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Detailed design report : stormwater retention system Chase, Randy; Cheung, Julian; Mollenbeck, David; Richardson, Nick; Redekop, Colby; Xu, Wendy Apr 4, 2014

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportCOLBY REDEKOP, DAVID MOLLENBECK, JULIAN CHEUNG, NICK RICHARDSON, RANDY CHASE, WENDY XUDetailed Design Report:STORMWATER RETENTION SYSTEMCIVL 446April 04, 2014University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   iii TABLE OF CONTENTS   1.0 PROJECT OVERVIEW .................................................................................................... 11.1 General.......................................................................................................................................11.2 Design Description.................................................................................................................11.3 Design Advantages.................................................................................................................22.0 DETAILED DESIGN......................................................................................................... 32.1 Water Resources Engineering............................................................................................3Calculating Inflow............................................................................................................................32.1.1Tank Sizing: Supply vs. Demand Analysis .............................................................................62.1.2Peak Flow Reduction Benefits....................................................................................................92.1.3Selection of Tank System........................................................................................................... 112.1.4Integration With Existing Stormwater Main	  ..................................................................... 112.1.5Flow Design ..................................................................................................................................... 122.1.62.2 Structural Engineering ...................................................................................................... 15Soil Conditions ............................................................................................................................... 152.2.1Applied Loads................................................................................................................................. 152.2.2Structural Design .......................................................................................................................... 162.2.12.3 Project Management Engineering ................................................................................. 18Phase One......................................................................................................................................... 182.3.1Phase Two........................................................................................................................................ 192.3.2Phase Three..................................................................................................................................... 202.3.3Phase Four ....................................................................................................................................... 212.3.4Project Schedule............................................................................................................................ 222.3.5Safety Considerations ................................................................................................................. 222.3.63.0 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ................................................................................................ 273.1 Initial Costs............................................................................................................................ 27Stormwater Retention Tank .................................................................................................... 273.1.1Site preparation and remediation costs.............................................................................. 273.1.23.2 Yearly Savings, Maintenance and Inflation Considerations.................................. 283.3 Project Value......................................................................................................................... 284.0 OUTSOURCED DESIGN .............................................................................................. 295.0 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 30APPENDIX A -­‐ Water Resources Design Tools/Calculations .................................. 31APPENDIX B – Structural Engineering Drawings/Calculations ............................ 33APPENDIX C -­‐ Project Engineering Tools/Calculations ........................................... 35 iv LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1: UBC Catchment Areas (UBC) ............................................................................ 