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An investigation into installing waterless urinals at Koerner’s Pub Garsuta, Red (Kyle); Too, Jason; Seth, Sidharth; Ruan, Daniel Nov 27, 2014

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report         An Investigation into Installing Waterless Urinals at Koerner’s Pub    Red (Kyle) Garsuta Jason Too Sidharth Seth Daniel Ruan   University of British Columbia APSC 261: Technology and Society I, Section 101 November 27, 2014         Disclaimer: UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report.   	  	  EXECUTIVE	  SUMMARY	  	  In	  alignment	  with	  UBC’s	  Sustainability	  goals,	  Koerner’s	  Pub	  is	  determined	  to	  lower	  its	  water	  consumption	  through	  practices,	  policies,	  or	  implementation	  of	  technology.	  Restrooms	  account	  for	  a	  significant	  portion	  of	  a	  restaurant’s	  total	  water	  consumption,	  mainly	  due	  to	  the	  vast	  amount	  of	  water	  flushed	  in	  the	  urinals.	  This	  report	  investigates	  into	  the	  possibility	  of	  installing	  waterless	  urinals	  at	  the	  Pub	  in	  order	  to	  eliminate	  water	  usage	  due	  to	  flushing.	  Using	  the	  Triple	  Bottom	  Line	  assessment,	  three	  different	  options	  are	  considered:	  keeping	  the	  existing	  urinals,	  installing	  new	  waterless	  urinals	  and	  retro-­‐fitting	  the	  existing	  urinals	  into	  waterless	  urinals.	  	  The	  investigation	  focuses	  on	  solutions	  that	  do	  not	  necessitate	  a	  large	  capital	  investment.	  After	  evaluating	  each	  of	  the	  three	  urinal	  options	  based	  on	  the	  triple	  bottom	  line	  indicators,	  it	  is	  found	  that	  keeping	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals	  is	  the	  most	  economically	  feasible	  option	  due	  to	  high	  costs	  attached	  to	  the	  waterless	  urinals.	  Waterless	  urinals	  project	  a	  positive	  impact	  on	  the	  environment	  and	  are	  socially	  acceptable	  in	  places	  that	  do	  not	  have	  high	  user	  loads,	  such	  as	  Koerner’s	  Pub.	  Despite	  the	  mammoth	  potential	  water	  savings	  of	  approximately	  47,000	  liters	  per	  year,	  merits	  of	  waterless	  urinals	  are	  negated	  by	  the	  strong	  economic	  pushback.	  Since	  it	  would	  be	  impossible	  for	  the	  stakeholder	  to	  recover	  the	  costs	  for	  installation	  and	  maintenance	  of	  waterless	  urinals,	  it	  is	  recommended	  that	  the	  Pub	  management	  should	  just	  continue	  to	  use	  and	  maintain	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals.	  	   	  	  TABLE	  OF	  CONTENTS	  	  LIST	  OF	  ILLUSTRATIONS	  ..............................................................................................................................................	  i	  GLOSSARY	  ..................................................................................................................................................................	  ii	  LIST	  OF	  ABBREVIATIONS	  ...........................................................................................................................................	  iii	  1.0	   INTRODUCTION	  ...................................................................................................................................................	  1	  2.0	   BACKGROUND	  INFORMATION	  ............................................................................................................................	  2	  2.1	   EXISTING	  FLUSH	  URINALS	  ............................................................................................................................	  2	  2.2	   WATERLESS	  URINALS:	  NEW	  INSTALLATIONS	  ...............................................................................................	  2	  2.3	   WATERLESS	  URINALS:	  RETROFIT	  SYSTEMS	  ..................................................................................................	  4	  3.0	   TRIPLE	  BOTTOM	  LINE	  INDICATORS	  .....................................................................................................................	  5	  3.1	   ENVIRONMENTAL	  IMPACT	  INDICATORS	  ......................................................................................................	  5	  3.2	   ECONOMIC	  IMPACT	  INDICATORS	  ................................................................................................................	  6	  3.3	   SOCIAL	  IMPACT	  INDICATORS	  .......................................................................................................................	  6	  4.0	   INVESTIGATION	  ...................................................................................................................................................	  8	  4.1	   OPTION	  1:	  EXISTING	  URINALS	  ......................................................................................................................	  8	  4.1.1	   Environmental	  Impact	  ..........................................................................................................................	  8	  4.1.2	   Economic	  Impact	  ..................................................................................................................................	  8	  4.1.3	   Social	  Impact	  .........................................................................................................................................	  9	  4.2	   OPTION	  2:	  NEW	  INSTALLATION	  OF	  WATERLESS	  URINALS	  .........................................................................	  10	  4.2.1	   Environmental	  Impact	  ........................................................................................................................	  10	  4.2.2	   Economic	  Impact	  ................................................................................................................................	  11	  4.2.3	   Social	  Impact	  .......................................................................................................................................	  12	  4.3	   OPTION	  3:	  RETRO-­‐FITTING	  EXISTING	  TO	  WATERLESS	  URINALS	  .................................................................	  13	  4.3.1	   Environmental	  Impact	  ........................................................................................................................	  13	  4.3.2	   Economic	  Impact	  ................................................................................................................................	  14	  4.3.3	   Social	  Impact	  .......................................................................................................................................	  15	  4.4	   INVESTIGATION	  SUMMARY	  .......................................................................................................................	  15	  4.4.1	   Environmental	  Impact	  Summary	  ........................................................................................................	  