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An investigation into campus water conservation : low flow shower heads Khanna, Keshav; Sen, Bedank; Yu, Leon Lixing; Gao, Alvin Apr 10, 2014

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportBedank Sen, Keshav Khanna, Alvin Sizhe Gao, Leon Lixing YuAN INVESTIGATION INTO CAMPUS WATER CONSERVATION – LOW FLOW SHOWERHEADSAPSC 262April 10, 201410351639University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  A N I N VESTIG ATIO N I NT O CAM PUS WATER CONSERVATIO N  ʹ LOW FLOW SHOWERHEADS  APSC 262 SUSTAINABILITY PROJECT REPORT       SUBMITTED ON: April 10, 2014 INSTRUCTOR:   Paul Winkelman PREPARED BY: Keshav Khanna   Bedank Sen    Leon Lixing Yu   Alvin Gao     2   ABSTRACT  Water is a very valuable resource that is depleting in a rapid pace. Shortage of water all over the earth is shown from time to time to create awareness of this issue. Therefore, to ensure future sustainability, the entire world is in the process of conserving water usage and rationing it. This report highlights the use of low flow shower heads for the same purpose.  It presents a comparison of the performance of current shower heads in the UBC housing and their water consumption to the new low- flow shower heads available in the market. It contains research conducted on how much water is being used currently in the different housing units and proposes solutions to reduce this usage over time while keeping in mind the triple bottom line. It contains  research on different low- flow shower heads that are available in the market, their properties and some of their technical data.  Based on the most acceptable features and also keeping in mind the economic, environmental and social sustainability aspects of the triple bottom line, there a few recommendations for selecting a new low- flow showerhead. There is also survey that shows the social acceptance of the low- flow showerhead. The survey shows the different requirements of the societ y based on gender and demographic.   3   TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................. 2 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ......................................................................................................... 4 GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................. 6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................ 7 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 8 1.1 outline ..................................................................................................................................8 2 LOW-FLOW SHOWERHEAD SOLUTIONs ............................................................................ 9 2.1 product selection ..................................................................................................................9 2.1.1  EcoFlow EFN - 651  ....................................................................................................................... 9  2.1.2  EcoFlow EFS- 553  ..................................................................................................................... 11  2.1.3  EcoFlow EPC - 523:  .................................................................................................................... 12  2.2 triple bottom line assessment .............................................................................................. 14 2.2.1  economic ................................................................................................................................. 14  2.2.2  environmental ......................................................................................................................... 21  2.2.3  social ....................................................................................................................................... 23  3 conclusion and recommendation ................................................................................... 30 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 31 APPENDIX A – UBC Housing Surveys .................................................................................... 33    4   LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS List of Figures: Figure 1: EcoFlow EFN - 6 51  .......................................................................................................................................... 10  Figure 2: EcoFlow EFS - 553  ........................................................................................................................................... 12  Figure 3: EcoFlow EPC - 523  .......................................................................................................................................... 