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An investigation into optimal personal heater : radiant panel Li, Hui Yang (Sunny); Alexandre, Mariane Hans; Qiu, Steve 2013-11-29

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportHui Yang (Sunny) Li, Mariane Hans Alexandre, Steve QiuAn Investigation intoOptimal Personal Heater – Radiant PanelAPSC 261November 29, 20139931470University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  The University of British Columbia APSC 261 – Technology and Society Tutorial Instructor: Saloome Motavas                                                            An Investigation into Optimal Personal Heater – Radiant Panel      Submitted by: Hui Yang (Sunny) Li Mariane Hans Alexandre Steve Qiu      November 29, 2013 i  ABSTRACT  This report provides an in - depth analysis on the selection of an optimal radiant panel office space heater to serve as a replacement for the current heaters that are used by the UBC staff. Available models in Great Vancouver were investigated using the tri ple bottom line analysis. UBC is planning on creating a trade - in program where employees can trade in their current heater for a more energy- efficient model for free, and the cost can be recouped from money saved from electricity bills. The preferred payba ck period to recoup these costs is under 2 years with the maximum limit at 5 years, as indicated by the project stakeholder, Lillian Zaremba (Climate & Energy Engineer, UBC Campus Sustainability).  The methods of investigation for this project consisted of gathering both primary and secondary data. Primary data consists of a survey distributed to 24 participants and testing feedback form from three UBC staff who were selected for testing. The survey participants rated their interest in using a radiant panel at a score of 2.17 out of 4. Secondary sources include peer - reviewed journal articles and online articles.  Within the economic aspect of the triple bottom line, the purchase cost, payback period and energy cost savings were evaluated with the assumption th at the heater was used for 600 hours per year. This analysis determined that the Cozy Legs (150W) was the best economical choice.  The environmental aspect compared energy savings and CO2 emissions, where the two Cozy Legs models provided the most energy a nd carbon emission. For the social aspect, survey results show that the most important factors in heater selection are safety, low noise, quality, and comfort. The Cozy Legs heaters are safe, silent, and good quality. Testing feedback addresses the comfort level, with one tester providing positive feedback and two testers disliking it. These two testers have very cold offices and only warming their legs and feet was not enough. They require office heaters to heat up the entire room.  The final recommendation for UBC is to only offer the Cozy Legs heater to those who require a little warmth in their offices. It is not recommended with people with large, cold offices. UBC can also consider extending its payback period limitation to over 5 years and test the Da yton (650W) model which can offer more heat, or consider other types such as convective heaters, which are designed to output more power.    ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract ......................... ......................................... .............. ...... .. .......... .......................  i List of Illustrations ....................................... ................ .......... ................ ......................  iii Glossary ........................ ............... ......................... ..................... ....... .............................  iv 1.0 Introduction ........................ ...................... ....................... .......... .............................  1 2.0 Background on Radiant Heating ..................... . .... ..... ...... ..................... .................  2 3.0 Methods of Investigation ........ ............... ...... .................. .........................................  3 4.0 Economic Aspect .... ............. ..................... ..... ........... ............. ..................................  4  4.1 Purchase Cost ............... ............................... ......... ........ ......................................  4  4.2 Payback Period ........ ... ....................... ....... ......... .................................................  4  4.3 Energy Cost Savings ............................... ....... ............ ...................................... ...  7  5.0 Environmental Impact ................. ................. . ..... .............. .....................................  