15	  4.4.2	   Economic	  Impact	  Summary	  ................................................................................................................	  16	  4.4.3	   Social	  Impact	  Summary	  .......................................................................................................................	  16	  5.0	   CONCLUSION	  AND	  RECOMMENDATIONS	  .........................................................................................................	  17	   	  	  REFERENCES	  ............................................................................................................................................................	  18	  APPENDICES	  ............................................................................................................................................................	  20	  	   i	  	  LIST	  OF	  ILLUSTRATIONS	  	  Figure	  1:	  End	  Uses	  of	  Water	  in	  Restaurants	  (United	  States	  Environmental	  Protection	  Agency,	  2012)	  ....................	  1	  Figure	  2:	  Urine	  Flow	  in	  a	  Waterless	  Urinal	  (Davis	  ,	  2010)	  .........................................................................................	  2	  Figure	  3:	  Sloan™	  WES-­‐2000	  (Photograph	  by	  Jason	  Too)	  ...........................................................................................	  3	  Figure	  4:	  Sierra™	  Waterless	  Model	  #2102	  (Photograph	  by	  Jason	  Too)	  .....................................................................	  3	  Figure	  5:	  Aquafree	  Schematic	  Flow	  (Gentworks)	  ......................................................................................................	  4	  	  	   	   ii	  	  GLOSSARY	  	  Bactericide	   A	  substance	  that	  kills	  bacteria.	  	  Carcinogen	   An	  agent,	  a	  substance	  or	  a	  radiation,	  that	  can	  cause	  cancer.	  Cartridge	   A	  plastic	  insert	  that	  is	  placed	  in	  the	  housing	  at	  the	  bottom	  was	  a	  waterless	  urinal.	  It	  acts	  as	  a	  channel	  for	  urine	  to	  flow	  into	  the	  sewer	  while	  trapping	  the	  odor.	  Microbe	   A	  micro-­‐organism,	  specifically	  a	  bacterium	  that	  causes	  disease	  Retro-­‐fitting	   The	  practice	  of	  converting	  an	  existing	  structure	  for	  the	  purpose	  of	  improvement	  (e.g.	  retro-­‐fitting	  older	  buildings	  to	  be	  earthquake-­‐resistant)	  or	  to	  yield	  new	  functionality	  (e.g.	  converting	  water-­‐based	  urinals	  into	  water-­‐less	  urinals).	  Specific	  Density	   Ratio	  of	  density	  of	  a	  substance	  to	  the	  density	  of	  water.	  If	  a	  substance	  has	  a	  higher	  specific	  density	  than	  1,	  it	  will	  float	  on	  water	  and	  vice-­‐versa.	  	  	  	   	   iii	  	  LIST	  OF	  ABBREVIATIONS	  	  AERL	  ...................................................................................................................................................	  Aquatic	  Ecosystems	  Research	  Laboratory	  EOLM	  ............................................................................................................................................................................	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  management	  MSDS	  ......................................................................................................................................................................	  Materials	  Safety	  Data	  Sheet	  TBL	  .........................................................................................................................................................................................	  Triple	  Bottom	  Line	   1	  	  1 INTRODUCTION	  	   Koerner’s	  Pub,	  operated	  by	  HK	  Commerce,	  is	  a	  casual	  dining	  restaurant	  located	  in	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  campus	  (McDonald,	  2013).	  After	  undertaking	  several	  sustainable	  initiatives	  in	  the	  food	  sector	  and	  the	  waste	  management	  sector,	  the	  Pub	  is	  now	  looking	  to	  become	  more	  sustainable	  in	  the	  area	  of	  water	  usage.	  Restaurants	  and	  bars	  use	  plenty	  of	  water	  for	  their	  operation,	  and	  hence	  create	  an	  opportunity	  for	  water	  conservation.	  The	  stakeholder,	  Tim	  Yu,	  principal	  of	  Koerner’s	  Pub,	  encouraged	  us	  to	  focus	  on	  a	  small	  section	  of	  the	  Pub	  rather	  than	  trying	  to	  propose	  solutions	  for	  the	  entire	  Pub.	  This	  would	  allow	  the	  proposed	  solution	  to	  be	  more	  cost-­‐effective	  and	  easier	  to	  implement.	  The	  area	  that	  we	  chose	  to	  focus	  on	  was	  the	  restroom.	  As	  Figure	  1	  suggests,	  restrooms	  account	  for	  close	  to	  one-­‐third	  of	  the	  total	  water	  used	  in	  a	  typical	  restaurant.	  	  To	  cut	  down	  water	  usage	  in	  the	  patron	  restroom,	  we	  investigated	  into	  the	  option	  of	  replacing	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals	  with	  waterless	  urinals.	  The	  goal	  was	  not	  just	  to	  propose	  solutions	  that	  would	  save	  more	  water,	  but	  also	  to	  propose	  solutions	  that	  would	  be	  financially	  viable	  and	  socially	  acceptable.	  Therefore,	  we	  carried	  out	  a	  Triple	  Bottom	  Line	  assessment	  to	  determine	  whether	  the	  waterless	  urinals	  would	  outweigh	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals.	  This	  report	  compares	  three	  options:	  keeping	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals,	  installing	  new	  waterless	  urinals	  and	  converting	  existing	  urinals	  into	  waterless	  urinals.	  The	  economic,	  environmental	  and	  social	  implications	  of	  each	  option	  are	  identified.	  Based	  on	  the	  indicators	  used	  to	  assess	  the	  options	  in	  each	  of	  the	  areas,	  we	  determined	  whether	  it	  would	  be	  more	  sustainable	  to	  switch	  to	  waterless	  urinals	  or	  to	  carry	  on	  with	  the	  existing	  urinals.	  	  	   	  Figure	  1:	  End	  Uses	  of	  Water	  in	  Restaurants	  (United	  States	  Environmental	  Protection	  Agency,	  2012)	   2	  	  2 BACKGROUND	  INFORMATION	  This	  section	  briefly	  explains	  the	  functionality	  of	  waterless	  urinals	  and	  the	  various	  installation	  options	  we	  consider	  in	  this	  report.	  2.1 EXISTING	  FLUSH	  URINALS	  There	  are	  four	  urinals	  currently	  installed	  in	  place	  at	  Koerner’s	  Pub.	  These	  urinals	  are	  of	  the	  low-­‐flush	  type,	  which	  operates	  at	  flow	  rates	  as	  low	  as	  1.9	  Liters	  per	  flush	  (The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  2013).	  Each	  urinal	  has	  a	  flush	  valve	  mechanism	  in	  place,	  which	  only	  allows	  the	  flow	  of	  water	  when	  the	  user	  is	  finished.	  This	  prevents	  any	  unnecessary	  flow	  of	  water.	  Unless	  there	  are	  leaks	  observed	  in	  the	  pipes	  or	  the	  flush	  valves	  break	  down,	  maintaining	  the	  existing	  urinals	  is	  simple.	  