They may not speak Canada’s official languages, and they often encounter other significant obstacles to participation that are tied to gender, social class, and a number of other   factors (Frisby, 2011). These women are here for their children and they are the prime concern, so if accessibility to PA is an issue, it goes down the priority list because it’s an added challenge in their life.  ○  Some Chinese immigrants value education and are willing to make the sacrifices to provide their children with better education (Chao, 1996). From our interactions with UNA members, there is an association between parents’ lack of interest in participating in PA and the emphasis on the need for resources and information about campus services.  ● Power relations ○  Power relations: us as students working with staff who have more authority and have a different kind of power   ○  So what: reaching the top (where most of the decisions are made) was very challenging, and making change would be very hard ■  Priorities are with current issues and not with future projects  ● Importance of relationship building ○  Advantageous to have diverse connections →  creates a better sense of belonging and can open opportunities (Koh, Shao & Wang, 2008) ○  Research supports that people are prone to have contact and connection with people who are similar, more so than with people who are different. This promotes cultural enclaves (distinct clusters of people of the same group) and hinders cultural mixing, thus hindering inter-group community building  (Koh, Shao, & Wang, 2008) ○  In a project where different groups are involved,  group mixing and relationship building is an important key to success, ensuring each group is represented and contributes in the project so that their objectives are considered and integrated into the project.  ○  Also, the literature supports that having diverse connections helps foster integration and a sense of belonging in the community, which can lead to access to supports and opportunities in the community (Lai, 2007)  ● Promotion of intercultural understanding ○  Strengthening supports can enhance access to resources (Lai, 2007) ○  Promoting intercultural understanding is tied to relationship building    ○  Culture influences how things like health and physical activity are conceptualized and prioritized, so communicating and promoting intercultural understanding would help address issues concerning differing priorities ○  With an intercultural lens one can identify how to approach health and other issues in a way that is respectful of different backgrounds and will be most appealing, thus enhancing participants’ access to resources (Lai, 2007)    XI. Implications  ● Differing priorities and agendas with the UNA regarding: ○  purpose of the project ○  priority of physical activity ○  priority of intercultural learning ● Slow to establish relationship with the Musqueam community  ● Conflicting agendas with other tour groups ○  Different goals and ways of implementing goals ● Weak communication between UBC and the community groups (i.e., UNA)   XII. Recommendations  ● Cultural representation on the planning committee with UBC representatives (Chinese & Musqueam) ○  To combat Anglo-European dominance (Frisby, 2011) ○  Having representatives from all groups involved groups may help merge agendas, allow for communication covering more bases and cultural understanding among all groups involved  ● UBC: build relationship with Chinese women & families  ○  Understand needs of this community and how to make resources accessible   ○  Better understand barriers to community involvement (Browne & Varcoe, 2009; Frisby,2011)   ● Create an opportunity to share Chinese culture ie: “Tea Social” (including an assortment of beverages to cater to different tastes)  ● Use technology (i.e.: apps) to make tours accessible to individuals anytime   ● This technology would be the result from a potential partnership with Sarah Ling and her project ‘Knowing the Land Beneath Our Feet’(personal communication, October 23, 2014) ○  Apps act as additional resources for individuals interested in touring alone or in groups without a translator ○  Musqueam representative, Sarah Ling hopes to implement interactive technology that translates route information to different languages (i.e., Mandarin or Cantonese) ○  There is potential for a partnership with the ‘Knowing the land before our feet’ project ○  Consider challenges with using technology  ■  Barriers with technology may include: ● Some people may not own a smartphone ● Some people may own a smartphone, but app may not be supported on operating system ■  Overcoming barriers ● Having the option of tours with a physical tour guide that are knowledgeable  ● Developing an app that is accessible to all   ● Use current research available that looks at physical activity inclusion practices for Chinese immigrant women in Vancouver (Frisby, 2011) ○  Encourage citizen engagement to provide a learning environment that is two-way and and to aid program and policy development (Frisby, 2011) ○  Work from a broader social ecological framework - resources should be available to various ethnic groups (Frisby, 2011) ○  Improve the city’s leisure access policy - provide subsidies or free passes to physical activity centres through immigration services and Chinese cultural associations (Frisby, 2011) ○  Improve community partnerships in order to facilitate cross-cultural connections - build trust through community partners in order for the women to see the activities as beneficial and a valuable experience (Frisby, 2011)    XIII. Next Steps  ● Form planning committee to take over from our group and execute project ● Host “tea social” for Chinese community to share their culture and establish relationship before they start touring together   XIV. Our Project Experience  ● As a group, we found communication went well and utilized technology to keep updated an informed on the progress of the project. The main modes of communication we used was through a Facebook group created for our project group, email to communicate with our project contact, Alden and Liska, as well as other contact people pertinent to our project’s development. We also greatly utilized the Google drive applications such as Google Docs and Google Slides, as these were efficient ways to work on group components of our project.   ● In regards to communication, our experience was that we had strong, consistent, and effective communication with our project contacts, Alden and Liska. Communication was more of an issue when it came to contacting other individuals pertinent to our project, as some of them did not respond as readily to our inquiries. Another communication conflict with these other individuals was that, what was said and what was implied or understood differed between us and some of the contacts.   ● In our communication with the UNA, there was some misunderstanding between the purpose of our project and what we would be able to accomplish within the given time frame and what the UNA expected or wanted us to do. This mismatch of expectations came down to a combination of culture and different understandings of the purpose of the project. For example, near the end of our meeting with the UNA, the members expressed that they thought people in Canada did not operate as efficiently and took a long time to implement things, expressing a desire to have some tours ready to be launched in November of this year and again in the new year. However, this was not a feasible goal for our group as there are still details that would need to be addressed before our proposed project would be able to be piloted. This required us to communicate more clearly our intent of the project and our involvement and roles, as well as what we would be able to accomplish in our given time frame. We had to inform the UNA members of this after our meeting, and after discussing the meeting outcomes with Alden. This was not ideal as we realized it could be perceived as us going back on what we had told the UNA group. This was an interesting example of how culture can influence perspectives of the same thing, and highlights how important it is for the groups to communicate their perspectives and expectations earlier in the work process so that communication is clearer and each group has the same understanding of what is occurring and being agreed upon.    References Browne, A., & Varcoe, C. (2009). Cultural and social considerations in health  assessment. In C. Jarvis, A. J. Browne, J. MacDonald-Jenkins & M. Luctkar-Flude (Eds.), Physical examination and health assessment (pp. 35-50): Elsevier. Chao, R. K. (1996). Chinese and european american mothers' beliefs about the role of  parenting in children's school success. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,  27(4), 403-423. doi:10.1177/0022022196274002 Choi, J., Kushner, K., Mill, J., & Lai, D. (2014). The experience of Korean immigrant  women adjusting to Canadian society. J Cross Cult Gerontol, 29, 277- 297. doi: 10.1007/s10823-014-9235-8 Findlay, S., & Köhler, N. (2010, November 10). The enrollment controversy*. Maclean’s.  Retrieved from http://www.macleans.ca/ Frisby, W. (2011). Promising physical activity inclusion practices for Chinese immigrant  women in Vancouver, Canada. Quest, 63, 153-147.  doi:10.1080/00336297.2011.10483671 Habacon, A. (2013). Why diversity is not enough. Retrieved from  http://news.ubc.ca/2013/12/05/127101/ Kim, I., PhD., Carrasco, C., M.P.H., Muntaner, C., M.D., PhD., McKenzie, K., M.D., &  Noh, S., PhD. (2013). Ethnicity and postmigration health trajectory in new  immigrants to canada. American Journal of Public Health, 103(4), 96-104.  Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/ Lai, D. (2007). Predictors of health service barriers for older Chinese immigrants in  Canada. Health and Social Work, 32(1). Retrieved from  http://www.oxfordjournals.org/en/ Lazaruk, S. (2014, January 9). Furor over UBC hospice a prime example of what  happens when cultures clash. The Province. Retrieved from    http://www.theprovince.com/Furor+over+hospice+prime+example+what+happ ens+when+cultures+clash/9043263/story.html Man, G. (2004). Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in  Canada. Women’s Studies International Forum, 27, 135– 148.  doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2004.06.004 Rossi, C. (2013, September 26). Musqueam: Chinese garden on Musqueam land brought  cultures together. Vancouver Courier. Retrieved from  http://www.vancourier.com/vancouver-special/musqueam/musqueam-chinese- garden-on-musqueam-land-brought-cultures-together-1.639772 Statistics Canada. (2014). Immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada.  Retrieved from  http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-en g.cfm#a2 University Neighbourhoods Association. (2014). Access Card. Retrieved from  http://www.myuna.ca/services/accesscard/ Yu, K. (2013). Organizing immigrants: meaning generation in the community. Work,  Employment, and Society, 28(3), 355-371. doi: 10.1177/0950017013491449 Yu, S., Huang, Z., Schwalberg, R., and Kogan, M. (2005). Parental awareness of health  and community resources among immigrant families. Maternal and Child Health  Journal, 9(1), 27- 34. doi: 10.1007/s10995-005-2547-0   

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