4Figure 2: Proposed Retention Tank Location (GeoAdvice Engineering) ........................... 4Figure 3: Comparison of Supply and Demand in UBCBG ................................................. 7Figure 4: Tank Sizing Analysis ........................................................................................... 8Figure 5: 2hr Synthetic Unit Hydrograph ........................................................................... 9Figure 6: Attenuation of 10 Year Design Flood by 5000m3 Tank ................................... 10Figure 7: GeoAdvice Modeling Data ................................................................................ 12Figure 8: Schematic Layout of StormTrap Modules With Existing Stormwater Mains .. 13Figure 9: Concept of Valve and Access Hatch ................................................................. 14Figure 10 - Point Load Distribution .................................................................................. 16Figure 11: Site layout image showing dump truck route and Totem Field access point .. 18Figure 12: Example of recommended module placement order ....................................... 21Figure 13: Retention Tank Construction Schedule ........................................................... 22Figure 14:  Most common mechanisms of injury from 2011 to 2013 .............................. 23Figure 15: Excavation Side Sloping Requirements……………………………………...24   LIST OF TABLES  Table 1: Hydrograph Convolution - Applying Design Storm to Synthetic Hydrograph .. 10Table 2: Specifications of Existing Stormwater Main ...................................................... 12Table 3: Initial Project Cost Breakdown ........................................................................... 27Table 4: Project Cost Breakdown ..................................................................................... 28 1 1.0 PROJECT OVERVIEW  1.1  General The following report outlines the detailed design of the proposed UBC Botanical Gardens stormwater management upgrade. This will be achieved with a stormwater retention tank. The scope of this report relates specifically to the detailed design of the water resources, structural and project management engineering components of the retention tank.  1.2  Design Description As discussed in CivGen’s project proposal, the addition of a stormwater retention tank would not only give the UBC Botanical Gardens the opportunity to eliminate their non-sustainable use of potable water, but also the chance to use the tank to manage peak stormwater flows and manage the outflow cliff erosion. The location, size and style of tank are some main factors that need to be considered to ensure the optimal design.   The first step in designing a stormwater retention tank was identifying a feasible location for the tank. The location must be immediately adjacent to existing stormwater infrastructure, in an area that minimizes impact on the garden and somewhere on relatively high ground to minimize pumping costs. CivGen identified the service yard on the north end of the garden as the ideal location for the tank since this location met all of the above criteria, see  Figure 2. After selecting a preliminary tank location, CivGen carried out a water resources analysis to determine the water supply from the adjacent catchment area and compare that against the Garden’s water demand in order to properly size the tank. Once the tank was sized, CivGen selected a concrete modular tank system due to the system’s durability, low maintenance requirements, and the structural strength that will allow vehicles to drive above it. A structural solution was now  2 necessary in order to design a slab that would prevent differential settlement between the concrete modular units, which could lead to damages and leaks. Once the structural slab was designed, CivGen was able to create a detailed construction schedule and carry out detailed economic analyses for the project.  1.3  Design Advantages CivGen’s stormwater retention system has many advantages to the owner (UBCBG) and UBC itself including: • Elimination of potable water use within the garden o The tank has been designed to meet water demand even in the extreme event of four consecutive 1/5 year dry months in the summer. o Escalating water prices in Metro Vancouver make the water savings more economically significant with each passing year. • Ability to reduce peak flows and cliff erosion at Trail #7 Outfall o The tank has the capacity to significantly delay and attenuate peak flows through the garden’s creeks and over the outfall. This will reduce erosion in the area. • Convenient location in current service yard o The installation of the tank will not negatively impact garden visitors. o Routine maintenance on the tank will be easily facilitated from this location. o Concrete modular tanks can bear the load of vehicles driving above. • Enhance UBC’s stormwater management goals o UBC has an integrated stormwater management plan which has the goal to integrate innovative and sustainable approaches to stormwater management on campus. The retention tank will meet the goals of providing irrigation for landscaped areas, and reducing the erosion of the Point Grey Cliffs.  