Standard	  cleaning	  solutions	  are	  used	  to	  clean	  the	  urinal	  bowls.	  	  2.2 WATERLESS	  URINALS:	  NEW	  INSTALLATIONS	  Waterless	  urinals	  eliminate	  the	  need	  for	  water	  in	  flushing	  urine.	  Figure	  2	  shows	  the	  urine	  flow	  in	  a	  waterless	  urinal.	  	  	   	  1. The	  urine	  l	  	  	  1.	  The	  urine	  (yellow)	  flows	  into	  the	  cartridge	  through	  the	  cartridge	  openings	  2.	  The	  urine	  passes	  through	  a	  layer	  of	  liquid	  sealant	  (dark	  blue),	  is	  a	  chemical	  with	  a	  lower	  specific	  density	  than	  that	  of	  water	  and	  urine.	  3.	  The	  urine	  passes	  is	  trapped	  under	  the	  sealant	  layer.	  This	  prevents	  odor	  and	  sewer	  gases	  to	  escape	  into	  the	  restroom.	  4.	  As	  the	  urine	  is	  displaced	  by	  more	  urine,	  it	  eventually	  overflows	  into	  the	  drain	  line.	  Figure	  2:	  Urine	  Flow	  in	  a	  Waterless	  Urinal	  (Davis	  ,	  2010)	   3	  	  Cleaning	  procedure	  for	  the	  waterless	  urinals	  is	  similar	  to	  that	  for	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals.	  Some	  waterless	  urinal	  manufacturers	  may	  require	  different	  cleaning	  products	  for	  the	  bowl.	  	  Maintenance	  of	  waterless	  urinals	  is	  largely	  predicated	  on	  proper	  replacement	  of	  the	  cartridge.	  The	  replacement	  procedure	  is	  briefly	  explained	  as	  follows	  (Sloan	  Valve	  Company,	  2014):	  1. Pull	  out	  the	  old	  cartridge	  from	  the	  urinal	  using	  the	  key	  provided.	  Place	  the	  cartridge	  in	  a	  sealed	  bag	  for	  disposal	  	  2. Scrub	  the	  cartridge	  housing	  and	  flush	  it	  down	  with	  20	  liters	  of	  hot	  soapy	  water	  	   3. Place	  the	  new	  cartridge	  in	  the	  housing	  and	  fill	  it	  with	  1	  liter	  of	  clean	  water	  	   4. Add	  the	  sealant	  to	  the	  cartridge.	  Wipe	  any	  excess	  sealant	  clean.	  The	  two	  different	  brands	  of	  waterless	  urinals	  that	  we	  came	  across	  at	  the	  UBC	  campus	  were	  Sierra™	  (See	  Figure	  3)	  and	  Sloan™	  (See	  Figure	  4).	  Both	  the	  models	  work	  on	  the	  same	  principle	  described	  above.	  They	  fit	  on	  to	  the	  standard	  drain	  line.	  The	  Sloan™	  urinals	  are	  installed	  in	  the	  Aquatic	  Ecosystem	  Research	  Laboratory	  (AERL)	  and	  the	  Sierra™	  urinals	  are	  installed	  in	  the	  Fred	  Kaiser	  building.	  In	  general,	  the	  Fred	  Kaiser	  building	  has	  more	  urinals	  users	  than	  the	  AERL	  due	  to	  a	  much	  higher	  traffic.	  	  	  	  	  Figure	  3:	  Sloan™	  WES-­‐2000	  (Photograph	  by	  Jason	  Too)	  Figure	  4:	  Sierra™	  Waterless	  Model	  #2102	  (Photograph	  by	  Jason	  Too)	   4	  	  2.3 WATERLESS	  URINALS:	  RETROFIT	  SYSTEMS	  Retro-­‐fitting	  implies	  converting	  the	  existing	  urinals	  into	  waterless	  urinals	  with	  the	  use	  of	  retro-­‐fit	  kits	  which	  can	  be	  purchased	  from	  various	  manufacturers.	  Retro-­‐fit	  waterless	  urinal	  systems	  have	  been	  available	  for	  the	  past	  10	  years	  and	  can	  be	  fitted	  on	  most	  standard	  urinals	  (Gentworks,	  2014).	  The	  retro-­‐fitting	  process	  would	  involve	  capping	  the	  water	  supply	  from	  the	  current	  pub	  urinals,	  then	  installing	  the	  retro-­‐fit	  kit	  provided	  by	  the	  manufacturer.	  Figure	  5	  shows	  a	  schematic	  of	  the	  retro-­‐fit	  option	  we	  chose,	  which	  is	  manufactured	  by	  Gentworks.	  The	  replaceable	  cartridge	  (dark	  green)	  dispenses	  harmless	  microbial	  spores	  on	  contact	  with	  urine	  (yellow	  liquid).	  The	  micro-­‐organisms	  break	  down	  the	  urine	  content	  and	  multiply,	  further	  accelerating	  the	  urine	  consumption	  (Gentworks,	  2014).	  Note	  that	  this	  process	  is	  not	  specific	  to	  just	  the	  retro-­‐fit	  systems	  and	  is	  also	  used	  in	  purpose-­‐built	  urinals.	  	   	  	  	   	   Figure	  5:	  Aquafree	  Schematic	  Flow	  (Gentworks)	   5	  	  3 TRIPLE	  BOTTOM	  LINE	  INDICATORS	  The	  Triple	  Bottom	  Line	  (TBL),	  a	  concept	  developed	  by	  John	  Elkington,	  is	  a	  tool	  put	  to	  use	  by	  businesses,	  nonprofits	  and	  governments	  to	  gauge	  sustainability.	  The	  three	  dimensions	  to	  the	  TBL	  assessment	  are	  people,	  planet	  and	  profit	  as	  it	  measures	  how	  an	  undertaking	  impacts	  the	  society,	  the	  environment	  and	  the	  economy	  (Slaper	  &	  Hall,	  2011).	  	  TBL	  allows	  for	  a	  comprehensive	  analysis	  of	  each	  element	  affecting	  sustainability.	  We	  can	  measure	  the	  economic	  impact	  based	  on	  monetary	  profits	  and	  losses.	  To	  measure	  the	  social	  impact,	  we	  gauge	  how	  the	  technology	  affects	  the	  people	  who	  interact	  with	  it.	  The	  environmental	  impact	  can	  be	  measured	  by	  how	  the	  technology	  affects	  quality	  and	  quantity	  of	  natural	  resources.	  Following	  are	  the	  indicators	  used	  to	  gauge	  the	  impact	  of	  each	  urinal	  option	  on	  the	  environment,	  the	  economy,	  and	  the	  society.	  	   3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL	  IMPACT	  INDICATORS	  To	  streamline	  our	  environmental	  impact	  analysis,	  we	  introduce	  3	  primary	  indicators	  namely:	  Water	  Savings,	  Cleaning	  By-­‐products,	  and	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  management.	  We	  analyze	  each	  product’s	  performance	  based	  on	  these	  indicators	  as	  described	  below.	  	  Water	  Savings	  This	  indicator	  refers	  to	  the	  amount	  of	  water	  saved	  (in	  liters)	  as	  a	  result	  of	  implementing	  each	  of	  the	  options.	  	  Cleaning	  By-­‐products	  This	  indicator	  refers	  to	  any	  byproducts	  resulting	  from	  the	  use	  of	  and	  cleaning	  of	  the	  product.	  Focus	  is	  devoted	  to	  any	  side	  effects,	  which	  may	  result	  from	  the	  use	  of	  required	  cleaning	  products	  as	  specified	  by	  the	  manufacturers.	  It	  is	  important	  to	  note	  that	  manufacturers	  often	  require	  a	  specific	  cleaner	  due	  to	  compatibility	  requirements	  with	  specific	  technologies	  that	  each	  urinal	  uses.	  We	  examine	  the	  environmental	  impact	  of	  these	  cleaners.	  	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  Management	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  management	  (EOLM)	  refers	  to	  the	  management	  of	  each	  product	  post-­‐use.	  This	  indicator	  can	  be	  separated	  into	  short-­‐term	  and	  long-­‐term	  EOLM.	  For	  short-­‐term	  considerations,	  we	  focus	  on	  the	  fact	  that	  waterless	  urinals	  use	  cartridges	  that	  require	  replacement.	  We	  examine	  how	  each	  urinal	  cartridge	  fits	  within	  a	  sustainable	  waste-­‐management	  strategy	  such	  as	  recycling,	  reusing,	  or	  composting.	  