13  List of Tables: Table 1: Showerheads Price Comparison .................................................................................................................... 18  Table 2: Showerheads Ease of Installation  .................................................................................................................. 19  Table 3: Showerheads Warranty ................................................................................................................................. 20  Table 4: Showerheads Economics  ............................................................................................................................... 21  Table 5: Show erheads Water Consumption ................................................................................................................ 22  Table 6: Importance of Shower Quality  ....................................................................................................................... 26  Table 9: User Experience  ............................................................................................................................................. 37  Table 11: Importance of Water Conservation  ............................................................................................................. 27  Table 12: Change Low - flow Showerhead .................................................................................................................... 28  Table 7: Average Time Spent in Showers  .................................................................................................................... 33  Table 8: Number of times showered a day  .................................................................................................................. 34  Table 10: Count using Low - flow Showerheads ............................................................................................................ 35  Table 13: UBC housing current shower satisfaction rating .......................................................................................... 36  List of Graphs: Graph 1: Typical Municipal water prices in Canada and other countries  .................................................................... 15  Graph 2: Average daily domestic water use  ................................................................................................................ 16  Graph 3: Showerheads Price Comparison  ................................................................................................................... 18  Graph 4: Showerheads Ease of Installation  ................................................................................................................. 19  Graph 5: Showerheads Water Consumption  ............................................................................................................... 23  Graph 6: Importance of Shower Quality  ...................................................................................................................... 26  5   Graph 9: Average User Experience  .............................................................................................................................. 37  Graph 11: Importance of Water Con servation ............................................................................................................ 27  Graph 12: Change Low - flow Showerhead ................................................................................................................... 28  Graph 7: Average time spent in shower by Gender  .................................................................................................... 33  Graph 8: Number of times showered a day  ................................................................................................................ 34  Graph 10: Count using Low - flow Showerheads ........................................................................................................... 35  Graph 13: UBC housing current  shower satisfaction rating ........................................................................................ 36             6   GLOSSARY Low Flow shower head:  A low flow shower head is a replacement fixture for showers. It is used to reduce the amount of water flowing through the shower͛s tap. Triple Bottom Line Assessment:  This type of assessment is used to test the feasibility or performance of a system. This assessment takes into account all of the economic, environmental, and social impacts, as opposed to traditional assessments, where the single bottom line is economic cost.  