9 5.1 Energy Demand and Consumption ............ ........ ................... ...... ........................  9 5.2 Energy Efficiency Setting and Controllability . .......... ................................... .....  11 6.0 Social Aspect .................... ....................... ................................. ......... ......................  13 6.1 Factors and Features ...... ................. ........... .............. ............ ... ............................  13 6.2 T esting Performance ..... ............ ................. ............. .............. ... ...........................  15  7.0 Conclusion and Recommendations «............... ..................... ................................  17  References ..................... .......................................................................................... .......  18    iii  LIST OF ILLUS TRATIONS  List of Figures Figure 1  Heater chosen: INDUS - TOOL Cozy Legs Flat Panel Heater (150W). Retrieved from http://ww w.cozyproducts.com/cozy - legs- products -27.php? page_id=57  Page 8  Figure 2  World Energy Consumption from 1990 – 2035. Image Retrieved from http://www.cozyproducts.com/heating - cost- calculator- pages - 251.php.  Page 9 Figure 3  A 4 - month electricity cost comparison between 10 regular office heaters and 10 Cozy Products heaters. Image Retrieved from http://www.cozyproducts.com/heating - cost- calculator- pages - 251.php.  Page 10 Figure 4  Average Ranking of Importance of Different Factors  when Choosing Personal Heaters.  Page 13 Figure 5  Average Ranking of Importance of Different Features  when Choosing Personal Heaters.  Page 14  Figure 6  &RPSDULVRQRI8%&6WDII¶V$YHUDJH5DWLQJVRI,QWHUHVWLQ8VLQJDifferent Types of Heating Products out of a score of 4.  Page 15    List of Tables Table 1  The purchase cost of each radiant panel heater.  Page 4  Table 2  Calculation of the electricity cost of each heater Page 5  Table 3  Difference in cost between the ceramic heater and the radiant models.  Page 6 Table 4  Payback period of each radiant panel model.  Page 6 Table 5  Energy Cost Savings per year  Page 7  Table 6  Comparison of amount of energy saved for 1,000 heaters of each model per year.  Page 11 Table 7  &R]\/HJV¶:IHHGEDFNIURPWHVWHUV Page 16   iv  GLOSSARY  CO2  Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and a single carbon atom. It is the main cause of global warming.  Watt The watt is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units used to measure the rate of energy conversion or transfer  kWh The kilowatt hour is a unit of energy equal to 1000 watt-hours. The price for electricity in UBC is $0.0539/kWh.  Payback Period The period of time required to recoup the funds expended in an investment. 1  1 .0  INTRODUCTION  Managing a large building is a challenge, but making sure every occupant in the workspace is comfortable can prove to be more difficult. Poorly designed building structures and heating systems can lead to uneven heat distribution, causing discomfort in certain areas. Due to this problem, many UBC staff have personal heaters as a solution to meet their personal heating needs. However, there are many problems raised with the ceramic space heaters that are commonly used by UBC staff. These heaters increase the overall energy consumption and demand of the whole building, and may overload the electrical circuit. Therefore, investigation for an alternate more energy efficient model is required. UBC is planning on creating a trade-in program where employees can replace their current heater for the more efficient model for free, and the cost can be recouped from money saved from electrical bills by using these heaters.   In this project, four different models of radiant panel heater were investigated and the objective is to recommend the optimal personal heater for use in UBC office work spaces. A triple bottom line approach is used, which evaluates the economic, social and environmental aspects of the radiant panel heaters with the purpose of enhancing and advancing the sustainability initiatives of the UBC campus.              2  2 .0 BACKGROUND ON RADIANT HEATING  Radiant panel heaters work by heating a metal plate, usually made of aluminum, and radiating this heat off in the direction that is perpendicular to the surface of the heater [1] . Therefore, the best positions to place such heaters are parallel to and directly facing the surface area that is to be heated. Research have shown that in a sample office room, the optimal positions to place these heaters are one on the wall facing the windows, and another on the wall close to the windows [2] . In this study, it was found that radiant heating solutions can save up to 39.7% of energy per day compared to convective heaters, and provide better comfort to office employees [2] . The benefits of radiant panel heaters compared to other types of heating solutions are that extra humidification for the room is not necessary, and air infiltration heat loss is reduced [3] . This is because radiant heat does not modify air moisture content, so users will not feel the dryness caused by other types of heaters [3] .                 