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Food skills development on campus : a UBC Food Systems project Bruinsma, Mariah; Chun, Megan (Haesung); Jang, Alexander; Koenig, Albert; Zimmer, Lissa Apr 4, 2014

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportAlbert Koenig, Alexander Jang, Lissa Zimmer, Mariah Bruinsma, Megan (Haesung) ChunFood Skills Development on Campus:A UBC Food Systems ProjectLFS 450April 04, 201410181621University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.    The University of British Columbia        PROJECT 5 Food Skills Development on Campus:  A UBC Food Systems Project      Mariah Bruinsma  Megan (Haesung) Chun  Alexander Jang  Albert Koenig  Lissa Zimmer             April 4th, 2014     LFS 450 Dr. Andrew Riseman     Table of Contents  Executive Summary.....................................................................................1 I. Introduction..................................................................................................3 II. Methodology................................................................................................6 III. Findings.....................................................................................................11 IV. Discussion.................................................................................................20 V. Reflection..................................................................................................22 VI. Recommendations.....................................................................................23 VII. Scenario Evaluation...................................................................................25 VIII. Works Cited.................................................................................................i IX. Appendices Appendix A. Food Skills Diagram...........................................................ii Appendix B. Semi-structured Interview table.........................................iii Appendix C. Summary of Contacts........................................................iv Appendix D. Campus Resource Food Skills.........................................vii Appendix E. Web of Campus Resources.............................................viii Appendix F. Interview Guide and Notes................................................ix Appendix G. Media Release & Action Photo.......................................xxv     1  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  To meet the food security and health needs of the UBC Campus Community, our team of LFS 450 students researched into the development of food skills on campus in conjunction with the UBC Food Systems Project’s goals towards campus food system sustainability. Our primary objectives were to discover what food skills development related resources were being offered to campus residents at present and to examine what food skills related programming, infrastructure, and resources were desired by campus resource representatives.  Through an initial literature review, we formed a working definition of food skills into three components: food knowledge, food practices, and food perception & conceptualization. With these pillars of food skills in mind, our team conducted semi-structured interviews with various campus resources related to food or food skill programming. These campus resources included (but were not limited to) student clubs, student residences, the UBC Farm, AMS Food Services, and many more. In our research analysis, we searched for general trends common to the campus resources we interviewed and came up with the following interpretations: campus resources differed in their perception of food skills, most campus resources were heavily student and volunteer based, there was a lack of communication between campus resources, and a general lack of kitchen infrastructure, space, or human resources for more effective programming.  For our recommendations, we suggest creating a common hub to connect all campus resources together whether physically or online, hire a main coordinator to organize the common hub for consistency of programming, implement effective advertising to promote campus resources to campus residents, and implement food 2  skills development workshops into LFS 100 as a pilot project in explicitly promoting food skills development for first year students.  For future LFS 450 research teams, we recommend looking into gathering more information on non-student campus resources pertaining to food skills or community engagement and also conducting focus group interviews with the UBC student demographic to confirm which food skills are lacking in the UBC student population.                                3  I. INTRODUCTION The Importance of Food Skills Food security, defined as adequate access, availability and usage of nutritious and culturally appropriate foods, is pertinent subject on both the global and local scale (The World Health Organization, 2014). According to Canada’s Action Plan for Food Security (Agri-Food Canada,1998), Food Insecurity can manifest chronically or temporarily and differ based on income level, gender, location, and other variables. The report further emphasized the importance of healthy eating habits and development of practical food skills, healthy food choices, and nutritional knowledge (Agri-Food Canada, 1998). Thus, in order to prevent food insecurity locally here on the UBC campus, the development of food skills is crucial.  The Food Skills Development on Campus Project This paper is intended to provide a detailed and sophisticated insight in food skill development on campus. In order to make this project successful group number 5 consisting of UBC undergraduates Mariah, Megan Lissa, Alex and Albert, conducted semi-structured interviews with different clubs, organizations and community members involved in food skill development on campus. Following the guidance of our stakeholders Andrew Parr and Gwen Chapman, we pursued this project and set two main objectives in order to reach our goals:  1. To research into what campus resources pertaining towards food skills are available (or not available) for the campus community 2. To research what food skills-related initiatives are needed or desired by the UBC campus community 4  The UBC Campus Community in question refers to all students, faculty, and non-school residents living on the UBC campus in student residences and the surrounding areas a part of the University Neighbourhood Association (Utown@UBC, 2014).  Since our team was coming from different educational backgrounds such as Nutritional Sciences and Global Resource Systems, we had a multi-faceted approach towards this project. For instance, those of us in Nutritional Sciences were concerned with how food skill development could influence food safety and adequate nutritional intake, whereas other members emphasized the importance of developing food skills with ecological and environmental considerations such as recycling and composting. Our multi-faceted team reflects the UBC Food System Project’s Vision Statement in researching a holistic definition of food skills which encompasses values such as environmental sustainability, cultural appropriateness, food sovereignty, and food system transparency.  What are Food Skills? Over the past decades, the skills used to prepare food from scratch have been gradually replaced with foods that come pre-packaged, pre-prepared and those that are more convenient and less time consuming to eat (Chenhall, 2011). This change, also called “nutrition transition” is usually followed by a diet that is consuming foods that are higher in energy, have higher total fat, added sodium, are less nutrient dense, include simple carbohydrates, and is low in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and pulses (Chenhall, 2010 and Hawkes, 2006). These detrimental dietary patterns can usually lead into diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (Appel et 5  al, 2011). All these issues can be traced back to the root of one theme: lack of food skill. Food skill development is a term that is used by many people in a variety of settings and occasions. However, when we look at it more deeply and approach the term from different angles, we can see that food skill is nuanced in its complex relations between a variety of knowledge and skill factors. On top of that, the Ontario Public Health Convention (OPHC) is adamant that food skills and adaptation of sufficient food skills and behaviors are crucial tools in reducing chronic diseases (OPHC, 2011). The OPHC further generally defines food skills as food selection, healthy food preparation and food storage, whereas a more sophisticated definition includes food knowledge, planning, food conceptualization, mechanical techniques, and lastly food perception (OPHC, 2011). Looking at all these keywords, the government of Ontario agrees that food skill development is difficult to be defined in one sentence with one general goal, therefore making it a challenge to set standard measurement tools (OPHC, 2011). However, a general definition of food skills in the government context is a set of “complex, interrelated, person-centered set of skills”, necessary to provide nutritious, safe and culturally acceptable foods for everyone in the household (OPHC, 2011, pg. 22). For the purpose of our project, we have adapted the working definition of food skills set by the OPHC to serve as the basic measurements of desirable food skills for UBC Food System. Absorbing all this information and relating to it towards the food skills development in University of British Columbia (UBC), our group recognized three main categories on which the different resources on campus could operate. A visual of our measurements can be seen under the following categories 6  and their branching examples of measurable variables as seen in the diagram in Appendix A1: a)   Food Knowledge b)   Food Planning & Practical Skills c)   Food Conceptualization and Perception  II. METHODOLOGY There are various research tools that could be used to gather information relevant to any project.  As a group, we chose an interview method that implies value on using personal information as data (Newton, 2010).  This two-way communication method also takes in consideration efficiency and practically of interaction between people (FAO, 1990): a)   Semi-structured interviews2 As a primary tool of methodology, semi-structured interviews provide the flexibility in asking relevant questions according to the interviewee’s background knowledge and expertise on the topic being discussed.  