Walmart:    Walmart is an American  multinational retail corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. Aeration: The process, by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid.                                         7   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS UBC                  University Of British Columbia  GPM                        Gallons per Minute  TBL                            Triple Bottom Line  UN                             United Nations           8   1 INTRODUCTION Water is a valuable resource and is often taken for granted. Shower heads in student housing account for a significant portion of water usage on the UBC campus. This report is an investigation into methods that would allow UBC Campus to:   Identify existing residences that require shower head replacement to low flow shower heads.  Identify available low - flow shower head products from certified resources.  Carry out preliminary assessment of shower heads based on available information such as previous studies, case studies and technical specifications.  Consider assessing user experience in existing residences, where low flow shower heads have already been installed. 1 . 1  OUT L I NE  The report will follow the outline stated below:   Low-Flow Shower Head Solutions : This section will cover some of the brainstormed results and explain why we chose these results for further assessment.  Triple Bottom Line Assessment : This section covers an in - depth sustainability assessment on the selected methods.  Conclusion and Recommendations: The report will be concluded by a recommendation to allow Campus Sustainability to reach its water conservation goals.        9   2 LOW-FLOW SHOWERHEAD SOLUTIONS  2 . 1  PR ODUCT SELECTI O N  In recent years, many shower heads have been updated to more efficien t models and these efficient shower heads, having reduced flow rates, may result in lower user satisfaction. However, it is more than just the flow rate which influences user experience: satisfaction is also affected by spray patterns, level of aeration, flow controls and other design features. Shower heads can also be matched to available water pressure. The range of features also suggests that high user satisfaction is possible with low flows. The following subsections outline the preliminary assessment performed on the products that we have considered to help reduce water usage in student housing at the UBC campus. 2 . 1 . 1  ECOF L OW EFN - 6 5 1   DESCRIPTION:   The EcoFlow EFN - ϲϱϭ is a ͚White͛ finished ,and ,eld Shower ,ead readily available at W lmart and its retail price is $29.99. This shower head conserves water while offering six powerful spray settings that deliver an incredibly refreshing shower experience. It reduces water consumption by up to 28%, and pays for itself in less than six months by saving up to $60 annually on energy and water costs.  FEATURES:  1.  ϯ.ϱ” Diameter ,ead 2.  Hand Shower with 5 feet Hose  3.  Advanced Optiflow technology that can improve water force up to 30% by more efficiently channeling water. 4.  Anti - Clog Nozzles  5.  Limited Lifetime Warranty 6.  Installs in minutes  10   7.  2.0 GPM   SPRAY SETTINGS:  1.  Full Body 2.  Pulsating Massage  3.  PowerSpray  4.  Full Body + Power Spray  5.  Full Body + Massage  6.  Water Saving Trickle  EcoFlow EFN -ϲϱϭ is also available in a ͚Chrome͛ finish for a retail price listed at $42.99.   Figure 1: EcoFlow EFN-651       11   2 . 1 . 2  ECOF L OW EFS - 5 5 3   DESCRIPTION:   The EcoFlow EFS- 553 is ͚Chrome͛ finished Hand Held Shower Head readily available at Walmart and its retail price is $24.99. This shower head conserves water while offering six powerful spray settings that deliver an incredibly refreshing shower experience. It reduces water consumption by up to 28%, and pays for itself in less than six months by saving up to $60 annually on energy and water costs.  FEATURES:  1.  ϯ.Ϯϱ” Diameter Head  2.  Hand Shower with 5 feet Hose  3.  Advanced Optiflow technology that can improve water force up to 30% by more efficiently channeling water. 4.  Anti - Clog Nozzles  5.  Limited Lifetime Warranty  6.  Installs in minutes  7.  2.0 GPM   SPRAY SETTINGS:  1.  Full Body 2.  Pulsati ng Massage  3.  PowerSpray  4.  Full Body + Massage  5.  Water Saving Trickle  12     Figure 2: EcoFlow EFS-553 2 . 1 . 3  ECOF L OW E PC - 5 2 3 :     DESCRIPTION :    The EcoFlow EPC -ϱϮϯ is a ͚Chrome͛ finished &idžed tall mount Shower ,ead available at a retail price of $19.99.This EcoFlow shower head is designed to optimize spray force while saving half a gallon of water per minute and offering six powerful spray settings that deliver an incredibly refreshing shower experience. It reduces water consumption and pays for i tself in less than a year by saving up to $60 annually on energy and water costs.   FEATURES:  1.  Water- saving Trickle Button  2.  ϯ.Ϯϱ” Diameter ,ead 3.  Advanced Optiflow technology that can improve water force up to 30% by more efficiently channeling water. 