3  3 .0 METHODS OF INVESTIGATION   The investigation for this project consisted of analyzing both primary and secondary sources to collect data. For the Primary Sources of data, the three following approaches were taken:   Distribute surveys to the UBC staff and Faculty regarding their perspective on office heaters - 24 participants;  KiloWatt Meter for power measurement;  Conduct tests with UBC staff to evaluate the performance of the new heater - 3 people.  The survey is a standardized survey for all the electric heater and blanket groups to distribute to all UBC staff in selected buildings. The survey is for both people who do and do not currently use space heaters. A total of 24 participants were surveyed. Each group was in charge of different buildings and the buildings that this group was responsible for are the two Campus and Community Planning (C&CP) buildings as well as Buchanan Tower. The KiloWatt Meter was used to measure the power output of the heater and verify it with the marketed values. The procedure for testing is have three UBC staff who currently use ceramic heaters and ask them to try the suggested replacement heater. The testing staff will then be provided with a feedback form where they will be able to compare and evaluate the performance of the new radiant panel heater compared to their current heater. For the secondary sources of data, research was performed on peer-reviewed academic journal articles and books related to similar projects done in the past and on radiant panel heating. From these articles insight was gained on how radiant panel heating works compared to ceramic heaters as well as its current common applications [1][2][3] . Additionally, online catalogs of home electronics stores such as Acklands Grainger and Home Depot were also used to assess and analyze the different radiant panel heaters available on the market today. This research was supported by performing additional readings of online articles and reviews of these heaters.    4   4 .0 ECONOMIC ASPECT    In this project, the purchase cost, payback period and energy cost savings were taken into consideration when evaluating the economic aspect. This is a very important analysis because it determines whether a model will meet the cost savings specifications to be considered for testing. The recommendations given to the teams  to find an optimal radiant panel heater from the pr oject stakeholder, Lillian Zaremba (Climate & Energy Engineer, Campus Sustainability), were also taken into consideration.  4 .1 PURCHASE COST     For the purpose of this project, four portable radiant panel models were investigated at stores in Great Vancouver. These four models are INDUS-TOOL Cozy Legs (100W), INDUS-TOOL Cozy Legs (150W), QMARK (170W), and DAYTON (650W). The purchase cost (taxes included) of these models were last checked on November 4, 2013 and shown in Table 1.  Radiant Panel Heaters Purchase cost  Store  INDUS - TOOL  Cozy Legs Radiant Heating Panel  (100 W)  $ 60.69  [ 4]  Global Industrial  INDUS - TOOL  Cozy Legs Flat Panel Heater (150 W)  $ 67.66  [ 5]  The Home Depot  QMARK  Electric Flat Panel Radiant Heater (170 W)  $ 148.88  [6]  Grainger  DAYTON Heater Radiant Flat Panel (650 W)  $ 181.59  [ 7]  Acklands Grainger  Table 1:  The purchase cost of each radiant panel heater.  4 .2 PAYBACK PERIOD  For the purposes of this study, as informed by the project stakeholder, it was assumed that the replacement heater would be provided free of charge to the user. UBC would recoup the cost of providing new heaters through saving electrical bills as a result of using these heaters. 8    Figure 1:  Heater chosen: INDUS-TOOL Cozy Legs Flat Panel Heater (150W). Retrieved from http://www.cozyproducts.com/cozy-legs-products-27.php? page_id=57                9  5 .0 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT  The second Triple Bottom Line assessment requires the product to be reviewed from a sustainability perspective. In this report two main environmental factors of using office heaters will be assessed to determine the best heating choice – energy demand consumption and user control over efficiency.  