This will ensure more meaningful conversations as majority of the questions being asked are specific and tailored towards each interviewee. The responses given during the semi-structured interviews also gave us a wide range of information from various perspectives surrounding the topic of food skills.  Before selecting semi-structured interviews as being our primary tool, scientific literature was used to give us a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of conducting semi-structure interviews.                                                 1 See page ii of Appendices 2 See page iii  of the appendices for table summary of strengths and weaknesses of this methodology 7  Strengths Semi-structured interviews gave us the opportunity to discuss with important representatives and stakeholders instead of the general crowd (Newton, 2010). It also accommodates the interviewee but allowing him/her to ask questions for clear background information of our project, consent for audio recording and purpose of the interview (FAO, 1990; Newton, 2010). By allowing the interviewee to become more familiar with both us and our project, s/he will feel more comfortable and willing to share appropriate information that may become vital for our project’s progression (Newton, 2010). The interviewee can also feel less pressured in having their interview audio-recorded and transcribed. Given that the questions are completely open-ended with no right or wrong answer, the interviewee can also speak with minimal direction and can expand upon in more detail his/her previous responses (FAO, 1990; Newton, 2010). This motivated us to create a question template to observe the feeling, emotion and approach on how each interviewee responds or reacts to certain questions (FAO, 1990; Newton, 2010). Overall, the strengths of semi-structured interviews made the decision for us to choose it as being our primary tool of methodology. However, please note we also took in consideration its weaknesses.  Weaknesses One of the biggest weaknesses of conducting semi-structured interviews relates to having a smaller sample size. This made it difficult for us to generalize our findings for the entire UBC campus community (FAO, 1990). We are also aware that semi-structured interviews solely depend on our skill to formulate suitable questions outside of our questionnaire template based on the response and background of the 8  interviewee (FAO, 1990).  Although we felt confident in our abilities, another concern of ours is that the interviewee may give information based on imperfect recall, and we may unknowingly give out verbal or physical signals that may make the interviewee uncomfortable, which may reflect in their responses (Newton, 2010). Overall, the strengths of semi-structured interviews overshadowed its weaknesses. However, how we approached our stakeholders and representatives prior and during the interviews is something to take note of.   Our Approach We followed a step by step procedure, which is as follows: Step 1. As a group, we designed an interview framework such as selection criteria of participants, as well as creating a questionnaire template that would include important topics surrounding the concept of food skill development. This template was used for all interviews. On another note, we conducted literature review from various type of resources ranging from government documents to online newspaper articles to give us the better definition and more in-depth information about the concept of food skills.  Literature also gave us an opportunity to understand “food skills” from different perspectives.  Selection criteria of participants Our group followed two criteria. The first criterion was our stakeholders such as Director of Food, Nutrition and Health Associate Dean Academic, Gwen Chapman and Managing Director of UBC Student Housing and Hospitality Services, Andrew Parr. Our last criteria are recommended contacts given by the LFS Teaching Team, our stakeholders and are other important representatives. These contacts 9  include Executive Chef Steve Golob of Place Vanier Dining Hall and communication coordinator Shannon Lambie of the UBC Farm (Please see Table 2 in the Appendix for complete information).  For this report, our information is representative of the information given and perspectives of each participant based on their views of food skills development. Step 2. We gave a brief introduction of our group to chosen stakeholders and representatives through email and politely ask to arrange a location, day and time to meet. A project overview word file was sent along within our email to give the correspondent a better idea of to our project’s purpose.  Location and timeframe of data collection         All meeting locations took place on the UBC Campus such as Agora, and the Food Nutrition and Health Building.  There was only one meeting location that took place within the UBC South Campus which is the UBC Farm  (Please see Table 2 in the Appendix for complete information).  We performed our data collection from January 22 to March 28. Step 3. Once a reply was given back by a representative and/or stakeholder, an email response was given by our group to confirm the meeting. Step 4. Consent forms for our interviews are printed out and given prior to the start of interviews. Once consent was given, all interviews were voice audio recorded. Each interview had an average duration of between 30 minutes to 1 hour. One member of our group was the main questionnaire, while other members recorded hand-written or typed notes.  All members asked questions that came to mind during the interview for clarification or to expand upon details of information given. 10  Step 5. All interviews were transcribed on google docs and notes were used to pinpoint key information that can be used instantly such as emailing recommended associations or representatives brought up by the interviewee that can be helpful for our project’s development. Step 6. Once all interviews were conducted near the end of our project’s timeframe, the transcribed information was used to analyze patterns and trends as well as limitations with our data. This was essential to our project’s write up, as it helped form our recommendations and changes we would like to see happen on campus and in our faculty.  Sample size and response rate Overall, our sample size contained 2 stakeholders and 17 recommended contacts bringing it to grand total of 19 participants (Please see Table 2 for more details). Out of 19 participants, only 12  responded back to our emails.  As a result, the response rate was 12/19 = ~ 63%.  In terms of frequency of responses, we normally received majority of our emails within 24 hours such as from UBC Wellness Centre Coordinator Kelly White and Executive Chef Steve Golob of Place Vanier Residence Dining Hall.  Limitations and Challenges From start to finish, our group experienced difficulties and challenges.  Since this is a first time pilot project, our group did not receive a clear starting point or given sufficient direction.  The beginning phases of the project also did not give us a clear definition of “food skills”, which is a general topic altogether.  Therefore, we had to resort to using literature to define it.  Once we defined food skills, we began 11  contacting stakeholders and representatives of groups associated with food skill development.  However, we experienced a lack of response from certain contacts such as the UBC Cooking Club, UBC Sprouts and The Old Barn Community Centre. We also experienced difficulties in communicating in-person with our stakeholder Andrew Parr due to his tight schedule. Despite this, we were able to carry out the project with the information we received by our other contacts. However, we again experienced further problems in interpreting our information as everyone interprets food skills differently.  In the end, we were able to pull off a project that would give a good starting point for next year’s Food Skills Development Team. Overall, semi-structured interviews were reproducible, time effective and instrumental in helping us put together a first-time pilot project surrounding the topic of Food Skills Development on Campus.  This method is a practical form of communication and provided us the opportunity to meet in-person important figures such as our stakeholders. As 4th years students we learned valuable information that we would have applied had we learned it in our previous years at UBC. One example is the availability of campus resources such as student kitchen locations.   As a group, we would highly recommend the use of semi-structured interviews as being the primary tool of methodology for future Food Skills Development groups.  III. FINDINGS         Through qualitative research, our group collected data from semi-structured interviews and acquired an understanding for the abundance of resources on campus in relation to food skills development. According to the UBC campus community, food skills support and provide students, faculty, staff, and non-school residents with information that will greatly benefit each individual. The findings 12  demonstrate a common theme that food skills development on campus is a complex definition of food knowledge, practical skills, conceptualization and perception. Each program provides a different service to the UBC campus community that creates an environment for proper steps to health and wellness.         While we acknowledge the UBC campus community is made up of several different facets, each organization or program we looked at caters primarily to the UBC student body. Not only did they share what services they provide, but they also brought up the issues they see are lacking on campus and gave recommendations towards future improvement for food skills development. Below is a list of the resources we specifically looked at, and a descriptive report for the data we collected3: a. Agora Cafe:         Agora Cafe is a small, organic cafe in the basement of the H. R. Macmillan building on UBC campus. It proudly labels itself as a learning cafe and provides its student-volunteers with valuable skills and experience in food service (E. Hunn, personal communication, February 26, 2014). While Agora Cafe does provide its volunteers with the capacity to learn food skills, it does not run separate workshops because of limited resources and time (E. Hunn, personal communication, February 26, 2014). The cafe considers food skills development important for the UBC community, especially since the cafe runs off of the skills of its volunteers (E. Hunn, personal communication, February 26, 2014).         