13   4.  Anti - Clog Nozzles  5.  Limited Lifetime Warranty  6.  Installs in minutes  7.  2.0 GPM   SPRAY SETTINGS:  1.  Full Body 2.  Pulsating Massage  3.  PowerSpray  4.  Full Body + Massage  5.  Full Body + Power Spray  6.  Water Saving Trickle   Figure 3: EcoFlow EPC-523 NOTE: All the information provided on the EcoFlow Shower  head products listed above are based on two 10 - minute showers per day.  14   2 . 2  TRI P LE B OTT O M  L I NE A SSESSME NT  2 . 2 . 1  ECO N O M IC  2. 2. 1. 1  I NTRODUCTI O N  In traditional business, the fundamental bottom line refers to either making profits or deficit. Therefore, the very first aspect accessed in Triple Bottom Line ( TBL ) is economic. The showerheads project focuses on two aspects of the economic: cost of water and showerheads related expenses. The following paragraphs first discusses the catalysts and importance of being cost- aware in terms of water consumptions in shower, and then the following paragraphs compares the cost of our selected showerheads.    2 . 2. 1. 2  CATA L YSTS OF REDUCIN G WATER COST A ND CO N SUM PTI O N  In the past, water has been  free to use as it is considered a basic necessity and a relatively cheap and an abundant resource. However, due to the growing population in recent decades, the best way to utilize water to the most - valued uses is to put a price on water, and construct appropriate tariff structures to meet different social, political and economic goals in different situations (Rogers, 2002) . The fundamental problem of low- flow showerheads try to solve is to reduce the water usage. However, compare to  other countries, water is relatively inexpensive in Canada, and hence residents are less motivated to reduce the daily water usage. The diagram below presents the water price per cubic metre among major developed countries (Environment Canada, 2013) .  15     Graph 1: Typical Municipal water prices in Canada and other countries  The data from Graph  1 is based on a 1998 survey of developed countries and are calculated using a purchasing power parity method (The World Water Commission, 1999) . We see Canada͛s water price is at ΨϬ.ϯϭ per cubic metre, which significantly lower than any other countries on the list.  Graph  2 below shows top six countries with average daily water use per capita, which present a completely opposite graph (The World Water Commission, 1999) .  16    Graph 2: Average daily domestic water use As shown in the graph , Canada and the United States, two countries with lowest water prices, have the highest water consumptions. Though the statistics cannot conclude that high water usage directly is caused by the low water prices, it is a fact that North America area has much higher water consumption than the rest of the world.  Given that residents cannot actively or progressively save water upon their awareness, residency committee, however can make a significant contribution to reduce the severity of the problem by deploying low- flow showerheads.   2 . 2. 1. 3  I M P OR TA NCE OF CO NSIDER I N G THE COST OF SH OW ERHEADS  Prior to the beginning of this project, our team contacted our stakeholder , Mr. Bud Fraser, who is a Water and Zero Waste Engineer for UBC  Campus Sustainability, regarding the budget limitation and showerheads form factor preferences. He addressed that even though there are no strict budget requirements , maintenance and cost of the showerheads must be taken into account as the residency committee has a systematic way of maintaining the functionality of 17   current showerheads. If th e new ones require revamping the circuit and pipe layout of the building, it would be less time and cost effective. Such requirements have ruled out the automated showerheads and electronic showerheads.  Similarly, though we can improve other fixtures such  as laundry and toilet use to reduce the water consumption;  the expected expenses and scope are limited only to low - flow showerheads.  2 . 2. 1. 4  CO M P ARISO NS OF THE S H O WERHEADS M ODELS  Our team has chosen three different showerheads solutions: EcoFlow EFN - 65 1, EcoFlow EFS-553, and EcoFlow EPC - 523. EFN - 65 1 and EFS - 553 are of handheld form factor, whereas EPC - 523 is a simple wall mount showerhead. Ricky Biring, the facilities coordinator at UBC Student Housing and hospitality Services, has also informed us that th e current showerhead models in use are Delta RP4480 9BN (wall mount form factor) and Alson 54435 - PK (handheld form factor).  The following sections tabulate and compare the prices, installation procedures, and maintenance (warranty) of the chosen showerheads along with the existing ones. Since wall-mount showerheads are generally significantly cheaper than handheld showerheads, it is rational to view the comparisons based on the form factors, meaning that EcoFlow EFN - 651, EcoFlow EFS- 553 are compared with th e existing Alson 5443 5 - PK, and EcoFlow EPC - 523 is compared with the existing RP4480 9BN.  2 . 