5 .1 ENERGY DEMAND AND CONSUMPTION  Currently, a single space heater in the office can demand XSWRRIWKHWRWDOEXLOGLQJ¶Vpower and can overload an electrical circuit [ 8] . As Figure 2 shows, the World Energy consumption in 2008 was 505 quadrillion Btu, and this will only steadily increase into 2035. The 86'HSDUWPHQWRI(QHUJ\¶VUHSRUWLQ01 stated that the use of radiant panel heating energy technology in residential heating systems has provided cumulative energy savings of 1.45 trillion Btu [9] , avoided almost $1.9 million dollars in electricity costs, and reduced CO 2 * emissions by as much as 97000 tons through the year 2000.  Figure 2.  World Energy Consumption from 1990 – 2035. Image Retrieved from http://www.cozyproducts.com/heating-cost-calculator-pages-251.php. 10   When this radiant panel heating technology is applied to office space heaters, the Cozy /HJVPDQXIDFWXUHU¶VZHEVLWHVKRZVWKDWLIUHJXODU:UHJXODURIILFHKHDWHUVDUHUHSODFHGby ten 150W Cozy Legs heaters, the total electricity costs can be cut by over 90% [10] .  This is shown in Figure 3. Additionally, the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by a total of 14.5 7 tons per year [10] .  Compared to the annual CO 2 emission of 5.1 metric tons from a passenger vehicle [11] , this is equivalent to almost to the total emissions from 3 passenger cars per year. Table 6 shows the total amount of energy that will be saved for UBC with 1000 units of each heater model per year by replacing the current heaters. Being the heaters with one of the lowest power rating out of the four models being studied, the two Cozy Legs (100W) & (150W) will be the heaters that provides the most waste reduction and energy savings.   Figure 3.  A 4-month electricity cost comparison between 10 regular office heaters and 10 Cozy Products heaters. Image Retrieved from http://ww w.cozyproducts.com/heating-cost-calculator-page s-251.php.  12  UHGXFLQJWKHFRQWUROODELOLW\RIWKHKHDWHU¶VHQHUJ\HIILFLency. Since all four models do not have this feature, this was not regarded as a major factor when choosing our final heater. +RZHYHU LQ WHUPV RI WHPSHUDWXUH FRQWURO DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH&R]\3URGXFWV FRPSDQ\¶Vwebsite, the Cozy Legs (150W) radiant panel heater has a built-in thermostat to monitor its temperature [12] .  When the Kilowatt meter was used to test the power output of this heater, the initial power level was read to be around 149-150W, which matches the marketed power output of 150W. Over time as the heater slowly heats up, the meter reading decreases slowly to around 140W and slightly fluctuates. This observation could be due to less power being used after the heater has already heated up, indicating that it is very energy conservative, putting it at an advantage compared to other radiant panel models.                      13  6 .0 SOCIAL ASPECT   Safety, comfort, practicality, ease of use, quality, and testing performance are some key elements that contribute to the social aspect of triple bottom line. Primary data was collected through a survey and also a feedback form from 3 UBC employees that currently use the ceramic heater. The following sections provide statistical analysis regarding social concerns towards heaters, especially the radiant panel. The analysis discusses specific features and reveals the most recent thoughts about personal heaters on UBC campus.   6 .1 FACTORS AND FEATURES   Some important factors that people take into consideration when purchasing space heaters are: comfort, price, safety, ease of use, appearance and quality. In addition to these factors, office workers also look for features such as low noise, auto shut-off, temperature control, safety and maximum heat output.  8%&VWDII¶VUHODWLYHSUHIHUHQFHVWRWKHVHIDFWRUVDUHVKRZQLQ)LJXUHZLWKDUDQNLQJRI1 being the most important and 6 the least important. Individuals rank quality (2.5), comfort (2.61) and safety (2.64) as their main concerns when they purchase a heater. Ease of use (3.09) might be considered as well, although price (4.14) and appearance (4.91) do not seem to be relevant to them due to the high rank received.   Rank  Factors  Average Ranking  1 Quality 2.50  2 Comfort 2.61  3 Safety 2.64  4  Ease of Use  3.09  5  Price 4.14  6 Appearance  4.91  Figure 4  - Average Ranking of Importance of Different Factors when Choosing Personal Heaters. 14   By analyzing the most important features for UBC staff, it is possible to notice in Figure 5 that safety (2.13), low noise (2.39) and temperature control (2.48) are the most desirable features. Auto shut-off (3.09) and maximum heat output (3.86) are not their first choice when choosing a heater. A rank of 1 in Figure 5 means the most important feature, while a rank of 5 corresponds to the least important feature.  