Long-­‐term,	  all	  the	  urinals	  discussed	  in	  this	  report	  are	  made	  of	  non-­‐recyclable	  porcelain	  and	  therefore	  have	  similar	  waste	  components	  that	  end	  up	  in	  the	  landfill.	  	   6	  	  3.2 ECONOMIC	  IMPACT	  INDICATORS	  To	  streamline	  our	  economic	  impact	  analysis,	  we	  introduce	  3	  primary	  indicators	  namely:	  Upfront	  cost,	  Maintenance	  cost,	  and	  Payback	  period.	  We	  analyze	  each	  product’s	  performance	  based	  on	  these	  indicators	  as	  described	  below.	  	   Upfront	  Costs	  These	  are	  the	  costs	  at	  the	  onset	  of	  the	  implementation	  of	  each	  of	  the	  three	  urinal	  options.	  These	  include	  the	  cost	  of	  the	  installation	  and	  the	  cost	  of	  modifying	  the	  existing	  infrastructure	  prior	  to	  installation,	  if	  applicable.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  Maintenance	  Costs	  These	  are	  the	  annual	  costs	  needed	  to	  maintain	  each	  of	  the	  urinals.	  The	  maintenance	  costs	  would	  depend	  on	  the	  frequency	  of	  material	  usage	  and	  component	  replacement.	  It	  also	  includes	  the	  cost	  of	  calling	  out	  a	  plumber	  or	  another	  skilled	  worker,	  if	  applicable.	  	  	  Payback	  period	  We	  make	  use	  of	  net	  annual	  savings/losses	  to	  determine	  the	  time	  (in	  years)	  that	  it	  would	  take	  to	  recover	  the	  upfront	  cost	  in	  case	  of	  each	  urinal	  option.	  We	  also	  acknowledge	  if	  the	  payback	  period	  is	  not	  applicable	  or	  is	  impossible	  to	  determine.	  	  	  3.3 SOCIAL	  IMPACT	  INDICATORS	  To	  streamline	  our	  social	  analysis,	  we	  introduce	  3	  primary	  indicators	  namely:	  Public	  acceptance,	  Custodial	  Acceptance,	  Health	  and	  Hygiene.	  We	  analyze	  each	  product’s	  performance	  based	  on	  these	  indicators	  as	  described	  below.	  	  Public	  Acceptance	  To	  determine	  the	  user	  acceptance	  of	  any	  possible	  implementations	  of	  waterless	  urinals,	  we	  first	  find	  how	  users	  feel	  about	  existing	  and	  waterless	  urinals.	  We	  investigate	  the	  number	  of	  people	  using	  the	  washroom	  daily	  and	  their	  washroom	  experiences.	  This	  includes	  odor	  control	  as	  it	  plays	  a	  significant	  role	  in	  public	  acceptance.	  	  Custodial	  Acceptance	  In	  alignment	  with	  public	  acceptance,	  any	  implementations	  of	  new	  urinals	  will	  greatly	  affect	  personnel	  in	  charge	  of	  maintaining	  the	  washrooms.	  To	  determine	  custodial	  approval,	  we	  look	  at	  overall	  custodial	  staff	  opinions	  and	  experiences	  on	  maintaining	  the	  urinals.	   7	  	  	  Health	  and	  Hygiene	  Diseases	  and	  viruses	  has	  long	  been	  a	  significant	  medical	  issue	  in	  human	  society.	  These	  diseases	  are	  carried	  in	  the	  form	  of	  bacteria	  and	  germs.	  Most	  importantly,	  these	  diseases	  have	  the	  ability	  to	  spread	  through	  physical	  contact.	  One	  of	  the	  major	  forms	  of	  physical	  contact	  lies	  in	  the	  washroom	  setting.	  In	  conjunction	  with	  the	  use	  of	  urinals,	  we	  focus	  on	  the	  exposure	  of	  microbes	  in	  the	  washroom	  setting.	   	   8	  	  4 INVESTIGATION	  This	  section	  investigates	  the	  options	  for	  implementing	  water-­‐less	  urinal	  systems.	  We	  first	  examine	  the	  existing	  water-­‐based	  urinal	  installation	  in	  Section	  4.1,	  then	  compare	  its	  performance	  in	  comparison	  to	  a	  new	  installation	  in	  Section	  4.2	  and	  a	  retro-­‐fit	  installation	  in	  Section	  4.3.	  Section	  4.4	  concludes	  with	  a	  summary	  of	  our	  findings.	  	   4.1 OPTION	  1:	  EXISTING	  URINALS	  We	  investigate	  the	  existing	  water-­‐based	  urinals	  in	  order	  to	  gauge	  the	  performance	  in	  comparison	  to	  the	  waterless	  urinal	  options.	  The	  next	  section	  provides	  some	  background	  about	  the	  current	  installations.	  The	  following	  sections	  examine	  the	  environmental,	  economic,	  and	  social	  impacts	  of	  the	  current	  urinals.	  	   4.1.1 Environmental	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  environmental	  impacts	  of	  the	  existing	  urinals	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.1.	  Water	  savings	  The	  four	  urinals	  at	  Koerner’s	  Pub	  use	  approximately	  47,424	  Liters	  annually	  (See	  Appendix	  A).	  This	  amount	  of	  water	  could	  potentially	  be	  saved	  if	  the	  existing	  urinals	  are	  replaced	  with	  waterless	  systems.	  	  Cleaning	  by-­‐products	  The	  existing	  urinals	  flush	  urine	  using	  water	  and	  do	  not	  require	  any	  special	  chemicals	  to	  operate.	  The	  urinals	  require	  cleaning,	  however,	  no	  specific	  products	  are	  required;	  natural	  cleaning	  products	  are	  available	  in	  the	  market.	  We	  make	  the	  assumption	  that	  sustainable	  cleaning	  products	  are	  used	  as	  per	  UBC’s	  sustainability	  policy	  (The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  n.d.).	  Therefore,	  the	  existing	  urinals	  do	  not	  produce	  any	  harmful	  by-­‐products.	  	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  management	  The	  existing	  urinals	  do	  not	  require	  cartridges	  and	  produce	  no	  short-­‐term	  waste.	  Long-­‐term,	  the	  porcelain	  material	  would	  end	  up	  in	  the	  landfill.	  	  4.1.2 Economic	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  economic	  impacts	  of	  the	  existing	  urinals	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.2.	  	   9	  	  Upfront	  Costs	  The	  existing	  urinals	  in	  the	  patron	  washroom	  will	  require	  no	  upfront	  investment	  as	  it	  pertains	  to	  upgrades	  in	  fixtures.	  	  Maintenance	  Costs	  Although	  there	  are	  no	  upfront	  costs	  associated	  with	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals,	  there	  are	  costs	  attached	  to	  the	  maintenance	  of	  these	  urinals.	  The	  stakeholder	  indicated	  that	  plumbers	  were	  called	  twice	  in	  the	  last	  one	  year.	  Since	  we	  do	  not	  have	  the	  information	  on	  what	  the	  plumbers	  were	  specifically	  called	  for,	  we	  assume	  that	  they	  were	  in	  service	  for	  two	  hours	  per	  visit.	  The	  minimum	  wage	  rate	  for	  plumbers	  in	  British	  Columbia	  in	  $29.30	  (Government	  of	  Canada,	  2013).	  Therefore,	  we	  estimate	  the	  annual	  maintenance	  cost	  of	  the	  existing	  urinals	  as	  $117.20.	  	  	  Payback	  period	  With	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals,	  the	  total	  cost	  of	  water	  annually	  is	  $29.64	  (See	  Appendix	  A).	  Adding	  this	  to	  the	  maintenance	  costs	  makes	  the	  total	  expenditure	  to	  be	  $146.84	  per	  year.	  