2. 1. 5  CO M P ARISO NS O N SH OWE RHEADS PRICES  This section compares the prices of selected low- flow showerheads with the ones currently in use (Alson 5443 5 - PK and Delta PR44809BN ) in some of the residency areas. The green cells are the data for handheld form factor, and the blue cells are the data for wall- mount form factor. In addition, the bolded cells are the selected shower heads solutions.   18     EcoFlow EFN-651 EcoFlow EFS-553 Alson 5443 5 - P K  EcoFlow EPC-523 Delta RP4480 9BN  Prices  $29.99 $24.99 $60.16  $19.99 $12.51  Table 1: Showerheads Price Comparison   Graph 3: Showerheads Price Comparison In terms of handheld models, both of our solutions have significant price advantages over the existing one. EFN - 65 1 is priced at $29.99, half the price of Alson 5443 5 - PK, and EFS - 553 is $24.99, even less than half the price of Alson 54435 - PK.  The existing wall - mount showerhead used for handicapped suites has slightly lower price point ($12.51) than the EcoFlow EPC - 523 priced at $19.99.   19   2 . 2. 1. 6  CO M P ARISO NS O N EASE OF I NSTA L L AT I O N A ND I NSTA L L AT I O N EX PE NSE S  This section compares the ease of installation in terms of total number of steps needed among selected showerheads. The green cells are the data for handheld form factor, and the blue cells are the data for wall- mount form factor. Also the bolded cells are  the selected shower heads solutions.   EcoFlow EFN-651 EcoFlow EFS-553 Alson 5443 5 - P K  EcoFlow EPC-523 Delta RP4480 9BN  Steps 4 4 3  1 3  Table 2: Showerheads Ease of Installation  Graph 4: Showerheads Ease of Installation All solutions provided have an  easy- to- install character. The installations do not require technicians, so no labour force and human capital is needed for installation. All EcoFlow shower heads come with user guides in the package as well a s online references. Though we see that 20   EcoFlow EFN - 65 1 and EFS - 553 require most amount of overheads to install, the one extra step does not necessarily raise drawbacks to the EcoFlow products due to its unlimited warranty policy. More details on warranty and maintenance are discussed in the next section.  2 . 2. 1. 7  CO M P ARISO NS O N M A I NT EN A NCE A ND WARRA NTY OF THE SH OWERHEADS  This section presents the maintenance cost in terms of warranty policy. Shower heads in general do not require periodic maintenance; therefore, using warranty policy as an index of the maintenance cost is one of the rational approaches. The table below tabulates the warranty policy for all 5 policies. The information is taken directly from the user manuals from each of the products. The green cells are the data for handheld form factor, and the blue cells are the data for wall- mount form factor.   EcoFlow EFN-651 EcoFlow EFS-553 Alson 5443 5 - P K  EcoFlow EPC-523 Delta RP4480 9BN  Warranty Years  Lifetime Lifetime 5  Lifetime 5  Table 3: Showerheads Warranty All EcoFlow shower heads has virtually no maintenance cost. All products from EcoFlow can provide limited lifetime warranty, meaning that as long as the purchaser remains to be the owner of the showerheads, the company has the obligation to provide exchange and technical support for the products. In contrast, the shower heads curren tly in use, Alson 54435 - PK and Delta RP4480 9BN, has a 5 - year limited warranty. After 5 years of use, the companies no longer have the obligations to provide service for the shower heads. In conclusion, EcoFlow shower heads have apparent advantage over Also n and Delta shower heads in the warranty category.  2 . 2. 1. 8  CO NCLUSI O N OF ECO N O M IC ASPECT OF THE TBL  To conclude the economic aspect of the TBL, our team integrate all three perspectives of the economics factors (P rices, Ease of installation, and Warranty) into one table and highlight the apparently advantage each model has over others. The summarized table is shown below. Also 21   the bolded cells are the selected shower heads solutions. The highlighted cells are the apparent advantageous properties in the categories.    EcoFlow EFN-651 EcoFlow EFS-553 Alson 5443 5 - P K  EcoFlow EPC-523 Delta RP4480 9BN  Prices  $29.99 $24.99 $60.16  $19.99 $12.51  Steps 4 4 3  1 3  Warranty Years  Lifetime Lifetime 5  Lifetime 5  Table 4: Showerheads Economics Our team claims that the hand - held shower head, EcoFlow EFS- 553  has the absolute advantage over the existing Alson 54435 - PK in terms of price and warranty. EcoFlow EPC - 523 is more expensive than Delta RP44809BN as a wall - mount shower head, yet it has lifetime warranty and one- step installation character. 