Rank  F eatures  Average Ranking  1 Safety 2.13  2 Noise 2.39  3 Temperature Control  2.48  4  Auto Shut- off 3.09  5  Max Heat Output  3.86  Figure 5  - Average Ranking of Importance of Different Features when Choosing Personal Heaters.    Both analysis indicate that the major interests are: quality, comfort, low noise, safety and temperature control. The Cozy Legs (150W) meets three out of the five requirements. The product has good quality and it is extremely safe, due to the fact that it has very good heat and electrical insulation, non flammable or combustible. This heater has received the ETL List Mark, ETL Zero-Clearance Rating, and TUV certificate s. [13]  Having ETL List Mark and ETL Zero-Clearance Rating indicates that this electrical product meets North American standard and can be place near flammable and combustible materials without being a fire hazard. TUV Certification verifies the quality of the product, showing that the products were tested thoroughly. Additionally, the product has a low chance of causing burn injuries, can operate with little to no noise, and is very portable, being easy to carry around and mountable on walls.  The unmet requirements are comfort and temperature control. The Cozy Legs (150W) and all the other radiant panel models do not have settings and controllability over its temperature due to its low power and heat output compared to other types of heaters, but the product has a built- LQWKHUPRVWDWWRPRQLWRULWVWHPSHUDWXUHDFFRUGLQJWR&RPSDQ\¶VZHEVLWH[12]  .  According to Nicol and Humphreys (2012 ) [14] , having the right temperature is one of the most important aspect of a building, but even with the right temperature, not all people will be 15   satisfied because it is a personal preference. This is one reason UBC staff use heaters, with the other reason being that some offices are really cold due to old and poorly designed heating systems. Consequently, they have to use heaters to warm up their entire room.  Therefore, the Coz y Legs (150W) does not meet the comfort requirements because it is just designed to warm the feet and legs.  Survey participants were also asked to rate their interest to trade in their current heater for other models without any previous product testing. Higher ranking indicates higher preference. The average score for the radiant panel was 2.17 out of 4 as shown on Figure 6. Their first choice is the convective heater with a score of 3.14 out 4, and their last choice would be the radiant carpet with a score of 2.09 out of 4. The preference for the convective heater shows that staff is more interested in heaters that can provide more heat output to warm up the entire office.    Figure 6. &RPSDULVRQRI8%&6WDII¶V$YHUDJH5DWLQJVRI,QWHUHVWLQ8VLQJ'LIIHUHQWTypes of Heating Products out of a score of 4.   6 .2 TESTING PERFORMANCE     Testing a product is one of the best ways to check its features and see whether or not it is a good choice for the target consumers. The Cozy Legs (150W) was tested by 3 UBC employees who have never had a previous experience with the radiant panel. When ranking the each 16  element, they had five choices: very bad, bad, neutral, good and very good. The feedback is shown in Table 7.    Testers  Tester 1  Tester 2  Tester 3  Comfort  Level (warmth)  Bad Very Bad  Good  Safety  Neutral Neutral Excellent  Portability  Bad Neutral Good  Overall Appearance  Neutral Good  Good  Performance of the radiant heater compared to your current heater  Bad Very Bad  Neutral Would you choose the radiant panel and help save energy?  NO  NO  YES  Table 7  - &R]\/HJV¶:IHHGEDFNIURPWHVWHUV  The testers agreed that Cozy Legs (150W) provides good appearance and safety level, but WKHUH LV VRPH GLVDJUHHPHQWV UHJDUGLQJ LWV SRUWDELOLW\2Q DYHUDJH WKH KHDWHUV¶SRUWDELOLW\ LVneutral, although it is important to highlight that the model can be mounted on walls and it is generally placed under an office desk, with no need to be carried around. In general, the comfort level (warmth) and the radiant panel performance compared to current heater  was bad, only one tester (33%) would go with the Cozy Legs (150W), and two testers  (66%) would not choose the radiant panel to help save energy.  The reason two testers answered no, is that they use a ceramic heater to warm up their entire office and the radiant panel cannot provide as much warmth as their original heaters.  