Since	  the	  upfront	  cost	  was	  $0,	  having	  a	  payback	  period	  is	  not	  applicable	  in	  this	  case.	  	  	  4.1.3 Social	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  social	  impacts	  of	  the	  existing	  urinals	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.3.	  	   Public	  Acceptance	  Flush	  urinals	  have	  become	  the	  standard	  toilet	  fixtures	  for	  urination	  for	  many	  years.	  Unless	  there	  is	  a	  lack	  of	  maintenance	  or	  a	  breakdown	  in	  the	  plumbing	  system,	  which	  may	  cause	  problems	  with	  odor	  control,	  these	  fixtures	  have	  become	  widely	  accepted	  among	  the	  general	  public.	  This	  translates	  to	  the	  general	  public	  acceptance	  of	  the	  existing	  urinals	  at	  Koerner’s	  Pub.	  Furthermore,	  from	  personal	  experience	  being	  at	  Koerner’s	  Pub,	  the	  urinals	  have	  been	  regularly	  maintained	  with	  no	  issues	  in	  regards	  to	  odor.	  	  Custodial	  Acceptance	  In	  order	  to	  maintain	  these	  urinals,	  the	  custodial	  staff	  may	  be	  required	  to	  use	  the	  appropriate	  cleaning	  solutions.	  This	  presents	  the	  issue	  of	  staff	  having	  to	  deal	  with	  heavy	  odors	  especially	  in	  the	  cases	  of	  urine	  buildup	  directly	  beneath	  the	  urinal.	  As	  the	  existing	  urinals	  use	  a	  flushing	  system	  to	  carry	  urine	  into	  the	  wastewater	  systems,	  they	  are	  susceptible	  to	  clogging.	  (Bristow	   10	  	  et	  al.,	  2006).	  However,	  most	  custodians	  do	  not	  have	  the	  proper	  tools	  and	  training	  to	  repair	  the	  plumbing	  fixtures.	  	  	  Health	  and	  Hygiene	  According	  to	  a	  national	  hand	  washing	  survey	  by	  Bradley	  Corp.,	  a	  leading	  industry	  manufacturer	  of	  commercial	  plumbing	  fixtures	  and	  washroom	  accessories,	  70%	  of	  public	  washroom	  users	  admit	  to	  just	  rinsing	  their	  hands	  instead	  of	  thoroughly	  washing	  with	  soap	  and	  water.	  Furthermore,	  only	  60%	  of	  males	  say	  they	  always	  wash	  their	  hands	  prior	  to	  leaving	  the	  restroom	  (Safety	  Matter,	  2006).	  Also,	  due	  to	  the	  flushing	  action	  and	  damp	  fixture	  surfaces	  in	  flush	  urinals,	  bacteria	  is	  more	  prone	  to	  going	  airborne.	  This	  raises	  a	  major	  issue	  with	  the	  spread	  and	  exposure	  of	  disease-­‐causing	  bacteria	  when	  users	  operate	  the	  manual	  flush	  fixtures	  currently	  in	  place.	  	  4.2 OPTION	  2:	  NEW	  INSTALLATION	  OF	  WATERLESS	  URINALS	  We	  investigate	  the	  prospect	  of	  replacing	  the	  existing	  water-­‐based	  urinals	  with	  waterless	  urinals.	  The	  next	  section	  provides	  some	  background	  about	  new	  installations.	  The	  following	  sections	  examine	  the	  environmental,	  economic,	  and	  social	  impacts	  of	  this	  option.	  	   4.2.1 Environmental	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  environmental	  impacts	  of	  new	  installations	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.1.	  Water	  savings	  The	  use	  of	  waterless	  urinals	  would	  effectively	  eliminate	  the	  use	  of	  water	  for	  flushing	  urine;	  this	  would	  amount	  to	  saving	  approximately	  47,424	  Liters	  (L)	  per	  year	  (See	  Appendix	  A).	  	  Cleaning	  by-­‐products.	  The	  manufacturer	  does	  not	  require	  as	  specific	  cleaner	  to	  maintain	  the	  waterless	  urinals	  (Sloan	  Valve	  Company,	  2009).	  Among	  these	  recommendations	  are	  environmentally	  friendly	  cleaners	  such	  as	  the	  “Rochester	  Midland	  Corp/Enviro	  Care”	  cleaner	  which	  is	  Green	  Seal1	  certified.	  As	  such,	  this	  option	  results	  in	  no	  harmful	  cleaning	  by-­‐products.	  	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  management.	  With	  some	  calculation,	  we	  determined	  that	  each	  cartridge	  would	  last	  approximately	  a	  year	  given	  the	  pub’s	  current	  usage	  (See	  Appendix	  A	  for	  calculations).	  The	  cartridges	  are	  non-­‐	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  1	  Green	  Seal	  is	  a	  non-­‐profit	  organization	  that	  certifies	  products	  based	  on	  environmental	  requirements.	  	   11	  	  biodegradable	  but	  can	  be	  recycled	  to	  reduce	  harmful	  environmental	  effects	  (Sloan	  Valve	  Company,	  2014).	  	  4.2.2 Economic	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  economic	  impacts	  of	  new	  installations	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.2.	  	  Upfront	  Costs	  We	  examine	  two	  models	  of	  waterless	  urinals.	  The	  Sloan™	  WES-­‐2000	  Waterfree	  Urinal	  costs	  $456.20	  (Sloan	  Valve	  Company,	  2009).	  The	  Sierra™	  Waterless	  Model	  #2102	  Waterless	  Urinal	  costs	  $350.00	  (WaterlessExperts.com,	  n.d.).	  Assuming	  it	  takes	  about	  30	  minutes	  to	  replace	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinal	  with	  the	  waterless	  urinal,	  the	  installation	  cost	  for	  four	  waterless	  urinals	  comes	  out	  to	  be	  $58.60.	  Therefore,	  the	  cost	  of	  installing	  4	  Sloan™	  urinals	  would	  total	  $1883.80,	  while	  installing	  4	  Sierra™	  urinals	  would	  cost	  $1458.60.	  	  Maintenance	  Costs	  Typically,	  a	  urinal	  cartridge	  has	  to	  be	  replaced	  every	  7000	  flushes	  (Bristow,	  McClure,	  &	  Fisher,	  2006).	  The	  estimated	  number	  of	  flushes	  per	  urinal	  per	  year	  =	  6240	  (See	  Appendix	  A).	  Therefore,	  the	  cartridge	  for	  each	  urinal	  at	  Koerner’s	  Pub	  can	  be	  replaced	  once	  a	  year.	  The	  Sloan™	  Universal	  Waterfree	  Urinal	  Cartridge	  costs	  $61.90	  (Sloan	  Valve	  Company,	  2009).	  The	  Waterless	  Co.	  Eco-­‐Trap®	  No-­‐Flush™	  Urinal	  Cartridge	  costs	  $7.75	  (WaterlessExperts.com,	  n.d.).	  	  Payback	  period	  We	  calculated	  the	  cost	  of	  water	  saved	  annually	  to	  be	  $29.64	  (See	  Appendix	  A).	  Give	  the	  data	  from	  Appendix	  A,	  we	  can	  derive	  the	  following	  costs:	  	   The	  cost	  of	  4	  Sierra™	  cartridges	  ($7.75	  ×	  4)	  =	  $31.00	  Net	  annual	  savings/loss	  =	  -­‐$1.36	  Cost	  of	  4	  Sloan™	  cartridges	  =	  $61.90	  ×	  4	  =	  $247.60	  	  	  	  Net	  annual	  savings/loss	  =	  -­‐$217.96	  	   12	  	  Therefore,	  with	  the	  Sierra™	  cartridge,	  the	  water	  cost	  savings	  almost	  offset	  the	  cartridge	  costs.	  Whereas,	  with	  the	  Sloan™	  cartridge,	  there	  will	  be	  a	  perpetual	  monetary	  loss.	  	  Regardless,	  with	  the	  current	  water	  rates	  and	  maintenance	  costs,	  the	  payback	  period	  cannot	  be	  determined	  for	  either	  of	  the	  two	  waterless	  urinals	  that	  cost	  $1883.80	  and	  $1458.60	  respectively.	  	  4.2.3 Social	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  social	  impacts	  of	  new	  installations	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.3.	  	   