3 2.0 DETAILED DESIGN The detailed design has been divided into three civil engineering disciplines which are detailed in the following sections: water resources engineering, structural engineering, project management engineering.  2.1  Water Resources Engineering The most critical task for the water resources engineering discipline was to conduct a detailed and accurate supply and demand analysis of water in the Botanical Garden in order to choose an optimal retention tank size. The first goal of the analysis was to determine the available inflow to the garden from existing UBC storm water infrastructure. After calculating inflow to the garden, the inflow (supply) was compared against the garden’s water usage (demand).  To meet the Client’s goal of alleviating potable water usage in the garden, a stormwater retention tank would need to be sized to meet the demand of the garden. A retention tank was chosen over a retention pond in order to minimize water loss to infiltration and evaporation. Class A pan evaporation data from UBC states an average annual evaporation of 964mm (Piteau Associates). The majority of evaporation occurs in the summer months when the Botanical Garden’s water demand is high and precipitation is low. The optimal size for a stormwater retention tank was found to be 5000m3.   Calculating Inflow 2.1.1 The UBC Botanical Garden is conveniently located downslope from the majority of campus and is situated above Trail #7 outfall. This topography provides the Botanical Garden with the unique opportunity to easily collect stormwater that is already flowing through the garden from the west catchment area, see  Figure 1.   4  Figure 1: UBC Catchment Areas (UBC)  CivGen identified the current garden works yard as an ideal location to place a retention tank due to its proximity to existing stormwater pipes, see Figure 2. Specific flow data was not available from the GeoAdvice report so CivGen had to determine potential inflows from the identified catchment area through other methods.           Figure 2: Proposed Retention Tank Location (GeoAdvice Engineering)   5 CivGen reviewed a UBC Seeds project report, which had set up a gauging station on the creek immediately downstream of the culvert outlet near the Moon Gate. This outlet is from the stormwater drainage pipe, which is being proposed to use to fill a retention tank located in the service yard. Therefore the measurements made at the culvert outlet are fairly representative of expected flows into the proposed tank. The SEEDS report suggested that the creek has base flows ranging from 4L/s in the winter months to only 0.2L/s in September. The creek was gauged using a pressure transducer and datalogger, placed in a pond created behind a weir. A relationship was created between the height of water, and discharge over the weir. Unfortunately the data in the report was based only on one year of data, and had minimal manual measurements to verify the data. CivGen used the reported numbers as a way to verify our calculations using the rational method.  The rational method was used to calculate expected inflows through the stormwater pipe in the garden. The rational method is best suited for small catchment areas like the one being analyzed. The rational method is used commonly in North America to provide estimates on runoff produced by a certain amount of precipitation. Typically the precipitation input is provided by a rainfall intensity, which is selected from an IDF curve. For determining inflow into the garden CivGen did not need to calculate a peak flow based on peak rainfall intensity, but instead needed to calculate expected total inflows. For this reason the “i” term in the rational method was chosen as daily precipitation and the value calculated as a volume not a flow rate. This assumes that the entire catchment area contributes to flow in the stormwater pipe at the storage yard location. The entire catchment area will only fully contribute when the storm duration equals or exceeds the time of concentration of the catchment area. The time of concentration for this catchment area is only 13 minutes so it is safe to assume almost all storm durations will exceed this value. The catchment area time of concentration was calculated using the following equation:   6 Tc=0.0195*L0.77*S-0.385 Where: Tc= Time of Concentration L= Maximum length of flow=780m S= Grade of drainage area (m/m)= elevation difference/watershed length=(95m-78m)/550m The flow into the stormwater pipe was calculated with the following equation. The precipitation data input was provided by the 10 year Environment Canada record for the weather station at Vancouver International Airport. Records from a previous UBC weather station were not found but previous reports state that average precipitation at UBC is 10% greater than at YVR (Piteau Associates). This excess 10% provides some contingency in the calculated inflows. Q=CiA C=.65 (for rolling urban areas with 50% impervious area) A=14.5 ha i= Precipitation in mm (from Environment Canada Record) The average flow values calculated using the rational method were similar to those recorded at the gauging station in the UBC SEEDS report. This provides confidence in the accuracy of the calculated inflows.   