2 . 2 . 2  EN V IR O N ME NT A L  2. 2. 2. 1  I NTRODUCTI O N  Similar to economic aspect of the TBL, E nvironmental assessment can as well be measured quantitatively. Environmental measurement generally refers to the amount of resources (including energy, land, water) an organization uses in its operations and the by - products of the operations such as waste, air emissions, and chemical residues (Hubbard, 2009) . In terms of shower heads, the most direct index of measuring environmental impact is to use the gallon per minute (GPM) . This section first introduces the motivation for B.C. residents to reduce water consumptions for environmental reasons and then discusses the GPM of each of the chosen shower heads. 22   2 . 2. 2. 2  WHY IS WATER USA GE A N EN V IRO N ME NTA L  CO NC ERN, G I VE N B.C. BEI N G A WEL L -H YDRATED REG I O N ?  Though water is not yet a precious resource in most developed countries, this is not true all over the world. In Zimbabwe, for example, the degradation of the already scarce water supply has caused a cholera outbreak of epidemic proportion. Considering the  fact that the world population is growing and that businesses are expanding constantly, the need of fresh water is increasing rapidly. According to the UN,  water usage has grown twice the rate of population during the past century. Today, already 1.1 bill ion people lack access to safe water. At  the same time, one flush of a western toilet uses as much water as the average person in the developing world uses for a whole day (Kappel, 2009) .  2 . 2. 2. 3  EN V IRO N ME NTA L  CO M P AR ISO N OF SH OWER HE ADS  2. 2. 2. 3. 1  WATER CO NSUM PTI O N CO M P AR ISO NS AT SA ME TI ME I NTERV A L  As the report mentioned before, the most direct method of comparing water consumption of shower heads is to use gallons per minute (GPM). The index is usually labelled on the package of the shower heads as well as the user manuals. The data provided below are referenced from the user manuals and guides of each shower head.   EcoFlow  EFN-651 EcoFlow  EFS-553 Alson  5443 5 - P K  EcoFlow  EPC-523 Delta  RP448 09BN  GPM  2.0 2.0 2.5  2.0 2.0  Table 5: Showerheads Water Consumption  23    Graph 5: Showerheads Water Consumption Alson 54435 - PK and Delta RP44809BN has no advantage over any of the selected products in terms of water consumption. Alson 5443 5 - PK h as highest GPM value among all three handheld shower heads. 2 . 2. 2. 4  CO NCLUSI O N OF EN V IRO N ME NTA L  ASPECT OF TB L  In  conclusion, All EcoFlow shower heads meet the Water Sense requirement, meaning that their GPM is equal to or less than 2.0. In contrast, Alson 5443 5 - PK is unable to meet the Water Sense requirement. Though Delta RP448 09BN has the same GPM rate, the lack of lifetime warranty can be a significant drawback.   2 . 2 . 3  SOC I A L  2. 2. 3. 1  I NTRO DUCTI O N :  Social aspect of the TBL is another important factor to keep in mind while considering water  conservation using Eco Low - flow shower heads. We cannot compromise the wants and needs of the society while ensuring a good economic and environmental standpoint. In simple words , 24   no matter how many positive economic and environmental aspects the new showerheads have, if the society does not approve of it, then no one will purchase the new shower heads. The Society should also benefit from the new Low - flow showerheads. Unfortunately the social aspect cannot be measured quantitatively. Social needs and wants depend on a numerous factors like Comfort, Satisfaction, demographics, age and many other factors that cannot collectively be measured quantitatively.  In this section , we will see how the social aspect affects the decision of using the new showerheads and what do these decisions depend on. 2 . 2. 3. 2  H OW DOES SOCI A L  AS PE CT AFFECT THE DECISI O N OF THE SH OWER HEA DS?  To figure this out, we need to know what the society needs and wants from their shower head. To understand the needs and wants of the society, our team conducted a survey of the students shower experience of those living in UBC housing. We took surveys of students from almost every student housing option available, and asked them the following questions:  1. How important is the quality of your shower? 2. If your answer to the previous question was ‘Important’ of ‘Very Important’, what are the aspects of a good quality shower? 3. How much time do you spend in the shower per day? 4. How often do you shower a day? 5. How satisfied are you with your current showerhead? 6. Are you considering using a low-flow showerhead? 7. Would you consider using a low-flow showerhead if your current one isn’t? 8. For what reasons would you consider using low-flow showerhead? 9. Does water conservation mean something to you? 10. What is your gender? 