Public	  Acceptance	  Relative	  to	  the	  possible	  public	  acceptance	  in	  Koerner’s	  Pub,	  a	  survey	  was	  conducted	  by	  the	  Seattle	  Public	  Utilities	  Department	  in	  2003.	  Respondents	  from	  22	  facilities	  were	  asked	  to	  rate	  their	  washroom	  experience	  with	  no-­‐flush	  urinals	  implementations	  on	  a	  scale	  from	  1	  (unacceptable)	  to	  5	  (excellent)	  (Bristow,	  McClure,	  &	  Fisher,	  2006).	  	   Area	   Mean	  Overall	  experience	   3.5	  Plumbing	  maintenance	  (vs.	  flush-­‐type)	   3.5	  Custodial	  care	  requirements	  (vs.	  flush	  type)	   3.1	  User	  acceptance	   4.2	  	  Table	  1:	  Survey	  Results	  by	  Seattle	  Public	  Utilities	  Department	  (Bristow,	  McClure,	  &	  Fisher,	  2006).	  	  In	  accordance	  with	  the	  results	  of	  the	  survey,	  it	  was	  found	  that	  respondents	  rated	  the	  overall	  experience	  an	  average	  of	  3.5	  and	  the	  user	  acceptance	  an	  average	  of	  4.2.	  	  With	  regards	  to	  odor	  control,	  the	  sealant	  liquid	  acts	  as	  a	  trap,	  which	  prevents	  most	  of	  the	  odor	  from	  climbing	  upward	  and	  entering	  the	  washroom	  space.	  	  	  Custodial	  Acceptance	  To	  obtain	  further	  knowledge	  on	  the	  satisfaction	  and	  acceptance	  of	  waterless	  urinals,	  we	  interviewed	  UBC	  utilities	  staff,	  Sukhwinder	  Sekhon	  and	  Inderpal	  Toor,	  with	  first-­‐hand	  experience	  in	  maintaining	  the	  SierraTM	  waterless	  urinals	  placed	  in	  Fred	  Kaiser	  Building	  and	  in	  SloanTM	  waterless	  urinals	  placed	  in	  AERL.	  Prior	  to	  interviewing	  them	  we	  composed	  a	  few	  questions	  listed	  below:	  	  	   13	  	  Interview	  Questions	  1. Describe	  your	  overall	  experience	  with	  maintaining	  the	  waterless	  urinals.	  2. Are	  there	  any	  changes	  in	  the	  maintenance	  process?	  3. What	  is	  the	  frequency	  of	  repairing	  the	  waterless	  urinal	  and	  changing	  the	  cartridge?	  4. Would	  you	  recommend	  waterless	  urinals	  being	  implemented	  in	  other	  facilities?	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   	  We	  found	  that	  maintenance	  processes	  are	  kept	  relatively	  the	  same	  when	  transitioning	  from	  conventional	  to	  waterless	  urinals	  with	  the	  exception	  of	  cartridge	  replacement.	  However,	  when	  maintaining	  the	  waterless	  urinal	  in	  the	  Fred	  Kaiser	  Building,	  which	  contains	  a	  cheaper	  urinal,	  it	  often	  experienced	  urine	  buildup	  in	  the	  piping	  just	  beneath	  the	  cartridge.	  This	  resulted	  in	  heavy	  odor	  while	  replacement.	  Plumbers	  often	  called	  in	  to	  repair	  the	  drain	  pipes	  and	  other	  fixtures.	  Furthermore,	  as	  there	  is	  only	  one	  urinal	  installed	  on	  each	  floor,	  many	  users	  have	  been	  upset	  and	  dissatisfied	  when	  they	  would	  find	  that	  the	  urinal	  is	  out	  of	  order.	  On	  the	  other	  hand,	  in	  low	  user	  settings	  such	  as	  AERL,	  the	  need	  for	  repairs	  and	  cartridge	  replacement	  is	  much	  less	  frequent.	  Sukhwinder	  noted	  that	  the	  last	  time	  he	  changed	  the	  cartridge	  on	  the	  fourth	  floor	  men’s	  restroom	  was	  about	  8	  to	  9	  months	  ago	  (Sekhon	  &	  Toor,	  2014).	  To	  conclude,	  custodial	  staff	  recommended	  the	  installation	  of	  waterless	  urinals	  only	  in	  areas	  with	  a	  low	  user	  loads.	  	  Health	  and	  Hygiene	  Bacteria	  and	  viruses	  depend	  on	  the	  presence	  of	  a	  moist	  environment	  in	  order	  to	  flourish.	  In	  conventional	  flush	  urinals,	  water	  is	  the	  standard	  method	  of	  flushing	  urine.	  This	  frequent	  source	  of	  water	  flow	  thus	  provides	  bacteria	  with	  the	  environment	  it	  needs	  to	  grow.	  In	  waterless	  urinals,	  however,	  due	  to	  the	  absence	  of	  constantly	  wet	  surfaces	  flushing	  mechanism,	  the	  occurrences	  of	  microbes	  growing	  and	  going	  airborne	  are	  reduced.	  Also,	  these	  urinals	  are	  touch-­‐free,	  significantly	  reduces	  the	  spread	  of	  communicable	  diseases.	  (Bristow	  et	  al.,	  2006)	  	   4.3 OPTION	  3:	  RETRO-­‐FITTING	  EXISTING	  TO	  WATERLESS	  URINALS	  We	  investigate	  the	  prospect	  of	  retro-­‐fitting	  the	  existing	  water-­‐based	  urinals	  into	  waterless	  urinals.	  The	  following	  sections	  examine	  the	  environmental,	  the	  economic,	  and	  the	  social	  impacts	  of	  this	  option.	  	   4.3.1 Environmental	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  environmental	  impacts	  of	  retro-­‐fit	  systems	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.1.	  	   14	  	  Water	  savings	  A	  retro-­‐fitted	  urinal	  would	  effectively	  eliminate	  the	  use	  of	  water	  for	  flushing	  urine;	  this	  would	  amount	  to	  saving	  approximately	  47,424	  Liters	  of	  water	  annually	  (See	  Appendix	  A).	  	  Cleaning	  by-­‐products	  The	  manufacturer	  recommends	  weekly	  cleaning	  with	  a	  bactericidal	  cleaner	  (Gentworks,	  2014).	  The	  required	  bactericidal	  cleaner	  contains	  Tri-­‐sodium	  nitrolotriactate	  and	  other	  hazardous	  ingredients	  (Gentworks,	  2012).	  Tri-­‐sodium	  nitrilotriacetate	  is	  a	  corrosive	  substance	  that	  can	  cause	  skin	  burns	  and	  is	  a	  possible	  carcinogen	  (Brown,	  2014).	  The	  Materials	  Safety	  Data	  Sheet	  (MSDS)	  specifies	  that	  the	  cleaner	  should	  not	  be	  discharged	  to	  drains	  or	  rivers,	  as	  the	  product	  is	  toxic	  to	  aquatic	  organisms	  (Gentworks,	  2012).	  	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  management	  The	  manufacturer	  recommends	  cartridge	  replacement	  every	  3	  months.	  Fully	  biodegradable	  cartridges	  are	  available	  for	  this	  technology.	  Therefore,	  any	  harmful	  short-­‐term	  impact	  on	  the	  environment	  resulting	  from	  cartridge	  disposal	  minimizes	  (Gentworks,	  n.d.).	  In	  long	  term,	  the	  retrofitted	  urinals	  would	  produce	  landfill	  waste	  as	  they	  are	  made	  of	  non-­‐recyclable	  porcelain.	  	  4.3.2 Economic	  Impact	  We	  discuss	  the	  economic	  impacts	  of	  retro-­‐fit	  systems	  based	  on	  the	  indicators	  described	  in	  Section	  3.2.	  	  Upfront	  Costs	  Cost	  of	  Gentworks	  Aquafree	  Installation	  Pack	  =	  22GBP	  =	  $39.02	  (Gentworks,	  n.d.).	  Assuming	  it	  takes	  about	  30	  minutes	  to	  retrofit	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinal	  and	  turn	  it	  into	  a	  waterless	  urinal,	  the	  installation	  cost	  for	  four	  retro-­‐fits	  comes	  out	  to	  be	  $58.60.	  Therefore,	  the	  cost	  for	  installing	  four	  Gentworks	  retro-­‐fit	  systems	  would	  be	  $214.68.	  	  Maintenance	  Costs	  Cost	  of	  Gentworks	  Aquafree	  Replacement	  Cartridge	  =	  20GBP	  =	  $35.47	  (Gentworks,	  n.d.).	  