Tank Sizing: Supply vs. Demand Analysis 2.1.2 The goal of installing a retention tank at the UBCBG is to eliminate potable water usage. Therefore the tank must be large enough to provide complete water supply for the garden. The most critical months to consider in the design are June-September. These months are typically much drier than the rest of the year and also have the highest demand for water, see Figure 3 below. Additionally, Metro Vancouver charges 25% more for water in these months.   7     Figure 3: Comparison of Supply and Demand in UBCBG  CivGen’s goal is to provide a reliable analysis and a tank that will meet the client’s expectations. This means that the tank must be able to supply the garden even in drier years. Multiple scenarios were created and different tank sizes compared for their effectiveness in providing all of the water needs of the garden.  • Real Scenarios: CivGen analyzed how varying tank sizes would have performed based on precipitation record for years 2003-2012. • Synthetic Scenarios: CivGen analyzed the Environment Canada Precipitation record for YVR and by ranking monthly precipitation values were able to determine the expected return period and frequency of low precipitation months. Three synthetic scenarios were created.  o Scenario 1: A year with normal precipitation in the Spring, Fall and Winter but with a 1 in 5.5 year drought in the all of the Summer months.  8 o Scenario 2: A year with normal precipitation in the Spring, Fall and Winter but with a 1 in 11 year drought in all of the Summer months. o Scenario 3: A year with average precipitation in Winter, Spring, Summer and Fall.  The real and synthetic scenarios were analyzed for 40 different tank sizes ranging from 250 m3-10,000 m3, see Figure 4. The optimal tank size for the retention tank was determined to be 5000 m3. This size is optimal as it provides water to the garden for all of the scenarios except the 1/11 year summer long drought. In the event that demand exceeds the tank’s supply the cost to the garden to buy supplemental water will be minimized. Additionally, if the tank is not full by May, the garden can purchase water to fill the tank before Metro Vancouver starts charging a 25% premium in June-September. The selected tank size fits CivGen’s ideology of designing to the probable, not the maximum. There will be certain years where the tank may not provide enough water, but the incremental cost for the client to build a tank of twice the size would not be justified.   Figure 4: Tank Sizing Analysis  10 that the cliffs would not see the effect of peak flow erosion.  If this scenario occurred in the winter, when the garden has high supply and low demand for water, the tank could be completely emptied at a slow rate. The empty tank could then be ready for use in the next storm event. Table 1: Hydrograph Convolution - Applying Design Storm to Synthetic Hydrograph     Figure 6: Attenuation of 10 Year Design Flood by 5000m3 Tank   11  Selection of Tank System 2.1.4 Upon determining an optimal tank size CivGen moved to select the best style of tank for the location selected. Criteria for evaluating various tank options included: • Price • Maintenance costs • Design-life • Ease of installation • Durability • Ability to support vehicles in service yard above tank  Upon evaluating various tank systems CivGen selected a concrete modular tank system provided by a company called StormTrap. These modular units met all of the criteria above when evaluated against other options like cast in place construction and plastic tanks. The vendor, StormTrap, was extremely cooperative and provided CivGen with a quote for a tank with 5000m3 storage capacity. This tank will consist of 210 StormTrap’s DOUBLETRAP units. Seven different styles of unit will be required to construct the tank including corner units, edge units and middle units.  This system has a design life of 50 years and requires minimal maintenance. In the event that a leak or broken component was found the damaged module could simply be replaced, as opposed to other systems which would require a full scale repair. The vendor is able to supply the units from a local manufacturer. Drawings provided by StormTrap are included in the Appendix A.   Integration With Existing Stormwater Main 2.1.5 Information regarding location, performance and size of the existing stormwater mains around the UBCBG works yard were obtained from a previous report (GeoAdvice Engineering). The stormwater mains adjacent to the garden are highlighted in Figure 7 below. All the mains shown in Figure 7 are from the same catchment area and their inverts and diameter are provided. The design will use the flow from pipe L3D-NW175CX and SM-1. Information regarding SM-1 is missing;  12 therefore the specifications are assumed to be similar to that of L3D-NW175BX, which runs parallel to SM-1. The design specs are outlined in Table 2.   