11. Which school year are you in? 12. What is your age? 13. Do you use more than one feature of a showerhead? 25   14. Would you rather use a non-low-flow showerhead that has better user experience? 15. Which residence are you living in? 2 . 2. 3. 3  RESULTS:  The results from the Survey are in Appendix B.  2 . 2. 3. 4  A N A L YS IS  Here is an analysis of the results of the survey. The detailed graphs and tables of the result analysis can be found in the appendix. The analysis was conducted with respect to gender response for simplicity and easy comparison. 2 . 2. 3. 4. 1  I M P ORTA NCE OF SH OWER  QUA L IT Y :   Importance of shower quality  Gender Female Male Important  3  1  Not Important   1  Slightly Important   3  Very Important  10  2  Grand Total 13 7 26   Table 6: Importance of Shower Quality  Graph 6: Importance of Shower Quality  The above date shows that the quality of shower is important to most students. 2 . 2. 3. 4. 2  I M P ORTA NCE OF WATER CO NSERV ATI O N :    Gender Importance of water conservation Female Male 1   1  3   2  4   1  5  2  1  6  1   7  2  10  2  4  6  8  10  12  Important  Not Important  Slightly Important  Very Important  Count Response Importance of shower quality  Female Male  27   8  3   9  2   10  2  1Grand Total 12 7 Table 7: Importance of Water Conservation  Graph 7: Importance of Water Conservation The above date shows that students would rate the importance of water conservation at an average of 7.5.  2 . 2. 3. 4. 3  CHA N GE TO L OW - FL OW SH OWERHEAD DESP ITE QUA L IT Y :   Would not change if experience was bad Gender Female Male No  6  6  0  0.5  1  1.5  2  2.5  3  3.5  1  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  (blank)  Count Rating (out of 10)  Importance of water conservation  Female Male  28   Yes  7  1  Grand Total 13 7 Table 8: Change Low-flow Showerhead   Graph 8: Change Low-flow Showerhead From the above data it can be seen that on average even if the user experience was bad from the low- flow showerhead then most students would still want to change to low- flow shower heads. 2 . 2. 3. 4. 4  TI ME SPENT I N THE SH OWER:  From the results it can be seen that the average time spent in the shower is between 15 to 20 minutes. 2 . 2. 3. 4. 5  NUMBER OF SH OWERS A DA Y :  It can be seen from the results that most students take shower only once a day.    0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  No  Yes  Count Response Would not change to Low - flow shower head if experiance was bad  Female Male  29   2 . 2. 3. 4. 6  CURRENT SH OWER HEAD SATISFACTI O N :  The average results show that the students would rate their current shower experience to be 7 out of 10.  2 . 2. 3. 4. 7  CHA N GE TO L OW FL OW S H OWER HEAD:  Most students would want to change t low flow shower heads.  2 . 2. 3. 4. 8  THE REASO N FOR CH A N G I N G  TO L OW FL OW SHOW ER HEADS:  Most students would change to low flow shower heads because of environmental reasons and to save of their water bills. 2 . 2. 3. 4. 9  YE AR OF STUDY :  Most students who took the survey were from second year.  2 . 2. 3. 4. 1 0  A GE OF THE STUDENTS:  The average of the students who took the survey was 19 - 20 years.  2 . 2. 3. 5  CO NCLUSI O N :  Based on the results of the survey, it can be seen that most of the students do not know whether they are using low flow shower heads. If they were given a choice, majority of them would opt to use low flow shower heads even if they did not receive as good a user experience. Their main reason to change to low flow shower head is due to environmental concerns and lowering their water bills.    30   3 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION As an Applied Science project group of UBC, our goal was to investigate the usage of Low - flow Showerheads at the UBC housing. After thoroughly investigating different sustainable and cost efficient models of showerheads in the market, the group would like to recommend two products to improve the shower head system currently being used at the UBC housing.  Firstly, in the handheld form, the group would like to recommend  the EcoFlow EFS- 553 over the already existing Alson 5443 5 - PK due to its advantage in price, warranty, ease of use and reduced water consumption. Secondly, as a wall- mount shower head, it is highly recommended to use the EcoFlow- 523 over the already existi ng Delta RP4480 9BN shower head due its lifetime warranty and one- step installation character. In addition to the Economic and Environmental factors, based on the research on the new L ow-flow Showerheads and the social response, it can be concluded that switching to low- flow showerheads will meet the water conservation objective provided the user experience is not degraded.               31   REFERENCES 1.  