Their mission is to show customers and volunteers that organic and local ingredients can be affordable (E. Hunn, personal communication, February 26, 2014). Agora Cafe hopes to reach different faculties on campus, and bring more                                                3 See page vii of the appendices for a summary table of campus resources and food skills 13  interest to food and food skills development (E. Hunn, personal communication, February 26, 2014). b. Sprouts Cafe:         Sprouts Cafe is another cafe on campus who wishes to make healthy, affordable, and sustainably produced food accessible to the UBC campus community. Sprouts is a volunteer-run cafe, store, and community space that serves hot lunches, coffee, and various baked goods daily (UBC Sprouts, 2014). In addition, it sells organic, locally-grown produce and minimally-packaged staple and snack items (UBC Sprouts, 2014). Sprouts also runs the Sprouts box delivery program, occasional food-making workshops, and hosts Community Eats (UBC Sprouts, 2014). Community Eats is a by-donation lunch that is provided to all of the UBC campus community.  Furthermore, Sprouts strives to promote and create educational opportunities around health and nutrition, sustainable food systems, and global trade (UBC Sprouts, 2014). Unfortunately, many individuals that make up the UBC campus community do not know about Sprouts and its tremendous efforts (UBC Sprouts, 2014). Sprouts hopes to eventually reach a broader spectrum of the UBC campus community, thus bringing UBC a greater awareness for food. c. AMS Food Bank:         The AMS Food Bank is a useful student-resource on campus that provides emergency food relief, and its role is imperative to maintaining student wellbeing. Most of the food is donated to the AMS Food Bank by different community outlets like Save-On-Foods and Safeway (C. Rogers, personal communication, March 6, 2014). The AMS Food Bank has regular clients, and it services approximately 500 students each school year (C. Rogers, personal communication, March 6, 2014). This particular organization provides nutritionally sound food packages that are in 14  accordance with Canada’s Food Guide (C. Rogers, personal communication, March 6, 2014). Students hear about the AMS Food Bank by several means, but most hear about it through the AMS Newsletter (C. Rogers, personal communication, March 6, 2014).         The AMS Food Bank feels that more connection between services on campus is necessary (C. Rogers, personal communication, March 6, 2014). The food bank has never thought to provide its users with workshops to teach food skills development on campus, but they would like to know more information about the other resources on campus that could teach their clients basic nutrition education (C. Rogers, personal communication, March 6, 2014). d. UBC Wellness Centre:         The UBC Wellness Centre is a campus organization that encourages students to take care of their health and wellbeing. The organization’s Wellness Peer Program is made up of 35 students, and in that group there is a large group of students who are part of the nutrition team (K. White, personal communication, March 19, 2014). The nutrition team has an interest for nutrition and wants to share this information to students through lesson-based events and wellness fairs (K. White, personal communication, March 19, 2014). The organization reports that they see a demand for food skills development on campus, and that right now they are doing all that they can with the resources that are available (K. White, personal communication, March 19, 2014). Currently the UBC Wellness Centre host workshops, teaches tutorials, and provides prepared meals and nutrition alternatives to students on campus (K. White, personal communication, March 19, 2014). In addition, the UBC Wellness Centre sees budgeting, shopping, meal preparation, and diet discussion as important topics to teach students (K. White, personal communication, March 19, 2014). 15  e. AMS Food Services:         At AMS Food Services, their mission is not only to provide food to the UBC campus community, but also to provide a service that makes sustainability, innovation, and excellent service a priority. In the food and beverage department, there are currently 35-45 full time staff and over 200 student employees (N. Toogood, personal communication, March 19, 2014). In addition, every single recipe is prepared and made from scratch by the students and staff (N. Toogood, personal communication, March 19, 2014). AMS Food Services provides employment opportunities for the whole campus community and provides an opportunity for growing skills for food preparation (N. Toogood, personal communication, March 19, 2014). Like other campus resources, the AMS Food Services agrees there is significant student interest for food skills development, and an even greater interest for seasonal eating, local procurement, organic food, sustainable farming, and season appreciation (N. Toogood, personal communication, March 19, 2014). According to AMS Food Services, food skills development is extremely important and are life skills that each individual from the UBC campus community should have (N. Toogood, personal communication, March 19, 2014).  f. UBC Cooking Club:         The UBC Cooking Club is a group on campus that is dedicated to introducing UBC students to practical cooking skills, and helps to connect people interested in food alike (UBC Cooking Club, 2014). The UBC Cooking Club is also involved in charity efforts with local food banks and soup kitchens (UBC Cooking Club, 2014). It is run by other UBC students from different faculties, and offers both student club membership and drop-in rates (UBC Cooking Club, 2014). Throughout the school term, the cooking club hosts cooking sessions in the Food Nutrition and Health 16  building (UBC Cooking Club, 2014). During these cooking sessions, different dishes are made by the club and enjoyed together. The recipes made at each session can be found on their club website. g. The Old Barn Community Centre:         The Old Barn Community Centre (OBCC) is a resource on-campus that provides young families and other UBC community members with recreational facilities and various organized programs. It serves over 8,000 University Neighbourhood Association residents from Chancellor Place, East Campus, Hampton Place, Hawthorn Place, and Wesbrook Place (OBCC, 2014). In addition, the OBCC has nearly 400 programs and community events each year that include: sport and fitness programming, arts and music programming, gardening, and environmental and/or sustainability programming (OBCC, 2014). The biggest barrier in terms of programming was participation (OBCC, 2014). The OBCC desires more open-space for socializing and community engagement (OBCC, 2014). Although healthy eating is discussed in terms of ‘healthy living,’ there are no actual programs pertaining to food skills development. h. Place Vanier Dining Hall: Place Vanier Dining Hall is an area for first and second year students who live in residence on campus.  Their aim is to not only teach individuals about the importance of healthy eating, but also to be aware of seasonal and locally produced food in our area (S.Golob, personal communication, March 6, 2014).  Head Chef, Steve Golob, puts on a cooking demo called, Meet Your Maker.  Students have the opportunity to watch the chef cook the meal and also taste and receive the recipes. This program takes place in the summer time and sometimes in the months of October and November (S.Golob, personal communication, March 6, 2014).  A food 17  committee is also formed for students to share preferences and to be a voice for the rest of students on residence.     The dining hall has an excellent team of resources in order to meet their area of needs and goals. However, in order to cater to a wide variety of demographics, necessities in the kitchen such as another wok and larger fridge would help increase the amount of food produced.  The need for another wok is also relevant because it allows for chefs to cook for individuals who are celiac and cannot have cross contamination of foods (S.Golob, personal communication, March 6, 2014). i. Gage Residence Life Manager: The Gage Residence Life Manager’s job is to ensure that each resident has the opportunity to enjoy a positive living experience. They are in charge of supervising residence life staff, help manage student behavior, coordinate room bookings and have a widespread knowledge of the campus resources.  Learning programs are put on by the residence assistance called Discovery Pillar. There is usually a topic about healthy eating and resources would be pulled together to cater to this subject. For instance, a dietician has come to demonstrate how to cook healthy meals in the Gage Demo Kitchen. There has always been a large amount of interest in this event and they could not fit everyone in the area. Workshops would be videoed and posted on a social media outlet. They would love to continue to learn the “how-to experience” around preparing and cooking (Mintah, T, personal communication, March 19, 2014). j. UBC Feast Bowl: The Feast Bowl is a community kitchen where people harvest, cook and eat food together. Indigenous people will give workshops about traditional cooking and harvesting techniques.  Their goal is to educate people on the availability of food 18  during seasons and involve students in preparing customary foods.  This program mainly focuses on youth throughout our community. Individuals have the opportunity to create learning journeys together by sharing knowledge and developing skills from each other (H.Lewis, personal communication, March 12 , 2014).     Volunteers are imperative for this program to run. They have an abundance of participation, however there is not enough resources to accommodate the large crowd  (H.Lewis, personal communication, March 12, 2014). k. UBC Farm: The UBC farm provides food production, community engagement, and food growing and processing education. Workshops that they offer include the following: soup, bread, preservation and children’s programming. The farm mainly caters to undergraduates, however, they hope to engage with younger families and children in the future.  Over time, the Wesbrook village community has grown substantially and this would be a great target area for the farm to reach out to (S.Lambie, personal communication, March 5, 2014).     