The Cozy Legs (150W) is a good choice for people who already have a good temperature in their offices, but would occasionally use the radiant panel to provide more comfortable in their feet and legs.        17   7 .0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS    As the triple bottom line analysis for the economic, environmental, and social aspects of these heaters show, the Cozy Legs (150W) model can greatly reduce the energy consumption and demand by 90%. This radiant panel heater is both an economical and environmentally feasible choice for UBC, at a value of $67.66 per unit with a payback period of 1.55 years. It also saves UBC up to a total of $43,660.00 on electricity costs and 840000kWh of energy from 1000 units per year. The social analysis indicates that the major interests of UBC staff when choosing heaters are: quality, comfort, low noise, safety and temperature control. The Cozy Legs (150W) provides little to no noise, it has good quality and it is also very safe, due to its effective heat and electrical insulation, non flammable or combustible. Although there is no temperature control, the product has a built- LQ WKHUPRVWDW WR PRQLWRU LWV WHPSHUDWXUH DFFRUGLQJ WR &RPSDQ\¶Vwebsite. Moreover, the Cozy Legs (150W) only provides comfort to the feet and legs, not for the entire room.  Additionally, UBC staff also rated their interest in using a radiant panel heater at 2.17 out of 4 from the survey, and testing feedback indicated that 2 out of 3 testers would not choose this model, while one tester will. This is due to a large number of UBC staff currently work in big offices where their need for space heaters is to heat the entire room instead of just their body. The Cozy Legs heaters and most radiant panels are unfortunately not designed to do that due to their low power output.  The final recommendation for UBC is to offer the Cozy Legs (150W) heater only to those people who require a little warmth to be comfortable. UBC can also consider extending its payback period limitation to over 5 years and test the Dayton (650W) model. This model can offer UBC a 56% energy saving, but the payback period of 6.6 years is the only thing holding this product back from being considered as a serious candidate. Another recommendation for UBC is to take into consideration other types of heaters, such as the convection heaters, which are designed to output more power.      18   REFERENCES   [1] Atlantic Comfort (2013) Electric Heaters Advanced. Retrieved from:  http://www.atlantic-comfort.com/our-products/electric-heaters/electric-heaters-advanced  [2] Ali, A. H., & Morsy, M. G. (2010) Energy efficiency and indoor thermal perception: a comparative study between radiant panel and portable convective heaters. Energy Efficiency, 3(4), 283-301. Retrieved from : http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/755540567  [3] Watson, R.D. (1992) Advantages of Radiant Heat. Retrieved from http://www.radiantec.com/why/technical-explanation.php  [4]  Global Industrial. (2013) Indus-Tool Cozy Legs Radiant Heating Panel. Retrieved from http://www.globalindustrial.ca/p/hvac/heaters/personal/radiant-heating-panel-with-stand-100w- at-120v?utm_source=ShopBot&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Personal-google_pr&infoParam.campaignId=T92  [5] Home Depot. (2013) Cozy Products | Cozy Legs Flat Panel Heater . Retrieved from http://www.homedepot.ca/product/cozy-legs-flat-panel-heater/839162  [6] Acklands Grainger. (2013) Electric Flat Panel Radiant Heater. Retrieved from: http://www.grainger.com/Grainger/QMARK-Electric-Flat-Panel-Heater-1DKW3  [7]  Acklands Grainger. (2013) DAYTON Heater Radiant Flat Panel. Retrieved from: https://www.acklandsgrainger.com/AGIPortalWeb/WebSource/ProductDisplay/globalProductDetailDisplay.do?item_code=GGE1VNY1  [8] Richer,L., Zaremba, L., et al. (2013) APSC 261/262 Sustainability Project - September 2013: Project Options . UBC APSC 261 Course Material. Retrieved from http://connect.ubc.ca  [9] U.S. Department of Energy. (2001) Direct Source to Object Radiant Heating Panels. Retrieved from http://ww w.heatinggreen.com/docs/sshc.pdf  [10] Cozy Products. (2013) Heating Cost Calculator. Retrieved from http://www.cozyproducts.com/heating-cost-calculator-pages-251.php  [11] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2011) Greenhouse Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/OTAQ/climate/documents/420f11041.pdf  [12] Cozy Products (2013) Cozy Legs - Flat Panel Radiant Heater. Retrieved from http://www.cozyproducts.com/cozy-legs-products-27.php? page_id=57  19  [13] Cozy Products. (2013)  Space Heater Safety. Retrieved from http://www.cozyproducts.com/space-heater-safety-pages-231.php   [14] Nicol, F., Humphreys, M. & Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive Thermal Comfort: Principles and Practice. Winnepeg MB: Routledge. Retrieved from http://www.ubc.eblib.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=956913                      

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