Figure 7: GeoAdvice Modeling Data  Table 2: Specifications of Existing Stormwater Main Name Diameter (mm) US Invert (m) DS invert (m) L3D-NW175CX 900 73.71 71.66 L3D-NW175BX 900 71.66 71.25 SM-1 900 73.30 71.25   Flow Design  2.1.6 The detention tank will be gravity fed by L3D-NW175CX and SM-1. In order to maintain the original design of the stormwater main, the tank site will be leveled at 3m below DS invert of L3D-NW175CX at 68.25m. The ground elevation at the UBCBG works yard is approximately 74m-75m  13 which is provided by the City of Vancouver. An overview of the design and elevations are provided in Figure 8 below.   Figure 8: Schematic Layout of StormTrap Modules With Existing Stormwater Mains  The existing stormwater mains will be cut during construction and temporally diverted around the site until the retention tank is installed. Once the retention tank is in place the stormwater main will be reconnected with the new valves and access hatches. The valves will allow the stormwater flow to drop into the retention tank. Once the tank is full the water level will rise up to the valve and bypass the tank and naturally flow down the main as originally designed. During service and maintenance both valves can be shutoff and the stormwater will be able to bypass the retention tank without causing any disruption of the stormwater mains. The stored water can then be pumped into the irrigation system for use. The exact specifications of the valves and pump are not part of the design, however a concept of the valve is provided below in Figure 9.    14  Figure 9: Concept of Valve and Access Hatch     15 2.2  Structural Engineering   Soil Conditions 2.2.1 The geotechnical report prepared by GeoPacific in 2013 for the Orchard Commons development was used as reference for the structural design calculations due its proximity to the UBCBG. The report indicates that the Orchard Commons site is underlain by substratified glaciofluvial sand, gravel and silt. Under the top layer of asphalt and fill material are a layer of 1m to 10m thick glacial till-like soil. Seepage was noticed at around 2m below grade, however static groundwater table was not noticed (GeoPacific, 2013). The suggested serviceability state (SLS) and ultimate serviceability state (ULS) bearing pressure is 300kPa and 450kPa, respectively (GeoPacific, 2013). The SLS bearing pressure of 300kPa was used in the design of the slab on grade.   Applied Loads 2.2.2 The applied loads considered in the design of the reinforced concrete slab on grade, in addition to the weight of the slab, must be kept under the 300kPa serviceability limit state set in geotechnical report for Orchard Commons (GeoPacific, 2013). The applied loads that were considered are as follows: • Vehicle point loads • Surface soil above tank • Retention tank full of water • Slab on grade With the original design of the tank being right below grade, the point loads of large vehicles above where the main concern for the design of the concrete slab on grade. However, after establishing the depths of the water mains, the tank needed to be dropped another three metres creating additional depth for the vehicle point loads to be distributed as shown in Figure 10 below.  Because the slab on grade was being designed while the loads of the same slab had to be considered in the applied loads  16 on the soil, an iterative design process was established. An initial 100mm slab thickness was assumed and design was completed for the assumed thickness. The loads on the soil for the 100mm thick slab where then calculated and found to be under capacity, and thus only one iteration was necessary. For complete calculations of the applied loads, see Appendix B.  Figure 10 - Point Load Distribution  Structural Design 2.2.1 A concrete slab on grade will be installed below the retention tank modules to protect against differential settlement. Although the loads on the slab are not large, the modules of the retention tank are not connected to one another to resist vertical movement and potential differential settlement would damage the integrity of the tank. The slab eliminates the chance of the tank modules separating and causing a leak in the reservoir. Additionally the slab is relatively inexpensive when compared to the costs of the tank and intrusive repairs to the tank could exceed the cost of the slab itself.    To establish the design parameters of the reinforced concrete slab, the CSA A23.3 concrete design handbook was checked for design guidelines for a slab on grade. After finding no guidelines for a slab on grade, “Reinforced Concrete Design: A Practical Approach” by Brzv & Pao was found to have some guidance on slab on grade design but referred to PCA 2001 which we did not have access  17 to. It was then assumed that if the design of the slab could be adequate for a simply suspended one-way slab, it would definitely be adequate for a slab on grade.   