Harvesting produce at the UBC farm begins early summer which can lead to difficulty in finding volunteers.  Members of the UBC farm community would love to learn who is in the UBC food system community, as this would give an opening prospect of sharing or translating with other institutions. Finally there is a need to build a proper research centre where structured meetings and lessons can take place (S.Lambie, personal communication, March 5, 2014). l. UBC Food Society: The main goal of the UBC Food Society is to bring people together by creating food crawls. They host events such as mini-bakeries, where individuals eat or sell, and executive members can learn to cook, prepare and organize 19  food.  Currently there are 450 members involved from all different ethnicities and cultural backgrounds (Thirunathan, P., personal communication, March 5, 2014). One of their most recent ideas is to introduce an iron chef program in the new AMS community kitchen. The program would be intended to bring socialization amongst the members of the club. Another area of concern is the growing number of food allergies and the effects it has on the communities (Thirunathan, P., personal communication, March 5th, 2014). m. Dr. Gwen Chapman: Dr. Gwen Chapman is a faculty member on the UBC campus for the Food, Nutrition and Health program in Land and Food Systems (G. Chapman, personal communication, March 26, 2014). She takes part in the oversight and advisory of FNH courses (G. Chapman, personal communication, March 26, 2014). Off campus, she provides support in programs such as, Think and Eat Green and Cooking Fun for Family (G. Chapman, personal communication, March 26, 2014).     Gwen would love to see a system set up to aid in the transition of first and second year students that encounter moving away from their parents or their dining hall and onto their own kitchen facility (G. Chapman, personal communication, March 26, 2014).  Resources on campus are underutilized, such as the UBC farm or Vij’s demo kitchen (G. Chapman, personal communication, March 26, 2014). We have so much opportunity to celebrate the food cultures that surround us in our community.       20  IV. DISCUSSION Based on our qualitative research we have analyzed our semi structured interviews and observed the following trends: a)    Differing views on food skills Looking at our findings we can see that there are certain themes that stand out from each interview. The interesting point is that depending on who the person was that we talked to we received a different approach to how food skill can be explained and defined. For instance when we talked to UBC Wellness Center their approach was more to make the food and provide nutritious and delicious food to UBC students. When we talked to UBC Feast Bowl, their definition of food skill was to share knowledge in cooking between different people and learn about food origin and harvesting from indigenous people. And looking from the perspective of Vanier Chef Steve Golob, food skill is defined as how to use a knife properly and how to cook properly. So from a general perspective the food skill development tools provided by different campus organizations are helpful to demonstrate how to socialize with food, what organic foods are, how to eat locally and make affordable food choices and even planning a budget. But not everyone in these clubs is actually able to communicate this information with everyone on campus and only a small portion of students seemed aware of all these resources. b)   Most programs heavily student or volunteer based and student-focused With the exception of UBC Farm, the grand majority of the campus resources researched were heavily student-run and student-focused in terms of demographics. This finding is logical in the sense that students are often most at risk in terms of food insecurity due to high tuition costs (Eltman, 2014). This trend could be attributed to our project limitations in contacting non-school related resources for the campus 21  community: we were unable to contact and communicate with potential campus resources from the University Neighbourhood Association (UNA) and its corresponding community programs through the Old Barn Community Centre. However, we were able to track down a community needs assessment report conducted by the Old Barn and a list of community programs run by the community centres on campus. Based on the research we were able to observe, there seems to be a lack of food-related programs available to the campus community aside from students (The Old Barn Community Centre, 2012). We also found that many food-related campus resources were often further restricted to specific groups such as students living in residence (as in the case of Gage’s kitchen demos) or certain faculties (in the case of the faculty of Land & Food Systems) in terms of program awareness or availability. These resources were often more limited also through lack of necessary space, kitchen infrastructure, and even in consistency of volunteers. c. Lack of communication between campus resources A general lack of communication between campus resources and our stakeholders was observed in our findings4. This results in difficulty in efficient and active community engagement as only certain demographics of the campus community have access to food skill development resources. There was no connection between student-focused and non-student-focused (as in the case of UNA) campus resources evident. In observing the sheer size of the UBC campus and the diversity of resident demographics, it is understandable how food skill-related initiatives are segmented rather than combined efforts on the UBC campus.                                                 4 See page viii of the appendices for a visual representation of this observation 22  d. Lack of kitchen infrastructure and space Another problem that stood out and was discussed several times during the interviews with different stakeholders was the lack of infrastructure and available space. Most of the time different clubs wanted to have more space in order to plan events. For example, the UBC Food Society stated that if they would have access to a kitchen, they would be able to plan Iron-chef events, in which students (usually who are club members) could walk in and prepare food in a competitive setting for themselves and their peers. Another example was the UBC Feast Bowl, which discussed procurement of funds to create another kitchen in order to have more students to come in and take advantage of their free program. On the other hand, there were other stakeholders who had the physical space to actually do cooking, but did not have enough resources and volunteers. For instance, when speaking with Gwen Chapman, we realized that one of the main reasons that the kitchen in FNH building is highly underused - despite having invested money into renovating it into a professional kitchen with good quality utilities - is because there is no governed body that would take responsibility of cleaning the kitchen after it is being used (G. Chapman, personal communication, March 26, 2014). Here we can see the lack of resources such as volunteers that would be able to come in and do that job, or a committed staff that could organize for these gaps.   V. REFLECTION Food skills development on a large campus created a difficult and challenging journey. Every person comes from their own paradigm, therefore creating the progress of food skills is a challenging task. Despite these complicated encounters such as approaching all the campus resources and developing our own project plan, 23  we were able to pull together a practical definition of what food skills is to students, faculty members and staff. Our interviewees and stakeholders are involved in an abundance amount of activities on campus, therefore it was important for us to be flexible with our project plan. We enjoyed learning and becoming more knowledgeable about the food services and initiatives around our campus.  VI. RECOMMENDATIONS 1.   Create a common hub to connect campus resources5 a) The new SUB community kitchen would be a good potential base in terms of location, space, and kitchen infrastructure (when kitchen is in place, consider this in your programming). b) A common hub online is another potential way of connecting campus resources. This way, campus resources, who for example are searching for an empty kitchen, or an empty room to teach food skills, are aware of who to contact. c) Utilize one of the kitchens we already have on campus to meet and organize consistent programming. *try putting one of these options in place for the 2015/16 school year. 2.   Have at least a main coordinator on staff for the common hub.  This person would be in charge in drawing students and/or volunteers, and/or resources from across the campus.  Students are usually too busy to take on this role part-time, which is confirmed in the trend we noticed in falling participation in programming and club activities all over campus. Having a main coordinator for at least one year (2 terms) all *try this position for a year; 2 terms                                                5 See page viii of the appendices for a visual representation of this recommendation 24  **try putting this option in place for the 2015/16 school year. 3. Implement effective advertising. Advertisement is a crucial method to convey and exchange the information across campus and the UBC community. However, if advertisements are not done effectively and do not actually target the audience then all the money that is spend on the posters, videos and the staff will be wasted. a) Ensure more effective advertisement for raising awareness of available kitchen space in residences and other residence programming across campus. b) Help organize focus groups with the next LFS 450 team to talk to students in residence to create more dialogue in what students want in terms of food skills *work on this for Fall 2014. *put this in for the next term of LFS 450  4. Implement food skills development into LFS 100. It will be beneficial if programs can be integrated into first year courses, such as LFS 100, where students will be introduced to a 1-week food skills development class so that they are exposed to the resources that are available on campus and can share that knowledge and peers and friends that they make during their first year. The LFS 100 course instructor could use AGORA in MacMillan building as a source for teaching the three aspects of food skills* and in order for the student to get the most out of it they could be assigned a project (i.e. essay or reflection) so that they get involved and start thinking about food skills. It is also effective if the course can bring a guest speaker who would talk about food skills and also allow students to be familiar with this idea. It is crucial to have this idea floating at the very beginning of a student’s undergraduate life because even if a student who intended to go to LFS had a change of heart, more likely that this info will be passed onto fellow students (*try to implement for Fall 2014). 