Since	  the	  cartridge	  is	  required	  to	  be	  replaced	  every	  3	  months,	  the	  annual	  cost	  of	  cartridge	  replacement	  would	  be	  $141.88	  ($35.47	  ×	  4).	  Cost	  of	  Gentworks	  Bactericidal	  cleaner	  (5L	  container)	  =	  20GBP	  =	  $35.47	  (Gentworks,	  n.d.).	  Since	  the	  cartridge	  has	  to	  be	  cleaned	  with	  100	  mL	  of	  Bactericidal	  cleaner	  once	  every	  week,	  4	  of	  such	  containers	  will	  last	  for	  roughly	  one	   15	  	  year.	  The	  annual	  cost	  of	  Bactericidal	  cleaner	  would	  equal	  $141.88	  ($35.47	  ×	  4).	  Therefore,	  the	  total	  cost	  of	  maintenance	  of	  the	  retrofitted	  waterless	  urinals	  sums	  to	  $283.76.	  	  Payback	  period	  We	  calculated	  the	  cost	  of	  water	  saved	  annually	  to	  be	  approximately	  $29.64	  (See	  Appendix	  A).	  As	  previously	  discussed,	  the	  cost	  of	  maintenance	  of	  retrofitted	  waterless	  urinals	  =	  $283.76	  with	  a	  net	  annual	  savings/loss	  of	  -­‐$254.12.	  Just	  like	  in	  the	  case	  of	  new	  waterless	  urinals,	  there	  will	  be	  a	  perpetual	  monetary	  loss	  on	  an	  annual	  basis	  in	  case	  of	  retrofitted	  waterless	  urinals.	  Although	  the	  upfront	  cost	  for	  this	  option	  is	  only	  $214.68,	  the	  maintenance	  costs	  make	  the	  payback	  period	  impossible	  to	  determine.	  	  4.3.3 Social	  Impact	  The	  social	  impact	  of	  this	  option	  is	  similar	  to	  the	  social	  impact	  of	  new	  waterless	  urinal	  installations	  (Refer	  to	  Section	  4.2.3).	  	  4.4 INVESTIGATION	  SUMMARY	  This	  section	  summarizes	  our	  findings.	  Section	  4.4.1	  summarizes	  the	  Environmental	  Impacts.	  Section	  4.4.2	  summarizes	  the	  Economic	  Impacts.	  Finally,	  Social	  Impacts	  are	  addressed	  in	  Section	  4.4.3.	  	   4.4.1 Environmental	  Impact	  Summary	  We	  summarize	  our	  findings	  regarding	  the	  environmental	  impact	  of	  each	  option.	  We	  consider	  the	  water	  savings,	  cleaning	  by-­‐products,	  short-­‐term	  End-­‐of-­‐life	  Management	  (EOLM),	  and	  long-­‐term	  EOLM	  as	  described	  in	  Section	  3.1.	  Table	  2	  summarizes	  our	  results	  for	  each	  option.	  	  Product	   Water	  savings	   Cleaning	  by-­‐products	   Short-­‐term	  EOLM	   Long-­‐term	  EOLM	  Existing	  urinals	   None	   None	   None	   Land-­‐fill	  New	  installations	   47,424	  L/year	   None	   Recyclable	   Land-­‐fill	  Retro-­‐fit	  installations	   47,424	  L/year	   Hazardous	  chemicals	   Biodegradable	   Land-­‐fill	  	  Table	  2:	  	  Environmental	  Impacts	  Summary	  With	  the	  existing	  urinals	  as	  the	  baseline,	  we	  found	  that	  the	  environmental	  impact	  for	  new	  installations	  and	  retro-­‐fits	  are	  very	  similar.	  However,	  new	  installations	  trump	  retro-­‐fit	  installations	  when	  it	  comes	  to	  cleaning	  by-­‐products.	  The	  cleaning	  products	  required	  by	  the	  retro-­‐fit	  manufacturer	  contain	  toxic	  chemicals	  that	  bear	  questionable	  effects	  on	  the	  environment.	  As	  such,	  new	  installations	  perform	  best	  in	  this	  category.	  	   16	  	  4.4.2 Economic	  Impact	  Summary	  We	  summarize	  our	  findings	  for	  the	  economic	  impact	  of	  each	  option.	  We	  consider	  the	  upfront	  cost,	  maintenance	  cost,	  and	  payback	  period	  as	  described	  in	  Section	  3.2.	  Table	  3	  summarizes	  our	  results	  for	  each	  option.	  	  Note:	  We	  used	  the	  costs	  for	  the	  SierraTM	  waterless	  urinal	  for	  new	  installation	  option	  as	  it	  is	  the	  less	  expensive	  one	  of	  the	  two	  brands	  stated.	  Even	  though	  the	  custodial	  staff	  had	  an	  unpleasant	  experience	  with	  the	  SierraTM	  urinal,	  we	  anticipate	  that	  it	  would	  not	  be	  the	  case	  at	  Koerner’s	  Pub	  restroom	  due	  to	  much	  less	  user	  traffic	  compared	  to	  Fred	  Kaiser	  building.	  	  	  Product	   Upfront	  cost	   Maintenance	  cost	   Payback	  period	  Existing	  urinals	   $0	   $117.20/year	   Not	  Applicable	  New	  installations	   $1458.60	   $7.75/year	   Cannot	  be	  determined	  Retro-­‐fit	  installations	   $214.68	   $283.76/year	   Cannot	  be	  determined	  	  Table	  3:	  	  Economic	  Impact	  Summary	  For	  both	  the	  waterless	  urinal	  options,	  it	  turns	  out	  the	  payback	  period	  cannot	  be	  determined	  because	  the	  maintenance	  costs	  are	  much	  higher	  than	  the	  annual	  savings.	  Even	  though	  the	  existing	  urinals	  have	  maintenance	  costs	  associated	  with	  them,	  the	  stakeholder	  would	  not	  have	  to	  worry	  about	  recovering	  any	  initial	  investment.	  Therefore,	  keeping	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals	  is	  the	  best	  option	  economically.	  	  	   4.4.3 Social	  Impact	  Summary	  We	  summarize	  our	  findings	  regarding	  the	  social	  impact	  of	  each	  urinal	  option.	  We	  consider	  public	  acceptance,	  custodial	  acceptance,	  and	  health	  and	  hygiene	  associated	  with	  each	  option.	  	  The	  existing	  urinals	  have	  become	  widely	  accepted	  by	  the	  public	  and	  the	  custodians.	  Depending	  on	  the	  maintenance	  and	  cleaning	  schedules,	  the	  abundance	  of	  germs	  and	  other	  microbes	  in	  the	  restrooms	  can	  vary.	  For	  new	  and	  retro-­‐fit	  waterless	  installations,	  it	  was	  found	  that	  in	  areas	  of	  high	  traffic,	  public	  and	  custodial	  acceptance	  were	  greatly	  compromised.	  However,	  in	  areas	  of	  low	  traffic,	  such	  as	  Koerner’s	  Pub,	  waterless	  urinals	  can	  be	  more	  hygienic	  and	  more	  acceptable	  by	  the	  custodial	  staff.	  	  	  	  	   	   17	  	  5 CONCLUSION	  AND	  RECOMMENDATIONS	  	  The	  positive	  environmental	  impact	  of	  installing	  waterless	  urinals	  is	  tremendous,	  but	  the	  negative	  economic	  and	  social	  impacts	  provide	  substantial	  resistance	  against	  the	  implementation	  of	  this	  initiative.	  Even	  though	  the	  potential	  water	  savings	  of	  approximately	  47,000	  Liters	  per	  year	  is	  significant,	  this	  only	  amounts	  to	  about	  $30	  worth	  of	  water	  utility	  savings.	  Our	  calculations	  show	  that	  the	  cost	  of	  implementing	  this	  initiative	  will	  only	  increase	  long-­‐term	  due	  to	  regular	  cartridge	  replacement	  costs	  and	  no	  return	  on	  the	  upfront	  installation	  investment.	  Furthermore,	  custodians	  that	  we	  interviewed	  expressed	  strong	  reluctance	  towards	  dealing	  with	  waterless	  urinals	  due	  to	  odor	  issues	  and	  constant	  drain	  blockage.	  Therefore,	  we	  recommend	  continuing	  the	  use	  of	  the	  existing	  flush	  urinals	  and	  up	  keeping	  them	  with	  proper	  cleaning	  and	  maintenance.	   18	  	  REFERENCES	  Bristow,	  G.,	  McClure,	  J.	  D.,	  &	  Fisher,	  D.	  (2006).	  Waterless	  urinals:	  Features,	  benefits,	  and	  applications.	  Journal	  of	  Green	  Building,	  55-­‐62.	  