The point loads from vehicles above the slab will be distributed through the depth of both the soil and the tank. The factored loads were calculated to be about 10% of the demand and so it was assumed that the spacing requirements for flexural reinforcement could be omitted and the spacing requirements for shrinkage reinforcement would govern.  The final design was calculated to be a 100mm thick reinforced concrete slab on grade with 10M rebar spaced at 500mm on centre, each way, placed at mid depth of the slab. For complete design calculations and drawings, see Appendix B.     18 2.3  Project Management Engineering The installation of the retention tank at UBCBG will require coordinated construction phasing to ensure the operation proceeds efficiently. This plan is intended to provide a guide to constructors to increase efficient project implementation and reduce potential impacts to the local community.   Phase One 2.3.1 The first phase of construction will involve preparing the site for placement of the slab. The excavation must proceed to an average depth of 6m. This depth is required so that the inlet pipe to the tank, which is at the top of the tank, will be at the same elevation as the incoming stormwater line. The site suffers from a lack of space so excavated material must be removed from the site immediately. Excavated material will be placed in a temporary stockpile at the nearby Totem Field. Access to Totem Field will need to be built to allow easy access for dump trucks. The access point depicted in Figure 11 below should be relatively easy to build and the nearby excavator should be able to complete this work on day one. Figure 11 below also shows the dump truck route where the red line represents a loaded haul and the blue line an empty return haul.  Figure 11: Site layout image showing dump truck route and Totem Field access point  19 Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) regulation section 20.81, Sloping and Shoring Requirements, mandate that the edge of the bottom of the excavation slope up to original grade at a 4:3 slope. This will result in an on average 4.5m wide back cut along the edge of the excavation. The excavation should begin at the southeast corner of the rectangular footprint and work backwards towards the road. Because of the depth of the excavation it should occur in three 2m lifts. This will improve efficiency by allowing the dump trucks adequate room to safely maneuver within the excavation. A ramp can be maintained at the site access point to further facilitate efficient travel.  The existing stormwater lines on the west side of the site should be temporarily disconnected and rerouted to run along the edge of the western side slope. Cutting a bench for the pipe to rest will provide some structural support and can be used to help keep the pipe in place.  One to two typical dump trucks cycling between site and the stockpile should be sufficient to handle the volume of excavated material. The trucks will be using low traffic roads that are otherwise used by local residents or clients of the adjacent hospice facility and so it is imperative that skilled flaggers be present while trucks are using the local roads. Only half of the excavated material needs to be stockpiled, the other half can be sold or dumped depending upon demand.   Phase Two 2.3.2 The second phase of construction will involve the construction of the slab formwork, reinforcement and finally the placement of concrete. The slab design is detailed in the slab design section and construction will follow these plans. Because of the poor overall site access it is recommended to pour the slab using a concrete pump truck with a long delivery boom. This will allow the pump truck to setup at the entrance to the service yard where it can receive concrete and pump out to workers for placement.  20   Phase Three 2.3.3 The third phase of construction will begin after approximately three days of setting time has passed for the concrete slab. At this point the slab will be sufficiently strong to bare the empty StormTrap modules. Now a large continuous piece of PPL-24 HDPE pond liner should be placed over the slab to begin forming the impermeable basin the tank modules will sit within (Aird, 2011). The pond liner should be wrapped on either side by geotextile, which will add additional strength and provide some puncture resistance to the liner. Special care should be taken to avoid placing the liner over any debris or stones that could end up between the modules and the slab. If the liner becomes punctured the system will lose some of its retention capabilities before it has even been installed.  Perimeter markings should be employed to ensure modules are placed into the excavation in an efficient manner with care taken to maintain the alignment. See Figure 12 below for an example of an efficient module placement order. Modules should be trucked in and picked directly off delivery trucks by the crane that will place them. This method of module transfer will allow for very rapid and efficient placement. Modules can be picked and placed in approximately 5-10 minutes using this method (Humes, 2011).   