25  VII. SCENARIO EVALUATION After doing many semi-structured interviews, we found that most UBC campus resources target students. A profound variable that stood out most was the lack of food skill development on campus among students. This is evident and possibly caused by an average student`s willingness to purchase instead of self-making food due to time constraints of school work. However, it was also evident that students are the most accessible group on campus. The only issue observed was the low frequency of students and the rest of the campus community utilizing these resources. The next step in finding more information should be focused on interviewing and collecting data from students beyond first year living in second year residences. We recommend this because our project was based on figuring out what campus resources are available to the UBC campus community including first year students. The next step is to identify the food skill knowledge of second year students such as cooking preparation, shopping, budgeting and see how these resources have contributed to their development of food skills.            Another problem our group encountered is contacting the non-UBC community, which includes residences and UNA.  As a group, we experienced difficulties communicating with representatives of a target association/group.  Therefore, we would recommend to the teaching team to contact those individuals prior to the commencement of next year`s Food Skills Development team. This will ensure that students have a new contact person and UNA is aware of the project being utilized within this community.  This will also reduce communication issues as well as steer non-community representatives in the direction of the project.  As a feedback to the LFS teaching team, we would recommend to implement a food skill based project such as the variables that need to be 26  considered for grocery shopping or food preparation in LFS 100 course in the upcoming fall of 2014.                                    i  IX. WORKS CITED Agri-Food Canada (1998). Canada`s Action Plan for Food Security. Retrieved from: http://www.agr.gc.ca/misb/fsec-seca/pdf/action_e.pdf Appel, L. J., Frohlich, E. D., Hall, J. E., Pearson, T. A., Sacco, R. L., Seals, D. R., ... & Van Horn, L. V. (2011). The importance of population-wide sodium reduction as a means to prevent cardiovascular disease and stroke a call to action from the american heart association. Circulation, 123(10), 1138-1143. Eltman, F. (2014, March 15). Food pantries on the rise at US college campuses as students struggle with increasing expenses. The Republic. Retrieved from: http://www.therepublic. com/w/US--Food-and-Farm-Student-Pantries Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (1990).   The community’s toolbox: the idea, methods and tools for participatory assessment, monitoring and evaluation in community forestry. Community Forestry Field Manuals, 2.. Retrieved on March 27, 2014 from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5307e/x5307e08.htm Newton, N. (2010). The use of Semi-Structured Interviews in qualitative research: Strengths and weaknesses.  Exploring Qualitative Methods, 1(1), 1-11. Retrieved on March 26, 2014 from:http://www.academia.edu/1561689 /The_use_of_semi-structured_interviews_in_qualitative_research_ strengths_and_weaknesses Old Barn Community Centre. (2012). 2012 The Old Barn Program Needs Assessment Report. Retrieved from: http://issuu.com/UNAPublications/ docs/2012pna-final_report?mode=embed&layout=http%3A%2F%2Fskin.issuu .com%2Fv%2Flight%2Flayout.xml&showFlipBtn=true Old Barn Community Centre (OBCC). (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.oldbarn.ca University of British Columbia. (2014). Vancouver Academic Calendar 2014-2015:  Enrolment Statistics 2013-2014. Retrieved from:  http://www.calendar. ubc.ca/vancouver/index.cfm?page=appendix1 UBC Cooking Club. (2014). Retrieved from: https://sites.google.com/site/ubccooking club/ UBC Sprouts. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.ubcsprouts.ca/initiatives/seedlings/ Utown@UBC (2014). Retrieved from: http://utown.ubc.ca/about-utown/utownubc-facts-and-figures World Health Organization. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/trade/glossary /story028/en/           ii  X. APPENDICES  Appendix A. Food Skills Diagram            iii  Appendix B. Table 1: Analyzing the Use of Semi-structured Interviews As a Project Tool  Strengths Weaknesses Encourages efficient, two-way communication as interviewee can also ask questions to the interviewer for clarification of background information, consent, and purpose of interview. Solely depends on the skill of the interviewer(s), who are able to formulate suitable questions for the interviewee outside of their questionnaire template. Questions are open-ended. The interviewee can speak with minimal direction and answers for questions can be expanded upon for reasoning and further detailed insight. Interviewee may give information based on imperfect recall. Question templates can be used to see how each interviewee responds or reacts to certain questions. Feeling and emotions can be observed Interviewer(s) may give out signals that may make the interviewee uncomfortable, which may reflect within their answers. Gives the opportunity to discuss with important representatives or stakeholders instead of a general crowd Smaller sample size Interviews can be audio recorded and transcribed. In terms of clarification, any information brought up that was not questioned during the interview can be asked and further discussed through a future email between interviewee and interviewer Findings could be difficult to generalize and information could be hard to analyze (deciding what is and what is not relevant). Interviewee feels more comfortable in knowing who they are communicating with as they have met in the interviewer(s) in person. Therefore, they are more willing to give any future detailed information that is deemed important.                                                                                                                                                            (FAO, 1990; Newton, 2010)       iv  Appendix C. Table 2: Summary of Contact Information  Association Contact Name and Title Stakeholder or Recommended Contact Meeting Location Response/No Response Average Response Rate/Not Applicable UBC Student Housing and Hospitality Services Andrew Parr Managing Director Stakeholder Student Housing and Hospitality Services Main Office Room 113 Response Ranges between within 24 Hours to 2-3 Weeks Faculty of Land and Food Systems  Gwen Chapman Professor and Program Director Food, Nutrition and Health Associate Dean Academic Stakeholder Food, Nutrition and Health Building Room 219 Response Within 24 Hours Student Housing and Hospitality Services Loretta Chui Assistant to Managing Director Recommended Student Housing and Hospitality Services Main Office Room 113 Response Within 24 Hours UBC Food Society Praveena Thirunathan VP External Recommended Student Union Building Room 117 Response Within 1 Week Agora Eats Cafe Emily Hunn General Manager Recommended Agora Eats Cafe Response Within 24 Hours UBC Farm Shannon Lambie Communication Coordinator of the UBC Farm Recommended Agora Eats Cafe Response Within 24 Hours AMS Food Bank Cameron Rodgers Coordinator Recommended Student Union Building Food Bank Office Room 42U Response Within 24 Hours v  (Lower Level) UBC Wellness Centre Kelly White Wellness Centre Coordinator Recommended Irvin K. Barber Learning Centre Room 183 Response Within 24 Hours AMS Food Services Nancy Toogood Food and Beverage Manager Recommended Student Union Building Room 205 Response Within 24 Hours Place Vanier Residence Steve Golob Executive Head Chef Recommended Place Vanier Residence Dining Hall Response Within 24 Hours UBC Feast Bowl Hannah Lewis Institute for Aboriginal Health Garden & Community Kitchen Coordinator Recommended UBC Farm Response Within 24 Hours UBC Cooking Club Henry Walker Club President Recommended No Meeting No Response Not Applicable UTown@UBC N/A Recommended No Meeting No Response Not Applicable UBC Sprouts N/A Recommended No Meeting No Response Not Applicable The Old Barn Community Centre N/A Recommended No Meeting No Response Not Applicable UBC Neighbourhood Association [Community Programs] Jan Fialkowski, Executive Director  Recommended No Meeting No Response Not Applicable vi  Walter H. Gage Residence Tiffany Mintah Residence Life Manager Recommended Walter Gage Residence Fireplace Lounge Response Within 24 hours Marine Drive Residence Amy Stewart Residence Life Manager Recommended No Meeting No Response Not Applicable Fairview Crescent, Thunderbird and Fraser Hall Residence Pamela Wettlaufer Residence Life Manager Recommended No Meeting No Response Not Applicable                   vii  Appendix D. Food Skills Development from Campus Resources  Food Skills Development Campus Resource   Food Knowledge Food Perception and Conceptualization Food Practices/Planning Provided Resource Finds Important Provided Resource Finds Important Provided Resource Finds Important UBC Food Society    √   UBC Farm √ √ √ √   UBC Feast Bowl √ √ √ √ √ √ Agora     √ √ AMS Food Bank      √ UBC Wellness Centre    √  √ Place Vanier Dining Hall  √ √ √ √ √ AMS Food Services  √  √  √ √ : Have it.           viii  Appendix E. UBC Campus Resource Web         ix  Appendix F. Campus Resource Interview Guide and Notes  Campus Resource Semi-Structured Interview Outline: (Max 15-20 min) Leading Questions:   1. What does the group/club/organization do on campus in terms of food, if any? 2. How do you get the UBC community involved on campus with your activities? Do you feel there’s enough participation? Which UBC community demographic do you cater to most? 3.   Do you meet your needs or goals as a club/initiative/program? 4.   Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community  (concerns? pros/cons?) 5.   Any other food skill related resources (clubs, initiatives) on campus that you know of? 6.   