doi:10.3992/jgb.1.1.55	  Brown,	  J.	  A.	  (2014,	  August).	  Trisodium	  nitrilotriacetate.	  Retrieved	  November	  22,	  2014,	  from	  Haz-­‐Map:	  http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/category-­‐details?id=7646&table=copytblagents	  Davis	  ,	  J.	  (2010,	  June	  22).	  Pissing	  Match:	  Is	  the	  World	  Ready	  for	  the	  Waterless	  Urinal?	  Retrieved	  from	  Wired:	  http://www.wired.com/2010/06/ff_waterless_urinal/all/	  Gentworks.	  (2012,	  October).	  Gentworks	  Bactericidal	  Cleaner	  and	  Sanitiser	  –	  New	  2012	  Formula.	  Retrieved	  November	  23,	  2014,	  from	  Gentworks:	  http://www.gentworks.co.uk/downloads/downloads/bactericidal_cleaner_safety_data_sheet.pdf	  Gentworks.	  (2014,	  November	  21).	  About	  Retrofit	  Systems.	  Retrieved	  November	  23,	  2014,	  from	  Waterless	  Urinals	  by	  Gentworks:	  http://www.waterlessurinals.co.uk/Retrofit-­‐Systems/	  Gentworks.	  (n.d.).	  Aquafree	  Schematic	  Flow	  [Image].	  Retrieved	  November	  23,	  2014,	  from	  http://www.waterlessurinals.co.uk/skin1/images/aquafree_schematic_flow_150.jpg	  Gentworks.	  (n.d.).	  Retrofit	  Cartridge	  Models.	  Retrieved	  November	  23,	  2014,	  from	  Waterless	  Urinals	  by	  Gentworks:	  http://www.waterlessurinals.co.uk/Retrofit-­‐Cartridge-­‐Models-­‐Waterless-­‐Urinals.html	  Gentworks.	  (n.d.).	  Retrofit	  Products.	  Retrieved	  November	  23,	  2014,	  from	  Waterless	  Urinals	  by	  Gentworks:	  http://www.waterlessurinals.co.uk/Retrofit-­‐Waterless-­‐Urinal-­‐Products/	  Government	  of	  Canada.	  (2013,	  August	  30).	  British	  Columbia	  -­‐	  Vancouver	  Zone:	  Schedule	  of	  Wage	  Rates.	  Retrieved	  November	  25,	  2014,	  from	  Government	  of	  Canada:	  http://www.labour.gc.ca/eng/standards_equity/contracts/schedules/british_columbia/vancouver_zone/schedule.shtml	  McDonald,	  W.	  (2013,	  October	  11).	  Koerner’s	  Pub	  to	  open	  its	  doors	  on	  Oct.	  15.	  Retrieved	  from	  The	  Ubyssey:	  http://ubyssey.ca/news/koerners-­‐pub-­‐reopening-­‐424/	  Sekhon,	  S.,	  &	  Toor,	  I.	  (2014,	  November	  24).	  Custodial	  Staff	  Interview.	  (J.	  Too,	  &	  S.	  Seth,	  Interviewers)	  Vancouver,	  British	  Columbia,	  Canada.	  Slaper,	  T.	  F.,	  &	  Hall,	  T.	  J.	  (2011).	  The	  Triple	  Bottom	  Line:	  What	  Is	  It	  and	  How	  Does	  It	  Work?	  Indiana	  Business	  Review,	  86(1),	  4-­‐8.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://search.proquest.com/docview/861497991	  Sloan	  Valve	  Company.	  (2009,	  March	  28).	  North	  American	  Cleaner	  Recommendations.	  Retrieved	  November	  19,	  2014,	  from	  Sloan:	  http://www.sloanvalve.com/Maintenance_Guides/0816570.pdf	  Sloan	  Valve	  Company.	  (2009,	  January	  13).	  Prices.	  Retrieved	  November	  22,	  2014,	  from	  Sloan:	  http://www.sloanvalve.com/Prices/2013_WEP.pdf	  Sloan	  Valve	  Company.	  (2014,	  July).	  Cartridge	  Disposal	  &	  Recycling.	  Retrieved	  November	  19,	  2014,	  from	  Sloan:	  http://www.sloanvalve.com/Maintenance_Guides/Cartridge-­‐Disposal.pdf	   19	  	  Sloan	  Valve	  Company.	  (2014,	  July).	  Cleaning	  and	  Cartridge	  Changing	  Instructions.	  Retrieved	  November	  26,	  2014,	  from	  Sloan:	  http://www.sloanvalve.com/Installation_Guides/Urinal_Cleaning_and_Cartridge_Replacement.pdf	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia.	  (2013,	  January).	  UBC	  LEED	  Implementation	  Guide.	  Retrieved	  from	  UBC	  Sustainability:	  http://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/uploads/CampusSustainability/CS_PDFs/GreenBuildings/UBCLEEDImplementationGuideline_20130424.pdf	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia.	  (n.d.).	  Green	  Cleaning.	  Retrieved	  November	  24,	  2014,	  from	  UBC	  Sustainability:	  http://sustain.ubc.ca/campus-­‐initiatives/purchasing/green-­‐cleaning	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia.	  (n.d.).	  Water	  Conservation.	  Retrieved	  from	  UBC	  Sustainability:	  http://sustain.ubc.ca/campus-­‐initiatives/water/water-­‐conservation	  United	  States	  Environmental	  Protection	  Agency.	  (2012,	  November).	  Saving	  Water	  in	  Restaurants.	  Retrieved	  from	  United	  States	  Environmental	  Protection	  Agency:	  http://www.epa.gov/watersense/commercial/docs/factsheets/restaurants_fact_sheet_508.pdf	  WaterlessExperts.com.	  (n.d.).	  EcoTrap®	  Insert	  for	  No-­‐Flush™	  Urinals.	  Retrieved	  November	  26,	  2014,	  from	  WaterlessExperts.com:	  http://www.waterlessexperts.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=2&products_id=14	  WaterlessExperts.com.	  (n.d.).	  Sierra™	  Model	  #2102.	  Retrieved	  from	  WaterlessExperts.com:	  http://www.waterlessexperts.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=2&products_id=9	  	   20	  	  APPENDICES	  Appendix	  A:	  Water	  Consumption	  and	  Cost	  Savings	  Calculations	  According	  to	  UBC	  Water	  Conservation,	  the	  approximate	  amount	  of	  water	  in	  Liters	  (L)	  consumed	  at	  UBC	  per	  year	  equals	  4	  billion	  liters,	  while	  the	  total	  water	  cost	  per	  year	  equals	  $2.5	  million	  (The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  n.d.).	  Therefore,	  the	  crude	  estimation	  for	  water	  cost	  per	  liter	  is	  as	  follow.	  	  $?.?  ×   ™ ??  ×   ™ ?  ? 	  =	  $0.000625/L	  	  The	  following	  estimates	  were	  provided	  to	  us	  by	  the	  stakeholder:	  • Average	  number	  of	  costumers	  visiting	  the	  Pub	  per	  day	  (Monday	  to	  Friday)	  ≈	  300	  • Percentage	  of	  costumers	  using	  the	  restroom	  ≈	  67%	  • Number	  of	  people	  using	  the	  restroom	  ≈	  200	  • Percentage	  of	  male	  costumers	  using	  the	  restroom	  ≈	  60%	  • Number	  of	  male	  costumers	  using	  the	  restroom	  ≈	  120	  • Number	  of	  urinal	  users/day	  =	  Number	  of	  flushes	  per	  day	  ≈	  96	  • Number	  of	  days	  Koerner’s	  Pub	  is	  open	  in	  a	  year	  =	  260	  	  For	  the	  purpose	  of	  our	  calculations,	  we	  assumed	  that	  approximately	  80%	  of	  male	  costumers	  to	  use	  the	  urinals.	  Since	  there	  are	  4	  urinals	  in	  the	  Pub’s	  men’s	  restroom,	  the	  estimated	  number	  of	  flushes	  per	  urinal	  per	  day	  is	  24.	  The	  minimum	  amount	  of	  water	  dispensed	  for	  each	  flush	  =	  1.9	  L	  (The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  2013).	  The	  following	  calculations	  were	  made	  using	  the	  above	  data.	  	  Number	  of	  times	  a	  urinal	  is	  used	  per	  year	  =	   ™?    ™ ⌤?   ™?? × ™    ™?? ? ™?   ™? 	  =	  6240	  flushes/year	  Amount	  of	  water	  used	  by	  each	  urinal	  per	  year	  =	   ™    ™?? ? ™?   ™?? × ?.?  ??   ™?? ?	  ≈	  11856	  Liters/year	  Amount	  of	  water	  used	  by	  all	  4	  urinals	  per	  year	  ≈	  47424	  Liters/year	  Cost	  of	  water	  used	  for	  flushing	  per	  year	  =	  $?. ℡ ™ ⌤ ?  ? × ™ ℣?   ??   ™?? 	  ≈	  $29.64	  	  	  

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