22  Project Schedule 2.3.5 The project master schedule is outlined below in Figure 13. This schedule takes into account the estimated production rates for each specific task. A construction cost estimate was created along with the project schedule. The total construction time will be 5.5 weeks.  Figure 13: Retention Tank Construction Schedule  Safety Considerations 2.3.6 Safety is of the utmost important to Civgen Consulting during the construction process. The following section will provide some mitigative measures to ensure the stormwater retention project is completed safely. Figure 14 below illustrates the most common causes of injury across British Columbia in 2013.   23  Figure 14:  Most common mechanisms of injury from 2011 to 2013 (Work Safe BC, 2013)  This overall trend holds true for the main aspects of work detailed in this report, which required to install the StormTrap system. The main construction aspects involved in this project are as follows: • Land clearing and site preparation • Concrete pumping, placing, and formwork • Crane work   Land Clearing and Site Preparation 2.3.6.1 Creating an excavation is always dangerous. Buried utilities, heavy equipment, and uneven terrain are just some of the hazards inherent in site clearing and excavation work. This work site is smaller than the ideal size and will therefore be fairly congested with heavy equipment working to remove the soil as quickly as possible. The site is also close to a variety of other developments and may have yet unknown buried utilities that must be found and marked. The main hazards of concern and recommended mitigations follow.   25  Concrete Pumping, Placing, and Formwork Construction 2.3.6.2 Concrete pumping, placing, and formwork construction provides some unique risks to worker safety. The formwork and reinforcing bar construction provide many tripping hazards and also the risk of impalement. The boom of the concrete pumping truck creates the hazards associated with equipment strikes on workers.  Repetitive Stress Injuries Building formwork and reinforcement as well as placing and finishing concrete requires repetitive and labour intensive work. It is important for workers to be mindful of their fatigue levels so they can avoid the effects of repetitive strain injuries. Task rotation is important to prevent workers from overexertion and fatigue that can lead to injury.  Concrete Boom and Hose Injuries Concrete pump trucks have very long delivery booms that are very heavy and controlled by powerful hydraulics. Workers can receive severe injuries if struck by pump truck booms or hoses due to their mass and power. Additional the pressure required to pump concrete and sheer mass of concrete will make handling the delivery hose dangerous work. Care must be taken during the placing phase to avoid injuries caused by operator carelessness.  Tripping Hazards Reinforcing and formwork structures provide a dangerous worksite from a tripping hazard standpoint. In addition to the risks from tripping alone; expose reinforcing bar tips can pose severe impalement threats. Workers should be thoroughly briefed during daily safety meetings on the  26 importance of housekeeping during this stage of construction and how to best reduce the risks from tripping and impaling on reinforcing bar.  Crane Work 2.3.6.3 Cranes bring about concern from the inherent risks of lifting heavy loads. Concerns caused by cranes can be minimized through regular inspection of equipment and lifting apparatus. Following some fundamental safety rules regarding cranes can further reduce risk.  Crushing The greatest risk to workers when a crane is operating onsite is a crushing injury. In order to avoid this injury a few steps should be taken:  • Cranes must not lift objects over the heads of workers • Crane apparatus and lifting slings must be thoroughly inspected before use • Only trained operators and riggers should be used • Ensure capacity of crane and slings is not at risk of being exceeded  Overhead Utilities Overhead utilities are a major concern for cranes. There are no overhead power lines immediately adjacent to the site but nevertheless the crane operator should make thorough checks before raising any booms.    29 example, the new system can alleviate cliff erosion problems at the stormwater outfalls by the means of reducing the peak flow during intense storm periods. The management of the stormwater retention tank can be used as a teaching and learning tool for UBC students and surrounding communities. Students could continue to work on the retention tank on later capstone design projects. Some sample projects could include: designing efficient intake valves, or writing optimization programs to control the amount of water stored in the tank.   4.0 OUTSOURCED DESIGN  With a contract to provide a detailed design for a stormwater retention tank at UBC Botanical Garden CivGen moved forward with detailed design of the tank in the three engineering disciplines discussed in Section 2 of this report.  