How would you define ‘food skills’?   Interview with the UBC Food Society  1) What do they do on campus?  they have food crawls and try to bring people together  their goal is to recruit people, have membership in order to have money to keep the club running  Mainly focused on dine outs and trying new culturally delicious foods from different ethnicities   2) What does their organization do on campus? (is it related to our definition of food skills in some way?)  they usually have food events such as mini-bakeries where they make cupcakes and eat/sell them  Those who participate learn how to cook, prepare, organize food   3) How do you get students involved on campus? Do you feel there’s enough participation?  During those mini events such as baking and cooking there is social interaction  Usually the execs are the ones preparing the food and learning the skills, but not the students or club memebrs  sharing of food at the beginning of the term so that people bring their own food (pot lot)!  There are different events such as fine dining (they go out and try delicious foods outside), or blind tasting (they try new food that most of the people have never been exposed to!) x   They have 450 members and they have a good mix of all ethnicities and cultures   5) Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community (concerns? pros/cons?)  Their idea is to introduce an Iron chef program where they could use the community kitchen, but obviously the person participating should have prior skills in cooking and the program is intended to bring the people in the club together and socializing   6) Do they see a need/desire for food skills development on campus?  they believe imagination of using the ingredients is important  they define food skills by how a person uses different varieties of cooking techniques (boiling, frying, cutting)  food skills is also relevant to how ingredients are made the best out of  being aware of allergies   7) Any other food skill related resources on campus that they know of?            N/A   Interview Summary w/ AGORA (Emily Hunn)   1) What do they do on campus in terms of food?  Labelled “A learning cafe”  Provides exposure to something volunteers have never done before  A starting point, provides capacity to learn food skills  Does not require previous experience  Affordable, and local ingredients... shows customers and volunteers that organic/local can be affordable.   2) What does their organization do on campus? (is it related to our definition of food skills in some way?)  No separate workshops because they do not have the resources or time.  Not enough time because it is a STUDENT-run cafe, and difficult to plan around other volunteer schedules. It is not hugely cost affected.  Each semester there is a training day for volunteers ~1 hour long. Teaches them how to use till, 3-part sink, and flow of cafe. Teaching is done hands-on.  Provides UBC community with food made with local and organic ingredients.  The prep-shift manager comes up with recipes... refers to Dietitians of Canada. Will provide recipes if asked for them, but the cafe does not normally hand them out. xi   Agora is working on a recipe cookbook for next semester (School year 2014-15)  Have thrown baking contests via Facebook and Twitter where recipes would be selected to be made at Agora.   3) How do you get students involved on campus? Do you feel there’s enough participation?  Hard to keep volunteers. Volunteer retention is low and too few coming to events.  She asks, “If a workshop was put on, would they actually come?”  “Most volunteers from LFS, a few times it might be Forestry or Integrated Science, but rarely from other faculties on campus.  Mostly girl volunteers, only around 5 boys.  It’s hard/difficult to reach entire campus community.  The Agora Cafe’s location for example presents major disconnect with students on campus. MacMillan is far from the center of campus and most students do not know where or what it is.  Have thought about throwing events in FNH   4) Are your needs or goals as a program met?  Yes, believes goals are being met. Financially Agora is successful, but time outside of normal Cafe duties each day is minimal.   5) Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community (concerns? pros/cons?)  Have considered providing cooking workshops, since cost is not an issue, but there is not enough time since it is a student run cafe and they would probably have to bring in someone else to lead it. Who?  They would do this to get a “sustainability grant” which would provide more money for the cafe. It would take a lot of time to write a proposal for this grant idea.   6) Do they see a need/desire for food skills development on campus?  Yes, primarily mechanical techniques (for prep-shift volunteers, day-shift baking) and food perception.  The cafe has not talked about addressing the entire UBC campus community before. o Have been approached about expanding Agora (Long term goal). Possible that UBC would create classes with Agora where students could earn Academic course credit for learning exact food skills, concepts, and theories centered around cooking.  “Food skills development is definitely important. Variety of food skills. Non-food skills teaching (mechanical techniques/food safety) and basic food skills. Especially for Agora who runs off of student skills, food skills is essential.” xii   “It is also important to know where food comes from and how that might affect us?”   7) Any other food skill related resources on campus that they know of? - N/A   Interview Summary w/ UBC Farm (Shannon Lambie)   1) What do they do on campus in terms of food?  Food production, community engagement, food growing/processing   2) What does their organization do on campus? (is it related to our definition of food skills in some way?)  Host workshops = Cost $ (ex. Soup, bread, preservation, Children’s programming, etc.)   3) How do you get students involved on campus? Do you feel there’s enough participation?  Rely on social media platforms (#hashtag, majority of promotions)  Looking for more volunteers/engagement for harvesting. Difficult to keep/find volunteers because harvesting begins early summer and most students leave campus for the summer.  Want to engage more from the Wesbrook Village community. o Doesn’t feel like relationship is as good as it could be. It is “their farm.”  Mostly cater to undergrads, but hope to engage with younger families and children in the future.   4) Are your needs or goals as a program met?  Need to build right-size research center. Unable to host meetings, structured lessons.  Don’t have enough space, have to host everything off-site.   5) Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community (concerns? pros/cons?)  Shannon would love to learn who is in the UBC Food System community. She believes there are many resources who have the same goals but there is lack of communication amongst each other. o Wants to be more dialed in and work together better. o Vibrant community, share/translate with other institutions. xiii    6) Do they see a need/desire for food skills development on campus?  Yes, knowing how to grow food and understand how to take food from its unprocessed form to a cooked and edible form is important.  People should be able to be comfortable and capable of preparing their own food.   7) Any other food skill related resources on campus that they know of?  Feast Bowl (Hannah)   Interview w/ AMS Food Bank (Cameron Rogers)   1) What do they do on campus in terms of food?  Provides emergency food relief to UBC students. o It is meant as an emergency service only to help students during a time of crisis.  Receive most food donations from Save-on-Foods each week (1-2x each week). Occasionally Safeway, they are a little less consistent. o Approximately $200 worth of food donations each drop-off/pick-up  “Provides foods that come from other sources. Donated, non-perishable foods from Save-on-Foods, and Safeway. Some nights or mornings there is fresh food given out. AMS Food Bank has money and will sometimes buy foods/fresh foods”  Have regular clients who access services normally  Have decent supply of protein, and different food groups.  People who come to the food bank are able to choose their own foods. o “We don’t have explicit menu. We just provide general understanding for what food is available (ie. Dietary restrictions, etc.). We don’t have a sophisticated menu format. o Email out website to clients that helps them make a meal with what ingredients they have.   2) What does their organization do on campus? (is it related to our definition of food skills in some way?)  Provides 7-day supply emergency food relief for current UBC students  Provides nutritionally sound hampers in accordance w/ the Canada Food Guide.  Educates clients regarding resources available to them on/off campus  Advocates about student hunger and poverty issues  Provides the most beneficial experience to volunteers  Under resources on their website, it provides information on: o Cheap, healthy recipes xiv   Living on a tight budget requires that you maximize the resources available to you. Must be conscious about food choices, and ration at times.  Clients are able to use AMS Food Bank Services 6 times each semester. o September-December 2013: 250 clients, expect over 500 for 2013-2014 school year o Allowed to fill one generous bag for independents, and two bags for families  Recommends off-campus resources in the Greater Vancouver. Provide them with the necessary information to find a local food bank.   3) How do you get students involved on campus? Do you feel there’s enough participation?  Fundraisers, food drives  Postering, outreach boothing (events in Sub, or IKB hot-chocolate/granola bar give-aways) to get service out there to UBC students  Most frequently students hear about AMS Food Bank through AMS Newletter. Provides link for AMS Food Bank***.  All AMS Food Bank staff are undergrad students, so no one is paid or full-time.  Awareness is good right now. o It can still be improved, however. o Maybe financial services could recommend/refer students to the AMS Food Bank???   4) Are your needs or goals as a program met?  AMS gives budget/money to the AMS Food Bank  If stock is low, volunteers will purchase items from the store with the budget o In this case, healthy food will be bought and money is spent wisely. o Emphasize healthy options  Usually enough stock to provide for clients, whenever stock is low they take money to buy more food and supplement.  