Hubbard, G. (200 9).  Measuring Organizational Performance: Beyond the Triple Bottom Line, Business Strategy and the Environment 18 (177 1ʹ91).  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment  2.  Rogers, P. Silva, R. D. & Bhatia, R. (2002). Water is an economic good: How to use prices to promote equity, efficiency, and sustainability, Water Policy 4 (1  ʹ17). Elsevier Science Ltd.  3. Kappel, K. & Grechenig, T. (2009). Water consumption at a glance to promote water conservation in the shower, Persuasive ‘09 Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Persuasive Technology (article No. 26). ACM. New York , NY, USA.  4.  Daniel P. Loucks (2000) Sustainable Water Resources Management, Water International, 25:1, 3 - 10, DOI: 10.1080/02508 060 0086 867 93  5.  Wostl C. P. (200 2) Towards sustainability in the water sector  ʹThe importance of human actors and processes of social learning, Volume 64, Issue 4, Aquatic Sciences, 394 - 411, DOI:1 0.1007/PL0 001 2594  6.  Babooram, A.,&Hurst,M.(2011).Uptake of water - and energy- conservation devices in the home. Canadian social trends,(91),12 - 1 9.  7.  Ogorzalek.T.(2003).WATER SMARTS. Journal of Housing&Community Development,60(4),24 - 29  8.  Lee.M..& Tansel.B. (2013). Water conservation quantities vs customer opinion and safisfaction with water efficient appliances in Miami, Floria. Journal of environmental management,128683-689. Doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.05044  9.  EcoFlow Low Flow Shower Heads. (2007 - 2014). Retrieved February 20, 2014, from http://www.waterpik.com/shower - head/ecoflow.html#about - ecoflow- tab 10.  Use a Low Flow Shower Head. (2014). Retrieved February 20, 2014, from https://www.bchydro.com/powersmart/residential/guides_tips/green - your-home/water_guide/low_flow_shower.html  32   11. Environment Canada. (2013, 07 23). Environment Canada - Water - Wise Water Use. Retrieved 03 02, 2014 from Environment Canada: http://www.ec.gc.ca/e au-water/default.asp?lang=En&n=F25C70EC - 1  1 2.  IEEE Power and Energy Society. (2012). IEEE Standard 367-2012: IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining the Electric Power Station Ground Potential Rise and Induced Voltage from a Power Fault.  13.  IEEE Power and Ener gy Society. (2000). IEEE Standard 80-2000: Guide for Safety in Substation Grounding.  14.  The World Water Commission. (1999, 12 20). World Commission on Water for the 21st Century. Retrieved 03 03, 2014 from World Council: www.worldcouncil.org    33   APPENDIX A – UBC HOUSING SURVEYS Average time spent in the showers:   Gender Average time spent in showers Female Male < 5 min   1  > 20 min  7   10 min -  15 min  4  215 min -  20 min  2  1  5 min -  10 min   3  Grand Total 13 7 Table 9: Average Time Spent in Showers   Graph 9: Average time spent in shower by Gender 0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  < 5 min  > 20 min  10 min -  15 min  15 min -  20 min  5 min -  10 min  Count Average time  Average time spent in shower by gender  Female Male  34   Number of showers a day:  Gender Number of times showered in a day Female Male < 1 time  1   > 1 time  3   1 time  9  7Grand Total 13 7 Table 10: Number of times showered a day   Graph 10: Number of times showered a day Would change to low- flow shower heads:   Gender Count Using low Flow Shower heads Female Male 0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  < 1 time  > 1 time  1 time  Female Male  35   No  2  5  Yes  11  2  Grand Total 13 7 Table 11: Count using Low-flow Showerheads   Graph 11: Count using Low-flow Showerheads Place of residence:  Residence Avg. Rating Acadia Park  8.0  Fairview Crescent 5.8  Marine Drive  4.3  Off campus  7.0  Ponderosa  8.0  Thunderbird 7.3  0  2  4  6  8  10  12  No  Yes  Count Response Would consider using low flow shower heads?  Female Male  36   Totem Park  6.0  Walter Gage  10.0  Table 12: UBC housing current shower satisfaction rating   Graph 12: UBC housing current shower satisfaction rating User Experience:  Gender User experience index (out of 10) Female Male 2  1   3  1   4  1   5   10.0  2.0  4.0  6.0  8.0  10.0  12.0  Acadia Park  Fairview Crescent Marine Drive  Off campus  Ponderosa  Thunderbird Totem Park  Walter Gage  Ratings Locations  UBC housing current shower satisfaction rating 37   6  2  1  7  3  3  8  2  1  9  3   10   1Grand Total 13 7 Table 13: User Experience   Graph 13: Average User Experience Link to the Survey:  https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1773pKQQMbAvyAg2h31o9i8pzGYJaq9_Z 7x_KGK7 28Bs/viewform  APPENDIX B –SURVEY RESPONSES 0  0.5  1  1.5  2  2.5  3  3.5  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  Count Ratings (out of 10)  Average User Experience  Female Male  

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