CivGen recognizes that the detailed water resources, structural and project engineering components of the project do not cover all the design components required to construct a functional stormwater retention system. Further engineering work is needed to conduct a detailed design of the following components: • Tank inlet/bypass valve • Geotechnical characterization • Design of pump and distribution system With experience in all three of the above areas CivGen will conduct these additional detailed designs if more time is provided. Due to our involvement with the project thus far CivGen has the detailed information and understanding required to move forward with detailed design of the above components upon the owner’s request.  30 5.0 REFERENCES  Aird, J. "Stormwater." 30 April 2010. Underground Detention Systems. <http://www.stormh20.com/SW/Articles/Underground_Detention_Systems_9931.aspx>.  Architen Landrell. "ETFE Foil: A Guide to Design." 2013. Architen Landrell. 20 10 2013 <http://www.architen.com/technical/articles/etfe-foil-a-guide-to-design>.  District of North Vancouver. "Council Reports." 12 December 2006. Design Criteria Manual. 5 March 2014 <http://www.dnv.org/upload/documents/Council_Reports/773013.pdf>.  FIXR. "10 Buildings Inspired by the Natural World." 9 8 2011. FIXR Visual Modelling. 5 11 2013 <http://www.visualremodeling.com/2009/11/08/10-buildings-inspired-by-the-natural-world/>.  GeoAdvice Engineering. Model Update and Calibration of The University of British Columbia Stormwater Collection System. Technical Memorandum. Port Moody, 2012.  GeoPacific. Geotechnical Investigation Report, Orchard Commons. Vancouver: GeoPacific Consultants Ltd., 2013.  Humes TM. "Humes." 2011. Stormtrap System Installation Guide: Double Trap Model. 16 March 2014 <http://www.humes.com.au/precast-solutions/stormwater/detention-and-infiltration.html>.  Mak Max. "Membrane ETFE." 2010. MakMax. 30 10 2013 <http://www.makmax.com.au/membrane/etfe>.  Metro Vancouver. "Metro Vancouver." 2013. Programs and Budget. 15 March 2014 <http://www.metrovancouver.org/programsandbudget/BudgetDocs/2013BudgetPresentation.pdf>.  Piteau Associates. Hydrogeological and Geotechnical Assessment of Northwest Area UBC Campus Vancouver. Consultant Report. Vancouver: Private, 2002.  Roess, Roger, Elena Prassas and Willaim McShane. Traffic Engineering. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.  Ronca, Debra. How Green Pavement Works. 28 May 2008. 29 October 2013 <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/green-pavement2.htm>.  Short, Katy. "Improving West 16th Avenue." 8 April 2013. UBC (C+CP). 29 October 2013 <http://planning.ubc.ca/sites/planning.ubc.ca/files/attachments/W-16th-Improvements-Factsheet-in-Template-FINAL.pdf>.  UBC. Campus + Community Planning. 2014. 23 January 2014 <http://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/projects-consultations/consultations-engagement/integrated-stormwater-management-plan>.  Work Safe BC. "WorkSafe BC." 2014. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations. 16 March 2014 <http://www2.worksafebc.com/Publications/OHSRegulation/Part20.asp>.  APPENDIX A - Water Resources Design Tools/Calculations Stormwater drainage layout at UBC with catchment area feeding into UBC Botanical Garden highlighted (GeoAdvice Engineering). Used for rational method calculations. Additional resources including GIS features on Google Earth and VanMaps were used.  Calculations to create unit hydrograph using SCS Method. Calculations were carried out in Excel.     MORRIS IL 604502495 WEST BUNGALOW RDP: 815-941-4663"$$RECAST CONCRETE MODUAR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT SSTEMSTHIS STORMTRA DESIGN MA BE COVERED B  OR MORE O THE OOWNG US ATENTS  NO 699402 B2 760058 B2 & 7344335 B2CA ATENT NO 245609F: 815-416-1100!"#$%&')*+#",-')#*.*'/0/&-1%.)//2%3+#""%45.3%/&53-'%.67.&2""%*')//2%3-'%.-!!"#4%367.)//2%3+#".%*8)*%%")*+#",-')#*.90:9,-"9;<0=!"%1),)*-"7;>;?@,-114-*&#24%"A6&4B'0C=!DEFG.B<=9>H>9IBH0+JK.2*)4#+6")')/L&#12,6)-!"%1),)*-"70:9,-"9;<0=-&26&6#'-*)&-18-"3%*//'#",@-'%"&-!'2"%4-*&#24%"A6&!"0/'#",1)*%")*/'-11-')#*/!%&)+)&-')#*/;0<2*)'/9=;<'#'-1!)%&%/&#4%"/L%%'3%/&")!')#*$#6/)'%)*+#",-')#*2*)'M2-*')'7.4-*&#24%"A6&&#*'-&'*-,%.&#*'-&'!L#*%.&#*'-&'+-N.:0H9=0B900<<:0H9;H:90;B0,-''O-,%*)&O/'#",'"-!0:$#6-33"%//.4-*&#24%"A6&><=:,,3#261%'"-!2*)'L%-3"##,.=A?==5<<&26)&,%'%"@-'%"/'#"-8%!"#4.=A?<<5<<&26)&,%'%"@-'%"/'#"-8%"%MP3.&#*'-&'+-N.&#*'-&'!L#*%.B<=9>H>9IBH0"-*37&L-/%&#*'-&'*-,%.%*8)*%%")*8&#.2*)4#+6")')/L&#12,6)-/'#",'"-!/2!!1)%".26&6#'-*)&-18-"3%*//'#",@-'%"&-!'2"%$#6*-,%.1-7#2'3%'-)13#261%'"-!)*/'-11-')#*/!%&)+)&-')#*/ '7!%))'7!%)'7!%)4'7!%)))'7!%4&#4%"/L%%'!-8% 03%/&")!')#*/L%%')*3%N"%45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; > = H B I26&6#'-*)&-18-"3%*//'#",@-'%"&-!'2"%;5>00</L%%'')'1%./L%%'*2,6%".PRECAST CONCRETE MODULAR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS/'-*3-"39/'-*3-"39/'-*3-"39/'-*3-"39/'-*3-"39><=:,,3#261%'"-!><=:,,3#261%'"-!><=:,,3#261%'"-!><=:,,3#261%'"-!><=:,,3#261%'"-!><=:,,3#261%'"-!!"#$%#$&;5003#261%'"-!)*/'-11-')#*/!%&)+)&-')#*/;5;03#261%'"-!)*/'-11-')#*/!%&)+)&-')#*//'-*3-"39'7!%4))0'7!%4)/'-*3-"39?"><=:,,3#261%'"-! APPENDIX B – Structural Engineering Drawings/Calculations   

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