Diverse selection of food starches, carbs, cereals, fruits/vegetables, canned products   5) Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community (concerns? pros/cons?)  More bonding/connection between groups on campus is necessary.  Awareness is being taken as far as the organization and the volunteers can take it. Since all staff are undergrad students, they are doing their best to do what they can with their own person time restraints, etc.  It is up to the AMS Food Bank to get the awareness out. Budget/awareness is fairly sound. Not sure if UBC could do more?  In terms of financial, working with students who use financial services might be good? Working with them more would be good. That is a realistic initiative. xv    6) Do they see a need/desire for food skills development on campus?  The AMS Food Bank has not thought about providing workshops on campus, it is not really in their scope, but think that nutrition education and food skills in something that would be a really good service to students.  Food skills are not something that the AMS Food Bank has “explicitly” talked about, but in the future it could be a good idea to have this service available for students (in the sub? upper levels?). Information on healthy eating/lifestyle.  Food skills are not something that has been considered as an organization, but having something like it would be good.   7) Any other food skill related resources on campus that they know of?  Sprouts Cafe   Interview Summary w/ UBC Wellness Centre (Kelly White)   1) What do they do on campus in terms of food?  “Our message to students is always that your kind of experience here at UBC will be so much better if you do take care of your health and wellbeing and when we see that we mean your social, physical, mental health, and the bigger picture.”  35 students in wellness peer program, group of student leaders who promote health and wellbeing. In that group, we have a large team of students who are part of the nutrition team. This team has an interest in nutrition and wants to share this information to other students. Team will go to events or wellness fair (ex. healthy pancake breakfast, kale workshop --> served kale chips). o Events are more lesson based, food is prepared in advance and brought to students at events. o This is because “we” do not have a consistent access to a kitchen that can be used. We look for things that are easy and that a student could replicate on their own (dorm room)  Type of skills: A lot of students on nutrition team are students from LFS. A lot have worked with food and have food safe. When they go out to talk to students the teach nutrition about the food and economic considerations. Wouldn’t say the information taught is so much about food preparation, but if there was better access to a kitchen and could demo this would be something they would include.   2) What does their organization do on campus? (is it related to our definition of food skills in some way?)  Host workshops, teaching tutorials, provides prepared meals/nutrition alternatives xvi    3) How do you get students involved on campus? Do you feel there’s enough participation?  A bit of everything  Student networks  Formal promotion: week before exams “Stress less for exam success”-- healthy pancake breakfast  Use channels Ubc.student.health website, posters, twitter (@UBChealthy)  Do feel like nutrition is a regular topic of discussion amongst students, it’s not just about what to eat, but how to budget, shop, prepare, cultural considerations, different diets... feel like you can always do more  The demand exists and we’re doing a good job at doing all that we can with the resources that are available.  It’s always a continuous process  ***Common questions: Where can I eat healthier foods on campus? What are healthy snacks? Where to prepare meals and store food if you don’t live on campus?   4) Are your needs or goals as a program met?  The demand exists and we’re doing a good job at doing all that we can with the resources that are available.  Excited about community because “I can see if we had access to a community kitchen the nutrition team could host ongoing workshops, drop in workshops for students.  It could be more successful in a kitchen because its more fun and engaging... there has been low attendance at workshops that are teaching about a health topic. Most students can’t commit time for workshops. We need to bring the food and workshops to students.  Yes, we are meeting goals with what we have available and what we set out to do at the beginning of the year  ***Idea: Lunch Co-op: finding space on campus for food storage and a communal place to have a meal together, to have different food interactions.   5) Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community (concerns? pros/cons?)  No particular opinions, in a way there is something for everyone. Sprouts is an affordable and nutrition place for students to eat. Within food services there is a variety of foods to choose from.  What is available is comprehensive, but what students tend to do is go for food that is less healthy. That is not a problem unique to this campus.  The campus has everything you could want to have a healthy diet   6) How would it be better to develop food skills on campus? xvii   For first year students, maybe RA’s could provide a list of healthy snacks or show types of snacks that don’t require refrigeration.  Depends on priorities and resources.  Eating and preparing food together is a way of forming bonds and positive outlook on food. The lunch co-op could add a lot of value to their food experience  “From a health education perspective, it’s good to teach skills that are transferable. If you can teach skills like decision making, food preparation, budgeting… these are skills that can be applied to other areas. It’s more about the goal setting than what you choose to do with it. Nutrition or health education is most successful if you can teach those skills or the outcome of what you’re working on so that is an approach we try to take at the UBC Wellness Centre.”   7) Any other food skill related resources on campus that they know of?  UBC Cooking Club  UBC Food Services   Interview w/ AMS Food Services (Nancy Toogood)   1) What do they do on campus in terms of food?  AMS used to provide mini-school (10 yrs ago)... provided courses for students at a nominal rate and provided cooking lessons every Tuesday to students.  No demonstration classes, no formalized fashion  In the food and beverage department, there is 35-45 full time staff and about 200 students. Students work and prepare food. Every single recipe is made by the students and staff. Bernoulli cream cheese, Blue Chip cookies.   2) What does their organization do on campus? (is it related to our definition of food skills in some way?)  Provides employment opportunity for students  The job provide students with growing skills for food preparation  ***What is changing in the new Sub for AMS Food Services? o Growing from 7 restaurants to 10 restaurants, expanding catering and conferences department, adding new additions, taking everything now and making it better. o Putting far more emphasis in the new building on local procurement and better practices and more sustainability initiatives (Oceanwise, cage-free, fair-trade)  - 22% of food is locally sourced, 32% is locally produced... this will be on a larger scale in the new sub.  All of the food is made from scratch in the SUB   xviii  3) How do you get students involved on campus? Do you feel there’s enough participation?  We hire because we need workers, we are not hiring to teach skills.  Skills that they pick-up on the job are secondary to the job.  There are not a lot of opportunities at this time for student involvement and participation in food skills development.  Disconnect between different resources is finally getting bridged. It used to be far more separate. No idea for what food services were providing. The social component for food has expanded (Orchard garden, Agora BBQs). Students are interested, and there has been recent interest for seasonal eating, local procurement, organic food, sustainable farming, season appreciation.   4) Do they see a need for food skills development on campus?  It is extremely important to learn basic, fundamental nutrition and shopping skills, and financial knowledge.  How to design a shopping list and how to make several meals, learning “real” nutrition and learning how to read food labels, and prepare foods nutritionally.  These are life skills that are extremely important. Students should also understand food at the growing level.   5) Any other food skill related resources on campus that they know of?  Ryan Bissel, UBC restaurant chef  UBC Wellness Centre, Kelly White   Interview w/ Vanier Chef (Steve Golob)   1.  What does the group/club/organization do on campus in terms of food, if any? a.  feed the students, staff, faculty on an ongoing basis and teach them how to eat healthy, local and seasonal. b.  It is important that chefs honour the season and feed what is local and seasonal c.  It is up to a chef and cook to make these items appealing to others d.  Ordering, purchasing, menu design, hiring, firing, R&D (ideas, trends, whats important to use) e.  Apart of the Think and Eat Green, Advisory Board of Farm to School Canada f.   Mandate is to feed the student. 44% of students decide where to go to school is based on food (ethnic background, prices etc.)   xix  2.  How do you get the UBC community involved on campus with your activities? Do you feel there’s enough participation? Which UBC community demographic do you cater to most? a.  Meet your Maker (partnership with UBC Farm): He will do cooking demos they will get the sample and the recipes. This happens in summer time because growing season is better and sometimes in October & November during mental health week. Food is a connector, you will feel mentally and physically better. Food is Medicine. b.  Food Literacy is important. They must understand what they are eating and why its important to them c.  They have a food committee that come and talk to the mangers and others and share preferences. d.  Demographic- first and second year students. That’s who stay in housing around vanier. They do get a lot of repeat customers. Gluten Free- grains, no pasta,   3.  Do you meet your needs or goals as a club/initiative/program? a. Bigger kitchen in the back to do more b. Another fridge, kettle, another wok- specifically for gluten free to avoid cross contamination. c.  Wish he had a longer growing season- has gone up to the UBC farm (Jacob) having more money, land and capital (buildings, equipment etc.).   4.  Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community  (concerns? pros/cons?) a. The price of food- worst drought in California in the last 100 years. Avocados, some tomatoes, lettuce- quadruple the price b. Con- 1800 a day from other suppliers, if only UBC farm was bigger c.  Pros- growing season is longer, students are more willing to eat things like fennel, swiss chard, squash d. Excellent team: Kate Morrison, Andrew Parr, Victoria Wakefield, Lorianne McGowan- give chefs autonomy to do what we want.    5.  Any other food skill related resources (clubs, initiatives) on campus that you know of? a. Amy Fry- Manager of UBC farm b. Veronique   6.  How would you define ‘food skills’? xx  a. Passion- if you do not have passion in anything you do in your jobs, you will never reach your needs b. You can teach food schools, you cannot teach passion.   Interview with the UBC Feast Bowl  (Hannah Lewis)   1. What does the group/club/organization do on campus in terms of food, if any? a. its a community kitchen where people eat, harvest and cook food as a community b. there is a 1st nation farmhouse where indigenous people give workshops about food and harvesting c. The program is mainly focusing on youth and it is dependent of volunteers d. Meals are traditional foods (E.g. Buffalo, fish, wild rice, tea) e. Educating people the availability of food during seasons f. People help each other to pass on knowledge about preparing foods   2. What does their organization do on campus? (is it related to our definition of food skills in some way?) a. It teaches people how to eat and cook seasonally b. Involve students in preparing traditional foods c. Community Kitchen purpose: to share skills and to develop skills, but the community kitchen is not what it is supposed to be, because students sometimes don't have time to prepare food, attend workshops or harvest food. d. Garden growing food should be looked at from a medical perspective. The food that we prepare, harvest and consume should be considered as medicine.   3. How do you get students involved on campus? Do you feel there’s enough     participation? a. Advertisment through newsletter or e-newsletter b. Enough participation but not enough resources to accommodate the crowd c. Most of the time students attend, but during exams it is usually staff and community people d. Providing a learning journey for students so students can learn from professionals and from each other e. The advantage of the program is that students have their own hands in nutrition and prepartion, but the disadvantage is that not all type of cullturally preferred foods are available during a season, therefore it is hard to cook sometimes food; since ingredient is missing food skill is compromised   4. Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community  (concerns? pros/cons?) xxi  f. Food is like medicine and this is a believe that they share with indigenous people g. They do not want to teachers, but they want everyone to learn from each other and share knowdlge with each other h. It should be a learning journey   5. How would you define ‘food skills’? i. having a voice and what kind of food enters the community, the skills students use, sutting boards and knife, food security and food sovereignty   Meeting with Gage Residence Life Manager (Tiffany Mintah)   1.  What does the group/club/organization do on campus in terms of food, if any? a.  Discovery Pillar: RA would choose to offer a program on healthy eating                                              i.  E.g. Dietcian has come to show how to cook  healthy meals and demonstrating- they have one demonstration kitchen                                            ii.  Students are available to use it as a showing meal for their friends, however they do not typically use it because they already have a kitchen facility                                           iii.  All residents except and Vanier and Totem (not in the commons block)                                           iv.  RA is the biggest voice for students- check in with students often to see what their needs. There is also an elected student body                                             v.  Social Events: A lot of potlucks happen   2.  How do you get the UBC community involved on campus with your activities? Do you feel there’s enough participation? Which UBC community demographic do you cater to most? a.  Posters, survey, social media (blog, facebook page) to market these events b.  Ensure to reach all students. With cooking events sometimes we have to cap the number of people involved. In the past, they videoed the workshop and posted it on the facebook group, twitter, blog etc. That way people who were unable to attend could still see the workshop   3.  Do you meet your needs or goals as a club/initiative/program? xxii    4.  Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community  (concerns? pros/cons?) a. Students concerns: student life cycle- every month there is something different the students are facing. This can look differently vs. 1st or second year students vs. 3rd or 4th year students                                            i.  September: How do I ______                                           ii.  October: Study Space (midterms) b. Residence is very aware of the student life cycle- they have a nurse that comes in and deals with stress (also aware of student life cycle                                  i.  Needs of international students (or away) vs.  people of the lower mainland c.  Budget Management: once a year offer a program around financial management                                            i.  RA are in touch with a bank (BMO) and send a financial advisor                                           ii.  1st year students loosing some of their scholarships going forward   5.  Any other food skill related resources (clubs, initiatives) on campus that you know of?   6.  How would you think ‘food skills’ could be improved? a. Continuation of what is already happening (increase frequency)                                             i.  Learn how-to experiences around cooking                                           ii.  Collaboration between LFS and the rest to help. It is helpful when a student as an RA is from that faculty   Resource Waste Management- locked up the shoot, have to sort the waste themselves -based on the research last term they are seeing success with it. Sustainability is a subject of concern for a lot of students so they are passionate about these programs   Meeting With Gwen Chapman   1.  What does the group/club/organization do on campus in terms of food, if any?  -Faculty member in FNH, taught students in nutrition related areas  -Provide oversight in the FNH program at UBC -Cooking fun for family xxiii  -Think and eat green project -there are many opportunities on campus that could do a lot to cater to this skills. Cooking facility in ponderosa campus-   2.   How do you get the UBC community involved on campus with your activities? Do you feel there’s enough participation? Which UBC community demographic do you cater to most?  -Involved through advisory community contact, certainly when she taught community course, students were doing experimental based learning activities off campus  -FNH 351 students doing   3. Their thoughts on the UBC Food System/community  (concerns? pros/cons?)  -UBC food services is working to improve healthiness and sustainability  -Certainly cannot cost the university money so it is a commercial system,  -The food system is so complex so it may not live up to all of our needs  -Working on procurement of local foods, more vegetables and fruits (steve golob), decreasing waste (compost and waste)   4. How would you define ‘food skills’? -It can very broad. -Food skills- preperation skills and cooking but that expands to the planning and the shopping, food safety. Then there is food knowledge is different then skills. Be applying to nutrition through the skills. -Everyone eats and everyone knows that food is important to our body. It is significant in our social, cultural identities, sensory and pleasure. -Independence aspect- moving from first year to second year.   5. Do you think UBC is doing a good job with transitioning? -she is not aware if there is any transition- suspects not which means there isn’t a huge amount   6. How would you like to change some of the food skills on campus? -transition into second year and maybe particular for those who are living on campus and have facilities for cooking -Expanding the community kitchen- getting people together -Some of the clubs can get a little exotic and gourmet- that’s okay but the basic survival skills -There is so many things we can celebrate with food with the cultures we have around campus. It can be a social time -UBC farm is under utilized xxiv    Agora Café: -       Could that kind of model be run with students across campus -       Great experience for students -       There is some money involved, differnce then some programs- what is the financial model   Vij’s Kitchen -continuing studies, the FNH course, sometimes by UBC cooking club, food science club -Students within FNH, UBC food services uses it to train their chefs -has not lived up to its full potential, it can do a better job pulling that social aspect of people together -there are challenges that need to be worked out logistically of shared use of the facility -If there could be support of the staffing to make that work that would be great                          xxv  Appendix G: Media Release and Action Photo  Through the UBC Food Systems Project, our group researched into what was available in terms of food skills development for the UBC campus community. Throughout this project, we discovered the diverse campus resources and food-related initiatives happening at UBC through many interviews and discussions with various stakeholders on campus – many of which had been unknown to us previously. We discovered that the definition of ‘food skills’ encompasses a great range of qualities and values which often differ from one person to the next. As a group, we reflected that there was much potential for strengthening and connecting food skill campus resources together in the future and this project was only the beginning to many important phases of this project through future LFS 450 research teams.    Above: LFS 450 research team members meeting with a stakeholder, Dr. Gwen Chapman 

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